NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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titularizare şi grad. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

Insertion 1.2.3.Contents: 8 1.5. Complementary distribution . The Distribution of an Element 1.1. Constituent Phrase 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.4. Auxiliary verbs 1.6.

her mother. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. They are just strings. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama.2. Syntactic. Semantic. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). 1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Consequently.1. very much. loves. sequences of the kind her mother very. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. that is sequences fragmented at random. For instance. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.

) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.4.e. (Mi-a spus secretul. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. an order given to an interlocutor). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).) 10 . The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. be). must. etc.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. 1. we are dealing with a directive (i. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. should.3. 1.

6. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.5. Consider. 1. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. live. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. etc.) 1.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. an ‘empty’ there subject. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. for instance. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.

This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. semantic. whereas (7) is not. using your own examples: insertion. complementary distribution. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. this would really hurt. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. syntactic. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. If the given context is the one under (6). Pratice Define and illustrate. distribution. as the star indicates. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. he had not yet been able to estimate. pragmatic. How much. Munt. 12 .

To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).

6. affirmative sentences.5.2.4. Conclusion. Tests for negativity 2.3.1. Key terms . Instances of negation 2. Full – local negation 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.2. Polarity Items 2. Negative vs.7.8. Key terms 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.

Positive vs.Unit two Sentence negation 2. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. This example can be compared to: (2)a. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .2. Consequently.) b. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. it asserts something. For instance.Declarative vs.) is said to be an assertion. in that they do not state anything. in the sense that it states something. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Negative . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.

/ Come with me. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.positive and declarative secret.Nadina VIŞAN .g.) ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.g./ If you like her. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.g./ Don’t do that.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.positive sentence . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. They told her the ( e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / She finally admitted.interrogative (e.assertion . listen to this. Did they tell her the secret? ) .other (if –clauses. 16 . comparison. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.negative (e.non-assertion . Didn’t they tell her the secret?) ./ She can’t wait to read that book.) . don’t bother her.

) b. Susan doesn’t like her friends.) 17 . I met a girl named Susan. Susan dislikes her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. John is unhappy. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. word negation. John is not happy.3. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.Unit two Sentence negation 2. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. For example. (Nu demult. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). In the case of the sentences under (4).) b. since the negative word not is not present there. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. (John e nefericit.

Nadina VIŞAN In this case. but their meaning tells us a different story. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. since the negative word not is present inside them. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. He was not without intelligence. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. She was not an unattractive woman.) b. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. where the word 18 . just like in the case of word negation. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. I was not a little worried. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a.) c. these sentences look negative. In other words. In other words. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.

the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.e. Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. without intelligence./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. semantic negation. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / Când a aflat vestea./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night.

Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. affirmative sentences. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. dar nu în mod special. 2. ci doar indecişi. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. Negative vs. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală.

(M-am dus acolo. such as do insertion. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (see subsection 1. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. etc.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.1. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (Nu m-am dus acolo. For instance.). in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.) (9) I didn’t go there. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).

/ She does not hate animals. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / I don’t like her very much. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1./ They didn’t leave. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / We don’t come here often. 22 . *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / Susan did not get married to Jim. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. incorrect. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative.

4. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. 3.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. not even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. *and neither do they like her. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. *not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. * and they don’t like her either. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Example (14) is syntactically negative. even the smart ones. and they don’t like her either. .Unit two Sentence negation 2. and neither do they like her. which is ungrammatical. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which does not happen in the case of (18).

Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / A few of them stayed behind. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. 2. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. In conclusion. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / You have never met her. / No problems were caused after all. / Not always a witty interlocutor. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / They caused us no problems. / This boy is no good. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. they go skiing in the mountains. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / Few of them stayed behind.5. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.

(Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). Susan could not go to the theatre. I went nowhere. (27) a .Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (N-a venit John).

(Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. No day passed without me thinking of him.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) b. All that glitters is not gold. no incorporation takes place. 26 .) (29) a. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. b. I didn’t see any student.Nadina VIŞAN b. I didn’t go anywhere. I didn’t see anybody.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut nici un student. I never went to his place. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. Not all that glitters is gold.) c. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) b. / I didn’t ever go to his place.

. / I didn’t see anybody. rarely. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I saw nobody. seldom. barely. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / No one ever listens to her.V. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / Not one of them came to meet her./ They didn’t come to meet her.) They barely read any novels. scarcely. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. and we don’t go to the theatre either. not even short ones. / I showed him nothing. / None of them liked house music. / Not a word fell from her lips. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.4.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. nici măcar din alea scurte. etc.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. (Nu citesc romane. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.) We seldom watch T./ They never went there.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / He should not be released.

) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) b.) 28 them.) d. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / Few people came to see her. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / Hardly anybody liked him.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) c. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. which triggers inversion): (35) a. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I seldom look at her like that.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. Never have I met a more horrible person. / I scarcely ever see her. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. . / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.

As you can see from the translation of these examples. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never.) They don’t think that he likes them. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / I didn’t leave the office at any time.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. in the sense that the 29 . negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / She could rely on nobody but him. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.

6. etc. / They believe she does not like them.) 30 . look like. ought to. etc. 2. suppose. In sentence (37). does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. / I suppose she doesn’t care. be supposed to. believe. should be desirable. choose. suggest. probability. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. seem. expect. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. want. intend. the negative meaning is less strong. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. guess. intention. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. advise.: think. although not negative in meaning. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. etc. we can very well say something like: (38) a. appear. barely. / He reckoned he would not win her over. be likely. sound/feel like. imagine.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. For example. cannot appear in an affirmative context. be probable.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force.) b. / I expect he won’t come here again. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.

*She likes our chairman at all. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. and sentences such as: (39) a. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. b. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.*She lifted a finger to help me. That is 31 . Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.2. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.

) At all vs. / He arrived before 5. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I somewhat like his proposal. / She hardly ever comes here.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why.) Yet vs. / I somehow like him. / Well. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. already (I haven’t seen him yet. too. / I eat caviar most of the times.) Hardly ever vs.) Any more vs. / I have already seen him. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.). too. too (I don’t like it. still (I don’t love you any more. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Well. / I can understand both of these 32 . before (He didn’t arrive until 5. a lot (I don’t like you much. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) Much vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / Bob is still living at that address. / I have some money. / Come on.) Until vs. / They say he once had someone very close. / Don’t worry. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I like it . etc. / I still love you) Either vs. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. either. you can still do something about it. some (I haven’t any money. / I like you a lot. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / You needn’t send her anything.

n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. know a single person. / You must be telling lies. have a care/ friend in the world. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge./ I can understand all of these ten English words. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. give a damn/darn. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / You must pay that fine. Translate into English. sleep a wink. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). Ion nu e prea deştept. mulţumesc. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. see/ feel/ remember a thing. move a muscle. leave a stone unturned. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. hurt a fly. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. crack a smile. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Peter knows some English and so does John./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. flinch. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. de când cu 33 . / Ajută-mă. touch a drop. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. lift/raise/ stir a finger. have/be worth a red cent. nici unuia dintre noi. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. hear a peep. find a trace. bat an eye(lid). lay a finger on someone. turn a hair. last a minute.

/ Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. B: Aşi. / He is no end of a fellow. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / No admittance. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / No sooner said than done. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No trouble at all. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No hands wanted. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. nu e vina mea. he’s a pig. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. Translate into Romanian. As you have noticed from the exercises above. n-a sunat încă. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / He won’t make old bones. but you really should do something about it. / I had no end of trouble. budge. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Never is a long word. / Not that I care. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No entry. he left the room. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Hotărât lucru. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Nothing succeeds like success. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / No man is wise all the time.

Normally.Unit two Sentence negation rather). / I hate making any commitments.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. say it. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API)./ I saw no one. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). b) I love asking some funny remarks. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. N-am văzut pe nimeni. as well: 35 . c) He is anxious to say something. 2. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.

nu îmi place poezia asta.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. (Nu. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.) 2. I don’t like this poem. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Key terms. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. 36 . I don’t. The second negation is somehow independent.8. B: Nu. B: Not this poem. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. Conclusion. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. nu poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu-mi place. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. from a syntactic point of view. however.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e. 45 . interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.

2.2 Wh.1.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Key Terms.3.1 Tag Questions 3.2.2. Minor Types of Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.2.Questions 3.3.4. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3. Direct vs.3. Optional Exercises .3 Alternative Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.

Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.1. focusing on direct questions mainly.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.Unit three Questions 3. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. for a subsequent section.

However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. (2). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.g. 48 . the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (3) and (4). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. pe mama. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Pratice Translate the following questions in English.

49 . Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. because. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. In the case of indirect questions. the sequence of the tenses is violated. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Likewise. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Since the question is not direct any more. in this case. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions).Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going.

c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she was. spune la un moment dat femeia. ce culoare are pielea. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / I don’t know whom she fancies. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. sau mai bine zis. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. identify the incorrect sentences. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I don’t know who she is. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me who she is. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are.

being typical of spoken language. Let us provide 51 . one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. the type of answer the respective question requires. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.Unit three Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.2. as Quirk shows. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. In this case.

3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (which / you like best) ? 4. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (what time / shops close today) ? 7.1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .2. (how long / wait for me?) 10. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6.

(Da). (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. instead of Negative Polarity ones. they did. are said to be positively – oriented.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. it has. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 .

but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. but I’ve got to babysit tonight..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 6. ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: She had her tenants evicted.. A: You’ve been learning German for years. because you always copy everything I do! 5. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: You look down. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.. I’ve still got plenty of time. ……………………………. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. but I want to play basketball a little longer. 4. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 3. as in the example: 1. A: Your mother is shouting for you. 2. (speak yet) B: …….. 7. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. …………………. ……. .

A: It’s past your bedtime. I didn’t get home until late last night. . You could have mentioned it earlier. 9. 10. . She’s got a reputation for being heartless. what .2 Wh – questions Wh. where.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 8.. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a... ……………………………….questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.2.Unit three Questions B: …………………. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. how. 3. which When. A: There was a terrible car crash. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .

what ever. (Poppy Z. / David’s car was stolen. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. I cannot do that. / She lives in the suburbs. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ Sara owns two cars. / That’s my pen. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often./ I have French lessons twice a week.000dollars. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / There are six students in my class. trying to find places where I resided in life. why ever.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / My new car cost 10. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / Shirley got married to Ben. Nearly two hundred years. of course./ We’ve lived here for ten years. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 ./ She dropped her glasses.

• • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.2.) 57 . (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.

He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. didn’t use he? 11. He used to work in a bank. Who did left the gate open? 18. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 14. There was a fax for you this morning. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How long is she be spending in America? 15. didn’t use he? 4. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How far is it the cinema? 3. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How long is she be spending in America? 8. shall we stay? 7. You can’t be serious. wasn’t it there? 17. How far is it the cinema? 10. Let’s stay for another few days.

Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. John goes jogging every morning. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. deci. deci. ca şi cei ce au fost. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Toate vechi. How long time does it take to get there? 28. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. will you not? 27. doesn’t he go? 23. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. plin de germeni virulenţi. să-mi înfrâng frica. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Ani întregi. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea.Unit three Questions 19. That was Jeremy’s brother. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. isn’t it this? 25. wasn’t it he? 22. That’s your car. will you not? 21. uneori disperat. How long have you be lived in London? 26. neliniştea infantilă. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. dacă prin absurd 59 . Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Whose it is this book? 32. Pot reveni. despre o lume dură.

Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. iar proştii. murdar. străină priceperii lor. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. picură apa roşietică.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. laşii. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. Riscul? Ratarea. mă întreb. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. îi ştiu gustul. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. B. pe sub bolţile din care. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. inactivii. lung. Şi. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. pe care oricum am simţit-o. ghiceam doar unde se află. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. naiv. indiferent de risc. dar şi drumul. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. neîntrerupt. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. “Spune! striga el. umed. puturos. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. de atunci. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. negru.

viaţa? Oare e drept. will you? (38) She went to Prague. nu se poate. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. da? (37) Let’s go there. domnule profesor. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. care i-a determinat alegerea.3. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. orbitor. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.1. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. exclus. Tag Questions Tag questions. la urma urmei. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. didn’t she? . e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.3. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door.Unit three Questions viaţă. 3. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. golul alb.

hasn’t she? (Aha. (Din păcate. or “comment tags”. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. the tag is affirmative too. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. In this way. if the host sentence is negative. or falling. The suggestion is that in this case.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. is it? (Deci. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not.) A: Oh. au fost cheltuiţi. aren’t they? 62 . hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. it’s all spent.e. au fost cheltuiţi. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. sarcasm. the tag is negative too).

/ That was your father. / He simply hates empty words. 63 . after all. / That’s your car over there. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / Each of us is staying. nu?) • with a falling intonation. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I must go now. / Few people like her. / Tell me. / You will pick me up at 7. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / You will pick me up. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Surely you have enough money. / He has to marry Susan. / He hates his wife. / There is enough food for everyone. / I may see you tomorrow. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Let’s eat dinner now. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / Don’t leave without me. / The boy never watched his sister. / She used to talk a lot. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / I think you like my music. / She has a brother. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / You have been invited. / She left an hour ago. / I may not see you tomorrow.…/ Let me know. / I think you don’t like my music. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / A few people like her.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / They said he liked music. / I am older than you. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / I don’t think you like my music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / The boy often watched his sister. / You ought not to smoke.

Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. So you enjoyed my talk. 5. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. using a question tag at the end. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one.. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / He never used to study so hard…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2./ I’m right about this…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. or what? 3. He used to play squash. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….

/ Students… Student loans might replace grants. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. Recapitulatory echo questions .) B: Chinese? 65 .) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Grants… 3.3.2.3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.1.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.questions which repeat part or all of the message. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.1. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.

Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Închide lumina aia.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. disbelief.phrase is fronted. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.2. If the wh.2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. consternation. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. rather than the repetition. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. of something just said.3.

am pierdut scrisoarea. whereas with explicatory echo questions. (Vai.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. dear. rather than did you say. / We are looking for a pixie. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. (Uită-te la asta. I’ve lost the letter. with recapitulatory echo questions. intonation is rising. (i.e. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this./ We are looking for a purse./ He is interested in blue movies. / He is interested in music. which letter do you 67 . / I think I’ve found a solution.

Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .Nadina VIŞAN 3. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it.4. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.

– Crezi tu. şi care s-a aciuat. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. să se încolăcească mai bine. după pofte.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. în satul nostru. oameni aşezaţi. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. acuma sporovăiala. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. în general. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. lui Luca Horobeţ. lui Chizlinski. cu o casă de copii. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. cumnată Fenia. da. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. lui Stavre Păici. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . stricata. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. şi apoi Vica ce zice. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. Fenio. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. şerpoaica. pe Condrat de Vica. ca să zic aşa. nu purta verighetă. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. Are gust de oameni blânzi. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. aşa. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă.

pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. deci. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. De asta erai. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. sau cum o chema. Hogea. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. până la călcâie. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. dar cum se face că a 70 . abia târându-şi picioarele. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. sus. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. roşu şi galben. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. L-a scos din geamie.

se vede prea bine. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.

72 .

FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .

3.6.4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Contents: 74 4.1.2.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.5.Key Concepts .

present) in the sentence. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. i. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.e.e. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. 75 . which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. cu repros. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. where there is no indication other than a comma. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4. that elements are coordinated. on the other hand.1 Syndetic vs.

76 . we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.Nadina VIŞAN 4. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. From the previously mentioned examples. you will die.) Such examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. vei muri. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure.) (4) If you hit my wife. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. Conversely.

) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. respectively subordinated constituents. but presupposed. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . we need to specify that. the second. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. However. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. from a logical & semantic point of view. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.

He moved and made a slopping noise. In the second. built. Though the castle had vanished. In the first. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. his shoes squished. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. John Steinbeck. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. but the 78 . combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. with enormous solidity. the houses were beautiful and ancient. took off his shoes and emptied them. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. adorned with cornices. with formal walks under rows of trees. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. of cut gray stone. took off his coat and emptied them. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. Then he sat down. His clothes hung to him.

and as the way is with Irish mountains. left the house. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. the higher he went the wetter it grew. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. over some of the roughest ground in the country. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Cecil Woocham – Smith. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal.

3 Sentence vs. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. yesterday and the day before yesterday. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. as shown in (9). where we are dealing with a compound constituent. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (G. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . who was caught at a University Extension lecture.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. were to take down the name of every man. we should be seriously annoyed. As one can easily notice. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.K. however distinguished.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.

when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. John and Mary are ready. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / Peter and John played football. Pratice Distinguish coordination. / Joan plays many games. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Her pet kitten is black and white. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Our flag is red. John is ready and Mary is ready. 9. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 10. but not John. Activity 2 sentences: 1. plays football. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 3. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 5. our respective examinations. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Unit four Coordination example (7). 4. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 2. 7. 8. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / Peter. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. yellow and blue. and I passed. and even tennis.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic.

A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Jane 82 . *John poetry and Bill writes prose. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) b. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 6.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. or deleted. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. 3. John writes poetry and Bill prose.Nadina VIŞAN b. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. 5. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Activity 4 2. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) c. as can be seen in (10b).

7. these syntactical processes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 8. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. the so-called Principle of Economy. i. So. Besides ellipsis. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. the predication buy a pair of shoes.) The common element. can be reduced by substitution. 10. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. than a longer repetitive one. 9.e. 83 . Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle.

since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. Translate the following sentences. one or (the) other method.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. the old men and women 2. using reduced structures: 1. In certain cases. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. simple books and magazines for children 3. 2. some reason or another. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 4. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. George and Jane went back to their parents. 4. George and Jane are separated. 3. A citit.

13. 6. only for damage. like: salt and pepper. the amount I’ve already saved up. 11. 12. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc..I searched ………. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. ..You gain some things and you lose others. I need another 100$ ………. of your proposals later on? 3. A pendulum swings ………. 5.… 14. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. After all their adventures. sweet and sour. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 8. 7.. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 8. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 16. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 6. for my wallet. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. it’s a case of ………… 7. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 15. even though they have their little …………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. Can we discuss the …………. they reached home………. 5. The police are responsible for maintaining …………... It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. fish and chips. Marks and Spencers. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. They get on quite well together. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 2.

as in: (17) a.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. more often than not.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. b. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. 4. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. the expressive function of coordination is. and 86 . In fact. of course. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. For instance. etc. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. Nor sun. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.) There are. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators.4.

o respectau si o indrageau. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) In certain cases.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. or .) 87 . sometimes but.g.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. etc). If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.) b. 20 (b)). (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. both … and . (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. (I-am dat banii. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.) c. where the subordinator is repeated. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. and cherished her. too): (20) a.

) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I admire and like her. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . the order of these conjuncts is fixed. if we were to rewrite the example .* I ironed and washed my pants. (Imi place si o admir. and hit my wife. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. and you’ll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (O admir si imi place.) b.) b. From this point of view. I washed and ironed my pants. In this case. I like and admire her. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.

Brown experiments with humans. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) (While Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed). (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (If you do that. Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.Unit four Coordination 1. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.

subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.) 101 . as the name suggests it. 5. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. e. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.which are based on coordination .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. From the functional point of view.g. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.

(I-a dat cartea. such as proud of. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. We do not presuppose however something like. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. they are still presupposed by the speaker. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. for instance.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. for example).) Whenever we think of this particular verb. by an adjective + preposition. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. an adverbial item.) 102 . In a way. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. we associate it with these objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. sentences) required by the verb (or. in certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. For instance.

That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. A second observation. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. to her) and one extra-item.) b. i. related to example (4). it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. Thus. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. 103 .e. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. to add something. The second example. In other words. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. which is the adverbial willingly. an additional one. I am afraid that he won’t come.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.

) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. a închis toate ferestrele.) (11) If you don’t marry me. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. I’ll die. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. such as want.) 104 . So. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. am să mor. like. make. etc.

5.g. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. e. 3.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. 2. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Susan disappeared without saying a word.She came to him of her own will.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. she looked at me sadly. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. [.g. The book that because they home. 4.g. Whoever did that was a genius. 6. They came to e. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. this to whomever wants it. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . After I told her the story.

Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. at our age. As you can see. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. though it was largely politeness. 5. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. FOR. not object. WHETHER.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. stating their function: Activity 2 1. was a novelty to Mitzi. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. which. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5.He took an intelligent interest in her. etc. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. 6. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.) 106 . When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 4. but he declined. You suggestion that we should. 2. 3.

) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. Who did it was John.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (E de dorit să plece.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. how.) b.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. who. Where he went is London.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. why. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. which. when.) (16) a. (15) It is John who did it. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. where.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. etc. 107 . (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.

(Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. In (18). these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . Unlike complement clauses.1.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. if. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. consider the following table. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. Compare. which sums up this classification. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. for instance. before. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. etc. done from a structural point of view. As you will see.) (18) She told me this before she left. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. however. In conclusion.

back. Introduced know e. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. for. 109 .g. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. Dear Ludwig. etc. I will come back such as because.g. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.g. as. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. whether he will come when I feel like it. I will go there because I feel like it. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. at your young age. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. you understand.: e. surely you cannot sincerely believe.

We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. he said. As she left the house. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. a tightening in her breathing. she stopped to speak to Monroe. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. But she thought that no one would call again. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. Too. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Late that afternoon.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door.The day Monroe had died was in May. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. Accidental Man) b)1. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. 2.

Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.g. că e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. a correspondence can be traced. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.2. I told her everything after she arrived.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g.g. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.g. 111 . That he loved e. As you have probably noticed already. However. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. interesting.

1. Secondly. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. So.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. whereas wh complements are the 112 .2. complements.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). whenever you identify a wh. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. i. In the fourth place.complement. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.e. Thirdly. (Cred că mă place. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. We will come back to that in the next chapter.

It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. I first thought to tell in 113 . for no matter how she tried. and I do not know how things might stand between us. their introductory elements (e. She mistrusted her handwriting. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. c) I am coming home one way or another.g. after. because.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. a barn. but no idea what to do with them. a house. Pratice Consider the following text. before. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. outbuildings.

these clauses can be complements. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.e. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . it would make you fear to do such again. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. because they modify. According to a structural criterion. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.4. and I have not the will or the energy. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.

etc. după ce că are grâu puţin. Alţii. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. ce o fi având. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. îşi spuseseră că Anton.e. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. be very careful to use this term correctly. O zbughi înapoi. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. Pratice Translate the following.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart.g. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. 115 . look at. (…) “Mă. interested in. think of. însă. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. answering the question to whom? So. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Nevasta secera în tăcere.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e.

(Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. izolate de sat. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. cât de bolnavă era.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. timp de un ceas. întâi. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Toată lumea înţelesese că. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. Nici acum. de fapt. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul.

cu automobilele unora dintre ei. amânase scrisul. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Era bine de ştiut. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Pace nu era. deşi cam târziu. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. acum sunt desluşiţi. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. stricau totul. Iată. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. aşa de oţetit. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. la nişte prieteni comuni. la Odobeşti. de pildă. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. În realitate. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana.

nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. întâia noapte de război) 118 . frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. of which. whose. etc).g. 119 . accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses.. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. etc.

The Co-reference Condition 6.2. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.1.6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Key Concepts .6.7. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.5. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.3.4.

relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. 121 .Unit six Relative clauses 6. The Co-reference Condition .a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. 6.1. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).2. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.

122 .) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. By combining these two clauses. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. John loves that woman. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.

I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. John offered flowers to that woman. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. This way. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. 123 . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The common element woman is present.

He liked that book. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 8. Susan wants to meet Jane. I introduced him to Jim. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. WHO 124 . 4. 6. She doesn’t know anything about Jane.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. None of the students agreed with them. They met those students. WHO 5. This is my husband. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. John told his friend a story about the king. I lost the book’s cover. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHICH 4. I love my husband very much. I had a book. frequently used in written language. 3. He told Jim everything about his plans. He’s the author who received the prize. 9. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 2. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. 7. She came to London. WHERE 3. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. The students like their teacher. I bought Jim a book. 5. too. therefore in spoken English. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. 10. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I went to London. The king was just passing by. by leaving behind a trace. The students like their teacher. Any of the students would answer to questions.

i. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.e. WHICH 8. WHOM 10.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. (Cine strică plateşte. TO 11. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. most of them were from England.Unit six Relative clauses 6. WHOSE 7. . 2. WHOM 6. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. relative clauses are divided into 1. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.

(Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. it is covert. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) So. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. is no longer overtly expressed.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . in a manner of speaking.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.e. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) • Predicative This was what she intended. unlike in the case of (14). Unlike their sisters. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. these relatives cannot function as attributes.

who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. who is the god of commerce. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Mercur. they define it). is my favourite god.) (Mercury. They only provide supplementary information about it. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (22) Mercury. care este zeul negoţului. (Du-te unde pofteşti. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. este zeul meu favorit. 127 . is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.

As we were saying. 8. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 7. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. is a great playwright. 6. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius.This is the village where I spent my youth. They are what 128 . Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. restrictive relative clauses. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 10. She. on whom nobody could depend. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. is a genius. I have met him where I least expected. On the day on which this occurred I was away.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. Independent I don’t know what you want. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 9. i. 5. 2. then it is an attribute. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Shakespeare. who came to see me. can only function as attributes (or modifiers).e. who is a genius. this type of relative clauses.

. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. composed The (Freddie Mercury.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. 6. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. who died a few years ago. When the antecedent has no determiner.) 2.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. care a murit acum câţiva ani.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. etc. a. however sad this may be.

Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. iritabilă şi uscată. care nu sunt o femeie. 4. care-ţi sunt fiu.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. can see your shortcomings only too well. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. ci o fată a woman. who neither work nor am anxious. (Ei apeleaza la mine. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.) Pratice Translate the following. poftiţi în faţă. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. 130 . Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Dintre toate personajele prezente. ill-tempered. 3. Mie. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. who am your son. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. 5. îţi văd prea bine defectele. (Eu. but a peevish. bătrînă morocănoasă. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. 2. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate.) (28) They come to me. 6. 7. dried-up old maid. numai eu nu.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic).

şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. heard. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. were now in his possession. erau acum în posesia lui.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. (32) service finished late. .) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. than whom few more can be more crashing. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. părăsi camera.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.

The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. too. 6.) b. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The genitive form with which is still in use.5.1. but it is typical of the formal. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones.) c. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . literary style: (37) a. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) d. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. as can be seen in (36d).

Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Iris Murdoch.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .

but to a type or a function: a. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. ships (that can be personified) a. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) • states.) b. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) b. of which. (45) (46) . (Nu mai este omul care era odată. by the way. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. He is not the man which he used to be. … Italy. animals.

cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. Poland is the place where Christine was born. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) 135 (47) . etc. pe care o privea direct. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. where.5. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. etc. It is poor what gets the punches. how. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Nu ştiam ce vor. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) b. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.2 Relative Adverbs: when. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. France. reason. whom it concerned most closely. while. why.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. time.Unit six Relative clauses b. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b.) 6.) b) dialectal (49) a. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.

Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) 6. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) e.3.5.) c. The place whither he goes is unknown.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) b. This is the place wherefrom they came. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) 136 . (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) b.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. no antecedents are required: (52) a. He went where he had been before.) b. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.

Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.

5.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. but • in standard language a. 138 (64) his shoes.) b.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. any. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. . Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. I’ll get you such things as you may want.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. not any. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. much. Honest man as he was. but they are used very infrequently: as. every. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.4. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.

Uncle George. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. There’s not many as’ll say that. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) • in dialect a. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. ăl de fusese in China…) b. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. This is the same one that/as you had before. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. him as was in China … (Uncle George.) c.) c. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. And always on the buttered side. It’s the dry weather does it. . când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.

) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.

makes me a wart and a wen. 5.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. Where he was from. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. What I’m saying is.5.*The man John spoke to is an idiot.” 4. 6.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 3. fortifies me.) c. It seemed a thing 141 . That which shows God out of me. we all have to come to some terms. The man who John spoke to is a genius. b.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. What Inman remembered was this passage. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. The man that John spoke to is a genius. This is where we talk money. 2. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. The man John spoke to is a genius. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity.3): (72) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 7.

which is a lot.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. 10. 12. who had not witnessed many dawns. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. Oh. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. though. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Whatever his fate was. 11. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 13. he had left Ruby high and dry.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. (…) Partly. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. of living. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 8. The rudeness of eating. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 142 . 9.

un var primar. pirpiriu. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. Cumnatul meu avea. plutonier. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. divortata. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. pe linie paterna. mort de tanar. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. poate. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. cumnatul unui portughez. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa.al lui. fiu natural al unui morar. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. al carei strabunic. (Iris Murdoch. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . vasnic. nu prea sarac.

She was a woman. insurat de trei ori la rand. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. The opposite phenomenon. I lost the cover of the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.2. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. Teatru) 6.6. b. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . 144 . By extension. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Everybody listened to that woman. This is the book. c.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.

he requested that the public be excluded. acting again as a genuine pied piper. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 .) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 9. In the interest of public decency. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 6. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 3. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover.Unit six Relative clauses b. 2. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. The problem of safe transportation. 8. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 5. 4. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. The difference between (76) and (77). has been troubling them forever. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 7. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. no easy answers to which could be offered.

The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. 10. This story. 2. no matter which. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. has been deleted. 4. 5. was now complete. as the case is). His friends. 3. They do not function as attributes. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 6. Activity 9 were now all gone. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. Irene. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 146 . he rarely saw now. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. whose interest he most sincerely shared. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.His father’s friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.

Nelu. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 2. Pentru alţii. himeric. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. 7. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 3. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 4. De douazeci de ani. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. închipuirea. 5. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Toate sfârşeau. 6. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire.

ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. 10. 9. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. 8. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. cu surle şi cu tobe. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. a făcut el. 12. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie.

cu sclipiri abia vizibile. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 149 . din care cauză pe Dora. 20. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. de unde venea şi Marta. 18. 16. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. dinspre Maria Rosetti. 17. 14. În spatele lor. apărură. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. despre care. toată lumea întreba cine e. din direcţia căreia apoi. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. fie pe stradă. roiuri de fetiţe. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. până mai adineauri. fie la teatru. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. Avea acum un fel de vertij. zise ea cu ochii mari. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. trăia larg de tot. 15. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Dacă mă lovea. care era foarte “mondenă”. deşi atât de aproape. pe strada Icoanei. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac.

Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea.Nadina VIŞAN 21. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. de mine. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. de sus de unde eram. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. 23. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. până în şosea. pe care ea îi admira acum. Pare-se că snobii. întâia noapte de război) 150 . pe care eu nu-l aveam. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. după ce maşina a fost reparată. aveau un stil al lor. când au urcat râpa iar. 22. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Pentru mine însă. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. 24.

Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function. 151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

That Complements as Subjects 7.2. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1.1.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. Key Concepts .2.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.4.3.1.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2.3.Extraposition 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.Clause Shift 7. That Deletion 7.6.1.2.3.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.Topicalization 7.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3.3.2.5.3.5.4.3.1.1.1.

followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. 7.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. (3) Tell me if you need anything. Apart from those introduced by that. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. 153 . (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. but also of infinitival ones.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. placed in a marginal position. In other words. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. the clause is extraposed.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.

(A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .

12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It is no use trying to convince her. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 6. 4. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 9. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 3. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. They considered it very silly of her to 155 .It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 2. It is nice to meet you. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 14. 9. 2. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 15. 4. 10. 3. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 10. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It appears that no one voted for him. 8. 13. 7. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 5. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 8. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 11. 6. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 11. 7.

după porţi. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 18. zice Lionel. unde se nimerea. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I guess it that he will come back. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 2. 4. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. I don’t expect it that he will come back. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. They never expected it that he would come back. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 4.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. în canal. 6. 2. 3. atât 156 . 3. mă ascundeam în grabă. în gropi. 5.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. sub poduri. 5. 3.

precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. excelentă. 6. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. (Nu întotdeauna. vor căuta să o zdruncine. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. 5. 7. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Mi s-a părut chiar că. fără îndoială. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede.” 4. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 157 .Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. fără să cârteşti. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist.

No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. 1. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) While in the case of extraposition. Consequently. subject clauses are the frequent situation. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. in the case of topicalization. this asymmetry is undone.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.1. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Pratice Read the following. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.2. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.

That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. 5. was inconceivable. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. mere chance would decide. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. he felt no spring of interest in her. He did not blame Gracie. 3. whether it would finally carry her off.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 6. This was another era. She had always been the slave of chance. He was utterly gone. 7. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. but not now. 2. 8. 4. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. even today.

A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.3.) 160 . according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.1.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.

161 .e. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. we obtain. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. the verb to drive). clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.

/I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. prime-minister. 3. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 5.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. 162 . 4. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa. 6./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. who had just returned from Africa. 8. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 2. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 7.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.

163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.Unit seven That complements 7. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.2.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.

) b. suggest. afirm. promise.) a.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. (I-au promis o casă nouă. estimate. (Cred că omul este vinovat. state. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. judge. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. They believe the man is guilty. consider.) b. desire. etc.Nadina VIŞAN 7. prefer. deem. They promised him that he would received a new house. communicate. They believe that the man is guilty. He announced that they were engaged. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. explain. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.1. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. etc. predict.) 164 .: (25) a.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. He announced their engagement. deny.2.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.

Unit seven

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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(this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.) I like him in that he is smart. In older stages of English. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) 172 . they lose their meaning. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.e. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. on condition that. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) language. hope =>purpose. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. ibid. for example.

(Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. He gave such an answer as had expected. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. să o vadă trecând. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave an answer such.) (66) 173 a. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) b.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) When the structure contains the word such. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. . such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) b. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. That can be deleted. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.

2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. ibid. (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.We discovered that our map has disappeared. for better or worse.) 174 . 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. He gave an answer such that I had expected.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) b. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.

(A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.3. He said he had borrowed her money. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. for instance. that he uses a relaxed tone. 175 .1. He got word they were coming. He showed he was able to do it. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.) c.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.Unit seven That complements 7. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) b. (69) a.3 ‘That Deletion 7. tell). say.

bune. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. for better or worse. because that has been deleted.3.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Iris Murdoch. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.2.3.) b. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .) (De asemenea. I like it that he was here. (Îmi place că e aici. for better or worse. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. 7. they were chained to each other forever. rele. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.3. ibid. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. *I like it he was here.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. they were chained to each other forever.

8) I reminded them that they had to leave. that they were not too late to leave. you want me to believe. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. (“Este acolo”. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.) 177 . he said. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. which is ungrammatical in English. simultaneity.4. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 7.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 7) They maintain. spuse el. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.) b)He told me that she was there. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke.

I will leave her.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. până pleacă ea.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. In the example below. He said he would leave her. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. The Present complement). He told me that she had been there. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.) b. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) b.) Future Perfect -----.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. vine el. o să vină el. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (Am să o părăsesc. (“Era acolo”. spuse el. (A spus că. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . (Pâna să plece. he said.) b. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. “She was here”.

dream. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. think. say. mention. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.) 179 . regret. forget. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. discover. notice.) b. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. hope. insist.etc. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. report. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. whisper. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. With such factive verbs as realize. realize it). etc. be amazed/concerned.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. wish.) On the other hand. be aware.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. show. believe.

(Iris Murdoch. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. feign habits which are not their own. He knew that she thought all men were fools. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. Consider also: (85) a. She realized that all men are fools. She still believed that the earth was flat.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.) b. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. in tender deference to each other.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. we notice that general truths. 180 . She believed that the earth is round. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) b.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.

Peter said that John would leave at 5.) b.) In (88). There are however cases. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. such as a. 3. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.Unit seven That complements 2. Peter said that John will leave at 5. 181 .) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) b.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.

But 182 . f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) John said that Harry was leaving. Imagine. g) John thought that Harry ran. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. for instance. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. John said that Harry will leave.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. The time is 3 o’clock. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. f) John said that Harry would leave.

lark. whistling swan. 183 .Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. geese both grey and white. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. She admired their keenness of wit. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. nighthawk. Crows will relish what presents itself. bluebird. jaybird. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. c. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. quail. as evidenced by its drear plumage. b. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. kingfisher. Translate the following. slyness in a fight. a. redtailed hawk. lack of pridefulness. Cooper’s hawk. love of practical jokes.

in the very act of expiring. the young officer. He died erect. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. And they might just hang him. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Now here he stood jailed. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. […] During the latter stages of the tale. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. he claimed. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. war hero though he was. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. He had fought hard through the war. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. But as the battle raged around them.

which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. on other occasions it has to stay there. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). object ones up to the attributive function. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). adjective or by a de-verbal noun. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). from the very frequent subject. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. On certain occasions that can be deleted.Unit seven That complements 7. 185 . or else.

peste puţin. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. cel mai mare. Unul din ei. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Mama. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. 4. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Fiind 186 . Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. 3. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. 2. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. neconvenabil şi primejdios. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar.

s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 6. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. dacă va mai veni. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Se mira. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. ea. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Nu ţi-a trecut. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. care îl pândise. cel puţin pentru un timp. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 9. venind de la avocat. 8. un vis de acesta 187 . 5. aşa. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. fericit. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. va pleca din oraş la vie. 7. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. de ce constata în sine. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui.

aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. dar şi teama că. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. 11. 12. liniştit. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. fireşte. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . încă o dată. Astfel de va fi.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Acesta. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. lucrul era înfăptuit. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. şi mândria că a biruit. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere.

fără o vorbă scrisă. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. ci numai aşa. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. 14. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. după cum. spre Jurubiţa. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. să le lămurească pe toate. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Pe toate. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. mai puternic decât oricând. unde alerga să mărturisească totul.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.5.8.2.7.3.A Classification of Infinitives 8.Key Concepts .What Are Infinitive Complements 8.4.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.9.6.8.1.

I told her to be more careful in the future.) b.) b. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). To love her is something really wonderful. From this perspective. b. It is important for you to know what you need. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (3) a. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (2) a.1. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. 193 . complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). That you love her is something wonderful. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. Consider the following: • like that complements. It is important that you should know what you need.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.) • like that complements.

the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. 2. gerundial clauses. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. the Conditional. the Participle) (i. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. the Gerund. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. For instance. participial clauses. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. 194 . She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. d. as opposed to the finite ones.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. moduri nepersonale) By convention.e.) b. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. etc. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.

(Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.) c. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. namely no ending.) 195 .Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.

To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 8. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. the criterion of form.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.2. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 5. 3. 2. (7) They saw her leave.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 6. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 8. 9. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 10. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 7. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. 4. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.

/ A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. (10) 197 . / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. 2.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. hear. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / Au văzut-o că pleaca.

trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. However. . trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. uncharacteristic for literary English.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. Pratice Translate the following. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 3. 198 (11) the universe. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.

Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. to use the appropriate technical term. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. In other words. Further on. or the control constructions. as I have already mentioned. 199 .) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.

(E omeneşte să greşeşti. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. It is important for him not to err. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.) Object: (18) a. I hoped for him to be there in time. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) b. PRO to err is human. PRO to forgive divine.) In this situation. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. namely the agent of the event. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. So far. şi creştineşte să ierţi. the logical subject.) b.) 200 .

not to the infinitive. him is related to the main clause verb.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . In other words. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (Cred că este un lingvist competent.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). him is not the agent of the infinitive. Semantically. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. but the patient of the verb persuade. He stepped aside for her to enter. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) b.

but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ I would love them to come. \ I allowed them to come. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ They tempted him to leave. \ She promised him to leave. \ She wanted him to leave. Likewise. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They convinced her to come back. \ 202 . \ He persuaded her to come. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. I hate animals to be tortured.

• Last but not least. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. \ They really asked her to come back. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. \ They did not wish her to come back. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. So. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. 203 .) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) He seems to be a good linguist. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.

/ Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. 204 . / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. hate. To sum up the discussion. to meet her. seem. etc. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. with special semantic and syntactic properties.). The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. that is not required by certain verbs. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. appear.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. Pratice Translate the following sentences./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. which are said to be free.

care to. propose. etc. need. want. desire. / E greu să îl suporţi. contrive. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. venture. hate. deign.3 The Distribution of PRO . condescend.) b) verbs such as abide. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. expect. refuse. seek (= try). arrange. deserve. aspire to. scheme. etc. dislike.) 205 friend. etc. presume. fail. omit. 8./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. prefer. endeavour. . try. hope. intend. manage. like.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. bear. wish.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. agree to.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. mean. Compare: (31) a. decline. afford. scorn. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.

stand. claim. etc. possible.) 8. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) b. I would like for him to become president of the country. threaten. desirable. For all of them to have been killed is. however. forget.etc. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. ask. be important. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.) 206 . suggest. bear. verbs of liking and disliking. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. endeavour. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. I hate that you should say a thing like this. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) b.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. unlikely.) b. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. conclude. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării.Nadina VIŞAN b.

Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) 2. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) b. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 207 .) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.

. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. the preposition is deleted. I decided for John to represent us. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 5.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Direct Objects (39) a.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. but the meaning remains.) 4. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) b. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b. Like in the case of that complements.) 208 knowledge.

curious about. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. The stew is delicious to eat. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.: (42) a. etc. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) c) adverbial of result 209 . delicious. You’re an idiot to go there. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. This paint is like concrete to work with.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. She is pretty to look at. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) d. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) e. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) c.) b. 6. He is a bastard to work for.

(Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. you’re a bad driver.) I’ve never met him. să nu piardă trenul. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. drept să spun. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Pe şleau./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (final) (Nu-l cunosc.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. conduci prost. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. to tell you the truth. / Ehei. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.) Oh. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank.

induce. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. nu mai vreau să te vad. encourage. promise. oblige. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. inspire. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.etc. According to this.) . / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.: (51) a. need. influence.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. urge. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. direct.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. (49) a.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. enable. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. inform.) b. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. swear. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. 8. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. b. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. press. etc. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.

prevail on. permit. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. order. command. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you./ And now he 212 . etc. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. / I do not intend to tell him that myself./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. nominate. look to.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. vote. name.etc.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. count on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. allow. depend on. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. choose. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. elect. etc.

happen.etc. etc. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. come. (O să întârzii/ leşin. seem. (Iris Murdoch. An Accidental Man) 8. grow. be about to.verbs: appear. i. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. this construction is lexically governed. be going to.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.e. etc.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (56) She grew to like him in the end.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (57) He is to come any day now.: (55) She appears to like him. (Se pare că îi place de el. 213 (58) (59) .

be thought. observe. perceive. be rumoured. be considered.: (62) They heard him insult her. watch. be alleged. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. In (57). etc. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. . that of intention. etc. (L-au auzit insultând-o.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. be claimed.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.etc. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. hear. overhear. be reported.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).) 8. feel.

cause. picture. However. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. imagine. prove. find.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. judge. know. have.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.) • with a full infinitive: get. recollect. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. consider. etc. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. figure. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. remember. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. occasion. understand. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.: (68) I believe him to be a genius.) 215 (67) . (Cred că este un geniu. discover. presume. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. believe. deem.

) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. love. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down.etc. command. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. suffer. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. Harold.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. order. prefer. desire. who wasn’t used to men with moods. want. mean. expect. wish. permit. etc.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. choose. he hated anyone to comment 216 . thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.

so that we might get to the future and have done. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. though he tended to look down on those below it. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.P. He suspected hostility at once. A little crossly. to make sure we attended strictly to business. he didn’t envy those above it. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Both seemed to him a little unreal. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. (L. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. the herd instinct was very strong in him.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .

This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. From this perspective. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The last criterion. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. 218 . The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.Nadina VIŞAN 8.

ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. un bărbat şi o femeie. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. fireşte. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. dar să nu-ţi spună. într-o zi. e) Când doi oameni. de asemenea. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. mai bine219 . stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. să-l capete. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. Şi tu să fii. bunăoară. lovit şi umilit. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. de bună seamă. E posibil. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. e important ce întrebări pui. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts.

mai pline de înţeles. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. să nu vrea să se şteargă. în parte.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. avusese dreptate. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. mai bine de două decenii. Însă Paul Achim trăise. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. . ca să nu şi-o amintească. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. în jos. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. încă. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. (B. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. pe care deja o uitase. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. în ploaie. Să spui de pildă. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. un picior.Şt.Delavrancea. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. d-a lungul gâtului. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. De era vară. aşa cum îi apăruse el. 220 . în parte. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. sau. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. că eşti tânăr. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.Şt.Nadina VIŞAN zis. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.

m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. un miros îngrozitor.. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. Mă laud singură..Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.. (Al. de fapt. prin faţă e coborârea. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. fie ea şi grăbită. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). nici ca să 221 . vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. deşi. orice bucureştean ştie. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. orice-ar fi. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. şi nu un amant. şi prin faţă. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. biata Muti. sunt aici cu tot ce am. o mizerie. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă.. Într-un cuvânt. ei.

în realitate. parcă la întâmplare.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. niciodată ea nu i le pune.

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns. participles.

1.Participial Constructions 9.2.The Gerund 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.1.5 Key Concepts .2.The Verbal Noun 9.2.3.1.3.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.2.4.9.2.1.1.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.

The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Let us start with the Participle: 9. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.1. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. (Susan doarme. Due to this situation.) 225 .

(Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.) As you can see in this second case. Susan has been killed. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. In (2) the forms come. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. too: (6) Her eye-lids. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. been and killed are past participle forms. i.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. Susan has come. it functions attributively. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.e. 226 . the past participle can appear after a noun.) More infrequently. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. (A venit Susan) b. blood-shot and painted. were closing. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.

(adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.) b. leul poate să atace. he will eventually marry her. people should pay attention to high notes. ea o luă la fugă. începură să cânte.) d. (Sosind aici. God willing. I will arrive there on time. I will arrive there on time. o să ajung la timp. they started singing. she ran away. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) c. If provoked. o să ajung la timp. mother permitting. Knowing who the guy was. (Ştiind cine era el. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. When singing.) 227 .) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. Oh.) c.) b. Weather permitting. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. Arriving here.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. a lion can attack. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.

(10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. smell. watch. respectively. (Am simţit-o tremurând. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) b.) 228 . The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. He was found killed by a bullet. which stands for an adverbial clause.) b. I found him stealing. (L-au descoperit că fură. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. He was found stealing. (L-am descoperit furând.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) ii. behold. notice. hear.

) • Causative verbs: get . (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. I heard it said that men are a bore. He’ll soon get things going. etc. etc. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. a.) b. have.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) c. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. send. feel.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . etc.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. (A fost văzut plângând.: When she heard his words.) b.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. etc. recollect.) b. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. I must get my hair cut. leave. confess.) • Causative verbs: get. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. start. have. hear. she knew herself dismissed. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. find. keep. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. set. make a. know.: a.

/ L-a trimis la cumpărături.) • verbs of permission. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. command I ordered my bill made out. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. Men like shopping made easy.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul.) b. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. He wanted his car fixed immediately. / Nu după multă vreme.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. lovit şi plin de sânge. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.

Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.1. / Dinny. / My Lord. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). you gave instructions to have your wife watched. 231 .2. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Unlike the gerund. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / In any case.e. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. with its lips drawn back.

a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. People were sleeping in the next room. 4. 3. The tree had fallen across the road. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 7.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I left. (Văzând acestea. am plecat. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. She had heard it all before. the rain will stop. I turned on the light. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. using either a present participle.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I was astonished at what I saw.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I left. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.She didn’t want to hear the story again. It had been uprooted by the gale. 5. 2. se va opri şi ploaia. 6.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. am plecat. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Desi nu ştia limba.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing.

The following sentences contain misrelated participles. three. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. sharp. Climbing down the tree. fishy. He fed the dog. 233 . 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. a rug caught her foot and she fell. covered. b) Headed (5 times). Reading in bed. stony. Tied to the post.shoulder. Riding in the first race. 12. mown. hearted (twice). open. cornered. 4. a scorpion bit him. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 10. roast. Dropped by parachute. bald. Getting out of bed. Read the sentences and try to correct them. his horse fell at the last jump. quick. straight. stricken. 11. empty. many. drunken. 9. eagle. handed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. dark. an idea suddenly occurred to me. my hands often get very cold. narrow. 3. I slammed the door of my room. coloured. open. Passing under a ladder. He sat down to his own dinner. haired (twice). cloth.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. red (twice). 2. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. skinned.Running into the room. eyed (3 times). Barking furiously. one of the eggs broke. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. wooden. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. lighted. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Mother punished me for my mistake. 7. a pot of paint fell on my head. broad. They found the treasure. 8. lion. I let the dog out of the room. 5. 6. 10. 8. minded (3 times). Leaving the cinema. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 9. shaven. They began quarreling about how to divide it.

once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (hunt). b) grass. wealth. Whales. (find) 6. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. was today taken back to prison. head. / Swiss watches. lead. ________ hiding in a barn. graven. the same verb is missing twice. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. lamb. plank. (take) 2. The film. I stared at the canvas for ages. rotten. shrunken. / Three people. _______ for a bargain. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. is expected to be a great hit./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.I fell on the ice. are in grave danger of extinction. (admire) 5. are sold throughout the world. were taken to hospital. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (injure). 7. image. meat. _______ my arm. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. bounden. shorn. man. deer. ill-gotten. _______ for their elegance and precision. candle. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. meaning.Spielberg. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . hidden. / Many old people . In the following pairs of sentences. The escaped prisoner. (produce) 3. stream._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (grow) 4. eyes. Translate into English: 1. duty. _______ by S.

arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. trezit. şi moi. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. deodată sufocat. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. păsări tăiate. ca şi cum. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. le fierbea. legume date prin mai multe ape.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. care le rânduia. le cocea. nesigur şi moale. 2. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. precum şi foile de plăcintă. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. După câtva timp. Şi. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. O umbreluţă. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. 3. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. când strânsă. 4. când deschisă. Şi sufletul său. întinse.

The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. According to this criterion. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.2. crezi. Likewise. 236 . (Dacă vezi. The Gerund 9. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.Nadina VIŞAN 9. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.1.2.

[+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) 9. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.) b. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. Consider the following table. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.) b. Him winning and you losing was surprising. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.2. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. gerunds differ from participles.2. In that. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.

) Unlike participles. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. It was illegal to grow a beard. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.) 2.) b. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. Consider (32). A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. as being verbal 238 . *It was illegal growing a beard. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.

Unit nine Ing complements in nature. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases. It’s no good talking to her.2. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.) 9. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.3. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) b. Participles vs. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. as offered in the table below: 239 .) 3. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) b.

may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . 3. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. forms: continuous . babies suck their thumb. 2. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. + noun] 1. perfect. (prepositional object clause) 5. (adverbial of time) 4. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. passive ones She was crying.

/ Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial.

I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 14. eating habits/ eating people. crying game / crying woman. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 7. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 13. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 4. 242 . He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 2. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 12. 10. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 15. 6. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 12. 8. 5. 11. shooting gallery / shooting star. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 9. He was spotted talking to her. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 3.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată.

a The absence of an of phrase. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e. but the presence of a direct object (i. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.3. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .e.Unit nine Ing complements 9. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.) The absence of a determiner like the.

GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. George’s shooting the attacker. Thus. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. These are features that normally characterize any noun.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. How can we tell? In the first case. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. In the second situation. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .

/ Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / His coming there puzzled her. very large. Jim left quietly. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff. 245 . / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock./ His sudden coming puzzled her.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.

ING Forms and Infinitives. for example.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. Look. However. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.4. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. the meaning is different. For instance. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.Nadina VIŞAN 9. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. whenever we meet an –ing form.

suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.g. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. and the most well-known one.) . having left) is infrequently used in English. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) The first example.) After looking at this example. On the other hand.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. containing an infinitive. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. (S-a oprit din mâncat. anterior to the verb in the main clause.

recollect.) . This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) As you can see. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. i.e. which means that they are similar in meaning. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian.

) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. In the second example.) . (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. but that’s it. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. the action is not completed.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. dar asta este. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.

(Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. In the second example. want With [+ human] objects.) b. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. the event has not happened yet. The house needs repairing.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) With [. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. mean has the sense signify. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) wedding.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) 250 .human] objects. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparată. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Casa trebuie reparată. e) need.

‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. my Lord. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Lady Corven. but they went by too quickly. (take) down her answer. gerund or infinitive. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. (hold) up his pen and (speak). whereas in the second case. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Croom (try) (follow) one.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ ‘In any case. I did ask Mr. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ ‘Tell me. it’s overrated. however appearances were against us. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. my Lord.

but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. licked the envelope with passion. Then. I must go back now. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ said Clare. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. suddenly. I just used the word and they fell. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. he addressed the note. and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ 252 . d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.

since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Pratice In the following texts. Participles mainly function as adverbials. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Last but not least. the 253 . The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features.5. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground.Unit nine Ing complements 9.

(James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the enormous split in the earth. Then he saw movement at his feet. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. it 254 . then the noise and the cracking stone. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. down. according to the books he read. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. At first. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. It was like a mist. covering the girl’s head. The two sides were moving apart. but then he saw it billowing up from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down into God knows where. She started coughing. The sight of the two children.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. slowly rising in a swirling motion. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. their edges crashing inwards. someone looking for survivors. He looked up towards the daylight. hoping he would see somebody up there. moving up towards his chest. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being.

my dear. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. brightening to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. and sunlight. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. slanted on to her cheek. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. 255 . Having a French governess. She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks.

2. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. ucenicul său necredincios. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. într-o joi. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. închizând ochii. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Vaucher şi cu mine. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. cei doi Mamona. Ridicându-se. În urma slugii. totul se animă deodată. and then went riding with her in the rain. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. mama mea.

după cum îi spusese mama. la mine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. pe mama mea părând absentă. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. aşezată cu spatele la noi. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 .Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. auzit şi zadarnic. se duse lânga mama şi. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. am ştiut şi cine. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. Neclintiţi. afară ploua în continuare. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. totul mi se părea cunoscut. pe Vaucher. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. Şi deodată. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. privit. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. o sărută pe frunte. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. aplecându-se puţin. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. dar ştiutoare. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. 3. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi.

clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. camionul a plecat. dar. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. Au coborât din camion încet. şi cu stiva de lemne. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. cu tot cu baraca. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. 5. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu soba. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul.

Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

9. and meet it right here at home. he had not yet been able to estimate. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 2. 7. 5. apart from his distress for parents. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. Having regard to the date of drafting. was unclear to Mitzi. 10. because of pity. I am sorry not to have seen you. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 12. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. he had been advised. 6. 3. and this particularly of late. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 13. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. this would really hurt. without profound questioning. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 11. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. You have been much in my thoughts. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 4. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. How much. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. and that 263 . to retire early from my employment. How this time was to come. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. since I have decided. whereas if she went away she would get none. in some way.

she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. for attending his sister’s wedding. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. 19. 264 . / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. one of the eggs broke. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. looking forward had not yet taken place. / In the end. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / Whenever I visited my aunt. / Before you go on changing the subject. even for months. please consider his proposition. he did not come to see her. 17. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 14. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five.

centered in London and themselves. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Instead of which she had married. it was said.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. her recklessness. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. cotton mills at Manchester. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. without discovery. 265 . rather than the hefty type. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Clarissa used to think. and it was bound. a little girl. (and there he was. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. to end in some awful tragedy. her old friend Hugh. of the quick and wiry. Though much in request before her marriage. They rushed into shops. At country houses she had met them of course. Tony was a child. an open-air person. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. quite unexpectedly. of all people. she said. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. They hated trying on. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. She felt as when. Essentially. Vulgar men did.

era un bun sfatuitor. aveam tot mai 266 . to keep abreast of the current. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Reading many novels. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. nu a facut-o pentru asta. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.Rindurile dvs. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. (John Galsworthy . cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. she professed. indeed. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. she was uneasy. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. cre s-au nascut lent. The closer she allowed him to come to her. nu puteam sa le uit. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. si in plus.Over the River) 2. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. viguros si vesel in felul lui. short of the contacts of love. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. ii faceau bine. but lying in her bath. the more she would be torturing him. Cind l-a chemat. astfel. De uitat. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. with all its impatience of restraint.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. Bolnava nu se simtea. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii.

Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Milionarule. nu pricep nimic. Personal. (St. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. vaazut cindva. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.) 5. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. ca si tine. o data sau de doua ori. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Banulescu – ibid. pe scaunul lui tare. se stie. Banulescu – ibid. fa-o. (St. (St. (St. poate fi compensata. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. mi-am zis.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii.) 7. cit mai au de trait. 4. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. latimea si ascutisul labei. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 267 . Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Banulescu – ibid. Ce a iesit. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Banulescu – ibid. are nevoie. lungimea picioarelor. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Daca tu.) 6.

Ernest Richard Atkinson. Could he be blamed. (. Who. to Emmanuel College. Who was may father. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.. Translate them. when I was even younger than you. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. And had a brother killed in the same battle. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Arthur Atkinson M. Who came home from the war.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Who when asked about his memories of the War. my grandfather. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Who told me. Cambridge. a wounded soldier.. A story-book romance.P. delivered from the holocaust. 2. for being a renegade.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .

He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. deep-set. a moody man. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. Fabianism. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. How 269 . 4. to whom. and because – but this is mere speculation. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. Rachel Williams. he had already engaged himself? 3.

How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum au tăcut ei. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum a trăit el. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. cu taina aceasta. Ion. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. 270 . just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a ajuns el. Ion. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. satul. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. la şcoală. om mare.

singurul lui stăpân. 271 . cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . împotriva tuturor. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. Când actriţa. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. cu sau fără voie. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. din franţuzeşte. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare.pune totul in discuţie. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. greşeli dintr-astea. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. de mama lor. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. când voi fi singur. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”.

Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. dam buzna peste automobile. 3. 5. privindu-mă în ochi. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. e îndrăgostită de un actor. 6. parcă începusem s-o uit. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. de pildă. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. continuând. nevasta-mea. Tot aşa. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Am început. traversând. 272 . Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. pe jumătate prezent. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. 4. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. tânăr şi frumos şi el. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. provocându-le. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. A devenit palid. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Într-o vreme. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. ci un sistem de acomodare. uneori şi astăzi chiar. fostă prietenă din copilărie. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. sau ridicole.

încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. 9. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 11. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. fără să mă opresc o clipă. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Am început. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. 8. De altminteri. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. E o problemă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. iar. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. Aş vrea să mă las jos. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. ca un acrobat. că nu m-am gândit la asta. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. şi să nu ameţesc. fireşte. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Dacă nemţii înaintau. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. şi dacă merg întins. orice s-ar întâmpla. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. să merg întins. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă.

Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. nu mai semana. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme.Ma. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . 16. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. de uimire. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. 14. 274 . spuse el cu un glas ciudat. se uita in jos. La un moment dat. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. parca i-ar fi fost frica.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta.. Ilie nu-l asculta. Uite. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. In curind. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. de la proces. trebuia sa le spuna. Acum isi ferea privirea. nu trebuie sa va suparati. de la obiecte de pret. eu am venit sa va intreb. Auzindu-l. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu.. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. nu mai pricepu nimic. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. de la lucruri personale. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. la amintiri. 15. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Ii venea greu. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. dar nu se mai putea. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. la carti. Greu era din partea asta. Adica tot trecutul. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. cu mirare. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. 13. 17. la fata locului. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani.

dar. se indeparta nepasator. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. . i se paru ca aici e ceva. cum zicea Anghel. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Nu era nevoie.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. apoi se uitau la Ilie. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija.Ce sa fac. vorbe asa si-asa. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Zimbea siret. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. which was part of his rich outfit. asa cum facuse pina acum. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. There was even 275 . bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. 20. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Aici era ceva. 19.

at least. gave an exclamation. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. a simplification. He walked a long time. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. for the instant. 5. to admit that she was a proud. rude woman. to take his way home on foot. resuming her walk. going astray. on this occasion. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence.Miller at her hotel. 4. asked for Mrs. paying no attention.Nadina VIŞAN relief. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. to move fast. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He felt then. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. conversationally. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. the young lady. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. She was one 276 . quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. But Daisy. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. 3.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room.

Walker. 7.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. She rustled forward. make a point. while residing abroad. making Paul stop and look at her. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. 6. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. 8. as text book. on the other hand. in radiant loveliness. smiling and chattering. as it were. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. of studying European society. in their own phrase. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. uncomfortably. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. indeed. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. Advising with me. as to projected changes. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. He left me musing. and wondering what the deuce he meant. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. often. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. Her daughter. She appeared. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .

was only half satisfied with this. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. 9.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. was immensely struck with him. H. with his humorous density. not seeing. could see he was remarkable. and acute too. 11. and perceived that it must be something important. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. H. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. while Paul. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. The agent became a very familiar type to H.’ 278 . 10. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. and. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. wondered what they were talking about. which was deliberate. though E. or at any rate not heeding. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. H.

why his question had broken out at that particular moment. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. had the power to chain his sympathy. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. 14. that the haunting wonder which now. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. 13. not glancing at him for a moment. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. appeared to fill his whole childhood. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 15.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. which was very copious. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. H. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. as he looked back. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . But she gave him no chance. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine.

from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. where the Pearl of Paraguay. dragging herself on her knees. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. yet 280 . who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. At the theatre. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. ironically reserved. 17. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. The whole establishment. as a general thing. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. H. and there were others. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. that she must be on the contrary. proudly. and to H. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. disheveled and distracted. It was very possible she was capricious. 18. 16. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him.

He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. and lurking within this nebulous design. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. with the poor. 281 . didn’t mind. young men were invited. It came over H. 2. No one ever listens to her. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. Their mistakes and illusions. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. 3. *Old. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. had blown a certain chill. 20. would always be more or less irritating. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 19. on which the damp breath of the streets. H.

/ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. her arms held out. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I walked fast. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 10.Nadina VIŞAN 4. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. 5. 11. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 7. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 9. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Rachel. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. I saw her as a vision. c) When I saw her sitting there. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I was definitely going to be sick. 8. 12. I blundered by. 282 . “Oh. 6. Either John or he * have got to give in. striding like a Spartan maid. her shining blue feet twinkling. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. walking quickly. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. slipped on some steps. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs.

The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9.

who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 2. which was really alarming. could cook my meals. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 5. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. if they were poor. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. but that we saw and pitied. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. And then I ventured to add that. 3. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. The old women spoke no English. 4. where my servant. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt.

at noon. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs.g. this would really hurt. Constituents: He. Constituents: Margaret. etc. distress. this. How much. he. had not been able to estimate. his. on a house. to pay their annual visit. etc. Constituents: how much. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. apart from his distress for parents. would really hurt. to settle. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e.g. on Saturday. apart form his distress for parents.apart from his distress = apart from. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. Munt. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc. was informed.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. was anxious = was + anxious. 285 . before they left town. was anxious.

Second clause is an imperative. – non-assertive. don’t bother her./ She finally admitted. negative. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 .syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. which is not assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. and is non-assertive.. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – non-assertive. interrogative. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – comparison./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. listen to this. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. negative/ If you like jazz. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that. which context is non-assertive. / If you like her.. negative/ Come with me.. interrogative. second clause is non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – first clause is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. it is assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. interrogative.

/ I don’t like her very much. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. not even this thing./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ Hardly interested in the conference.but to someone else. / You have never met 287 . – they told the truth to somebody else. / She does like John. – I like somebody else. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. not even when it’s quiet around. / They didn’t leave./ When he learned the news./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. but not more than she does others. the two brothers dared to protest. but it isn’t Susan./ Susan did not get married to Jim . Mr Jones stood up and left the hall.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ Not long ago./ He was smart enough. everybody used to travel by coach. only irresolute. – someone hates animals. / She does not hate animals. but nothing out of the ordinary. but it wasn’t them./ He was exceptionally cunning. he was hardly pleased. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. – someone did that. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ They weren’t really confused. –double negation cancellation. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was.

– I cannot look him in the eye.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. were they? / This boy is no good.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. not even when you were very young. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. I could hardly wait to hear the news. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.... / This is hardly the 288 .. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. not even in my dreams.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. they go skiing in the mountains.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers... did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – negative insertion. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.Nadina VIŞAN her. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.

but she also lent him a car. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. when we started our holiday. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.. Activity 8 I shall never. / I hardly ever look at those paintings./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Not many people came to see her. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / Few people came to see her. – Almost nobody liked him./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – I never see her. – I almost never look at those paintings. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / I seldom look at her like that. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.Never shall I trust a man again. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / Hardly anybody liked him..

/ We will see them again somewhere sometime. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – Nowhere could the keys be found. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Only on this man could she rely. / They believe she does not like them. – It isn’t likely that he will help her./ I expect he won’t come here again. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – They don’t believe she likes them. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance./ Well. – 290 . – Come on. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / She could rely on nobody but him.I don’t like his proposal at all. / Come on. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / They say he once had someone very close. you can still do something about it. – They say he never had anyone very close. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / Don’t worry. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. you can’t do anything about it any more. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him../ I somewhat like his proposal. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – I don’t expect he will come here again. –At no time did we leave the office.

/ I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. either. / You must pay that fine./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. / She hardly ever comes here. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t../ Bob is still living at that address. / Well./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You must be telling lies. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / You needn’t send her anything./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – You can’t be telling lies. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ Peter knows some English and so does John. –Alice still lives here./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. 291 . – You should send her something. – She almost always comes here. too.

/ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ Norocul la noroc trage. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Don’t go on believing him./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Zis si facut./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ You look so tired today. / Please. I haven’t seen her in years. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. Oh. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. not yet./ He’s a happy man. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. It’s no wonder. e un magar./ 292 . He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. ever since I got this ulcer./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Have they rung the bell? No. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ I don’t know why she’s crying. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ They say this Ph./ Am avut un car de necazuri. has never studied anywhere.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. give me a hand./ Nobody told us a thing. / Jim is so brave./ Nimic de facut./ He was a tough man. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. He isn’t that smart. I haven’t done anything. to any of us./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ E un baiat de zahar.D. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ I don’t know a thing about her. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. / He can’t have done a thing like that. He didn’t move a muscle./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici.

negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.’/ Deloc descurajat. I hadn’t really expected miracles. without too much determination. nothing. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. feebly. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . 293 . thrown out./ Nu-i nici un deranj. that I was a decent man. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. no memory./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. no story./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . We had nothing in common. parasi camera. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. slowly. I had never had the opportunity to prove.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. with the same needs they had. for I thought this threatening.’ ‘Nici o problema. one way or another.

but facts. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. clear or confusing. he immediately answered me patronizingly. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. • It was my turn to say something. Unfortunately. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. I was sleepy and tired. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. let alone irritable. Your judgement is false. on the front seat. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. It’s not made up of theories and the like. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. to say the least. bad.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. Radu had calmed down. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. by coming here to the monastery. I admit. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. or if you understood what I meant. it’s not words. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. that’s what the world is about. things you do any moment. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. he was sitting beside me. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. I’d be so happy if it were so. your story. You really made me mad. the only 294 .. Not for a moment had I thought that. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. We have to judge it as it is. good.

we are leaving. just to please myself. precious words. clears your way. soon we’ll be in town. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. behind these big. it solves troubles. or you are lying hidden. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. me. you can go to Ursu’s. although it was a difficult thing to do. you do as you think fit. it’s yours. as Baciu would have us be. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. But I was just wondering. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. did you ever step up front. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. 295 . Anyway. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. either. it’s your problem. and if you like. or call the respect of others. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. no matter how huge they are. me. and an inability to act. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. Look. too? A gun is power. keep it squeaky clean.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. • So. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. to fight. keep your conscience clean: you have one. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. I won’t interfere. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. But what about you and Melania. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. fear might be hiding.

because before is a positive polarity item 2.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. . She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. – incorrect.incorrect.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. but they gradually got used to it. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.correct 3. . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. or some other woman. But it was not because I had no answer to give. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. has yet arrived -correct 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. will he?. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. as soon as he delivered it. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. -correct 3. correlatives are mixed 2.Negative attraction b) 1. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1... the sentence is incorrect 3.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. has not arrived yet – double negation. firmly determined not to answer immediately. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. The villagers were not very religious.Negative incorporation 296 . he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .

either (NPI). ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. not happy at all (NPI). her lack of motion would have to do (API). His spirit was too tired. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it.) Însă era cam târziu. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. nu era 297 . Ştia că are dreptate. yet. (ibid. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. b) But it was rather (API) late. (ibid. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. prea răscolit. much less ((NPI) for her. too troubled. Nu putea să se mişte. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. she couldn’t marry him. Her stillness. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. No one should know to what torture she was subjected.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Avea sufletul prea obosit.

his heart was beating fast. (ibid. if anything (NPI).Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. he made his way to the screen. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. se îndreptă spre paravan. (Salman Rushdie. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. şi destul de hotărât. (ibid. arăta mai tânără ca oricând.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. 298 . Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. The Satanic Verses. e) At length. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. she looked younger than ever (NPI). Ba dimpotrivă. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. inima îi batea năvalnic. (ibid. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). and not a little unsteadily.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că.

) C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. (ibid. The point was. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). care if the school were willing to treat him. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Ce-i pasă lui C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. and probably an administrative headache as well. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). 299 . Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. but his father would have none of it (NPI). Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. the gift was useless. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. h) C. i) What did C. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Home receded from the prodigal son.

correct.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.indirect question. 300 . .QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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Fenia.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. now she was chatty. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. keep Condrat away from her. she likes to entrance them. Stavre Paici. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. they were. you are in enough trouble as it is. the bitch. Vica. “Now. Luca Horobet. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. all godfearing husbands and fathers. Chizlinski. and then what do you 308 . During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. 2. she didn’t wear a ring. She has an eye for gentle men. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. yes. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. do you really think that this vixen. to make them lust after her. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. Fenia. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no.

and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. G. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. 4. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. with a railway station and a mosque. ankle-long flowered calico. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. The mullah. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. It even takes him a while to go to the window. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. 3. her hair pinned with blue combs. what’s her name. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . He got him out of his mosque. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. a seventy-eight year old lad. have a girlfriend. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. dragging his feet listlessly. the minister of Tartars and Turks.

But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .

. Our flag is red. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.. Her pet kitten is black and white. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. yellow and blue. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.) 9.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – sentence coordination 7. John is ready and Mary is ready. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. John and Mary are the newly married couple.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. and I passed. – similar situation 10. John and Mary are ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – sentence coordination 2. our respective examinations.

We can and will demand payment. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 3. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. but John does not play football.) Joan plays many games. many guest or few. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. her idea and John’s. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 9.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 7. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 6. Activity 5 This book and the other. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 2. 8. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). your work and mine. 5. your proposal and his. that method and those. but not John. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. her son and others. and even tennis. much satisfaction or little 312 . 10. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. plays football. Activity 4 1.

Thick and thin 11.) 6. Swings and roundabouts 7. but not simple. Ups and downs 6. Few and far between 14. Bread and butter 16. etc. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Activity 8 1.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. 7. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Over and above 13. I have always fought and will fight for progress. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Life and soul 5. 4. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Pros and cons 4. (I have always fought for progress and always will. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Law and order 8. He snapped at him and slapped him. He read. High and low 2. Touch and go 10. Wear and tear 12. magazines are only for children. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 3. To and fro 15. 8. Safe and sound 313 . It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Spick and span 9. 5. The facts and figures 3. I like the sentences below or those on the next page.

10. 5. – symmetric. Symmetric 13. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 9. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 9. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Either the child or the parents are to blame. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. Asymmetric 19. 7. exclusive 17. – symmetric 2. 3. 6. 3. Symmetric 21. 314 .symmetric 11. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – symmetric. b. exclusive 15. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. 5. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 8. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street.There is a table and some chairs in the room. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Asymmetric 20. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 1. inclusive 16. 10.. 6. My son and daughter are twins. – symmetric. 2. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 7. Cathy and David have arrived. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 2. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 4. – symmetric 10. My son and heir is safe. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 8. – similar situation 9.

I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. He’s neither fish. nor fowl. By hook or by crook. 3. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. clothes and all. ‘Madam.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 5. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. Not only should you rest 315 . I’ll still finish this paper. 6. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 12. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. Brother or no brother. 2. 2. 15. 9. 10. (2) 1. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 8. There are doctors and doctors. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 3. 4. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Her husband is long dead and buried. 7. We’ll stick together. Should he pour water in the basin. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. Jim thought it over for a while. thanks for asking. for better or worse. They came to me. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 14. No drinking and driving. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. He went to bed. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 11. it was too small.

she knows for sure. what’s its name. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. 2. and she listens to him. an important man. What do you know? The moment Mrs. Whatever she tried her hand at. it would work out fine. but she blinks in approval. So she’ll listen to him. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. their common ground. tense with concentration. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Her first husband had been a professor. From time to time she will launch a helping question. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Mrs. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. so he’d gone down and died in no time. without mentioning financial matters. he’d leap high. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. stop dead in his tracks. both dead and buried.Nadina VIŞAN assured. but he’d come out a cripple. 316 . at equal intervals. just like when he was thirty. You know. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. she started doing a great job. And. he starts lecturing her about life and things. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. They hadn’t kept him there too long. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. and then.’ (3) 1. This. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. so he could leap in pursuit. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. as she always does. tense like a bow. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground.

when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . cannot tell. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . told. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as an object (direct). what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. you. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . is aware. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. she looked at me sadly. functioning as an adjunct 2.subordinate.subordinate. – she.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . looked.subordinate. – she. functioning as a modifier 3. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. came. at me Activity 2: 1. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . whomever wanted to listen.subordinate. – she. – obligatory elements: I.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. – Susan. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.

Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. at our age.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. since the main verb is think of something) 5.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. that we should. that you are choosing exile .Nadina VIŞAN 4.complement b) 1. remove our home yet again . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .

direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. outbuildings. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. a barn.complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. a house. direct object. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 .Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement.

When Anton put the sickle down. sickle in hand. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. (…) ‘Well. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. staring at each other. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. without straightening her back. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. direct object/ and done – wh complement.A few days before the war. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement.wh complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. (…) He dashed back. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. that kept her constantly tense and grim. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. Activity 5 1. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . direct object/ to sit there – complement. But other people. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. subject/ to do such again – complement.

As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. First. but he doesn’t spurn either. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. but also his sharp nose. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. For no bold man really falters. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Ana could not stand a trip now. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Only he had Ana to think of. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. that was for sure. 3. while on other occasions he would show caution. Not even at this point. 321 . for even swallowing your food is a big deal. as if they were at his beck and call. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. you need courage even for this small thing. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Why! He was not of two minds. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. while they spoke from miles away. or if he does. or other more hidden means. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. 2.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. rather than a real threat. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him.

it was the women. In fact. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. although he could have said so earlier. 322 . not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and when things didn’t go as planned. without really knowing why. under the silliest of pretexts. But it was not ok. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. are we getting off again? What is wrong. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. he had postponed writing back. and on Monday followed another feast). and twice we were requested to get out. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. And here’s how this first day looked. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. 4. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. by the cars of some of us. come on. in Odobesti. We were going to drive to a vineyard. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. Twice did we get in the car. So. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they would ruin the arrangement. to see some mutual friends. Costel didn’t want to give up this job.

5. 10.She came to London where I went too. He is the author who they gave a prize to. on which this occurred . This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.restrictive 7. 8. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 6. when we first met . This is my husband whom I love very much.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . John told his friend a story about the king. any of whom would answer to questions. 4. I bought Jim a book that he liked. These are people who we cannot tell much about.restrictive 4. most of whom were from England. why they all left . what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 6. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.restrictive 6. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. Activity 3 1. 3. Activity 2 1. 11. He told her the secret.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. where I spent my youth . which was a pity. The students. where I least expected 323 . Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 8. 4. The students like their teacher. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 7. 7. 3. all of whom would answer to his questions. 9.restrictive 2. which was silly of him. who was just passing by. 2. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.free 8. like their teacher. 10. You couldn’t join the party. 5. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.

who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. who cannot say a word. which . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. 5. what their parents made them. 6.subject 9. He who doesn’t work will never succeed.adjunct 10. Where . Who . When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. Where . 7.adjunct 3. where we talk money – predicative. What I’m saying – subject. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 5. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.restrictive 10. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. You.free Activity 4 1. Why . the prince chose Cinderella.adjunct 6. Which – subject 4. What Inman remembered – subject. however sad . when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. Activity 5 1.subject 8.free 9. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when . All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.When Ada remarked – adjunct. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. When . who think so highly of yourselves. 4. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. come up front. 3. where – predicative 7. 2. Of all the persons there. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Where he was from – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation. What – direct object 2.adjunct 11. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .Nadina VIŞAN . I.

adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . how . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which requires an accusative form. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what . whatever – predicative 13. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . which is ungrammatical due to the[. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. what little she knew – direct object. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.attribute 12.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.

who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. a rather tiny looking man. got married and had a daughter. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. having changed quite a number of jobs. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who. due to its invariable character. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. in his turn. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . a sergeant. but whose second cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose great-grandfather. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot.

His father’s friends. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. This story. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no pied piping 327 .no 5. – yes. Irene. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. no easy answers to which could be offered. he rarely saw now. . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. – yes 6. In the interest of public decency. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. . She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. was now complete. . The problem of safe transportation. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – no 9. has been troubling them forever. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . were now all gone.yes 10.obligatory 4.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. .yes 7. – obligatory pied piping 2. – yes 2. he requested that the public be excluded. – no 4. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.obligatory 3. with deletion of the noun friends].yes Activity 9 1. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes 3. His friends. – no pied piping 5.

But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. I am to be envied. where two teams battled every day… 5. yours. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 8. 4. I did so.and he couldn’t thank me enough. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. Only an ugly endless dream remained. the third born son. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. For all the four children. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 7. Everything was ending. Nelu. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. or as of a vast arena. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 328 . or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. In other people’s opinion. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 2. irrespective of age and nature. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . For twenty years. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. for instance. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 3.

amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. where from Marta was coming too. barely glittering in the distance. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. since I don’t really know which my true life is. the tram was rattling along. 13. 10. All that you have read is rubbish. which was why he saw Dora very far away. What you’re saying sounds very nice. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. Behind them.R. 12. 14. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. 11. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. He was suffering from dizziness. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. from MR street. leaving streets and houses behind. 15. 16. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. she said. 329 . Let me tell you my last conclusion. 17. staring aimlessly. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. You are newly arrived here. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. on Icoanei street. although she was standing quite close to him.

So. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 330 . which I did not posses. But for me. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 23. had a huge house in Bucharest. While we were poor. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. likes and dislikes. She was a woman of means. 22. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. after the car was fixed. But. who prompted everyone on the street. I don’t know what might have happened. 20. day by day. 24. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I could see my woman falling away from me. had a personal style in clothes. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. If he had hit me. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. 21. so optimistic and composed? 19. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. From the vantage point I was in. who only lived once in this world.Nadina VIŞAN 18. in her pursuits. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. While some trees are still green. or the clash of stars above. or the many Egyptian dynasties.

It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 8. – extraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. object 5. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – impossible 7. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. prepositional object 11. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. subject 8. 2. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. direct object 10. – extraposed. subject 4. – extraposed. 331 . 3. subject 2. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – questionable. It will be soon announced when you can leave. subject 9. 6. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. subject 7.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – unextraposed. direct object 3. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – the same as 3. object 6. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.

– correct 2.incorrect. – impossible. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. . It is nice to meet you.. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. although a bit intricate 2.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 10. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. same as 12. Activity 3: 1. tense influences the 332 . I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.grammatical. but pragmatically impossible 3. 17. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. idiomatic formula 16.grammatical. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – incorrect. 9. – impossible.correct 4. . You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 18. – the same as 12. They never expected it that he would come back. – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. but pragmatically impossible 4. I guess it that he will come back. – grammatical. 14. a bit too intricate 5. – grammatical. It is no use trying to convince her. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – grammatical. same as 12. – same as 12. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. I don’t expect it that he will come back. same as 12. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 15. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – impossible 11. . It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13.

incorrect. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). behind gates. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. in the pits on the road. 3. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. under bridges. 333 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. – correct 6.’ 4. (Not always. in the ditch. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. though. thus.’ Lionel says. 5. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. 2. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I hurriedly hid wherever I could.

Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. – the first sentence is the better of the two. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence is questionable. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. By saying this. 7. Activity 7 1. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. 4. because it is less ambiguous. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. It is less ambiguous than the first. since the 334 . He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. prime-minister. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. 8.Nadina VIŞAN 6. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. who had just returned from Africa. 3. 2. without trying to protest too much. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel.

– both sentences are grammatical. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. The second and third sentences are grammatical.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 6. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 5. so there is no need for extraposition. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 335 . 7. 8. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. extraposition is obligatory here. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.

The idea that he had had earned him good money. – direct object. coordinated. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. .) complement that clauses. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.) adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. – adverbial of sequence/result.relative Activity 9 1. for better or worse. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. (Iris Murdoch. – relative 5. – relative 3. (Iris Murdoch.We discovered that our map has disappeared. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.prepositional object. required by deverbal noun 336 . correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. .adverbial of sequence/result. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. they were chained to each other forever. – complement 2. ibid. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – prepositional object. – subject. – complement that clause. – complement 5. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. . ibid. . required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.complement 4.

that they were not too late to leave.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. you want me to believe. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. that deletion is obligatory. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory. h) John thought that Harry had run.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case.

a. – both sentences are grammatical. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 .Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. sequence of tenses is observed 4. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. c. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b. – grammatical sentences. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 6.

present perfect instead of past perfect. geese both grey and white. quail. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. prepeliţe. cenuşii şi albe.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. – generalization on habits of birds. hawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. lark. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. ciocârlii şi şoimi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. present instead of simple past.

Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. The generic present is used in this case. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. She admired their keenness of wit. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). lack of pridefulness. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Crows will relish what presents itself. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. love of practical jokes. slyness in a fight. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . as evidenced by its drear plumage. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. lipsa de vanitate. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie.

the young officer. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. tânărul ofiţer. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. He had fought hard through the war. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. But as the battle raged around them. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. Murise în picioare. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. in the very act of expiring. se ridicase în picioare. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. he claimed. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. tragică şi eroică. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. He died erect. El căzuse pe spate. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice.

Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. 342 . which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. they gathered around my desk. Activity 13 1. How can I explain? I just felt shy. I realized I could not tell him the big news. the oldest. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. to finish my drawing. When he saw me. he closed the album. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. Now here he stood jailed. A short while later. around seventeen or eighteen years old.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Acum stătea aici. They all had their hands in their pockets. war hero though he was. mother went home and I was left alone. deşi era erou de război. în închisoare. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. 2. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. – similar situation to the one under (c). Luptase din răsputeri în război. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. susţinea el. But when he reached me. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. And they might just hang him. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). One of them. When the boys saw that mother had left.

he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark.’ Mr. or fear his rage.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. as if he had been drunk. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him.’ 5. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. for her vineyard. or if she would do so again. 6. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. All his senses were now keen. 4. brightly and closely. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .

that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 9. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat.Nadina VIŞAN to him. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. claiming you had no ambition for the future. The last time when we met here you scared me. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . 11. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 7. 8. thinking of him. 10. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. And if things were so.

14. where he would run to confess everything. towards Jurubita. 13. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. 12. without putting anything in a note. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. which secretly drove him. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. namely the impatience of this young man.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. more urgently than ever. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. We either sell them or we don’t. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced.

/ He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. grammatical 3. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / He had Mary clean her room.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. – infinitive continuous. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 5. 346 . She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. grammatical 10. grammatical 7. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. grammatical 2. . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. – perfect infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . 9. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. grammatical. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 6.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school..simple infinitive. / they saw her leave. – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. . / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.

/ It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ I would love [ them to come. \ She wanted [him to leave. Test: *I would love them. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. Test: *She wanted him.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. Test: *They would have hated her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / I want to never see you again. / It is not too late for him to learn. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. – Test: They tempted him. \ They really asked her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. – Test: They asked her. – Test: They convinced her. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them. – Test: She promised him. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people. you need to try harder. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ I allowed [them to come. \ They would have hated [her to come back.

Nadina VIŞAN for years. / To make a long story short. . / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. not to miss the train. / He is young enough to start again.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.obligatory subject control verb 348 . . – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. . – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He is easy to live with. Activity 6 Oh. I don’t need you or your services. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / Oh.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He is hard to stand. . / I want you to leave my house. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / He is easy to talk to. / I want to tell you what I think of you.

who wasn’t used to men with moods. Harold. 349 . 1] A little crossly. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. He suspected hostility at once. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. they had depressed and fuddled him. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. 1 – PRO. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Predicative 4 . he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. If he himself was out of spirits. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. the herd instinct was very strong in him. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4].to. so that we might get to the future and have done.Accusative + Infinitive. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Subject. he didn’t envy those above it. Subject. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.

f) The passing time is important. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. One day. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. And you might also be hit and humiliated. cautiously. c) Unlike plane trips. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. object 2 – PRO –to. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. PRO controlled by ‘she’. excitedly. PRO controlled by ‘him’. e) When two persons. direct object 3 – PRO –to. more believable than evidence itself.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. But when we need to comfort others. or better said. man and woman. more meaningful. 350 . we seem to forget about our own pain. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. true. PRO controlled by ‘she’. 1 – PRO-to. slowly. PRO controlled by ‘me’. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make.

351 . since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. That is it. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. He had not been able to leave Dr. in the street. even when this love is hurried. k) With this considerable dowry. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. which he had already forgotten.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. And to actually start to believe you are so. that you are young. or. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. not to want to wipe it off. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. tickled by the trickles of sweat. as he had appeared to him in the rain. not even those parts where he had been half-right. all down our neck. I am indeed praising my own merits. h) I want us to go. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. And I would care for this man so deeply. or their talk that night. Mrs. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. while swearing to change my way of life. to live only with your coughing. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. my wish being only to please and serve. Moroi says heavily. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. for instance. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. If it was summer. S. Stroescu.

for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. ready to submit to any demand. met by squalor and terrible smells.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. poor Muti. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. 352 . I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. for that’s the door people get off by. or to speak so fast. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. she was suddenly so shocked. If you will have what I can give you. haphazardly. Well. every Bucharester knows it. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). no matter what. here I am with all of my own.

/ Don’t keep him waiting. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. 353 . badly beaten and bloodied./ She sent him shopping. – Attributive past participle.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). with its lips drawn back. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. / They found it thrown in a corner.. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ He went to have a tooth pulled. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.

– Accusative + past participle / My Lord.Running into the room. 3. Turning on the light. having heard it all before. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 4. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. The tree had fallen across the road. Finding the treasure. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Activity 4 1. Having looked through the fashion magazine. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 2. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I was astonished at what I saw. 7. I slammed the door of my room. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. 9. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. Attributive present participle./ Running into the room. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 5. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 10. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Accusative + present participle / In any case. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 6. 8. Sleeping in the next room. – Attributive present participle. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having fed the dog.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. – As she was running into the room. he sat down to his own dinner.She didn’t want to hear the story again. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. having been uprooted by the gale.

9. his horse fell at the last jump. the sea was tossing the post up and down. an idea suddenly occurred to me. a pot of paint fell on my head. 7. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. fishy-eyed. – As he was getting out of bed. – As he was tied to the post. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. a scorpion bit him. an idea suddenly occurred to me. three-coloured. Climbing down the tree. I let the dog out of the room.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Activity 5 Fair-haired. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. many-coloured. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 2. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – When I read in bed. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. I let it out of the room. wooden-headed. Getting out of bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Dropped by parachute. – As he was climbing down the tree. Riding in the first race. / Getting out of bed. open-minded. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 8. lion-hearted. I often get very cold hands. / Climbing down the tree. – As he left the cinema. narrow-minded. 5. Leaving the cinema. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Passing under a ladder. 4. my hands often get very cold. – As the dog was barking furiously. a pot of paint fell on my head. bald-headed. 10. his horse fell at the last jump. 12. 6. he was bit by a scorpion. cloth-covered. stony-hearted. 355 . empty-headed. 3. Tied to the post. one of the eggs broke. 11. Reading in bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. my hands often get very cold. one of the eggs broke. sharp-eyed/minded. the sea was tossing it up and down./ Reading in bed. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – As he was riding in the first race. a scorpion bit him. – As I was passing under a ladder. red-handed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. broad-shouldered. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Barking furiously. he broke one of the eggs.

are sold throughout the world. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. found hiding in a barn. / Three people. dark-skinned. / Swiss watches. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. hunted for their valuable oil and meat.I fell on the ice. (hunt). graven image. hidden meaning. shrunken stream. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. drunken man. roast meat. / Many old people. lighted candle. Activity 7 1. mown grass. 7. bounden duty. rotten plank. (admire) 5. Whales. are in grave danger of extinction.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. (find) 6. Activity 8 1. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. straight-shouldered. The film. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. injured when their car crashed on the M1. were taken to hospital. is expected to be a great hit. ill-gotten wealth. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. sunken eyes. admired for their elegance and precision. was today taken back to prison. stricken deer. (injure). the shoulders barely hidden by lace. hunting for a bargain. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. open-hearted. The escaped prisoner.Spielberg. (take) 2. 356 . eagle-eyed. I stared at the canvas for ages. produced by S. shorn lamb. (grow) 4. injuring my arm. (produce) 3. shaven head.

barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. 4. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. 2. the carved chicken. in charge of his house and lands. yet left them room to sway free. And his soul. and moreover. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. 357 . bake them. hovering uncertain and soft.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. its scales scraped off by the knife. He felt close to his father. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. he started peering anxiously around as if. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the fish. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. thrown in the pots. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. he were struggling for breath. 3. flat and soft. So. boil them. and the puffed pastry beds. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. suddenly suffocated. now taken down. then put up. sprinkled with sticky flour. seeking some promised land. After a while. A parasol. the twice rinsed vegetables. streaked with yellow veins of fat.

/ I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action.gerund 5. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. he left the store without buying a thing. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. – Accusative + participle 3. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. – gerund (subject) 4. – participle (attribute) 2. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / I am sorry for being so late.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. ./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. Activity 10 1. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day.

– gerund (prepositional object) 15. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. 8.possessive ING (direct object) 9. preceded by preposition). attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – gerund (half or full. He was spotted talking to her. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. . The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – gerund (attribute. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.participle vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12.

hold up his pen and speak. however appearances were against us. my Lord. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.’ 360 . Croom to try to follow one. take down her answer. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund (full. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.verbal noun (has determiner. adjective. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – verbal noun (has adjective). adjective.. Lady Corven. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has determiner.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. but they went by too quickly.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – gerund or verbal noun.. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.’ ‘Tell me.

d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. suddenly. I spend all my time hunting a job. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. it’s overrated. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment.’ said Clare. licked the envelope with passion. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. and went out to post it himself. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. Then. ‘I do hate asking for things. he addressed the note. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ 361 .’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ said Clare. my Lord. I must go back now. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. I just used the word and they fell.

The collapsing shops (participle. down into God knows where. gerund. (participle. direct object) from below. attribute.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. hoping (participle. attribute. He looked up towards the daylight. the very earth opening up (half gerund. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. adverbial of time. down. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. Has a complex subject) in the hole. direct object) towards him. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. …while their edges were crashing inwards). village which is burning). l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute. attribute). someone looking for survivors (participle. elliptical here. after verb of perception. It was like a mist. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. attribute). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. First the crack snaking (half gerund. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. slowly rising (participle. attribute. The sight of the two children. At first. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object). following the verb ‘remember’. the enormous split in the earth. The two sides were moving apart. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. slightly 362 . Then he saw movement at his feet.

direct object) that his two young people were listening too. i. my dear. etc. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun.e. one. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. has ‘of’ phrase). early. according to the books he read. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head.). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. moving up (participle. direct object). you. prepositional object. adverbial of manner) towards his chest.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . covering (participle. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. adverbial of reason). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund.

waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and everything got suddenly animated.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. we were all gathered in that room. Vaucher and I. attribute) stopped dead. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. preceded by preposition. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. So. Standing up. the two Mamonas. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. which beckoned to 364 . and not only in my imagination or theirs. Having a French governess (participle. And. attribute) a sudden whoop. brightening (participle. and then went riding (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. adverbial of manner). attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. attribute) to winter brilliance. reluctant or not. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. examining (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. She finished what jobs there were. for Dornford was busy on an important case. slanted on to her cheek. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. mother. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of reason). and sunlight. preceded by preposition. a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind.

Entering our house on a Thursday. So when Old Mamona came in. Vaucher might have known that too. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. about sparing no effort. for anyway. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. too. And then. and to Young Mamona. bending a little. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. he went to mother and. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. to Vaucher. her back towards us. to me. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . 2. Not so unimaginable though. He cast us a swift glance. closing my eyes. and smelling so hard of rain. he looked like someone who did. kissed her forehead. who knows. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. let alone greet us or say something. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . about concentrating all our resources.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. as mother had ordered him. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. And. and ended his life in the year 1821. 3. I knew who it would be. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. 4. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. in the year 1812. his disloyal apprentice. he found us sitting each in his place. killed by Young Mamona. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. each carrying a wooden box. without taking his sack off his shoulders. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. sitting in his puddle. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable.

staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. as an afterthought. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. already seen and heard. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. And all around them was the great field 366 . wood pile. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. everything seemed familiar. of taking notes and rewriting them. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. barrack. long board table. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. They got off the truck slowly. futile. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. each pausing before jumping down. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. stove. But. And suddenly. 5. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better.

The next thing was to go to the well. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. 367 .

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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. . A Modern English Grammar. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Kruisinga. Transactions of the Philological Society. 2000. 1931. A Grammar of Contemporary English. S. (advanced). Number 3. Groningen Lipka. 323-352 O’Connell.Katz. vol. 1973. Kamp. M. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. 1982. eds. E. vol. H. L.. E. Bauerle et al. 1983.. Jim. Miller. A Grammar of Late Modern English. A Handbook of Present-day English. Poetry and Drama. Kennedy. I. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. Klein. Quirk. X. From Discourse to Logic. TUB. An Introduction to Fiction.Kamp. Nelson.. 89:2 (2000). & Felicity O’Dell.J. Foresman and Company. An Outline of English Lexicology. and Svartvik. Schibsbye. Klima. Negation in English. Kluwer Academic Publishers. McCarthy.. Leech. London. 1987. Poutsma... CUP. Hans and Uwe Reyle. and J. CUP. 1991. Dordrecht. Part II. Sue. K. J. Parrott. English Syntax. volume 68. Scott. OUP. 1993. Groningen. J. Serban. 1926. in Fodor. Hans and Christian Rohrer. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Wolfgang. Literature. D. 1992. M. 2002. Tense in Texts. Greenbaum.. Seminar Press. G. R. Grammar for English Language Teachers. 1964. 1990. 1970. Language. 2000. Focus on Proficiency.

Mouton de Gruyter. A. Co. de Swart. A Handbook of English Grammar. Plenat (ed. 347-385. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. 1992. London. Lectures in English Morphology. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. Le passe simple. Smith. a. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. 2003.... Vet. 372 . Amsterdam. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. editia 1. Vet. 1978. 1990. 2001.. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Conference on British and American Studies. Editura Credis. Aspect Shift and Coercion.Schwegler. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation.. 1999. 1957 and 1962. Stefanescu. e. Visan. 2003. R. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Berlin. Modes of Discourse. Rodopi. N. 2003. In M. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16.) L’emprise du sens. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Zandvoort. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. Sentence Processes. Vişan. Co. New York. 1998. TUB.W.. I.. Henriette. N. Carlota.

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