SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. titularizare şi grad.
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.2. Constituent Phrase 18.104.22.168. Auxiliary verbs 1. Insertion 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.3. Complementary distribution
Syntactic. her mother.
1. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Pragmatic
Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Consequently.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. sequences of the kind her mother very. For instance. very much.Unit one
This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse
.2. loves. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as:
1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. They are just strings.1. Semantic. Constituent Phrase
Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. that is sequences fragmented at random.
1. be).) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).Nadina VIŞAN
In the following example. Auxiliary verbs
Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. etc.
1.e. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.3. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. an order given to an interlocutor).)
.4. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. (Mi-a spus secretul. must. Insertion
Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. we are dealing with a directive (i.
1. etc.Unit one
As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret.6. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. an ‘empty’ there subject. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.)
1. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. The Distribution of an Element
The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Complementary distribution
Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. live. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the
. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.5. for instance. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. Consider.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.
demonstrative pronoun this/that. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. pragmatic.
. complementary distribution. whereas (7) is not. distribution. as the star indicates. If the given context is the one under (6). auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much. using your own examples: insertion. Pratice Define and illustrate. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. semantic. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. syntactic. Munt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. this would really hurt. he had not yet been able to estimate. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see.
. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
Conclusion.8.7. Tests for negativity 2.2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Key terms 2.3. Instances of negation 2. Polarity Items 2. affirmative sentences. Key terms
. Negative vs.6.2. Full – local negation 2.4.5. Assertive – non-assertive
2. Assertive – non-assertive
We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.) is said to be an assertion. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.) b. For instance. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Consequently. This example can be compared to: (2)a. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.Positive vs.Declarative vs. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Negative . in the sense that it states something. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. The relationship can be represented as follows:
. it asserts something.2. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . in that they do not state anything.
/ If you like her.positive and declarative secret. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.
. Did they tell her the
secret? ) .) ./ She can’t wait to read that book.positive sentence .other (if –clauses. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.negative (e./ We didn’t come here just to talk.assertion . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. subjunctive)
Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / She finally admitted.g. Didn’t they tell her the secret?)
.non-assertion . don’t bother her.interrogative
(e. They told her the ( e.Nadina VIŞAN
. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.) . comparison. listen to this.g.g. / Come with me./ Don’t do that. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.
A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. John is unhappy. For example. Susan dislikes her friends.Unit two
2. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. John is not happy. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. In the case of the sentences under (4). (Nu demult. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. I met a girl named Susan. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) b. (John e nefericit. Full – local negation
The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. word negation. Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the negative word not is not present there. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure.)
just like in the case of word negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) b. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. In other words. He was not without intelligence. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a.Nadina VIŞAN
In this case.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. these sentences look negative. but their meaning tells us a different story. In other words. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. where the word
. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. since the negative word not is present inside them.) c. I was not a little worried.
/ Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. without intelligence./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.Unit two
negation (unattractive./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Translate the following sentences into English. / Îl
between full and local (that is word or
. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Când a aflat vestea.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. semantic negation./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura.
ci doar indecişi. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. Negative vs. / Era el destul de isteţ.
2. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. Tests for negativity
In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one:
. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept.4. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu în mod special.Nadina VIŞAN
preferă pe John. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. dar nu neobişnuit. affirmative sentences.
For instance. such as do insertion. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.Unit two
As we were saying. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.1. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t
.) (9) I didn’t go there. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (M-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.). (see subsection 1. etc. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (Nu m-am dus acolo.
Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. doesn’t she?
Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends.
. / Susan did not get married to Jim. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / I don’t like her very much. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. incorrect./ They didn’t leave. / We don’t come here often.
nici măcar de cei deştepţi.
Example (14) is syntactically negative. and they don’t like her either.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.
2. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be
followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which is ungrammatical. not even the smart ones. *and neither do they like her.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. which does not happen in the case of (18). Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20)
Susan doesn’t like her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. *not even the smart ones. even the smart ones. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.
Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. * and they don’t like her either.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. 4. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 3. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).
The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary):
2. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / This boy is no good. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / They caused us no problems. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.5. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / A few of them stayed behind. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. In conclusion. / You have never met her. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Few of them stayed behind. they go skiing in the mountains.Nadina VIŞAN
Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / No problems were caused after all. Instances of Negation
We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. they need to refer to these tests of negativity.
(27) a . In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri)
. (N-a venit John). (26) I saw nobody. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English.
b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru)
The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). I went nowhere. Susan could not go to the theatre.Unit two
John has not come. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student.
b. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase
in the first position of the sentence. Not all that glitters is gold. / I didn’t ever go to his place. No day passed without me thinking of him. All that glitters is not gold. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) b. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t see anybody. I didn’t see any student.) (29) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. no incorporation takes place. I never went to his place. (N-am văzut nici un student.
.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) c. I didn’t go anywhere. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. b.
/ Not a word fell from her lips. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / Not many women are famous opera composers./ They never went there.Unit two
The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory.V. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.: (31) (32) (33)
I hardly met this man. / Not one of them came to meet her. / He should not be released. scarcely. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.
. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. and we don’t go to the theatre either. (Nu citesc romane. / I showed him nothing. / I saw nobody.) They barely read any novels. / None of them liked house music.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. barely. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly.) We seldom watch T./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. rarely.4. etc. nici măcar din alea scurte. not even short ones. / I didn’t see anybody./ They didn’t come to meet her. / No one ever listens to her. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. seldom.
/ Few people came to see her.Nadina VIŞAN
(Ne uităm rar la televizor.) b. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. which triggers inversion): (35) a. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.)
them. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / I seldom look at her like that.
. Never have I met a more horrible person.) c. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / Hardly anybody liked him.) d. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / I scarcely ever see her. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.
/ Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / She could rely on nobody but him. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.) They don’t think that he likes them./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.Unit two
Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. in the sense that the
. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.
be likely.6. appear. expect. etc. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. etc. For example. believe.Nadina VIŞAN
original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. probability. suppose.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. although not negative in meaning. / They believe she does not like them. look like. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. we can very well say something like: (38) a. / He reckoned he would not win her over. ought to. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. advise. Polarity Items
Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly.
intention. intend. imagine.
2. sound/feel like. / I suppose she doesn’t care. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. guess. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. / I expect he won’t come here again. etc. suggest. barely.)
. the negative meaning is less strong. seem. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. In sentence (37). be supposed to. choose. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. be probable. cannot appear in an affirmative context. should be desirable.: think.) b. want.
N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. b.
The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). That is
.*She lifted a finger to help me. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.
Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. are clearly not grammatical. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. and sentences such as: (39) a. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.2. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. *She likes our chairman at all.Unit two
In the above examples. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity.
Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) Any more vs. / Well. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / He arrived before 5. / I still love you) Either vs. a lot (I don’t like you much. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) At all vs. etc. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.Nadina VIŞAN
exactly why.). / Don’t worry. / Well. / I somewhat like his proposal. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I like you a lot. too (I don’t like it.) Yet vs. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I eat caviar most of the times. / She hardly ever comes here. / I can understand both of these
. / I like it . still (I don’t love you any more. too. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / They say he once had someone very close. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. you can still do something about it. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You needn’t send her anything. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Bob is still living at that address. / I have some money. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Come on.) Hardly ever vs. too. either. / I have already seen him.) Much vs. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. some (I haven’t any money.) Until vs. / I somehow like him.
te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. sleep a wink./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. have/be worth a red cent. last a minute. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. move a muscle. / Ajută-mă. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. bat an eye(lid). tell/ ask/speak to a soul. give a damn/darn. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. flinch. say / breathe/ understand a word. nici unuia dintre noi. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. hurt a fly. Translate into English. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). mulţumesc. see/ feel/ remember a thing. hear a peep. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. lay a finger on someone. de când cu
. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. Ion nu e prea deştept. know a single person. touch a drop./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / You must pay that fine. crack a smile. have a care/ friend in the world.Unit two
sentences. turn a hair. / You must be telling lies. leave a stone unturned. find a trace.
/ Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / I had no end of trouble. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. budge. / He is no end of a fellow. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. but you really should do something about it. etc) or Affirmative ones (would
. / No admittance.Nadina VIŞAN
ulcerul ăsta. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No hands wanted. / Hotărât lucru. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No entry. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Never is a long word. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / No sooner said than done. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Not that I care. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. he left the room. n-a sunat încă. Translate into Romanian. încercând să prindă criminalul. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. nu e vina mea. / No trouble at all. / No man is wise all the time. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. B: Aşi. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / He won’t make old bones. As you have noticed from the exercises above. he’s a pig. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Nothing succeeds like success. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă.
e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. / I hate making any commitments.
rather). b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative concord / Non-negative concord
This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). / He is reluctant to ever say anything. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences.7. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. say it.
In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. N-am văzut pe nimeni. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). Normally. c) He is anxious to say something./ I saw no one. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. as well:
. which is not the case of the sentence under (45).
I don’t like this poem. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.Nadina VIŞAN
I can’t get no satisfaction. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. B: Nu. Conclusion. Key terms. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones)
The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. nu poezia asta. from a syntactic point of view. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. (Nu.)
One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. however.
. B: Not this poem. I don’t. nu-mi place. nu îmi place poezia asta. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. The second negation is somehow independent.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e.
Questions 3. Indirect Questions
3. Direct vs.22.214.171.124. Minor Types of Questions
3.3. Key Terms.3 Alternative Questions
3.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions
126.96.36.199 Wh.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Optional Exercises
.1 Tag Questions 3.1.2 Echo Questions
1. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?)
.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. Direct / Indirect Questions
Like Romanian. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. for a subsequent section. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. focusing on direct questions mainly. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. If we try to analyze the examples above.Unit three
(2). (3) and (4). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. pe mama.g. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.
. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.Nadina VIŞAN
As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1).
Since the question is not direct any more. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.
. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. because. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Likewise. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. In the case of indirect questions.Unit three
Unlike direct questions. in this case. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.
/ I don’t know whom she fancies. / I don’t know who she is. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie)
. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. ce culoare are pielea. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. spune la un moment dat femeia.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. identify the incorrect sentences. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. sau mai bine zis. / He asked me who she is. c) Ştii ce. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / He asked me who she was. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to.
those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. In this case. as Quirk shows.Unit three
3.2. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Let us provide
. being typical of spoken language. the type of answer the respective question requires. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions
A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.
(you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1.Nadina VIŞAN
examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (how long / wait for me?) 10.1. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (which / you like best) ? 4. (who / talk to last night)? 5. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items:
. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.
are said to be positively – oriented. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. instead of Negative Polarity ones. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da). they did.Unit three
(17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. it has. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?)
? (a mean thing to do)
. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. (speak yet) B: ……. 7.. .. 6. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’ve been learning German for years.. ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. …………………. as in the example: 1. because you always copy everything I do! 5. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. 4.Nadina VIŞAN
(24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 2. A: You look down. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. 3. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: Your mother is shouting for you.. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. ……. …………………………….. I’ve still got plenty of time.
I didn’t get home until late last night...2 Wh – questions Wh. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. . 9. 8. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. You could have mentioned it earlier. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?)
. 10.2. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. how.Unit three
B: …………………. which When. what . ………………………………. 3. . A: It’s past your bedtime. . A: There was a terrible car crash. where.
/ David’s car was stolen. / My new car cost 10. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / There are six students in my class. of course./ She dropped her glasses. Nearly two hundred years.000dollars. / Shirley got married to Ben. trying to find places where I resided in life. why ever. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. (Poppy Z. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans./ I have French lessons twice a week. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this?
./ Sara owns two cars. / That’s my pen. / Kay’s gone out shopping. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. what ever.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom./ We’ve lived here for ten years. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. I cannot do that. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / She lives in the suburbs.
(Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.)
. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2.3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.
Let’s stay for another few days. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 10. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. can you be?
. wasn’t it there? 17. How far is it the cinema? 3. He used to work in a bank. Who did left the gate open? 18. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. didn’t use he? 4. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5.Nadina VIŞAN
Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. shall we stay? 7. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 8. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. There was a fax for you this morning. shall we stay? 14. You can’t be serious.
Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. How long have you be lived in London? 26. dacă prin absurd
. John goes jogging every morning. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. plin de germeni virulenţi. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. uneori disperat. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Who did told you about the problem? 31. să-mi înfrâng frica. deci. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. will you not? 27. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Pot reveni. Toate vechi. Ani întregi. doesn’t he go? 23. wasn’t it he? 22. neliniştea infantilă. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. ca şi cei ce au fost. despre o lume dură. That was Jeremy’s brother. will you not? 21. That’s your car. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut.Unit three
19. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. isn’t it this? 25. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. deci. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Whose it is this book? 32.
a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. îi ştiu gustul. “Spune! striga el. inactivii. neîntrerupt. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. iar proştii. mă întreb. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o
. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. picură apa roşietică. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. străină priceperii lor. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. negru. ghiceam doar unde se află. indiferent de risc. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. pe sub bolţile din care. lung. naiv. puturos. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Riscul? Ratarea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. de atunci. murdar. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Şi. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. laşii. dar şi drumul. umed. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C.Nadina VIŞAN
există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. B.
când nu-i pot face nici un bine. care i-a determinat alegerea. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. viaţa? Oare e drept. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa.3.3. Minor Types of Questions
There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. domnule profesor. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii)
3. 3. la urma urmei.1. will you?
(38) She went to Prague. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. orbitor.Unit three
viaţă. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. didn’t she?
. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Tag Questions Tag questions. exclus. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate. golul alb. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. da? (37) Let’s go there. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. nu-i aşa?)
(36) Open the door.
Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. In this way. au fost cheltuiţi. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. or falling. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states.Nadina VIŞAN
We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host sentence is negative. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hasn’t she? (Aha. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. aren’t they?
. au fost cheltuiţi. the tag is affirmative too. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. or “comment tags”. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. the tag is negative too). constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. The suggestion is that in this case. is it? (Deci. it’s all spent. sarcasm. (Din păcate.) A: Oh.e.
nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money.
. / Tell me. / He has to marry Susan. / I may not see you tomorrow. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / You ought not to smoke. / That’s your car over there. / She has a brother. / The boy often watched his sister. / You have been invited. / She left an hour ago. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Everyone felt happy about it. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He hates his wife. / She used to talk a lot. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / I think you like my music.Unit three
(Se mută. / They said he liked music. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Few people like her. / That was your father. / Each of us is staying. / I may see you tomorrow. / There is enough food for everyone. / I must go now. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I am older than you. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / You will pick me up at 7. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / I don’t think you like my music. / You will pick me up. after all. / Surely you have enough money. / Don’t leave without me. / I think you don’t like my music.…/ Let me know. / He simply hates empty words. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / The boy never watched his sister. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / A few people like her.
there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. So you enjoyed my talk. 5. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. / He never used to study so hard…./ I’m right about this…. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions:
. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. or what? 3. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party.Nadina VIŞAN
Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1.. He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one.
Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.1.questions which repeat part or all of the message.3. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Grants… 188.8.131.52. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) B: Chinese?
. Recapitulatory echo questions . as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.1. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.
If the wh. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. rather than the repetition.Nadina VIŞAN
(Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.phrase is fronted. The difference between recapitulatory
. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.2. (Închide lumina aia.3. disbelief.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. of something just said. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. consternation.
I’ve lost the letter. dear. (Vai. with recapitulatory echo questions./ We are looking for a purse. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. (i. intonation is rising. rather than did you say. am pierdut scrisoarea. / I think I’ve found a solution.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. whereas with explicatory echo questions. / We are looking for a pixie./ He is interested in blue movies. which letter do you
.e. / He is interested in music.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Uită-te la asta.Unit three
and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.
recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i
(They are moving.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?)
alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?)
constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions
indirect (I asked her when she would come. she knows about it. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. Take a look at WHAT? )
. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain
special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.4. Y j d WHAT? )
explicatory (Take a look at this book.Nadina VIŞAN
cumnată Fenia. cu o casă de copii. acuma sporovăiala. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. Fenio. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. pe Condrat de Vica. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. în general. lui Luca Horobeţ. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. ca să zic aşa. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. în satul nostru. stricata. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. după pofte. şi apoi Vica ce zice. să se încolăcească mai bine. lui Chizlinski. nu purta verighetă. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. oameni aşezaţi. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. aşa. Are gust de oameni blânzi.– Crezi tu. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu.Unit three
Pratice Translate the following: 1. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit
. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. lui Stavre Păici. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. şerpoaica.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. da. şi care s-a aciuat.
(Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. deci. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Hogea. abia târându-şi picioarele. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. până la călcâie. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. roşu şi galben. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. sus. L-a scos din geamie. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. De asta erai. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă.Nadina VIŞAN
Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. sau cum o chema. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. dar cum se face că a
. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii.
ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută)
. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English
.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.4.5.Coordination and Subordination 4.1.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.3.2.Contents:
. on the other hand.e.Unit four
4. present) in the sentence. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. cu repros. i. that elements are coordinated. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.1 Syndetic vs. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Asyndetic Coordination
Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. reproachfully. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.e. Example (2). where there is no indication other than a comma. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.
that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. Conversely.
. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. From the previously mentioned examples. vei muri. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. you will die.2 Coordination & Subordination
By definition. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.Nadina VIŞAN
4. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.) (4) If you hit my wife.) Such examples. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.
(John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. However. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. respectively subordinated constituents. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. from a logical & semantic point of view.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. the second. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. we need to specify that. but presupposed. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate
b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.
He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. adorned with cornices. Then he sat down. Though the castle had vanished. with enormous solidity. took off his shoes and emptied them. but the
. John Steinbeck. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the second. the houses were beautiful and ancient.Nadina VIŞAN
clauses from both passages. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. built. He moved and made a slopping noise. his shoes squished. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. His clothes hung to him. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. with formal walks under rows of trees. of cut gray stone. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. took off his coat and emptied them. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. In the first. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.
and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. left the house. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the
. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. and as the way is with Irish mountains. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. over some of the roughest ground in the country. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. the higher he went the wetter it grew.Unit four
streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours.
this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from
.3 Sentence vs. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. As one can easily notice. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.K. (G. Phrase Coordination
Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. we should be seriously annoyed. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN
prickly ground. were to take down the name of every man. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. as shown in (9). the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path
4. however distinguished. yesterday and the day before yesterday.
example (7). 7. and even tennis. 9. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.)
sentence that both
coordination are basic. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John and Mary are ready. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Our flag is red. / Peter. / Bob and George are admired by their students. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Her pet kitten is black and white.
coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated
. John and Mary are the newly married couple. but not John. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 6 John sang and Mary danced. 3. / Peter and John played football. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 5. 10. / Joan plays many games. John is ready and Mary is ready. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 4. 2. plays football. yellow and blue. our respective examinations. and I passed. 8.
(John scrie poezii si Bill proza. Activity 4 2. or deleted. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Jane
. 6. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. John writes poetry and Bill prose. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.Nadina VIŞAN
b. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. as can be seen in (10b). 3.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.) b. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. John loves and Bill hates cigars.) c. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.
b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 5.
that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. than a longer repetitive one.
. 7. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. i. Besides ellipsis. the predication buy a pair of shoes. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. So.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. can be reduced by substitution. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.) The common element. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 9. 10. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 8. these syntactical processes.e. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi.Unit four
forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. the so-called Principle of Economy.
interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Translate the following sentences. George and Jane are separated. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. one or (the) other method. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile
. some reason or another. In certain cases. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 4. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 2.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine
Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. A citit. George and Jane went back to their parents. 4. simple books and magazines for children 3. 3. the old men and women 2. using reduced structures: 1.
10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. They get on quite well together. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. even though they have their little …………. fish and chips. only for damage. for my wallet.Unit four
vagaboande de langa bloc.. they reached home………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………... A pendulum swings ……….. the amount I’ve already saved up. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros
.. like: salt and pepper. 13. 7. 12. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. I need another 100$ ………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. Marks and Spencers.I searched ………. 2.You gain some things and you lose others. After all their adventures. 5.. 8.… 14. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. 6. it’s a case of ………… 7. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. sweet and sour. 8. Can we discuss the …………. of your proposals later on? 3. 16. 5. 15. 11. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. . 6.
4. more often than not. In fact. etc.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. Coordinating Conjunctions
We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. the expressive function of coordination is. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN
and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear.4.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. b. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. of course. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. as in: (17) a. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. and
. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) There are. Nor sun.
some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. 20 (b)). He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. and cherished her. both … and .) b. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. etc). too): (20) a. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) c.
(I-am dat banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.g. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. o respectau si o indrageau. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.)
.) In certain cases.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. sometimes but. or . where the subordinator is repeated. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.Unit four
I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.
we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN
An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) b. if we were to rewrite the example . (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have:
.* I ironed and washed my pants. From this point of view. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I washed and ironed my pants. (Imi place si o admir. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (O admir si imi place. I admire and like her.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. and you’ll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. In this case.) b. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.
Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. and hit my wife. I like and admire her.
) (While Dr. (If you do that. Dr.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Brown experiments with humans. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he failed).Unit four
1.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Brown does it with humans)
.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
(Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.
. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses
1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.Contents:
5.4 Key Concepts
.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.
) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. as the name suggests it. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification
Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.
5.g. From the functional point of view. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. e. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
As previously shown. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .)
.which are based on coordination . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.
) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. for example). (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. an adverbial item. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.)
. For instance. by an adjective + preposition.Nadina VIŞAN
b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. We do not presuppose however something like. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. such as proud of. (I-a dat cartea. In a way. we associate it with these objects. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). in certain cases. for instance. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. sentences) required by the verb (or.
We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. The second example. which is the adverbial willingly. to her) and one extra-item. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.
. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. Thus. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. related to example (4). an additional one. to add something. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. I am afraid that he won’t come. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. In other words. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.e.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. A second observation.) b. i. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects.
before you decide on what label to stick on an object. am să mor. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. So.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.)
. such as want. like. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele. etc. (Înainte să plece din cameră. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.) (11) If you don’t marry me. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.Nadina VIŞAN
Last but not least. make. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. I’ll die.
Whoever did that was a genius.g. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. [.
e. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. this to whomever wants it.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. The book that because they home. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 3. They came to e. she looked at me sadly.g.g.She came to him of her own will. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 2.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
To sum up so far. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 6. After I told her the story. 5. 4.
believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go
He took an intelligent interest in her. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man)
5. at our age. 6. was a novelty to Mitzi. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian.Nadina VIŞAN
Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. FOR. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. WHETHER. which. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 2. 5. not object. You suggestion that we should. but he declined.)
. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 3. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. As you can see. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 4. etc. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. though it was largely politeness.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification
The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. stating their function: Activity 2 1.
) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (15) It is John who did it. Who did it was John.
. how. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. where. etc. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. who. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (16) a. (Am vrut să plec imediat. when. Where he went is London. why.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) b. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. (E de dorit să plece.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
(14) I knew that he liked me. which. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.
the categories are reduced to only three in this case. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below:
. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.Nadina VIŞAN
(c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In (18). But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. consider the following table. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. for instance. Compare. which sums up this classification. etc. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.) (18) She told me this before she left. if. Unlike complement clauses. however. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. done from a structural point of view. As you will see. before. In conclusion.1.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.
etc. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial
Introduced by that. back. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.g. I will go there because I feel like it. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. at your young age. after. Introduced
know e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. surely you cannot sincerely believe. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will come back such as because.: e.
whether he will come when I feel like it. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.
. for.g. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. you understand. Dear Ludwig. as.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.g.
2. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. Too. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.Nadina VIŞAN
never want to set foot in the US in your life again. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. she stopped to speak to Monroe. a tightening in her breathing. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An
. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Accidental Man) b)1. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. As she left the house. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Late that afternoon. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. But she thought that no one would call again.The day Monroe had died was in May. he said. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.
However.g.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses
Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g.
. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. As you have probably noticed already.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.g.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.
interesting. a correspondence can be traced. I told her everything after she arrived. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. că
e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. That he loved e.2.g.g.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
complements.1. i.complement. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. whenever you identify a wh. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.Nadina VIŞAN
you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).. Secondly. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. Thirdly. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.2.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. whereas wh complements are the
. (Cred că mă place. So. We will come back to that in the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.e. In the fourth place.
It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. outbuildings. a house. after. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but no idea what to do with them. for no matter how she tried. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. because. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
hardest to figure out. c) I am coming home one way or another. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. I first thought to tell in
. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. before. She mistrusted her handwriting. Pratice Consider the following text. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. their introductory elements (e. a barn. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye.g. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials.
e. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. these clauses can be complements. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). it would make you fear to do such again. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory
.4. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). and I have not the will or the energy. Key Concepts
We classify dependent (i. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN
this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain)
5. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. According to a structural criterion. because they modify. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany).
Alţii. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
preposition (e.e. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.g.
. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. O zbughi înapoi. be very careful to use this term correctly. (…) “Mă. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. think of. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. ce o fi având. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. după ce că are grâu puţin. Pratice Translate the following. etc. look at. interested in. însă. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. answering the question to whom? So. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. Nevasta secera în tăcere.
ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. de fapt. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. timp de un ceas. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Toată lumea înţelesese că. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. întâi. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. şi erau atâtea alte motive…
. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Nici acum. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin.Nadina VIŞAN
simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. cât de bolnavă era. izolate de sat.
deşi cam târziu. Era bine de ştiut. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. În realitate. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Iată. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. stricau totul. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. amânase scrisul. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei
. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. acum sunt desluşiţi. aşa de oţetit. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Pace nu era. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. de pildă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. la Odobeşti. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. la nişte prieteni comuni. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti.
nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. întâia noapte de război)
. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. frate. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN
îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar.
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES
Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.g. whose. subject relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. etc).
. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. of which.. etc.
6.3.6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives
6.4.1. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 184.108.40.206. The Co-reference Condition 6. Key Concepts
. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.
relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. The Co-reference Condition .) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives
By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.1. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.2.
6. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.
.a discussion of attributive relatives
As we shall see.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.Unit six
. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. John loves that woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.Nadina VIŞAN
These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. By combining these two clauses. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves.
I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.Unit six
But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The common element woman is present. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate.
. This way.
John told his friend a story about the king. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. This is my husband. 2. I lost the book’s cover. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. None of the students agreed with them. 3. WHICH 4. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. The students like their teacher.Nadina VIŞAN
The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. therefore in spoken English. 8. Any of the students would answer to questions. She came to London. I bought Jim a book. WHERE 3. 9. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I introduced him to Jim. I love my husband very much. WHO
. frequently used in written language. WHO 5. 7. 6. The students like their teacher. 10. He’s the author who received the prize. too. by leaving behind a trace. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. He told Jim everything about his plans. 4. I had a book. I went to London. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. They met those students. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. The king was just passing by. 5. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. He liked that book. Susan wants to meet Jane. These are people about whom we cannot tell much.
independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent.Unit six
6.e. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. TO 11. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. 2. i. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. WHICH 8. WHOM 10. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses
According to the criterion of form. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13)
Who breaks pays. WHOM
6. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. relative clauses are divided into 1. (Cine strică plateşte.
. WHOSE 7.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. most of them were from England.
) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. Unlike their sisters. is no longer overtly expressed.)
. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. it is covert. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (Cel care strică plăteşte. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. these relatives cannot function as attributes. unlike in the case of (14). in a manner of speaking. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) So.) • Predicative This was what she intended.e. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.Nadina VIŞAN
(Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.
The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They can be thus divided into: 1. (Du-te unde pofteşti.) (22) Mercury. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. they define it). (Mercur.Unit six
Adjunct Go wherever you want. who incidentally is the god of commerce. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. who is the god of commerce.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.
. care este zeul negoţului. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. is my favourite god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. este zeul meu favorit. They only provide supplementary information about it.) (Mercury. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.
Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 6. restrictive relative clauses. is a genius. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. She.
A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. They are what
.e. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. can only function as attributes (or modifiers).This is the village where I spent my youth. i. 10. Shakespeare. this type of relative clauses. 7. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. 8. who came to see me.Nadina VIŞAN
In conclusion. is a great playwright. 9. then it is an attribute. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. I have met him where I least expected. on whom nobody could depend. who is a genius. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. 5. On the day on which this occurred I was away. As we were saying. was the one we all welcomed and admired. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 2. Independent I don’t know what you want.
6.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.) 2. etc. however sad this may be. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. composed The (Freddie Mercury. When the antecedent has no determiner. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. care a murit acum câţiva ani. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent
This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.
. a. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.Unit six
their parents made them. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions):
Bohemian Rhapsody.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. etc. who died a few years ago.
Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. ci o fată
a woman. 2. 3. who neither work nor am anxious.
. 7.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). 6.)
Pratice Translate the following.Nadina VIŞAN
I. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. (Ei apeleaza la mine. can see your shortcomings only too well. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Dintre toate personajele prezente. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. 4. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat.) (28) They come to me. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. but a peevish. bătrînă morocănoasă. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. iritabilă şi uscată. (Eu. poftiţi în faţă. care nu sunt o femeie. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. dried-up old maid. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. numai eu nu. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. Mie. ill-tempered. care-ţi sunt fiu. 5. who am your son. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.
) (35) The compositions of Cardan. erau acum în posesia lui. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.
. were now in his possession. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.
service finished late. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. than whom few more can be more crashing.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.)
run such dangers and undergone such toils. părăsi camera.Unit six
heard. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.5 Relative Clause Introducers
Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.
too.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [±
. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. as can be seen in (36d).) b. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. literary style: (37) a.1. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.) b. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.5. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.Nadina VIŞAN
Aside from these marginal examples. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) c. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina.) d. 6. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The genitive form with which is still in use. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. but it is typical of the formal. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.
) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he
was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Iris Murdoch.Unit six
form of which. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…)
revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. of which. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea.
. He is not the man which he used to be. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…)
Sejanus seems to have been the father.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca
revolutionary which at bottom he is. … Italy. but to a type or a function: a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. by the way.) • states.Nadina VIŞAN
When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. animals.) b. ships (that can be personified) a. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) b.
pe care o privea direct. while. where.5. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.)
. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. etc. how.) b. (Nu ştiam ce vor. Poland is the place in which Christine was born.) 6. France.Unit six
b. time. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. It is poor what gets the punches. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. etc. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. whom it concerned most closely. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. why.2 Relative Adverbs: when. reason.) b) dialectal (49) a. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.
(Acesta este locul din care au venit.)
When they introduce free relative clauses.) b.) c.) b. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.3. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. no antecedents are required: (52) a.Nadina VIŞAN
a. They returned to the land whence they had come. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.)
. The place whither he goes is unknown.They left when they decided it was proper to. This is the place wherefrom they came. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) 6. He went where he had been before. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) e.5.
Moreover.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).Unit six
It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing:
not any. every. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.5.
his shoes. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. Honest man as he was. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.)
With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.)
With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.Nadina VIŞAN
The children were the parcels that filled the car. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. much.4.
. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. but they are used very infrequently: as. any.) b. but • in standard language a. I’ll get you such things as you may want.)
When the rule of euphony must be observed
să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67)
man who doesn’t feel pity …)
a. It’s the dry weather does it. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. There’s not many as’ll say that. This is the same one that/as you had before.) c. him as was in China … (Uncle George. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. ăl de fusese in China…) b.
. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. And always on the buttered side. Uncle George.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.Unit six
(O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut.) • in dialect a.
(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) b.)
(It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.
6. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. What I’m saying is. The man that John spoke to is a genius. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.” 4. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. makes me a wart and a wen. The man John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What Inman remembered was this passage.5. 2. we all have to come to some terms. Where he was from.*The man John spoke to is an idiot.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. That which shows God out of me. 5.) b.) c. It seemed a thing
. 7.Unit six
since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. 3.3): (72) a. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. This is where we talk money. fortifies me. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. The man who John spoke to is a genius.
12. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Oh. who had not witnessed many dawns. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 10. 9. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 8. Whatever his fate was. which is a lot.Nadina VIŞAN
of such wonder to Ada. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 11. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag.
. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. (…) Partly. of living. 13. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Ruby said. The rudeness of eating. though. he had left Ruby high and dry. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came.
purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. pe linie paterna. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei strabunic. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. plutonier. mort de tanar. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. vasnic. pirpiriu. un var primar. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. nu prea sarac. divortata. el insusi frate de lapte cu
. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. una din nepoatele unui inginer. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. cumnatul unui portughez. Cumnatul meu avea. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. (Iris Murdoch. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era.al lui.Unit six
Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. fiu natural al unui morar. poate. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.
I lost the cover of the book. She was a woman.
By extension. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. The opposite phenomenon. This is the book. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.2.Nadina VIŞAN
fiul unui laptar. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding
If you go back to our discussion in 5. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. Everybody listened to that woman. c. b. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .6.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.
. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. Teatru)
5. 8. 7. he requested that the public be excluded. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 6.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The problem of safe transportation. no easy answers to which could be offered. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. acting again as a genuine pied piper.Unit six
b. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 2. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. The difference between (76) and (77). as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. For the intense anxious sense of herself
. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 3. In the interest of public decency. 4. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. has been troubling them forever. 9. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.
She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. no matter which. Irene. 3. His friends. has been deleted. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. whose interest he most sincerely shared. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. was now complete. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. Activity 9 were now all gone. 5. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 10. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. 2.His father’s friends. as the case is). including that of Indirect Object which only they can have).
with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. he rarely saw now. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. 4.7 Key Concepts
Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. This story.
6. They do not function as attributes.
3. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire.Unit six
The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău
. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 2. 4. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. sunt vrednic de invidiat. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Nelu. 7. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. pentru dumneata bunăoară. himeric. Pentru alţii. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). închipuirea. Toate sfârşeau. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. De douazeci de ani. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. 5. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 6.
ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 12. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele
. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 8. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. 10.Nadina VIŞAN
am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. 9. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. a făcut el. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. cu surle şi cu tobe. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. nici în searbăda mea versiune. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului.
până mai adineauri. deşi atât de aproape. care era foarte “mondenă”. zise ea cu ochii mari. dinspre Maria Rosetti. 14. 16. roiuri de fetiţe. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. apărură. fie pe stradă. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. despre care. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. pe strada Icoanei. 15. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. de unde venea şi Marta. 18. Avea acum un fel de vertij. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. Dacă mă lovea. toată lumea întreba cine e. trăia larg de tot. din care cauză pe Dora. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. fie la teatru. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. În spatele lor. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. din direcţia căreia apoi. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 20.
adevărate şi care nu. 17.
după ce maşina a fost reparată. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. aveau un stil al lor. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război)
. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Pentru mine însă. 24. 22. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. de mine. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el.Nadina VIŞAN
21. Pare-se că snobii. când au urcat râpa iar. 23. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. de sus de unde eram. pe care ea îi admira acum. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. pe care eu nu-l aveam. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. până în şosea. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea.
. by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
7.Topicalization 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168. The Distribution of That Complements
22.214.171.124. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory?
7. That Deletion
7.2. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.1.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 184.108.40.206.3.3. Key Concepts
.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials
7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements
7. That Complements as Subjects 7.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.1.4. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.Extraposition 7.
(1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. Apart from those introduced by that. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements
7. (3) Tell me if you need anything. the clause is extraposed. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. placed in a marginal position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.Unit seven
That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. but also of infinitival ones.
. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.1. In other words.
) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN
This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause
unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) • Prepositional Object
unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?)
8. 15. It appears that no one voted for him. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 10. 7. 13. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 11. 10. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 11. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 9. 3. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 3.Unit seven
Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 6.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It is no use trying to convince her.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 2. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 9. They considered it very silly of her to
. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 4. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 8. It is nice to meet you. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 5. 6. 2. 7. 14. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 4. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.
2. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. zice Lionel. 2. atât
. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. I don’t expect it that he will come back. sub poduri. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 4. They never expected it that he would come back. 4. unde se nimerea. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 5. în gropi. 5. 18.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. I guess it that he will come back. 6.Nadina VIŞAN
have married Bill. mă ascundeam în grabă.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. după porţi. 3. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 3. în canal. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 3. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă.
5. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. (Nu întotdeauna. fără îndoială. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Mi s-a părut chiar că. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 6. excelentă. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). fără să cârteşti. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei.Unit seven
cât se va putea. 7. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede.” 4. Spunând cele ce-am spus. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii.
. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. vor căuta să o zdruncine.
Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. 1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of
. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.2. this asymmetry is undone. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.Nadina VIŞAN
7.1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Consequently. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Pratice Read the following.) While in the case of extraposition.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. in the case of topicalization. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.
he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. This was another era. 2. 4. He was utterly gone. 3. She had always been the slave of chance. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. 8. 5. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. even today. 6. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten.Unit seven
her only as an instrument. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. He did not blame Gracie. mere chance would decide. he felt no spring of interest in her. 7. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had
. but not now. was inconceivable. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. whether it would finally carry her off.
(A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.3. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.Nadina VIŞAN
passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.1.)
. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.
) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. the verb to drive). we obtain. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.e.Unit seven
clause shift operates only on object clauses. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.
. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.
who had just returned from Africa. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7.
. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 6. 2. 5. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 4. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 3. 8. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. prime-minister.
) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.
(21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. The Distribuition of That Complements
As it will be shown below.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.2.
. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.Unit seven
7. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.
judge. promise. predict. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. consider.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.2. prefer. state. suggest. estimate. They promised him that he would received a new house. He announced that they were engaged. desire.) b.: (25) a. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. They believe the man is guilty.Nadina VIŞAN
7. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. deny. (Cred că omul este vinovat. deem.1.)
.) a. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. They believe that the man is guilty. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. He announced their engagement. afirm.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b. (I-au promis o casă nouă. etc. etc.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. communicate. explain.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. on condition that. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. they lose their meaning. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. ibid. hope =>purpose. In older stages of English.) language. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.) I like him in that he is smart. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. for example. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.)
. similar to the construction existent in Romanian):
in contemporary English.Nadina VIŞAN
In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.e. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.
. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.Unit seven
c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) (66)
a.) b. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. să o vadă trecând. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) b. He gave an answer such.
That can be deleted.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) When the structure contains the word such. He gave such an answer as had expected. that we wouldn’t doubt it. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.
6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.)
. they were chained to each other forever.Nadina VIŞAN
(I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. ibid. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. (Iris Murdoch. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. ibid. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. for better or worse.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. He gave an answer such that I had expected. (Iris Murdoch.) b.
that he uses a relaxed tone. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) c.
a. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.
That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A prins de veste că ei vin. He showed he was able to do it.Unit seven
7. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. tell). He got word they were coming.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. say.) b.3.)
The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. for instance.3 ‘That Deletion
7. He said he had borrowed her money. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.
rele. they were chained to each other forever.3.) (De asemenea. (Îmi place că e aici. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?)
. bune. ibid. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) b. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.Nadina VIŞAN
7. because that has been deleted. for better or worse. I like it that he was here. 7.
for better or worse. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.3.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. they were chained to each other forever. *I like it he was here. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. (Iris Murdoch.2.
3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 7) They maintain. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (“Este acolo”.Unit seven
But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming?
This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause.4. he said. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.)
. which is ungrammatical in English.) b)He told me that she was there. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. that they were not too late to leave. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses
The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. spuse el. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. simultaneity. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.
7. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. you want me to believe. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.
I will leave her. (Am să o părăsesc. “She was here”.) b.) b. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. In the example below. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (Pâna să plece. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect
Future Perfect -----. (“Era acolo”.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.
rule can be optional with the so-called
FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their
. (A spus că. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. vine el. până pleacă ea.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.Nadina VIŞAN
Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. spuse el. The Present complement). (A spus că o să o părăsească. He said he would leave her. he said.) b. He told me that she had been there. o să vină el. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.
regret.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. be aware.) On the other hand. say.etc. hope.Unit seven
And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause.)
. With such factive verbs as realize. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the
group was/*is an undercover agent. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. be amazed/concerned. wish.) b. think. realize it). (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. dream. notice. etc. insist. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. show. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. report. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. discover. forget. whisper. only I don’t
The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. mention. believe.
expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly
married pair. He knew that she thought all men were fools. Consider also: (85) a. She realized that all men are fools. (Iris Murdoch. cu un respect tandru reciproc. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.) b. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) b. She believed that the earth is round. feign habits which are not their own.
. we notice that general truths. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. in tender deference to each other. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.Nadina VIŞAN
If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.
(Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. 3.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) The rule Past -----
Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain
complements which contain a non-durative.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.
. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. Peter said that John will leave at 5. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.Unit seven
2.) b.) b. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived.) In (88). since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. There are
however cases. such as a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Peter said that John would leave at 5. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.
f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. g) John thought that Harry ran. John said that Harry will leave. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. c) John said that Harry is leaving. The time is 3 o’clock. But
. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. Imagine. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before.Nadina VIŞAN
(Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. for instance.
. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy.Unit seven
John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. geese both grey and white. slyness in a fight. as evidenced by its drear plumage. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. lack of pridefulness. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. whistling swan. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. bluebird. lark. redtailed hawk. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. b. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Crows will relish what presents itself. Translate the following. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. kingfisher. a. love of practical jokes. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. c. Cooper’s hawk. quail. She admired their keenness of wit. jaybird. nighthawk.
and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. in the very act of expiring. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. And they might just hang him. the young officer. he claimed. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. He had fought hard through the war. war hero though he was. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain)
. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting.Nadina VIŞAN
C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. But as the battle raged around them. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Now here he stood jailed. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home.
topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). object ones up to the attributive function. On certain occasions that can be deleted. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.
. or else. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. from the very frequent subject. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). on other occasions it has to stay there. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts
That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb.Unit seven
spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Fiind
. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Unul din ei. 3. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. 2.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. 4. peste puţin. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. cel mai mare. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Mama.
că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. fericit. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 9. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. aşa. un vis de acesta
. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Nu ţi-a trecut. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. ea. Se mira. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. 8. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 5. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. venind de la avocat. cel puţin pentru un timp. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie.Unit seven
de o idioţie celebră. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. de ce constata în sine. 7. dacă va mai veni. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. 6. care îl pândise. va pleca din oraş la vie.
Apoi Bubi era şi
. Acesta. 11. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. 12. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. dar şi teama că.Nadina VIŞAN
nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. şi mândria că a biruit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. încă o dată. Astfel de va fi. liniştit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. lucrul era înfăptuit. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. fireşte. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe.
fără o vorbă scrisă. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Pe toate. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să le lămurească pe toate. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. mai puternic decât oricând. ci numai aşa.Unit seven
obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)
. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. 14. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. după cum. spre Jurubiţa. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului.
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.7.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 220.127.116.11.3.9.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.Key Concepts
.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions
8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.5.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.2.4.
It is important for you to know what you need. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). I told her to be more careful in the future. To love her is something really wonderful. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). b.) b. What Are Infinitive Complements
Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.) • like that complements. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) b. Consider the following: • like that complements. From this perspective.
. That you love her is something wonderful.
(3) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. It is important that you should know what you need.Unit eight
8.1. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (2) a.
moduri nepersonale) By convention. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. d. etc. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. For instance. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.Nadina VIŞAN
like that complements. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. the Gerund. as opposed to the finite ones. 2. participial clauses.e. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift:
(4) a. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. gerundial clauses. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.
.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures.) b. the Conditional. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Participle) (i.
it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving
Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. namely no ending. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) b. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.Unit eight
the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time.)
To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 7. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.
8. It is vital this factory to be reopened.
(7) They saw her leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. the criterion of form. 4. 9. 8. 6. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. A Classification of Infinitives
There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • •
(6) They told her to leave. 10.2. 3. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 5.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.
Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile
hear. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. watch: they watched him cry
An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.Unit eight
• • • •
Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (10)
. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. 2. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.
/ Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. uncharacteristic for literary English. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. However./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 3. Pratice Translate the following.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.
. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.Nadina VIŞAN
(Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.
the universe. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.
In other words. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.Unit eight
because. to use the appropriate technical term. or the control constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. as I have already mentioned. (13)
We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.
Further on. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO.
) b. I hoped for him to be there in time. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. So far. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.Nadina VIŞAN
Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. PRO to forgive divine. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives:
It is important for him to come back home. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.)
. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. şi creştineşte să ierţi.) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să nu greşească.)
In this situation. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. the logical subject. It is important for him not to err. PRO to err is human. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. namely the agent of the event. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.
the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. but the patient of the verb persuade.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive.) b. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. He stepped aside for her to enter. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. Semantically. but a PRO-TO one:
. not to the infinitive. him is not the agent of the infinitive.Unit eight
Adjunct: (19) a. In other words. him is related to the main clause verb.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.
\ I would love them to come. \ They convinced her to come back. \
. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. Likewise. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction.Nadina VIŞAN
I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ She promised him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. I hate animals to be tortured. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ She wanted him to leave. \ He persuaded her to come. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave.
Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite.
(Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They did not wish her to come back. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.
. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. So. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive.) In examples (25) and (26).Unit eight
They would have hated her to come back. • Last but not least. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They really asked her to come back. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.
that is not required by certain verbs. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her.Nadina VIŞAN
b) Second.). which are said to be free. Pratice Translate the following sentences. +
They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. To sum up the discussion. seem. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. etc. hate. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. appear. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă.
. to meet her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6.
agree to. presume.) b) verbs such as abide./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. scheme. desire. need. bear.3 The Distribution of PRO .
. hope. decline. afford. expect. / E greu să îl suporţi.Unit eight
să pleci din casa mea. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. intend. want. seek (= try). deserve. like. hate. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. etc. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. propose. refuse.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well.TO Constructions
In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. etc.
8. try. condescend.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. wish. venture.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. aspire to. dislike. manage. deign. arrange. omit. contrive. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. fail. Compare: (31) a.)
friend.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. prefer. care to. scorn. etc. mean. endeavour.
claim. however. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.Nadina VIŞAN
b.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. be important. bear.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. suggest. unlikely. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. For all of them to have been killed is. ask. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. forget.) b. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. desirable. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions
These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. threaten. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. I hate that you should say a thing like this.etc. verbs of liking and disliking. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.)
. possible. I would like for him to become president of the country. endeavour. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.)
8. etc. conclude. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) b. stand.) b. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.
) b.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions
The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.)
.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) 2.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.)
8. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.
Like in the case of that complements. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. the preposition is deleted. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. I decided for John to represent us.) 5.) b.) b. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 4. Direct Objects (39) a. but the meaning remains.
knowledge. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.Nadina VIŞAN
3. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.
not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) e. This paint is like concrete to work with. delicious. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. She is pretty to look at. etc.) c) adverbial of result
.) d.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.
(Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. He is a bastard to work for. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. You’re an idiot to go there. curious about. 6.) b. The stew is delicious to eat.: (42) a. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.Unit eight
The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) c.
/ Ehei. / Ca să nu mai lungim
. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate?
(Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. să nu piardă trenul. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.Nadina VIŞAN
The plate was too hot to touch. conduci prost. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. drept să spun. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Pe şleau.) Oh. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. you’re a bad driver.) I’ve never met him. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to tell you the truth.
/ E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. (49) a. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. direct. urge. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. swear. enable. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.)
. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.)
(A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. inspire. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. induce. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.) b.etc.: (51) a. encourage.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. oblige. b. need. promise. press. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. According to this. influence. nu mai vreau să te vad.
8. etc. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. inform. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control
By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.Unit eight
vorba. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.
elect. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. count on. command. prevail on.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. nominate.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. depend on.)
Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. permit.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.etc./ And now he
. name. etc. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. etc.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. vote. allow. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. choose.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.Nadina VIŞAN
In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. order. look to./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.
be about to. seem. come. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (Se pare că îi place de el.etc.: (55) She appears to like him.
. i. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. grow.Unit eight
refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. etc.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (O să întârzii/ leşin. this construction is lexically governed. etc. (57) He is to come any day now.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. be going to.e. An Accidental Man)
8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction
As previously mentioned. happen. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).verbs: appear. (Iris Murdoch. (56) She grew to like him in the end.
: (62) They heard him insult her.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. observe. overhear. hear. be thought. watch.Nadina VIŞAN
The meaning of (58).)
8.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be considered. etc. be alleged. be rumoured. (L-au auzit insultând-o. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. perceive. etc. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction
This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. In (57). that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. feel.etc. be claimed. that of intention. be reported.
I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.
remember. However. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. prove. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. occasion.Unit eight
(Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one.) • with a full infinitive: get. cause. believe.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. imagine. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. figure. picture.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. know. Infinitive)
(Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. deem. judge. discover. (Cred că este un geniu.)
. find. etc. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. presume. understand. recollect. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. consider. have.
(I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. who wasn’t used to men with moods. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. expect. desire. etc. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. wish. love. command.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. want. they had depressed and fuddled him.etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. mean. he hated anyone to comment
. order.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. suffer. prefer. permit. Harold.Nadina VIŞAN
d) verbs of permission and command: allow.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. choose.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.
(John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor)
. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. he didn’t envy those above it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. He suspected hostility at once. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. A little crossly. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.P. (L. though he tended to look down on those below it. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. to make sure we attended strictly to business.Unit eight
on it. the herd instinct was very strong in him. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. so that we might get to the future and have done. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well.
We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.
. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The last criterion. From this perspective.Nadina VIŞAN
8. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. we can speak about bare and full infinitives.9 Key Concepts
The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view.
E posibil. Şi tu să fii. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. un bărbat şi o femeie. lovit şi umilit. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. e important ce întrebări pui. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. de bună seamă.Unit eight
Pratice Translate the following texts. fireşte. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. mai bine219
. într-o zi. dar să nu-ţi spună. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. să-l capete. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. de asemenea. bunăoară. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. e) Când doi oameni. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit.
dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. nici măcar în acele puncte unde.Delavrancea.
. încă.Nadina VIŞAN
zis. să nu vrea să se şteargă.Şt. că eşti tânăr. Însă Paul Achim trăise. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. un picior. (B. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. mai pline de înţeles. să traiesc numai cu tusea. mai bine de două decenii. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. . Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. sau. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. în parte. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. pe care deja o uitase. avusese dreptate. De era vară. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. în ploaie. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. d-a lungul gâtului. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr.Şt. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. în jos. Să spui de pildă. aşa cum îi apăruse el. în parte.
pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). biata Muti. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului.. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. orice bucureştean ştie.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de fapt. şi prin faţă. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut.. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. sunt aici cu tot ce am. Mă laud singură. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă.Unit eight
Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. o mizerie. Într-un cuvânt. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. un miros îngrozitor. nici ca să
. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. (Al.. fie ea şi grăbită. deşi. orice-ar fi. şi nu un amant. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. ei. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. prin faţă e coborârea. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace.
(Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută)
. niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN
vorbească atât de repede. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions
.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns. participles.
9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions
9.2.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.The Verbal Noun 9.1.Participial Constructions 9.2.3. ING Forms and Infinitives 18.104.22.168 Key Concepts
.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds
This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Due to this situation. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.)
. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The Participle
The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.1.Unit nine
The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us start with the Participle:
9.1. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.
it functions attributively.Nadina VIŞAN
In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Susan has come. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.) As you can see in this second case. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.e. blood-shot and painted.) More infrequently. (A venit Susan) b. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. been and killed are past participle forms. the past participle can appear after a noun.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. Susan has been killed.
. i. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. were closing. too: (6) Her eye-lids. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. In (2) the forms come. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.
condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.Unit nine
(I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. leul poate să atace. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. (Sosind aici. începură să cânte. When singing.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. ea o luă la fugă.) d. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time)
(Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. she ran away. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. mother permitting. Weather permitting. a lion can attack.) c. Oh. I will arrive there on time. I will arrive there on time. (Ştiind cine era el.) b. o să ajung la timp.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. Knowing who the guy was. Arriving here.) c. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. he will eventually marry her. people should pay attention to high notes. o să ajung la timp. If provoked. God willing.)
.) b. they started singing.
(10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. He was found stealing. behold. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) b. (L-am descoperit furând. respectively. notice. which stands for an adverbial clause.) ii. smell. He was found killed by a bullet. I found him stealing.)
. (L-au descoperit că fură.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. Nominative + Present / Past Participle
(9) a. watch. They found him killed by a bullet.) b. hear.Nadina VIŞAN
The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.
(Am simţit-o tremurând. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.
) • mental perception verbs: remember. feel. etc. etc.: a. confess.) • Causative verbs: get . set. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. have. make a. I heard it said that men are a bore. hear. I must get my hair cut. (15)
.) b. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.) c. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. etc. send. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. start. leave.) • Causative verbs: get. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.Unit nine
He was noticed crying.) b. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) b. keep. have. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. recollect. she knew herself dismissed. etc. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.: When she heard his words. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. find. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.
(A fost văzut plângând. a. recollect. He’ll soon get things going.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. know.
aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) • verbs of permission./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. Men like shopping made easy. He wanted his car fixed immediately.) b./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. / Nu după multă vreme. lovit şi plin de sânge./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.Nadina VIŞAN
(Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios!
. command I ordered my bill made out. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.
the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.2. / In any case. with its lips drawn back. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / Dinny. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.Unit nine
Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.e. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / My Lord.1. sitting taut between her father and her sister. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. Unlike the gerund.
. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.
In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 4. 7. 5. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. She had heard it all before. People were sleeping in the next room. am plecat.Nadina VIŞAN
The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. am plecat. using either a present participle. I knew that the murderer was still at large. se va opri şi ploaia. 3. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.She didn’t want to hear the story again.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. I left. I turned on the light. 6. I left. the rain will stop. The tree had fallen across the road. (Desi nu ştia limba. It had been uprooted by the gale. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Văzând acestea. I was (20)
. 2. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I was astonished at what I saw. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher.
6. haired (twice). three. stricken.Unit nine
extremely reluctant to open the door. 5. a pot of paint fell on my head. handed. Dropped by parachute. Passing under a ladder. 3. quick. the sea was tossing the post up and down. They began quarreling about how to divide it. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. drunken. his horse fell at the last jump. 7. fishy. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. open.
. empty. open. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. dark. cloth. 12. I let the dog out of the room. Leaving the cinema. mown.shoulder. 8. They found the treasure. eagle. roast. 10. sharp. Mother punished me for my mistake. my hands often get very cold. minded (3 times). covered. broad. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 4. 10. skinned. He fed the dog. stony. 9. an idea suddenly occurred to me. red (twice). Read the sentences and try to correct them. b) Headed (5 times). the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. cornered. Reading in bed. wooden. straight. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. He sat down to his own dinner. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Getting out of bed. Riding in the first race. hearted (twice). Barking furiously. Tied to the post. 11. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. shaven. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. narrow. 2. bald.Running into the room. one of the eggs broke. eyed (3 times). many. 8. lion. a scorpion bit him. I slammed the door of my room. lighted. Climbing down the tree. 9. coloured.
lead. In the following pairs of sentences. were taken to hospital. _______ for a bargain. rotten. candle. / Swiss watches. / Many old people . (produce) 3. image. wealth. are in grave danger of extinction. umerii abia ascunşi sub o
. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. is expected to be a great hit. man. 7. _______ by S. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. Translate into English: 1. (grow) 4. was today taken back to prison. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. _______ for their elegance and precision. meat. deer. (find) 6. hidden. ill-gotten. meaning. bounden.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (injure). stream. b) grass. duty. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. the same verb is missing twice. (admire) 5. _______ my arm.I fell on the ice.Nadina VIŞAN
sunken. shorn./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (hunt).Spielberg. / Three people. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. head. The escaped prisoner. The film. I stared at the canvas for ages. Whales. lamb. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. eyes. graven. ________ hiding in a barn. shrunken. are sold throughout the world. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. plank._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (take) 2.
I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. când deschisă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. 3.Unit nine
dantelă. precum şi foile de plăcintă. deodată sufocat. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. legume date prin mai multe ape. le cocea. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. ca şi cum. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. trezit. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. Şi. Şi sufletul său. 4. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. păsări tăiate. care le rânduia. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. nesigur şi moale. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. După câtva timp. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. le fierbea. 2. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)
. O umbreluţă. întinse. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. când strânsă. şi moi. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile.
(Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. The Gerund
9. (Dacă vezi. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.1. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.2. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. crezi. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.2.
. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. Likewise. According to this criterion.
(M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.) 9. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. That he won and you lost was surprising. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Consider the following table.) b. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.Unit nine
How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. Him winning and you losing was surprising.2. In that. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.2.) b. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ?
. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. gerunds differ from participles.
Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally
extrapose (if you remember. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. *It was illegal growing a beard. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.Nadina VIŞAN
Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. as being verbal
. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. It was illegal to grow a beard. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. Consider (32).
A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) Unlike participles.) 2.) b. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds.
gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.3.2.) 3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) 9. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) b. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Just like in the case of noun phrases. It’s no good talking to her. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) b. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds
There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.Unit nine
in nature. Participles vs. as offered in the table below:
. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.
PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. passive ones She was crying. Participles may function adverbials: house. babies suck their thumb. 3. perfect. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. + noun] 1. may be preceded by prepositions:
Coming here. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his
(Accusative + clause)
. forms: continuous . 2. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms.
/ Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri.Unit nine
Pratice Translate into English. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o
3. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 7. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 14. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 12. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 11. 12. 13. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 6.Nadina VIŞAN
mare agitată. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 2. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. shooting gallery / shooting star. eating habits/ eating people. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. crying game / crying woman. 8. 10. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong.
. 4. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 5. 15. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 9. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. swimming duck / swimming trunks. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. He was spotted talking to her. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record.
but the presence of a direct object (i.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243
The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.)
The absence of a determiner like the. a The absence of an of phrase. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. The Verbal Noun
The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.Unit nine
9. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb:
.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.
we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information:
. George’s shooting the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun. How can we tell? In the first case. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. In the second situation. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards
Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing.Nadina VIŞAN
Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article.
/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Jim left quietly. very large. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.
the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery?
They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine
[+ verb] Participles (After) shooting
[+ verb. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / His coming there puzzled her./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff?
Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.
. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. + noun] Gerunds
[+noun] Verbal nouns sudden
the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the
9.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street)
. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. for example. For instance. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. Look. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).
The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. the meaning is different. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. whenever we meet an –ing form. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. ING Forms and Infinitives. However. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.4. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street.
we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.)
. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. having left) is infrequently used in English. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. and the most well-known one.) After looking at this example. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. (S-a oprit din mâncat.Unit nine
the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing)
Another example. containing an infinitive. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. future-oriented value of the infinitive). anterior to the verb in the main clause. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. Compare
She stopped to eat a sandwich.g. On the other hand. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) The first example.
having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. b) Regret
She remembers filling the tank with petrol.Nadina VIŞAN
She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. which means that they are similar in meaning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.e. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.)
As you can see. recollect. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. i. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.)
the action is not completed.)
The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.Unit nine
(46) versus (47)
I regret filling the tank with petrol. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. In the second example. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. dar asta este.)
I mean to tell her the truth. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. but that’s it.)
. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.
(Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. mean has the sense signify.) wedding.human] objects. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. (Casa trebuie reparată. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. In the second example. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. want With [+ human] objects.)
. The house needs repairing. e) need.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.Nadina VIŞAN
In the first example.) With [. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparată. the event has not happened yet. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) b.
and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. I did ask Mr. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. whereas in the second case. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. Croom (try) (follow) one. my Lord. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. gerund or infinitive. however appearances were against us. (hold) up his pen and (speak). (take) down her answer. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. Lady Corven. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. my Lord.’ ‘In any case. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. So do look out for me about six o’clock
In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. but they went by too quickly. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.’ ‘Tell me. it’s overrated. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.
I must go back now. Then. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ said Clare. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. suddenly. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. he addressed the note. and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. I just used the word and they fell. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.Nadina VIŞAN
. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.
The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Pratice In the following texts. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.Unit nine
9. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. the
. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Last but not least. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Participles mainly function as adverbials.5. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground.
moving up towards his chest. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. according to the books he read. It was like a mist. someone looking for survivors. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. covering the girl’s head. slowly rising in a swirling motion. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. hoping he would see somebody up there. then the noise and the cracking stone. down into God knows where. but then he saw it billowing up from below. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. down. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. He looked up towards the daylight. The two sides were moving apart.Nadina VIŞAN
very earth opening up. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. At first. the enormous split in the earth. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. it
. Then he saw movement at his feet. The sight of the two children. their edges crashing inwards. She started coughing.
Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. and sunlight. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. my dear.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. brightening to winter brilliance. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. slanted on to her cheek.
. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.Unit nine
had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. She finished what jobs there were. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.
(…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Vaucher şi cu mine. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. totul se animă deodată. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. În urma slugii. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. 2. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi
. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. într-o joi. and then went riding with her in the rain. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Ridicându-se. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. ucenicul său necredincios. închizând ochii. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. mama mea. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. cei doi Mamona.Nadina VIŞAN
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence.
din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji.Unit nine
gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. am ştiut şi cine. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. totul mi se părea cunoscut. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. pe Vaucher. Neclintiţi. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. în timp ce frazele continuau să
. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. privit. o sărută pe frunte. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. după cum îi spusese mama. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. se duse lânga mama şi. aplecându-se puţin. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. dar ştiutoare. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. la mine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. afară ploua în continuare. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. aşezată cu spatele la noi. auzit şi zadarnic. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. pe mama mea părând absentă. Şi deodată. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. 3.
şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu stiva de lemne. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. şi. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. camionul a plecat. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. cu tot cu baraca. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. Tot ce se vedea era un
. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. dar. şi cu soba. Au coborât din camion încet. 5. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt.Nadina VIŞAN
curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată.
Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine
pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.
TEN REVISION EXERCISES
How this time was to come.Unit ten
Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. he had been advised. and this particularly of late. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 3. 5. was unclear to Mitzi. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 6. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. 13. 12. he had not yet been able to estimate. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. Having regard to the date of drafting. whereas if she went away she would get none. 11. without profound questioning. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 7. this would really hurt. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. apart from his distress for parents. and that
. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 9. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 4. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. You have been much in my thoughts. 2. I am sorry not to have seen you. since I have decided. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. because of pity. to retire early from my employment. and meet it right here at home. 10. How much. in some way.
/ The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. one of the eggs broke. / Whenever I visited my aunt. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. for attending his sister’s wedding. please consider his proposition. he did not come to see her. 19. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her.Nadina VIŞAN
was difficult enough. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. looking forward had not yet taken place. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. I was made say Grace before every dinner. 17. 14. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. even for months.
. / In the end. / Before you go on changing the subject. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends.
her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. without discovery. and it was bound. to end in some awful tragedy. They rushed into shops. (and there he was. of the quick and wiry.Unit ten
Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. an open-air person. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. cotton mills at Manchester. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Vulgar men did. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. of all people. Though much in request before her marriage. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. centered in London and themselves. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. her old friend Hugh. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. They hated trying on. Essentially. At country houses she had met them of course. Tony was a child. it was said. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. Instead of which she had married. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. She felt as when. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. a little girl.
. quite unexpectedly. Clarissa used to think. her recklessness. she said. rather than the hefty type.
Bolnava nu se simtea. to keep abreast of the current. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. indeed.Over the River) 2. Cind l-a chemat. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. si in plus. era un bun sfatuitor.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. she was uneasy. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. with all its impatience of restraint.Rindurile dvs. but lying in her bath. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. cre s-au nascut lent. astfel. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. short of the contacts of love. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. the more she would be torturing him. Reading many novels. aveam tot mai
. (John Galsworthy . viguros si vesel in felul lui. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. nu a facut-o pentru asta. De uitat. nu puteam sa le uit. The closer she allowed him to come to her. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. ii faceau bine.Nadina VIŞAN
Transplanted to Ceylon. she professed.
) 6. Personal. 4. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. pe scaunul lui tare. se stie. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.) 7. (St. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Banulescu – ibid. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. are nevoie. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. poate fi compensata. mi-am zis. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. cit mai au de trait. Banulescu – ibid. (St. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. (St. Milionarule. fa-o. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.Unit ten
mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Banulescu – ibid.)
. o data sau de doua ori. Banulescu – ibid. Ce a iesit.) 5. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Daca tu. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. vaazut cindva. ca si tine. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. lungimea picioarelor. latimea si ascutisul labei. (St. nu pricep nimic.
P. 2. Who. Who when asked about his memories of the War.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Who was may father. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Translate them. my grandfather. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative.. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.. Who told me. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in
. when I was even younger than you. for being a renegade. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. to Emmanuel College. (. Cambridge. Could he be blamed. Who came home from the war. A story-book romance. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.Nadina VIŞAN
Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Arthur Atkinson M. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. a wounded soldier. delivered from the holocaust. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Ernest Richard Atkinson.
and because – but this is mere speculation. he had already engaged himself? 3. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles.Unit ten
undergraduate whims. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. Fabianism. deep-set. to whom. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. How
. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. a moody man. Rachel Williams. 4. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). for flirting with ideas (European socialism. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.
just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. la şcoală. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. cu taina aceasta. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Ion. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. satul. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a ajuns el. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5.Nadina VIŞAN
fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Ion. Cum au tăcut ei. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum a trăit el. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie.
. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. om mare.
cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. singurul lui stăpân. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English.
. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. de mama lor. greşeli dintr-astea. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cu sau fără voie. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Când actriţa. împotriva tuturor. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1.Unit ten
Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. când voi fi singur. L-au derivat cei din teatru.pune totul in discuţie. din franţuzeşte. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească.
Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. ci un sistem de acomodare. parcă începusem s-o uit. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. A devenit palid. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. tânăr şi frumos şi el. de pildă. dam buzna peste automobile. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. traversând. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. sau ridicole. provocându-le. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. 5. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. privindu-mă în ochi. continuând. 6. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Tot aşa. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. 4. e îndrăgostită de un actor. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Am început. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. pe jumătate prezent. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. 3. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. nevasta-mea. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt.
. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze.Nadina VIŞAN
tânără şi frumoasă. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Într-o vreme.
încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. Dacă nemţii înaintau. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. 9. 8. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. că nu m-am gândit la asta. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. 11. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. şi să nu ameţesc. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. orice s-ar întâmpla. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. şi dacă merg întins. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung.Unit ten
7. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. ca un acrobat. fără să mă opresc o clipă. De altminteri. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. să merg întins. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. Aş vrea să mă las jos. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Am început. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la
. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. iar. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. fireşte. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. E o problemă. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele.
care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Acum isi ferea privirea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. trebuia sa le spuna. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. 13. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Greu era din partea asta. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Ilie nu-l asculta. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. eu am venit sa va intreb. de uimire. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. de la proces. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. cu mirare. la fata locului. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Uite.Nadina VIŞAN
Constanta. parca i-ar fi fost frica.
. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. In curind. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Adica tot trecutul. 14. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. 16. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. nu mai pricepu nimic. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : .. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. de la lucruri personale. Ii venea greu. 15. nu mai semana.Ma.. 17. dar nu se mai putea. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Auzindu-l. la carti. La un moment dat. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. se uita in jos. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. la amintiri. de la obiecte de pret.
vorbe asa si-asa. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. dar. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Zimbea siret. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. . nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. which was part of his rich outfit. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. There was even
. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. 19. Nu era nevoie. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit.Ce sa fac. i se paru ca aici e ceva. apoi se uitau la Ilie. se indeparta nepasator.Unit ten
18. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. cum zicea Anghel. asa cum facuse pina acum. 20. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Aici era ceva. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis.
asked for Mrs. She was one
. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. the young lady. for the instant.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. He walked a long time. But Daisy. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. at least. 3. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. conversationally. gave an exclamation.Miller at her hotel. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. to move fast. 5. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2.Nadina VIŞAN
relief. going astray. to take his way home on foot. rude woman. He felt then. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. a simplification. on this occasion. 4. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. resuming her walk. paying no attention. to admit that she was a proud. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one.
make a point. She appeared. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. as to projected changes. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. smiling and chattering. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. 6. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. Advising with me. Her daughter. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. in radiant loveliness. making Paul stop and look at her. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. while residing abroad. She rustled forward. 7. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. He left me musing. on the other hand. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. 8. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. of studying European society. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. in their own phrase. as it were. often. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. indeed.Unit ten
of those American ladies who. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. uncomfortably. and wondering what the deuce he meant.Walker. That he should admire a marble goddess
. as text book.
yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. The agent became a very familiar type to H. and perceived that it must be something important. which was deliberate. 9. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. H. was immensely struck with him. and. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. though E. or at any rate not heeding. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. was only half satisfied with this. 11.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. with his humorous density. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. H.Nadina VIŞAN
was no reason for his despising mankind. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. while Paul. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. H. wondered what they were talking about. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. not seeing. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. could see he was remarkable. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved.’
. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. and acute too. 10.
the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. had the power to chain his sympathy. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. not glancing at him for a moment. 13. that the haunting wonder which now. appeared to fill his whole childhood. But she gave him no chance.Unit ten
12. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. 14. H. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. 15. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. which was very copious. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. as he looked back. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been
At the theatre. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. 18. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. ironically reserved. H. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. dragging herself on her knees. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. disheveled and distracted. as a general thing. where the Pearl of Paraguay. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. 16. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar.Nadina VIŞAN
an achievement of comparatively recent years. that she must be on the contrary. and to H. The whole establishment. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. and there were others. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. proudly. 17. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. yet
. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. It was very possible she was capricious.
going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. 19. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses.
. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. Their mistakes and illusions.Unit ten
the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. 20. No one ever listens to her. *Old. 3. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. H. didn’t mind. had blown a certain chill. and lurking within this nebulous design. It came over H. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. would always be more or less irritating. on which the damp breath of the streets. young men were invited. with the poor. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 2. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined
Either John or he * have got to give in. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. slipped on some steps. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 8.Nadina VIŞAN
4. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. striding like a Spartan maid. c) When I saw her sitting there. I blundered by. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. Rachel. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. I was definitely going to be sick. 7. her shining blue feet twinkling.
. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 5. 10. 11. “Oh. I walked fast. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 12. 6. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. her arms held out. walking quickly. I saw her as a vision. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 9. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons.
Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb
. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.
Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. 5. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. if they were poor. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. where my servant. 4. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 2. which was really alarming. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. could cook my meals. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. but that we saw and pitied. 3. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. And then I ventured to add that. The old women spoke no English. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter)
at noon. apart from his distress for parents. would really hurt. etc. was anxious = was + anxious. before they left town. was informed. he had not yet been able to estimate. Constituents: how much. distress.
. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. he. was anxious.g. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. on a house. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. to settle. etc.g. this.apart from his distress = apart from. apart form his distress for parents. to pay their annual visit.Key To Chapter One Practice
KEY TO PRACTICE
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION
Activity 2 1. on Saturday. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. etc. his. Munt. How much. had not been able to estimate. Constituents: He. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt. Constituents: Margaret.
The sentence is however
. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. listen to this. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).. – assertive/ Don’t do that. – non-assertive. interrogative. which context is non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.. negative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. don’t bother her. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. negative/ Come with me. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / If you like her. – first clause is non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. interrogative. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. interrogative. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – first clause is an ifclause.SENTENCE NEGATION
Activity 1 They like her a lot.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – non-assertive. second clause is non-assertive. it is assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. which is not assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ She finally admitted. Second clause is an imperative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation..Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . and is non-assertive. – comparison. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.
but it isn’t Susan. / She does like John./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. only irresolute. not even when it’s quiet around./ When he learned the news. / They didn’t leave.but to someone else. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / He wasn’t unusually bright. he was hardly pleased./ He was exceptionally cunning. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ Not long ago./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / I don’t like her very much. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. – they told the truth to somebody else./ He was smart enough. but it wasn’t them. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. – someone hates animals./ Hardly interested in the conference./ They weren’t really confused. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. – someone did that. the two brothers dared to protest./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. everybody used to travel by coach. / I can hardly understand what they are saying.Key To Chapter Two Practice
syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. –double negation cancellation. not even this thing. – I like somebody else. but not more than she does others. but nothing out of the ordinary. / You have never met
./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / She does not hate animals.
*did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.. / Should they not have told her the truth. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.. they go skiing in the mountains. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there..negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. were they? / This boy is no good. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. did they? / A few of them stayed behind..negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.Nadina VIŞAN
her. not even in my dreams. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. not even when you were very young. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. did they? / No problems were caused after all.. I could hardly wait to hear the news. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. / This is hardly the
.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.. – I cannot look him in the eye. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem...
– Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger../ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – I never see her. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow../ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / I didn’t leave the
. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Key To Chapter Two Practice
time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes.. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – I almost never look at those paintings. / I seldom look at her like that./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Not many people came to see her. but she also lent him a car. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – I don’t often look at her like that. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / Hardly anybody liked him.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. Activity 8 I shall never.Never shall I trust a man again. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. never trust a man again. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. when we started our holiday. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Almost nobody liked him./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Few people came to see her. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.
I don’t like his proposal at all. – On no account must you touch this machinery./ I somewhat like his proposal. – Only on this man could she rely. – Come on. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / Don’t worry. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / They say he once had someone very close. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / She could rely on nobody but him. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. –
. you can still do something about it./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. –At no time did we leave the office./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance../ Well. – They say he never had anyone very close.Nadina VIŞAN
office at any time. you can’t do anything about it any more. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – They don’t believe she likes them. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / They believe she does not like them. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / Come on./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent).
Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / You must pay that fine. / She hardly ever comes here./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.Key To Chapter Two Practice
It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. / You must be telling lies./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You needn’t send her anything. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives.
. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. either./ Bob is still living at that address./ Peter knows some English and so does John. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – I can’t understand either of these sentences.. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. –Alice still lives here. – You should send her something. – You can’t be telling lies. / Well. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Well her husband has always been a good person./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – She almost always comes here. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. too.
/ Nimic de facut. e un magar. ever since I got this ulcer. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. Oh. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I haven’t done anything./ He’s a happy man. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. not yet. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. to any of us. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ You look so tired today.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. / Don’t go on believing him./ Nobody told us a thing./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ I don’t know a thing about her. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ They say this Ph./ E un baiat de zahar./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. / He can’t have done a thing like that. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. has never studied anywhere./ Zis si facut. I haven’t seen her in years./ I don’t know why she’s crying.D. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ He was a tough man./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Have they rung the bell? No./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Please. He didn’t move a muscle. He isn’t that smart. It’s no wonder./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. / Jim is so brave./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. give me a hand./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./
./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ You took his leaving you very hard. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again.
dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. parasi camera. feebly.Key To Chapter Two Practice
‘Scuze. We had nothing in common. thrown out. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.’/ Deloc descurajat. with the same needs they had. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. nothing.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . slowly.
. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. that I was a decent man./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor.’ ‘Nici o problema. one way or another. without too much determination. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. for I thought this threatening. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly./ Nu-i nici un deranj.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. I hadn’t really expected miracles. no memory.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. no story./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. I had never had the opportunity to prove. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .
so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. You really made me mad. let alone irritable. that’s what the world is about. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. It’s not made up of theories and the like. I admit. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. I’d be so happy if it were so. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. by coming here to the monastery.
It was my turn to say something. to say the least. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that…
After all that morning excitement. bad. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move.Nadina VIŞAN
With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. clear or confusing. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. he was sitting beside me. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I was sleepy and tired. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. Radu had calmed down. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. good. Not for a moment had I thought that. it’s not words.
I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. things you do any moment. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical.
It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. not as we would like it to be or some other way. but facts. your story. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. Your judgement is false.. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. We have to judge it as it is. Unfortunately. the only
. on the front seat. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. or if you understood what I meant.
it solves troubles. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. it’s your problem. it’s yours. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. • So. Look. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure.
. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. you can go to Ursu’s. clears your way. and if you like. precious words.Key To Chapter Two Practice
ones I had. to fight. although it was a difficult thing to do. me. keep it squeaky clean. Anyway. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. you do as you think fit. But I was just wondering. fear might be hiding. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. either. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. no matter how huge they are. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. soon we’ll be in town. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. too? A gun is power. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. did you ever step up front. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. just to please myself. keep your conscience clean: you have one. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. as Baciu would have us be. But what about you and Melania. or you are lying hidden. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. I won’t interfere. or call the respect of others. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. behind these big. me. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. we are leaving. and an inability to act. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody.
Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.correct 3. has yet arrived -correct 2. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. correlatives are mixed 2. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . but they gradually got used to it. will he?. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. the sentence is incorrect 3. But it was not because I had no answer to give.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. – incorrect. as soon as he delivered it. because before is a positive polarity item 2.
I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. . they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Negative attraction b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN
Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . The villagers were not very religious.incorrect. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. firmly determined not to answer immediately. or some other woman.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Negative incorporation
. has not arrived yet – double negation.. -correct 3. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.
Avea sufletul prea obosit. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. (ibid.Key To Chapter Two Practice
Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. b) But it was rather (API) late. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. No one should know to what torture she was subjected.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). either (NPI). Nu putea să se mişte. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. her lack of motion would have to do (API). (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. not happy at all (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. yet. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Ştia că are dreptate. His spirit was too tired. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. much less ((NPI) for her. nu era
. (ibid. she couldn’t marry him. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. too troubled. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her.) Însă era cam târziu. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. Her stillness. prea răscolit.
d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). (ibid. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. she looked younger than ever (NPI). arăta mai tânără ca oricând. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. e) At length. if anything (NPI). and not a little unsteadily.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. The Satanic Verses. his heart was beating fast. he made his way to the screen. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. se îndreptă spre paravan.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate.
. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. (Salman Rushdie. (ibid.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi.Nadina VIŞAN
deloc fericit. şi destul de hotărât. inima îi batea năvalnic. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.
însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Ce-i pasă lui C. the gift was useless. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). The point was. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. i) What did C. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta.
. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. h) C. (ibid. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.) C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. and probably an administrative headache as well. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. but his father would have none of it (NPI). on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Home receded from the prodigal son.Key To Chapter Two Practice
fiind vrăjitoare. care if the school were willing to treat him. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea.
as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct.Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .QUESTIONS
Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. . – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question.
. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.indirect question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. all godfearing husbands and fathers. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. you are in enough trouble as it is. do you really think that this vixen. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Chizlinski. “Now. Fenia. Luca Horobet. now she was chatty. She has an eye for gentle men. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. yes. to make them lust after her. Stavre Paici. she didn’t wear a ring. they were. 2. keep Condrat away from her. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. Fenia. Vica. and then what do you
Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. she likes to entrance them. the bitch.
The mullah. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. G. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. It even takes him a while to go to the window. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. 3. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. what’s her name. He got him out of his mosque. have a girlfriend.Key To Chapter Three Practice
think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. with a railway station and a mosque. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t
. her hair pinned with blue combs. ankle-long flowered calico. a seventy-eight year old lad. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the minister of Tartars and Turks. 4. dragging his feet listlessly.
and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN
Sophie up in the attic. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden?
. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.
– phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination)
. John is ready and Mary is ready. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. Our flag is red.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – similar situation 10. John and Mary are the newly married couple. our respective examinations. Her pet kitten is black and white. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.Key To Chapter Four Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. and I passed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.) 9. John and Mary are ready... – sentence coordination 7.COORDINATION
Activity 2 1. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. yellow and blue.phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.
her son and others. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. 2. many guest or few. plays football. 3. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). that method and those. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 6. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 8. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. but John does not play football. Activity 4 1. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. her idea and John’s. We can and will demand payment. much satisfaction or little
. Activity 5 This book and the other. 9.) Joan plays many games. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 10. 7. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. and even tennis. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan.Nadina VIŞAN
Peter and John played football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. your proposal and his. your work and mine. but not John.
The facts and figures 3. Swings and roundabouts 7. 3. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Ups and downs 6. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. To and fro 15. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. but not simple. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 5. He read. (I have always fought for progress and always will. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Pros and cons 4. Law and order 8. Wear and tear 12. 7. magazines are only for children. Over and above 13. Few and far between 14. etc. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. High and low 2. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Life and soul 5. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Thick and thin 11. He snapped at him and slapped him. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Safe and sound
. Activity 8 1.) 6. Bread and butter 16. 8. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Touch and go 10. 4. I have always fought and will fight for progress.Key To Chapter Four Practice
Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Spick and span 9.
7. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – asymmetric 18. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 3.. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – symmetric. Asymmetric 19. 10. 10. 4. 3. 2.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 9 1. 2. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. exclusive 15.symmetric 11. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. – symmetric 2. Symmetric 21.
. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. 5.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – symmetric 10. 7. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Symmetric 13. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. inclusive 16. exclusive 17. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 9. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Asymmetric 20. My son and daughter are twins. 1. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – symmetric. 8. – symmetric. My son and heir is safe. – similar situation 9. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 6. 9. 5. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 6. b. 4.
6.Key To Chapter Four Practice
Activity 11 (1) 1. 10. I’ll still finish this paper. nor fowl. clothes and all. Brother or no brother. 2. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. We’ll stick together. 3. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Not only should you rest
. for better or worse. thanks for asking. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 15. 3. They came to me. 8. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. There are doctors and doctors. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 14. No drinking and driving. 9. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 7. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. Should he pour water in the basin. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. it was too small. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. (2) 1. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Her husband is long dead and buried. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 5. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 12. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. He’s neither fish. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. ‘Madam. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. By hook or by crook. He went to bed. 2. Jim thought it over for a while. 11. 4. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight.
From time to time she will launch a helping question. tense with concentration. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. tense like a bow. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. but she blinks in approval. This. she knows for sure. both dead and buried. an important man. and she listens to him. stop dead in his tracks.Nadina VIŞAN
assured. You know. so he could leap in pursuit. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. he starts lecturing her about life and things. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. without mentioning financial matters.’ (3) 1. What do you know? The moment Mrs. their common ground. as she always does. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. he’d leap high. And. what’s its name. just like when he was thirty. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. it would work out fine. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Her first husband had been a professor. Whatever she tried her hand at. and then. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. she started doing a great job. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. at equal intervals. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. So she’ll listen to him. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. 2. but he’d come out a cripple. They hadn’t kept him there too long.
. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Mrs.
which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as an object (direct). – she. functioning as an adjunct 2. told. – she. about her problems at home After I told her the story. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. you. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. is aware. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.subordinate. – obligatory elements: I.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. whomever wanted to listen. – Susan. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . functioning as a modifier 3. coordinated with first subordinate
.Key To Chapter Five Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . looked. – she.subordinate.subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. came. – obligatory elements: she.subordinate. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . she looked at me sadly. cannot tell. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .
Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he
. at our age. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. remove our home yet again .subordinate. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .Nadina VIŞAN
4.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate.complement b) 1. that we should. that you are choosing exile .subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. since the main verb is think of something) 5.
a house. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement.complement. adjunct (time)/
. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. outbuildings. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice
was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. a barn. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object b) to dry it – complement.
that kept her constantly tense and grim. subject/ to do such again – complement.Nadina VIŞAN
it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes
. staring at each other. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object/ to sit there – complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. Activity 5 1. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement.wh complement. sickle in hand.A few days before the war. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. (…) ‘Well. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. without straightening her back. (…) He dashed back. direct object. But other people. When Anton put the sickle down. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.
but also his sharp nose. or other more hidden means. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Why! He was not of two minds. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. or if he does. rather than a real threat. but he doesn’t spurn either. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Not even at this point. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. as if they were at his beck and call. For no bold man really falters. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. while on other occasions he would show caution. Ana could not stand a trip now. while they spoke from miles away. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. you need courage even for this small thing. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Only he had Ana to think of. 2. First. 3. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. which he doesn’t rely on completely. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. that was for sure.
.Key To Chapter Five Practice
already. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village.
That was clear. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. and twice we were requested to get out. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her.
. Twice did we get in the car. to see some mutual friends. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. it was the women. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. come on. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. in Odobesti. 4. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. So. We were going to drive to a vineyard. In fact. And here’s how this first day looked. and when things didn’t go as planned. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. under the silliest of pretexts. But it was not ok. they would ruin the arrangement. without really knowing why. and on Monday followed another feast). he had postponed writing back. are we getting off again? What is wrong. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. although he could have said so earlier. by the cars of some of us. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday.
This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. Activity 3 1.She came to London where I went too.restrictive 7. 3. where I spent my youth . why they all left . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. This is my husband whom I love very much. all of whom would answer to his questions. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 6. which was silly of him. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 4. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. You couldn’t join the party. Activity 2 1.RELATIVE CLAUSES
Activity 1 1. most of whom were from England. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 4.restrictive 6. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 2. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. who was just passing by. The students. when we first met . 3. 10. any of whom would answer to questions. 8. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.Key To Chapter Six Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 7. where I least expected
. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . The students like their teacher. 5.restrictive 4. 6. These are people who we cannot tell much about. which was a pity. 10. 11. 7. 8.free 8. 9. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. John told his friend a story about the king. He told her the secret. He is the author who they gave a prize to. like their teacher. on which this occurred . 5.restrictive 2.
about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 3. was very displeased with the situation. Who . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Why . when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.adjunct 11. 2. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. 7. 6.free Activity 4 1.adjunct 6. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional
. When . You. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. What I’m saying – subject. however sad . the prince chose Cinderella. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. 3. where – predicative 7. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.subject 9. What Inman remembered – subject. Which – subject 4. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. Of all the persons there. who think so highly of yourselves. 5.free 9.When Ada remarked – adjunct.subject 8. where we talk money – predicative. 4. what their parents made them. Where he was from – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. come up front. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. What – direct object 2. Where . where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. which .adjunct 5. who cannot say a word. I. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Where . when . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.restrictive 10. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Activity 5 1.Nadina VIŞAN
. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.adjunct 10.
adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. how . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. that is ungrammatical because it
.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. which requires an accusative form.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . what . what little she knew – direct object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. whatever – predicative 13. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.Key To Chapter Six Practice
object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.
who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother.Nadina VIŞAN
cannot be selected by a preposition. got married and had a daughter. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. in his turn. due to its invariable character. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. but whose second cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. whose great-grandfather. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. a rather tiny looking man. who. a sergeant. having changed quite a number of jobs. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife…
. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady.
has been troubling them forever.obligatory 3. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.yes 10. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.yes 7.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. Irene. . . In the interest of public decency.Key To Chapter Six Practice
Activity 8 1. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. – yes 2. he requested that the public be excluded. . knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. whose interest he most sincerely shared.no 5. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. – obligatory pied piping 2. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. This story. no easy answers to which could be offered. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. no matter which – [pied piped phrase.obligatory 4. – no 9. . . – yes. was now complete. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.His father’s friends.yes 3. – no pied piping 5. with deletion of the noun friends]. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – yes 6. . His friends. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The problem of safe transportation. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – no 4. were now all gone. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. he rarely saw now. – no pied piping
.yes Activity 9 1.
I did so. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 8. Everything was ending. or as of a vast arena. for instance. 2. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. irrespective of age and nature. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager.and he couldn’t thank me enough. 6. yours. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. For twenty years. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. Nelu. For all the four children. I am to be envied. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. the third born son. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 10 1. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 7. where two teams battled every day… 5. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 4. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 3.
. In other people’s opinion. Only an ugly endless dream remained.
What you’re saying sounds very nice.Key To Chapter Six Practice
9. although she was standing quite close to him. from MR street. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 16. she said. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. All that you have read is rubbish. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 10. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 15. He was suffering from dizziness. barely glittering in the distance. 12.R. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 11. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. staring aimlessly. You are newly arrived here.
. 14. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 17. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. the tram was rattling along. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. leaving streets and houses behind. where from Marta was coming too. since I don’t really know which my true life is. on Icoanei street. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 13. Behind them. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version.
While some trees are still green. 21. So. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. or the clash of stars above. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. If he had hit me. I don’t know what might have happened. But. so optimistic and composed? 19. I could see my woman falling away from me. day by day. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. likes and dislikes. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. had a personal style in clothes. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. who only lived once in this world. She was a woman of means. who prompted everyone on the street.
. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. 20. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was.Nadina VIŞAN
18. which I did not posses. 24. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. in her pursuits. after the car was fixed. had a huge house in Bucharest. 22. While we were poor. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. From the vantage point I was in. 23. or the many Egyptian dynasties. But for me.
. direct object 3. subject 7. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 8. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 4. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – extraposed.THAT COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1: 1. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. subject 2. prepositional object 11. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. subject 8. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – extraposed. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – unextraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – questionable. object 6. subject 9. – the same as 3. direct object 10. 6. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. 2. – impossible 7. object 5. 3.
a bit too intricate 5. – grammatical. It is nice to meet you. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.grammatical. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – impossible. I guess it that he will come back.. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – same as 12. . – the same as 12. 15. idiomatic formula 16. same as 12. – correct 2. They never expected it that he would come back. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. . but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – impossible 11. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 10.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. tense influences the
. same as 12. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill.correct 4. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Activity 3: 1. – grammatical. 18. . but pragmatically impossible 3. I don’t expect it that he will come back.Nadina VIŞAN
It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. same as 12.incorrect.grammatical. although a bit intricate 2. – impossible. – grammatical. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 9.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 14. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. – impossible. but pragmatically impossible 4. – impossible. 17. It is no use trying to convince her. – incorrect.
– correct 6. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. though.’ Lionel says. in the ditch. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform.
. 3. (Not always. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. behind gates. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check.’ 4. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. under bridges. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
validity of extraposition 5. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. thus. 5. in the pits on the road. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. 2. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can.incorrect.
It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. without trying to protest too much. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. 2. 8. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. 3. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. By saying this. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. It is less ambiguous than the first. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.
Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. Activity 7 1.Nadina VIŞAN
6. because it is less ambiguous. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. since the
. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. – the second sentence is questionable. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 4. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change.
7. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. – the first sentence is the better of the two.
/I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. extraposition is obligatory here. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – both sentences are grammatical. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. The second and third sentences are grammatical.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. so there is no need for extraposition./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 6. 5. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 7. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities.
. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 8. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – direct object. required by deverbal noun
. coordinated. – subject. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. ibid. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.complement 4. – complement 2. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – complement 5.relative Activity 9 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. .Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 8 1. – relative 5. – prepositional object. – relative 3. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. ibid. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. (Iris Murdoch. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. for better or worse.) adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) complement that clauses. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. The idea that he had had earned him good money.adverbial of sequence/result. . they were chained to each other forever.prepositional object. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – complement that clause.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.
being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. you want me to believe. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. that they were not too late to leave. – a) and b) are indirect speech
. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that is obligatory. that deletion is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.
c. – grammatical sentences.Nadina VIŞAN
formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong
. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. – both sentences are grammatical. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8.
b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. hawk. lark. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. present instead of simple past. geese both grey and white. prepeliţe. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. cenuşii şi albe. – generalization on habits of birds. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. She noted with disapproval that many a
. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. quail. present perfect instead of past perfect. ciocârlii şi şoimi. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. While the first is possible because of the generalization.
which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. love of practical jokes. lipsa de vanitate. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. The generic present is used in this case. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. lack of pridefulness. A companion stooped and cradled his
. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă.Nadina VIŞAN
bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). as evidenced by its drear plumage. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. She admired their keenness of wit. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Crows will relish what presents itself. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. slyness in a fight. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her.
Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at
. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. He had fought hard through the war. But as the battle raged around them. se ridicase în picioare. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
head to soothe his dying. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. tânărul ofiţer. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. he claimed. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. the young officer. El căzuse pe spate. Murise în picioare. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. tragică şi eroică. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He died erect. in the very act of expiring. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. […] During the latter stages of the tale.
Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Luptase din răsputeri în război. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. And they might just hang him. I realized I could not tell him the big news. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement.
. Now here he stood jailed. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. How can I explain? I just felt shy. When the boys saw that mother had left.Nadina VIŞAN
Williamsburg. war hero though he was. Activity 13 1. But when he reached me. A short while later. – similar situation to the one under (c). Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). mother went home and I was left alone. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. around seventeen or eighteen years old. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. One of them. they gathered around my desk. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. în închisoare. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. When he saw me. susţinea el. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. They all had their hands in their pockets. Acum stătea aici. he closed the album. deşi era erou de război. the oldest. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. 2. to finish my drawing.
which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. or if she would do so again. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. All his senses were now keen. he could only think of the fact that she had written
. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. or fear his rage. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. for her vineyard. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things.’ Mr. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand.’ 5. brightly and closely.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
3. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. 6. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. 4. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. as if he had been drunk. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself.
he would achieve his goal and be a victor. 8. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped
to him. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. thinking of him. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 10. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. The last time when we met here you scared me. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. 7. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. And if things were so. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. 9. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 11. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned.
13. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. which secretly drove him. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. towards Jurubita. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. 12. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. namely the impatience of this young man. We either sell them or we don’t. 14. where he would run to confess everything. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem
. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. more urgently than ever. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
now. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. without putting anything in a note.
grammatical 5. 9. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. . / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – infinitive continuous. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. – simple infinitive. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical. grammatical 6. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 10. grammatical 2. – infinitive continuous. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. / they saw her leave. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.
.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 3. grammatical 7.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1: 1. . / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. – perfect infinitive. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. – simple infinitive.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8.
\ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: She promised him. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. \ She promised him PRO to leave. you need to try harder. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / He is believed to have known her
. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: He persuaded her.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. Test: * I would like people. / It is not too late for him to learn. / I want to never see you again. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. – Test: They asked her. Test: *She wanted him. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. \ I allowed [them to come. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Test: *They did not wish her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ She wanted [him to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They tempted him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. – Test: They tempted him. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ They did not wish [her to come back. Test: *I would love them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her.
. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I have a word to tell you. not to miss the train. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / Oh. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / He is hard to stand. / He is young enough to start again.Nadina VIŞAN
for years. / I want you to leave my house. / He is easy to talk to. I don’t need you or your services. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. Activity 6 Oh.obligatory subject control verb
. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. . / I want to tell you what I think of you. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. . – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. . / He is easy to live with. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.
1 – PRO. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. He suspected hostility at once. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. they had depressed and fuddled him.Accusative + Infinitive. so that we might get to the future and have done.to. Harold. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. Subject. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. If he himself was out of spirits. he didn’t envy those above it. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Subject. Predicative 4 . The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 1] A little crossly. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4].
PRO controlled by ‘she’. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. excitedly. PRO controlled by ‘him’. And you might also be hit and humiliated. true. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. or better said. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. we seem to forget about our own pain. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. object 2 – PRO –to. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. slowly. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. But when we need to comfort others. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. cautiously. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. more believable than evidence itself. more meaningful. direct object 3 – PRO –to. man and woman. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. 1 – PRO-to. f) The passing time is important. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. e) When two persons. PRO controlled by ‘she’. PRO controlled by ‘me’. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. One day. c) Unlike plane trips.
[PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business.
in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. not to want to wipe it off. I am indeed praising my own merits. in the street. h) I want us to go. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. That is it. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. k) With this considerable dowry. or their talk that night. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. Stroescu. for instance. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. to live only with your coughing. tickled by the trickles of sweat. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. And I would care for this man so deeply. He had not been able to leave Dr. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Mrs. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. that you are young. or.
. If it was summer. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. And to actually start to believe you are so. S. as he had appeared to him in the rain. my wish being only to please and serve. Moroi says heavily. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. not even those parts where he had been half-right. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. which he had already forgotten. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. all down our neck. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. while swearing to change my way of life. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. even when this love is hurried.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. she was suddenly so shocked.
. Well. ready to submit to any demand. for that’s the door people get off by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. If you will have what I can give you. here I am with all of my own. or to speak so fast. met by squalor and terrible smells. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). no matter what. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. haphazardly. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. poor Muti. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes.Nadina VIŞAN
In a word. every Bucharester knows it. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved.
badly beaten and bloodied. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. with its lips drawn back.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.ING COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ Don’t keep him waiting.
. – Attributive past participle. / They found it thrown in a corner. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ She sent him shopping. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.
Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 9. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. – As she was running into the room. Having looked through the fashion magazine. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 3. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Finding the treasure. 8. Attributive present participle. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not
. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. – Attributive present participle. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. he sat down to his own dinner. 10. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. having been uprooted by the gale. I was astonished at what I saw. Sleeping in the next room. 2.Running into the room. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. I slammed the door of my room. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. Activity 4 1./ Running into the room. Turning on the light. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 6. 7. The tree had fallen across the road. having heard it all before.She didn’t want to hear the story again. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Having fed the dog. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 5. 4.
Sitting in the dentist’s chair. red-handed. many-coloured. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. 10. I let the dog out of the room. a scorpion bit him. Activity 5 Fair-haired. three-coloured. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – When I read in bed. wooden-headed. – As I was passing under a ladder. – As he left the cinema. Leaving the cinema. stony-hearted. a pot of paint fell on my head. 9. sharp-eyed/minded. 7. Getting out of bed. Tied to the post. fishy-eyed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. bald-headed. Dropped by parachute. 8. one of the eggs broke. narrow-minded. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 2. he was bit by a scorpion. 4. open-minded. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar./ Reading in bed. 12. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. / Climbing down the tree. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. cloth-covered. Reading in bed. Passing under a ladder. – As he was getting out of bed. a scorpion bit him. I often get very cold hands. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 11. his horse fell at the last jump. – As the dog was barking furiously. – As he was riding in the first race. lion-hearted. I let it out of the room. Climbing down the tree. empty-headed. the sea was tossing it up and down. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was tied to the post. broad-shouldered.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
identify with that of the main clause. 5. Barking furiously. my hands often get very cold. / Getting out of bed. he broke one of the eggs. 6. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 3. one of the eggs broke. my hands often get very cold. his horse fell at the last jump. Riding in the first race.
. – As he was climbing down the tree.
dark-skinned. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. found hiding in a barn. graven image. straight-shouldered. drunken man.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. stricken deer. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. Activity 8 1. hidden meaning. Activity 7 1. ill-gotten wealth. are in grave danger of extinction. (take) 2. mown grass. I stared at the canvas for ages.
. (hunt). / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. bounden duty. (find) 6. The film. / Three people. open-hearted. injured when their car crashed on the M1. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. shorn lamb. (injure). / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. was today taken back to prison. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (admire) 5. 7. are sold throughout the world./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. rotten plank. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. shaven head. (grow) 4. sunken eyes.Spielberg. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (produce) 3. / Many old people.I fell on the ice. / Swiss watches. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. roast meat. is expected to be a great hit. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears.Nadina VIŞAN
quick-eyed. The escaped prisoner. hunting for a bargain. Whales. lighted candle. admired for their elegance and precision. injuring my arm. shrunken stream. eagle-eyed. produced by S. were taken to hospital.
then put up. he were struggling for breath.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. boil them. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. its scales scraped off by the knife. suddenly suffocated. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. thrown in the pots. 3. yet left them room to sway free. He felt close to his father. streaked with yellow veins of fat. 4. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. seeking some promised land. in charge of his house and lands. now taken down. A parasol. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat.
. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. and moreover. So. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. and the puffed pastry beds. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. flat and soft. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. hovering uncertain and soft. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. he started peering anxiously around as if. the carved chicken. the twice rinsed vegetables. And his soul. bake them. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. sprinkled with sticky flour. 2. After a while. the fish.
/ I am sorry for being so late. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. he left the store without buying a thing. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. – Accusative + participle 3.gerund 5. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. – participle (attribute) 2. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / I told him not to bother putting things back. . / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. Gambling is his favourite pastime./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. What I don’t understand is you suddenly
. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. Activity 10 1. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. – gerund (subject) 4. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / After annoying the shop-assistant.
participle vs. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
turning against me. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. . He was spotted talking to her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 8. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. preceded by preposition). – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object)
. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14.possessive ING (direct object) 9. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – Nominative + participle 13. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (attribute. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6.
– gerund or verbal noun. my Lord. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – gerund (full.. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. – verbal noun (has determiner. hold up his pen and speak. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. Croom to try to follow one.’ ‘Tell me. we had done nothing to be ashamed of..verbal noun (has determiner. but they went by too quickly.’
. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. I did ask Mr. adjective. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. – verbal noun (has adjective). gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. Lady Corven. however appearances were against us. take down her answer. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. adjective.
I spend all my time hunting a job. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. my Lord. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. and went out to post it himself. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment.’ said Clare. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ said Clare.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. it’s overrated. I must go back now.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
‘In any case. ‘I do hate asking for things. I just used the word and they fell. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.’
. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. suddenly. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. he addressed the note. Then.
he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. Then he saw movement at his feet. after verb of perception.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. At first. village which is burning). attribute). First the crack snaking (half gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. following the verb ‘remember’. adverbial of time. attribute. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. down into God knows where. Has a complex subject) in the hole. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. attribute. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. gerund. (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone.Nadina VIŞAN
‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. hoping (participle. the enormous split in the earth. direct object). direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. The two sides were moving apart. …while their edges were crashing inwards). slowly rising (participle. direct object) from below. direct object) towards him. attribute. someone looking for survivors (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. The sight of the two children. down. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute). the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. It was like a mist. attribute. elliptical here. slightly
. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. the very earth opening up (half gerund.
has ‘of’ phrase). etc. one. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. moving up (participle. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund.). the chief occupation of the people of these islands. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. early. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. adverbial of reason). cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. you. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. prepositional object.e. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. i. direct object). covering (participle. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. according to the books he read. my dear.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle.
which beckoned to
. And. and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. attribute) a sudden whoop. examining (participle. reluctant or not. the two Mamonas. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) stopped dead. preceded by preposition. She finished what jobs there were. mother. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. we were all gathered in that room. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. brightening (participle. adverbial of reason).Nadina VIŞAN
r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. slanted on to her cheek. adverbial of manner). and sunlight. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Young Mamona left the room without a word. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. and then went riding (participle. for Dornford was busy on an important case. preceded by preposition. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. Having a French governess (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. attribute) to winter brilliance. a door was opened and as a servant entered. Standing up. and everything got suddenly animated. So. Vaucher and I.
in the year 1812. killed by Young Mamona. Vaucher might have known that too. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. about concentrating all our resources. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. I knew who it would be. And. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. Entering our house on a Thursday. he went to mother and. He cast us a swift glance. who knows. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept
. 4. he looked like someone who did. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. and ended his life in the year 1821. And then. and smelling so hard of rain. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. as mother had ordered him. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. 2. kissed her forehead. sitting in his puddle. for anyway. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. too. her back towards us. about sparing no effort. to me. closing my eyes. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. So when Old Mamona came in. bending a little. without taking his sack off his shoulders. let alone greet us or say something. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. and to Young Mamona. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . each carrying a wooden box. to Vaucher.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. his disloyal apprentice. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. he found us sitting each in his place. 3. Not so unimaginable though.
each pausing before jumping down. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions.Nadina VIŞAN
rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. as an afterthought. of taking notes and rewriting them. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. 5. barrack. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. futile. They got off the truck slowly. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. But. everything seemed familiar. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. long board table. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. already seen and heard. And all around them was the great field
. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. wood pile. And suddenly. stove.
. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The next thing was to go to the well. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
Complementation in English. G. 1994. . English Word-Formation. A. 2003. eds. Bernard. Laurie. Comrie. 1976. 51-103. 1964. Tense and Aspect in Discourse.. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. The Evolution of Grammar. The Transformational Syntax of English.. A. Al. 1982. CUP. 1976. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. Aspect. 1983. TUB Curme. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Mimo and Marc Moens. Institutul European Cornilescu. Emile. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. . Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti.II.University of Chicago Press. Bucuresti..References
Bauer. Benveniste. Iclezan Dimitriu. Problemes de linguistique generale. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. 1994. English Syntax. Bybee. A. 1989. 1. Chicago. English Grammar.. Cambridge University Press. Burnes and Noble. Mouton de Gruyter. 1966. vol. 1996. TUB Cornilescu. Gallimard. . Joan and Osten Dahl. Joan. Caenepeel. I. Bybee. Cornilescu. Cornilescu. Accuracy and Fluency.
. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. .
Gunter Narr Verlag. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. Otto. Part IV. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Longmans.. New York.A. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. 1987. & R. J.K. Fenn. Hornby. 1987. 1976. Longman.1993. 2000. Jespersen. 1999. 1968. London. Harris. 1931. Bucureşti. Halliday.Day. Outlooks and Insights. Advanced Grammar in Use. Gramatica limbii române. Hornby. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. & Alfred Rosa (eds). Eschholz. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles.. Bucureşti. 1982. . I. 1967. 1959. . 1982: 42-70. Hewing. et al. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. London. Longman.S. Longman. Progress to Proficiency.. London. 1961. Jones. M. Peter.A. R. Dutescu-Coliban. CUP. 1963. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. 1968.S. Alexandru Niculescu. In Vincent and Harris. P. Hassan. Cohesion in English. Bucureşti. London and Copenhagen. . vol. Taina. Denison. Richard. English Historical Syntax. Tubingen. eds. Gramatica Academiei. M. Advanced Grammar Practice. An Advanced English Practice Course. Alexandru. Leo. Graur. St Martin’s Press. Longman. CUP. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. 1968.
. A. Aspects of English Morphology. Martin. Graver. Iordan. 1993.
J. Transactions of the Philological Society. in Fodor. A Grammar of Contemporary English. 1992. M. Klima. eds. CUP. 1983. Dordrecht. A Modern English Grammar. 1931. Foresman and Company. G.. J. English Syntax. L. S. Nelson. Kamp. 2000. 1993.. 1991. Seminar Press.. Schibsbye. London. Scott. Klein. 2002. TUB. A Grammar of Late Modern English. Jim. 1970. vol. Number 3.. Focus on Proficiency. . Poetry and Drama. R. Literature. Bauerle et al. 1987. (advanced). 1964. Kruisinga. K. Kluwer Academic Publishers. An Outline of English Lexicology. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. vol. Grammar for English Language Teachers. 1982. 1973. 323-352 O’Connell. J. Serban. Hans and Christian Rohrer. Wolfgang. A Handbook of Present-day English. I. Part II. and Svartvik. X. Poutsma.. H.Katz. M. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. & Felicity O’Dell. Miller. Groningen Lipka. Tense in Texts. and J. An Introduction to Fiction. Greenbaum. 89:2 (2000). Language. 1990. Leech.Kamp. OUP. English Vocabulary in Use
. Kennedy. Groningen. Negation in English. D... 1926. Hans and Uwe Reyle. E. McCarthy.. Parrott. The Present Perfect Puzzle. From Discourse to Logic. 2000. E. Quirk. volume 68. Sue. CUP.
Analyticity and Syntheticity. a. Zandvoort. e. Stefanescu.. editia 1. Modes of Discourse... 1957 and 1962. Editura Credis. A Handbook of English Grammar. Conference on British and American Studies. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Plenat (ed. 347-385. Carlota. 1978.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Smith. 2001. 1992. Aspect Shift and Coercion. A.. Berlin. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Visan.
. R.. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. 1998.W. Amsterdam. 1990. N. N. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Le passe simple.) L’emprise du sens. In M. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov.. de Swart. Vet. Sentence Processes. Co.Schwegler. Co. Vişan. London. 2003. Henriette. Vet. Mouton de Gruyter. Rodopi. 2003. 1999. Cahiers de praxematique 19. TUB. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. 2003. New York. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Lectures in English Morphology. I.