SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad.de rezolvări. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
5. Constituent Phrase 220.127.116.11.Contents:
1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. The Distribution of an Element 1. Complementary distribution
. Auxiliary verbs 1. Insertion 1.4.2.
sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse
. For instance.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan.2. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. very much. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as:
1. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Semantic.
1. her mother. Constituent Phrase
Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. sequences of the kind her mother very. Consequently. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).1. loves. Syntactic. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama.Unit one
This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Pragmatic
Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. that is sequences fragmented at random. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. They are just strings.
semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.e. should. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.Nadina VIŞAN
In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. must. be). we are dealing with a directive (i. (Mi-a spus secretul.)
1.4. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). etc.3. Auxiliary verbs
Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. an order given to an interlocutor). Insertion
Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.
It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. Consider. live.
1.5. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.6.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.Unit one
As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. an ‘empty’ there subject. etc. Complementary distribution
Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the
. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. for instance.)
1. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. The Distribution of an Element
The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.
pragmatic. syntactic. complementary distribution. How much. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). both (8) and (9) are correct structures. semantic. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. distribution. he had not yet been able to estimate. as the star indicates. Pratice Define and illustrate. Munt. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. this would really hurt. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. using your own examples: insertion. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see.Nadina VIŞAN
demonstrative pronoun this/that. whereas (7) is not.
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.
. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
6.2. Negative vs.7. affirmative sentences.8. Key terms 2.2. Polarity Items 2.4. Full – local negation 2. Tests for negativity 2. Assertive – non-assertive
2. Instances of negation 2.1.3. Key terms
.5. Conclusion. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.
2. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Negative .) b.Unit two
2. Assertive – non-assertive
We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Consequently.Declarative vs. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .Positive vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. in that they do not state anything. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. it asserts something.) is said to be an assertion. The relationship can be represented as follows:
. For instance. in the sense that it states something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.
negative (e.g./ If you like her.other (if –clauses.Nadina VIŞAN
. / Come with me.g.interrogative
(e.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. comparison./ Don’t do that. Didn’t they tell her the secret?)
Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.non-assertion . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.
. They told her the ( e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / She finally admitted./ She can’t wait to read that book.positive sentence .) .positive and declarative secret. listen to this.assertion .) . don’t bother her.g. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. Did they tell her the
secret? ) . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.
am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. For example. John is not happy.3. In the case of the sentences under (4). A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. I met a girl named Susan.) b. (Nu demult. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. Full – local negation
The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). John is unhappy. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends.Unit two
2. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) b. (John e nefericit. word negation.)
. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. Susan doesn’t like her friends. since the negative word not is not present there.
) b. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. In other words. more precisely the phrase it is part of. but their meaning tells us a different story. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.Nadina VIŞAN
In this case. He was not without intelligence. where the word
. these sentences look negative.) c.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. She was not an unattractive woman. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. I was not a little worried. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. just like in the case of word negation. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. In other words. since the negative word not is present inside them.
paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. semantic negation. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. without intelligence./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Translate the following sentences into English./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. / Când a aflat vestea. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Îl
between full and local (that is word or
/ Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Negative vs. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. ci doar indecişi. dar nu în mod special. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.Nadina VIŞAN
preferă pe John. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală.
2.4. dar nu neobişnuit. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. Tests for negativity
In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one:
. affirmative sentences. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.
) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. For instance. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.1. etc. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).) (9) I didn’t go there. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Nu m-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t
. (see subsection 1.).Unit two
As we were saying. (M-am dus acolo. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. such as do insertion. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.
/ We don’t come here often. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan did not get married to Jim. doesn’t she?
Sentence (11) qualifies as negative./ They didn’t leave. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / I don’t like her very much. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative.
. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / She does not hate animals. incorrect. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1.
3. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. and they don’t like her either. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be
followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. * and they don’t like her either.
Example (14) is syntactically negative. *and neither do they like her. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which does not happen in the case of (18). nici măcar de cei deştepţi. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20)
Susan doesn’t like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. 4. even the smart ones. not even the smart ones. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. and neither do they like her.
Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.
. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.Unit two
2.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. *not even the smart ones.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. which is ungrammatical.
By applying these tests to the sentence in question. In conclusion. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Few of them stayed behind. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. Instances of Negation
We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary):
.5. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / This boy is no good. / No problems were caused after all. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / A few of them stayed behind. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible.Nadina VIŞAN
Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / They caused us no problems. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. they go skiing in the mountains. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / You have never met her.
2. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. they need to refer to these tests of negativity.
This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (26) I saw nobody. (27) a . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri)
. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun.Unit two
John has not come. (N-a venit John). I went nowhere. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru)
The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22).
b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student.
(N-am văzut nici un student. No day passed without me thinking of him.) b.) c.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.
.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase
in the first position of the sentence.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. Not all that glitters is gold. b.Nadina VIŞAN
b. I didn’t go anywhere. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) b. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. no incorporation takes place. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. All that glitters is not gold.) (29) a. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. I didn’t see any student. I didn’t see anybody. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. / I didn’t ever go to his place. I never went to his place.
/ They didn’t come to meet her.) They barely read any novels. / I didn’t see anybody.V. / None of them liked house music.4. / Not a word fell from her lips./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not one of them came to meet her. (Nu citesc romane. / I saw nobody. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / Not many women are famous opera composers. etc. not even short ones. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. and we don’t go to the theatre either. nici măcar din alea scurte.
The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. scarcely. / No one ever listens to her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.) We seldom watch T. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction./ They never went there. / He should not be released. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. barely.: (31) (32) (33)
I hardly met this man. / I showed him nothing. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. seldom. rarely.
Hardly have they heard a thing like that.
. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) d. Not for the world would I do such a thing. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) c. / I seldom look at her like that. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / I scarcely ever see her. Never have I met a more horrible person.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
(Ne uităm rar la televizor. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. which triggers inversion): (35) a. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.)
them. / Hardly anybody liked him.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Few people came to see her. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.
/ I didn’t leave the office at any time. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. in the sense that the
. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / You must on no account touch this machinery. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. never trust a man again. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance./ We seldom receive such generous praise.) They don’t think that he likes them.Unit two
Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She could rely on nobody but him.
(Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. probability. appear. the negative meaning is less strong. / They believe she does not like them. ought to. guess. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. In sentence (37). be likely. we can very well say something like: (38) a. want.Nadina VIŞAN
original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. suppose. look like. / I suppose she doesn’t care.
intention. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. be probable. / I expect he won’t come here again.6. Polarity Items
Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. etc. barely. advise.: think. although not negative in meaning. believe. She didn’t lift a finger to help me.)
. choose. expect.) b. cannot appear in an affirmative context. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. intend. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. etc. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. imagine. / He reckoned he would not win her over. suggest. seem. etc. For example.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. be supposed to.
2. sound/feel like. should be desirable.
that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.*She lifted a finger to help me. That is
. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two
In the above examples. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). and sentences such as: (39) a. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. *She likes our chairman at all.2. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. b.
The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. are clearly not grammatical.
Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.
I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.) At all vs.) Until vs. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.) Hardly ever vs. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / She hardly ever comes here. / I still love you) Either vs.Nadina VIŞAN
exactly why. / Don’t worry. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / They say he once had someone very close. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I somewhat like his proposal. / I eat caviar most of the times. either. / Well. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. still (I don’t love you any more. / Bob is still living at that address. / I have already seen him.). / I like it . / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.) Yet vs. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Come on. some (I haven’t any money. etc. / You needn’t send her anything. / I like you a lot. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.) Much vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. too. too. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / He arrived before 5. a lot (I don’t like you much. / Well.) Any more vs. / I somehow like him. / I have some money. you can still do something about it. too (I don’t like it. / I can understand both of these
/ Ajută-mă. sleep a wink. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). bat an eye(lid). crack a smile. Translate into English. de când cu
. give a damn/darn. have/be worth a red cent. touch a drop. see/ feel/ remember a thing. flinch. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. move a muscle. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. have a care/ friend in the world.Unit two
sentences. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. hear a peep. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. mulţumesc. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. last a minute. lay a finger on someone. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / You must pay that fine. find a trace. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. lift/raise/ stir a finger. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. hurt a fly. Ion nu e prea deştept. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. know a single person. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. nici unuia dintre noi. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare./ I can understand all of these ten English words. turn a hair. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. leave a stone unturned. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / You must be telling lies.
/ Nu ştiu de ce plânge. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-a sunat încă. he left the room. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / I had no end of trouble. / Not that I care. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. budge. / Never is a long word. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. but you really should do something about it. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. etc) or Affirmative ones (would
. B: Aşi. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No man is wise all the time. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. încercând să prindă criminalul. Translate into Romanian. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Nothing succeeds like success. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / No sooner said than done. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / No trouble at all. / No entry. / No admittance. / He won’t make old bones. nu e vina mea. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No hands wanted. he’s a pig. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / He is no end of a fellow. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Hotărât lucru. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit.Nadina VIŞAN
/ Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Normally. as well:
.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Negative concord / Non-negative concord
This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). say it. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. c) He is anxious to say something. / I hate making any commitments. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.7.
In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. N-am văzut pe nimeni.
2. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.Unit two
rather). which is not the case of the sentence under (45). b) I love asking some funny remarks./ I saw no one. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.
I can’t get no satisfaction. The second negation is somehow independent. B: Nu.
One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. nu-mi place. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.8. I don’t like this poem.)
2. from a syntactic point of view. I don’t. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu poezia asta. nu îmi place poezia asta. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. Key terms. (The Rolling Stones)
The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.
. B: Not this poem. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Conclusion. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. (Nu. however. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e. interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.
.2.2.2 Wh. Minor Types of Questions
18.104.22.168 Echo Questions
3. Indirect Questions
3.1 Tag Questions 3.Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions
3.3 Alternative Questions
3. Key Terms.22.214.171.124. Direct vs.2.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3.
focusing on direct questions mainly. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?)
3. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. Direct / Indirect Questions
Like Romanian.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.1.
. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. (3) and (4). Pratice Translate the following questions in English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (2). all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.g.Nadina VIŞAN
As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.
and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Likewise. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Since the question is not direct any more. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.Unit three
Unlike direct questions. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. because. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going.
. in this case. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). In the case of indirect questions. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).
d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. identify the incorrect sentences. / I don’t know who she is. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / He asked me who she was. / I don’t know whom she fancies. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me who she is. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. spune la un moment dat femeia. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. sau mai bine zis. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie)
. ce culoare are pielea.
one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide
3. the type of answer the respective question requires.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. as Quirk shows. being typical of spoken language. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions
A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.2. In this case.
(what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. 3. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items:
. (which / you like best) ? 4.Nadina VIŞAN
examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (who / talk to last night)? 5. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.1.
(Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?)
. it has. (Da).Unit three
(17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. are said to be positively – oriented. they did. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.
6. 2. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. because you always copy everything I do! 5. but I want to play basketball a little longer. …….? (a mean thing to do)
. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. I’ve still got plenty of time.. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. .. A: You look down. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’ve been learning German for years. 3.. A: Your mother is shouting for you. ……………………………. as in the example: 1. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. …………………. 7. (speak yet) B: ……. 4. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….. ……………? (hear her) B: ….Nadina VIŞAN
(24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.
You could have mentioned it earlier. where. ………………………………. A: It’s past your bedtime.. I didn’t get home until late last night.2 Wh – questions Wh.Unit three
B: …………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.. what . which When. . 8. 9. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. 10.2. .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?)
. how. 3. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. A: There was a terrible car crash. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….
/ We’ve lived here for ten years. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. of course./ She dropped her glasses./ I have French lessons twice a week. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often./ Sara owns two cars. / Shirley got married to Ben. / There are six students in my class. / It’s nearly seven o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. (Poppy Z. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this?
. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. Nearly two hundred years. I cannot do that. / She lives in the suburbs. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are.000dollars. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. trying to find places where I resided in life. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / My new car cost 10. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / David’s car was stolen. what ever. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / That’s my pen. why ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / Kay’s gone out shopping.
(Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2.3. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.
Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. didn’t use he? 11. How far is it the cinema? 3. You can’t be serious. wasn’t it there? 17. Let’s stay for another few days.Nadina VIŞAN
Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. There was a fax for you this morning. didn’t use he? 4. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. can you be?
. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. He used to work in a bank. shall we stay? 7. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How long is she be spending in America? 8. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. How far is it the cinema? 10. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Who did left the gate open? 18. shall we stay? 14.
Ani întregi. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. uneori disperat. Whose it is this book? 32. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. will you not? 27. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. wasn’t it he? 22.Unit three
19. plin de germeni virulenţi. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. isn’t it this? 25. deci. să-mi înfrâng frica. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Pot reveni. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Toate vechi. will you not? 21. dacă prin absurd
. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. deci. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. ca şi cei ce au fost. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. despre o lume dură. neliniştea infantilă. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. doesn’t he go? 23. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. That’s your car. John goes jogging every morning. That was Jeremy’s brother. How long time does it take to get there? 28.
există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. iar proştii. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. pe sub bolţile din care. puturos. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. indiferent de risc. Riscul? Ratarea. de atunci. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o
. inactivii. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. mă întreb. străină priceperii lor. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. “Spune! striga el. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. naiv. murdar. îi ştiu gustul. umed. laşii. negru. ghiceam doar unde se află. B. lung. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Şi. neîntrerupt. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. dar şi drumul. picură apa roşietică. pe care oricum am simţit-o.
da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. Minor Types of Questions
There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.1. care i-a determinat alegerea. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. domnule profesor. la urma urmei. will you?
(38) She went to Prague. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa.3. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. exclus. orbitor. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.3. viaţa? Oare e drept. golul alb. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.Unit three
viaţă. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii)
3. da? (37) Let’s go there. nu se poate. didn’t she?
. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. 3. nu-i aşa?)
(36) Open the door. Tag Questions Tag questions.
In this way.Nadina VIŞAN
We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. hasn’t she? (Aha. or falling. the tag is negative too). The suggestion is that in this case. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. if the host sentence is negative. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. au fost cheltuiţi. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. (Din păcate. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. or “comment tags”. aren’t they?
. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent.e.) A: Oh. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. the tag is affirmative too. it’s all spent. sarcasm. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. is it? (Deci. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. au fost cheltuiţi.
/ She has a brother. / I am older than you. / Few people like her. / You will pick me up at 7. / I don’t think you like my music. / Don’t leave without me. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Everyone felt happy about it. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / She used to talk a lot. / He hates his wife. / He has to marry Susan. / The boy often watched his sister. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. nu?) • with a falling intonation.…/ Let me know. / A few people like her. / Surely you have enough money. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / The boy never watched his sister. / You have been invited.Unit three
(Se mută. / Tell me. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / They said he liked music. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / She left an hour ago. / That’s your car over there. / I am dressed smartly enough. / I may see you tomorrow. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / There is enough food for everyone. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer.
. / You ought not to smoke. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / He simply hates empty words. / I think you don’t like my music. / I think you like my music. / Let’s eat dinner now. / That was your father. / I must go now. / Each of us is staying. / Activity 12 He will be on time. after all. / You will pick me up.
So you enjoyed my talk.. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. or what? 3. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / He never used to study so hard…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions:
. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….Nadina VIŞAN
Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. He used to play squash./ I’m right about this…. 5. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. using a question tag at the end. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam.
2. Recapitulatory echo questions .) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.3.Unit three
Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.3.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.1. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) B: Chinese?
. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.1. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. / Grants… 3.questions which repeat part or all of the message. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.
) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.phrase is fronted. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. The difference between recapitulatory
.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Închide lumina aia.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.3.Nadina VIŞAN
(Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. consternation. If the wh.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.2.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. of something just said.2. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. disbelief. rather than the repetition.
intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. dear. / I think I’ve found a solution. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. whereas with explicatory echo questions.e./ He is interested in blue movies. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. am pierdut scrisoarea. with recapitulatory echo questions. (Uită-te la asta. I’ve lost the letter.Unit three
and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. / We are looking for a pixie. rather than did you say. (Vai. (i. / He is interested in music. which letter do you
./ We are looking for a purse. intonation is rising.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.
3. Y j d WHAT? )
explicatory (Take a look at this book. Take a look at WHAT? )
. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i
(They are moving.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?)
alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?)
constant polarity tags (So.4. she knows about it. Instead of Conclusions
indirect (I asked her when she would come. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain
special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.
acuma sporovăiala. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. nu purta verighetă. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şerpoaica. după pofte. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Are gust de oameni blânzi. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit
. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. să se încolăcească mai bine. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. în satul nostru. ca să zic aşa. lui Luca Horobeţ.Unit three
Pratice Translate the following: 1. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. în general. cumnată Fenia. Fenio. aşa. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. pe Condrat de Vica. cu o casă de copii. şi apoi Vica ce zice. şi care s-a aciuat. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare.– Crezi tu. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. da. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. lui Stavre Păici. stricata. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. oameni aşezaţi. lui Chizlinski. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri.
roşu şi galben. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. sau cum o chema. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. dar cum se face că a
. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. L-a scos din geamie. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. până la călcâie. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee.Nadina VIŞAN
Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. De asta erai. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. deci. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. sus. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. abia târându-şi picioarele. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Hogea. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha.
niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută)
. se vede prea bine.Unit three
ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.
to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.
Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.5.6.Contents:
4.2.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Key Concepts
.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.3.1.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.4.
some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. i. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. cu repros. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. reproachfully. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. present) in the sentence. where there is no indication other than a comma.1 Syndetic vs. that elements are coordinated. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. on the other hand. Example (2).) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Asyndetic Coordination
Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.e. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.Unit four
4. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.e.
. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.
We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. From the previously mentioned examples.) (4) If you hit my wife. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. you will die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated.Nadina VIŞAN
4. Conversely. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. vei muri. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.2 Coordination & Subordination
By definition. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.) Such examples. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.
) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate
b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. However. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. from a logical & semantic point of view. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. the second. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. we need to specify that. but presupposed. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. respectively subordinated constituents.
adorned with cornices. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He moved and made a slopping noise. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. In the second. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. Though the castle had vanished. his shoes squished. built. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. His clothes hung to him. took off his shoes and emptied them. took off his coat and emptied them. the houses were beautiful and ancient. Then he sat down. with enormous solidity. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description.Nadina VIŞAN
clauses from both passages. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. John Steinbeck. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. with formal walks under rows of trees. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. In the first. but the
. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. of cut gray stone. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways.
and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. left the house. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the
streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Cecil Woocham – Smith. over some of the roughest ground in the country. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. and as the way is with Irish mountains. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. the higher he went the wetter it grew. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.
Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from
.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.Nadina VIŞAN
prickly ground.3 Sentence vs. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. we should be seriously annoyed. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. as shown in (9). (G.K. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. As one can easily notice. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. however distinguished. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path
4. were to take down the name of every man. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. who was caught at a University Extension lecture.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. yesterday and the day before yesterday. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
7. our respective examinations. Her pet kitten is black and white. 3. and I passed. 10. plays football. John and Mary are the newly married couple.
coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated
. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 4. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. / Bob and George are admired by their students. / Peter. John is ready and Mary is ready. 6 John sang and Mary danced.)
sentence that both
coordination are basic.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Pratice Distinguish coordination. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 2. but not John. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John and Mary are ready. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 8. and even tennis. yellow and blue. Our flag is red. / Joan plays many games. 9. / Peter and John played football.Unit four
example (7). 5. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose.
as can be seen in (10b). (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) b. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. 6. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.Nadina VIŞAN
b. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. or deleted. 5. Jane
. 3. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.
b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Activity 4 2.) c.
10. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. i.e. the predication buy a pair of shoes. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.
. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. the so-called Principle of Economy. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 7. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. So. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi.) The common element. 9. these syntactical processes. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. than a longer repetitive one.Unit four
forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. can be reduced by substitution. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. Besides ellipsis. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.
Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine
Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. 4. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. simple books and magazines for children 3. In certain cases. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. George and Jane are separated. using reduced structures: 1. 4. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. the old men and women 2. George and Jane went back to their parents. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Translate the following sentences. A citit. one or (the) other method. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile
. 3. some reason or another. 2.
. 13. After all their adventures. sweet and sour. I need another 100$ ……….… 14. 7. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party... . 11. You can’t claim on insurance for ……….. like: salt and pepper. Can we discuss the …………. 8. 6. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.You gain some things and you lose others.Unit four
vagaboande de langa bloc. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. Marks and Spencers. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. of your proposals later on? 3. for my wallet. They get on quite well together. 6. only for damage. it’s a case of ………… 7.I searched ………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. fish and chips. 5. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 8.. the amount I’ve already saved up. 2. they reached home………. A pendulum swings ………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 12. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros
. even though they have their little …………. 15. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 16.. 5.
one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. Nor sun. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. For instance. and
.) There are. as in: (17) a. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. more often than not. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.Nadina VIŞAN
and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. of course. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. In fact.
4. the expressive function of coordination is. b. Coordinating Conjunctions
We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. etc.4.
and cherished her.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) In certain cases.
(I-am dat banii. or . dar nu am fost multumit de asta. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. sometimes but. o respectau si o indrageau. where the subordinator is repeated.Unit four
I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. both … and . (Ei o placeau pe Susan. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. 20 (b)). ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. too): (20) a.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.) b. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.g. etc). I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) c.)
Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have:
. In this case. From this point of view. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. and you’ll die.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. and hit my wife. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions.
Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) b. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. (Imi place si o admir. I admire and like her. I washed and ironed my pants.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. I like and admire her. (O admir si imi place.Nadina VIŞAN
An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.* I ironed and washed my pants.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. if we were to rewrite the example .
Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) (While Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.Unit four
1.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Brown does it with humans)
. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Brown experiments with humans.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (If you do that. he failed).) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four
(Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses
4 Key Concepts
.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents:
5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.
the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. e.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. From the functional point of view. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.g. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.which are based on coordination . takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
As previously shown. as the name suggests it.
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification
Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.)
(Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. they are still presupposed by the speaker. for instance. such as proud of. we associate it with these objects. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. (I-a dat cartea. in certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN
b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. by an adjective + preposition. sentences) required by the verb (or. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. for example). the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.)
. an adverbial item. We do not presuppose however something like.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. For instance. In a way. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.
and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. related to example (4). Thus. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. which is the adverbial willingly. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.
.e. I am afraid that he won’t come.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. an additional one. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. to add something.) b. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. i. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. to her) and one extra-item. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. In other words. A second observation. The second example.
am să mor. etc. such as want.)
.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. make. So. a închis toate ferestrele. (Înainte să plece din cameră. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (11) If you don’t marry me. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. like.Nadina VIŞAN
Last but not least. I’ll die.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.
She came to him of her own will. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 6.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
To sum up so far. this to whomever wants it.
e. Susan disappeared without saying a word. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 4. After I told her the story. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Whoever did that was a genius. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.g. They came to e. 3. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart.g. [. The book that because they home. 2.g.
believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go
.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. she looked at me sadly. 5.
was a novelty to Mitzi. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 5. As you can see. 2. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. which. You suggestion that we should. at our age. though it was largely politeness.Nadina VIŞAN
Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. WHETHER. 3. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 6. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 4. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. but he declined. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification
The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.)
. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man)
5. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. FOR. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. etc.He took an intelligent interest in her. not object.
(Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) b.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. Where he went is London. when. (15) It is John who did it. where. Who did it was John. etc.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
(14) I knew that he liked me.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. how. which. why.
.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) (16) a. who. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (E de dorit să plece. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.
done from a structural point of view. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below:
. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. consider the following table. for instance. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.1. In conclusion. etc.Nadina VIŞAN
(c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. Unlike complement clauses. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. which sums up this classification. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.) (18) She told me this before she left.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. As you will see. before. if. In (18). Compare. however. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I will go there because I feel like it. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. etc. you understand. Introduced
know e. for. I will come back such as because. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. back.g. Dear Ludwig.: e.
whether he will come when I feel like it. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.
. after.g. at your young age. as. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial
Introduced by that. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. surely you cannot sincerely believe. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little.g.
Too. Late that afternoon. a tightening in her breathing.Nadina VIŞAN
never want to set foot in the US in your life again. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. she stopped to speak to Monroe. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Accidental Man) b)1. But she thought that no one would call again. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An
.The day Monroe had died was in May. As she left the house. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. 2. he said.
interesting. That he loved e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. However.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.2.g.g.g.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. a correspondence can be traced. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. I told her everything after she arrived. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. că
e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
5. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.
.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses
Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. As you have probably noticed already.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.g.
. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.Nadina VIŞAN
you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Secondly. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. (Cred că mă place.2. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.1. complements. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. i.complement. Thirdly.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. whereas wh complements are the
. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.e. In the fourth place. whenever you identify a wh. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. So. We will come back to that in the next chapter.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.
c) I am coming home one way or another. for no matter how she tried. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. I first thought to tell in
. Pratice Consider the following text. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. before. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.g. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. She mistrusted her handwriting. but no idea what to do with them. after. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
hardest to figure out. outbuildings. a house. because. their introductory elements (e. and I do not know how things might stand between us. a barn.
(Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain)
5. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory
this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. it would make you fear to do such again. and I have not the will or the energy. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). According to a structural criterion. these clauses can be complements. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. because they modify. Key Concepts
We classify dependent (i. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function.e. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.
making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Alţii. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. însă.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. look at. (…) “Mă. Pratice Translate the following. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. think of. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. după ce că are grâu puţin. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba.e. answering the question to whom? So. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. ce o fi având. be very careful to use this term correctly. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
preposition (e. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.g. îşi spuseseră că Anton.
. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. O zbughi înapoi. etc. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. interested in. Nevasta secera în tăcere. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace.
ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. timp de un ceas. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. de fapt. Nici acum. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. cât de bolnavă era. izolate de sat. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. întâi. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. şi erau atâtea alte motive…
. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum.Nadina VIŞAN
simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. Toată lumea înţelesese că. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila.
căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. amânase scrisul. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Pace nu era. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei
. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. la nişte prieteni comuni. acum sunt desluşiţi. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. la Odobeşti. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. În realitate. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Iată. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Era bine de ştiut. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. de pildă. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. deşi cam târziu. aşa de oţetit. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. stricau totul. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic.
Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.Nadina VIŞAN
îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. frate. întâia noapte de război)
. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.
. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.
. subject relative clauses.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES
Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc. of which. whose. etc).g. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.
6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives
6.4. The Classification of Relative Clauses 126.96.36.199. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Key Concepts
.2.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.3. The Co-reference Condition 6.
2. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives
By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The Co-reference Condition .) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.1.
6.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.a discussion of attributive relatives
As we shall see.
. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.Unit six
reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. John loves that woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.Nadina VIŞAN
These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.
. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. By combining these two clauses. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.
But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman.
. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The common element woman is present. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill.
The king was just passing by. Any of the students would answer to questions. I had a book. I lost the book’s cover. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. I love my husband very much. too. therefore in spoken English. I went to London. by leaving behind a trace. The students like their teacher. 2. 5. None of the students agreed with them. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I bought Jim a book. John told his friend a story about the king. frequently used in written language. 7. 9. I introduced him to Jim. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO 5. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. The students like their teacher. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. This is my husband. WHERE 3. He’s the author who received the prize. She came to London.Nadina VIŞAN
The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. They met those students. Susan wants to meet Jane. He told Jim everything about his plans. 8. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. He liked that book. WHICH 4. 10. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. 3. 4. 6. WHO
3 The Classification of Relative Clauses
According to the criterion of form. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13)
Who breaks pays.e. i. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. 2. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.Unit six
6. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. WHOM 10.
.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. (Cine strică plateşte. WHOM
6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOSE 7. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHICH 8. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. most of them were from England. TO 11. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.
. (Cel care strică plăteşte. these relatives cannot function as attributes.e. Unlike their sisters.) So.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. unlike in the case of (14). (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. it is covert. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. is no longer overtly expressed.) • Predicative This was what she intended. in a manner of speaking.Nadina VIŞAN
(Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.
. is my favourite god. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Mercur. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.) (22) Mercury. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.) (Mercury. who is the god of commerce. (Du-te unde pofteşti. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. este zeul meu favorit. They can be thus divided into: 1.)
The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. they define it). They only provide supplementary information about it.Unit six
Adjunct Go wherever you want. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who incidentally is the god of commerce. care este zeul negoţului.
this type of relative clauses. Shakespeare. They are what
. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. restrictive relative clauses. 9. who came to see me.e. 10. On the day on which this occurred I was away.This is the village where I spent my youth. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car.
A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 2. on whom nobody could depend. Independent I don’t know what you want. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 5. 8. As we were saying. 7. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. She. then it is an attribute. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 6. is a genius. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. I have met him where I least expected. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. i. who is a genius. is a great playwright. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4.Nadina VIŞAN
.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent
This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. etc. care a murit acum câţiva ani.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.) 2. however sad this may be.
6. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun.Unit six
their parents made them. a. When the antecedent has no determiner. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. who died a few years ago. etc. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions):
Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. composed The (Freddie Mercury. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.
căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Mie. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. dried-up old maid.)
Pratice Translate the following. 3. who neither work nor am anxious. bătrînă morocănoasă. 2. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. îţi văd prea bine defectele. 5. 7. but a peevish. ci o fată
a woman.Nadina VIŞAN
I. poftiţi în faţă. numai eu nu. (Eu. 4. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte.
. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. Dintre toate personajele prezente. care-ţi sunt fiu. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. can see your shortcomings only too well.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who am your son. (Ei apeleaza la mine.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 6. care nu sunt o femeie. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. iritabilă şi uscată.) (28) They come to me. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. ill-tempered.
(Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.)
run such dangers and undergone such toils. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.Unit six
6. were now in his possession. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.5 Relative Clause Introducers
Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.
. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. părăsi camera. erau acum în posesia lui.
heard. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. than whom few more can be more crashing.
service finished late.
(Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. too.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) b. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [±
. The genitive form with which is still in use. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) d. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
Aside from these marginal examples. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. but it is typical of the formal.1.5. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) c. as can be seen in (36d). 6. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. literary style: (37) a.
form of which. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…)
.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he
was the almost unconscious agent. (Iris Murdoch.
(… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…)
Sejanus seems to have been the father. … Italy. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. animals.) b.) • states. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. He is not the man which he used to be. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca
revolutionary which at bottom he is. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. by the way.) b. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.
. but to a type or a function: a. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.Nadina VIŞAN
When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. ships (that can be personified) a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. of which.
etc. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.) b) dialectal (49) a. Poland is the place where Christine was born. France.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. (Nu ştiam ce vor. whom it concerned most closely.Unit six
b. reason. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. time. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. etc. pe care o privea direct. why. while. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. how.)
.) 6. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b.5. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. It is poor what gets the punches.) b. where.2 Relative Adverbs: when.
He went where he had been before.) b. The place whither he goes is unknown.They left when they decided it was proper to.3. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) e.5. This is the place wherefrom they came.) b.) c. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. They returned to the land whence they had come. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) 6.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.)
When they introduce free relative clauses. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.Nadina VIŞAN
a. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.)
. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.
) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing:
.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. Moreover. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.Unit six
It is invariable. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.
but they are used very infrequently: as.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.
. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.)
With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. much. not any.)
When the rule of euphony must be observed
With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.Nadina VIŞAN
The children were the parcels that filled the car.4. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. I’ll get you such things as you may want. Honest man as he was.
his shoes. but • in standard language a. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. any. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.5.) b. every.
I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.Unit six
(O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. And always on the buttered side. There is no one of us but wishes to help you.
. ăl de fusese in China…) b.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67)
man who doesn’t feel pity …)
a. This is the same one that/as you had before.) c. There’s not many as’ll say that. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. It’s the dry weather does it. Uncle George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) c. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) • in dialect a.
It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.)
(It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) b.
3. 6. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.Unit six
since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What Inman remembered was this passage. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. It seemed a thing
. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.3): (72) a.5. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. 5. b. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 7.) c. The man John spoke to is a genius. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. That which shows God out of me. This is where we talk money. What I’m saying is. fortifies me. makes me a wart and a wen. The man that John spoke to is a genius. Where he was from.*The man John spoke to is an idiot.) b. we all have to come to some terms.” 4. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. The man who John spoke to is a genius. 2. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.
d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. (…) Partly. 10. though. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 11. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 12. he had left Ruby high and dry.Nadina VIŞAN
of such wonder to Ada. Ruby said.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came.
. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. of living. which is a lot. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. The rudeness of eating. 13. Whatever his fate was. Oh. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. who had not witnessed many dawns. 9. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 8.
al lui. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. divortata. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. Cumnatul meu avea. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. (Iris Murdoch. mort de tanar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. fiu natural al unui morar. vasnic. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. cumnatul unui portughez. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. un var primar. una din nepoatele unui inginer. pirpiriu. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. nu prea sarac. al carei strabunic. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata.Unit six
Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. poate. pe linie paterna. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. el insusi frate de lapte cu
. plutonier. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started.
She was a woman. Teatru)
6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding
If you go back to our discussion in 5. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. This is the book. I lost the cover of the book.Nadina VIŞAN
fiul unui laptar.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. Everybody listened to that woman. insurat de trei ori la rand. The opposite phenomenon. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .2. b. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.
For the intense anxious sense of herself
. The problem of safe transportation. 8.Unit six
b. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 6. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 9. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The difference between (76) and (77). The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 2. no easy answers to which could be offered. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 7. In the interest of public decency. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 5. has been troubling them forever. 4. he requested that the public be excluded. 3.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.
The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 2. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Activity 9 were now all gone. They do not function as attributes. has been deleted. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).
. 5. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. was now complete. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back.His father’s friends. no matter which. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.7 Key Concepts
Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 3. This story. His friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. as the case is).
6. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. 4. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Irene.Nadina VIŞAN
with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 10. he rarely saw now. whose interest he most sincerely shared.
The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău
. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Nelu. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. 3. Pentru alţii. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. himeric. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 5. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. sunt vrednic de invidiat. închipuirea. 4. De douazeci de ani. 7. 6. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Toate sfârşeau. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. 2. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. pentru dumneata bunăoară. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut.
12. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele
. cu surle şi cu tobe. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. 10. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. 8. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum.Nadina VIŞAN
am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 9. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. a făcut el. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire.
Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. trăia larg de tot. din care cauză pe Dora. 16. 15. apărură. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. 20. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. de unde venea şi Marta. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Avea acum un fel de vertij. toată lumea întreba cine e. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. pe strada Icoanei. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. fie la teatru. deşi atât de aproape. roiuri de fetiţe.
. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. 17. zise ea cu ochii mari. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. Dacă mă lovea. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. care era foarte “mondenă”. În spatele lor. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. până mai adineauri. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. 14. despre care. 18. fie pe stradă. dinspre Maria Rosetti.Unit six
adevărate şi care nu. din direcţia căreia apoi.
în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. până în şosea. 22. aveau un stil al lor. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. întâia noapte de război)
. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. după ce maşina a fost reparată. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. pe care ea îi admira acum. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Pentru mine însă. pe care eu nu-l aveam. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. 23. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea.Nadina VIŞAN
21. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. 24. Pare-se că snobii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. de sus de unde eram. când au urcat râpa iar. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. de mine.
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.
. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
2.Topicalization 188.8.131.52. The Distribution of That Complements
7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 184.108.40.206.Extraposition 7.1. That Deletion
7.1.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory?
7.2.5. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. That Complements as Subjects 220.127.116.11. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.6.3. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements
7.2.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.1. Key Concepts
. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 18.104.22.168. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials
That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. In other words. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. but also of infinitival ones. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. (3) Tell me if you need anything. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.
. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.1. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. the clause is extraposed. Apart from those introduced by that.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements
7.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. placed in a marginal position.
but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.Nadina VIŞAN
This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object
unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?)
. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause
unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.
2. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 7. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 3. It appears that no one voted for him. 4. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 4. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 5. 7. 9. 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is nice to meet you.Unit seven
Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It is no use trying to convince her. 6. 14. 10. 11. 13. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 2. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 10. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 3. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 11.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. They considered it very silly of her to
. 6. 8. 15. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 9.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It so happens that I know the secret cipher.
5. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 2. 4. 2. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. They never expected it that he would come back. 6. 18.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. mă ascundeam în grabă. 3. I don’t expect it that he will come back. zice Lionel. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. în canal. 2. I guess it that he will come back. în gropi.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. atât
. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. sub poduri. 3. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.Nadina VIŞAN
have married Bill. 4. 5. unde se nimerea. 3. după porţi.
” 4. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. 7. Spunând cele ce-am spus. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. 6.Unit seven
cât se va putea. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. 5. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. fără să cârteşti. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală.
. excelentă. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. (Nu întotdeauna. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). vor căuta să o zdruncine. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Mi s-a părut chiar că. fără îndoială. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele.
Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. in the case of topicalization.) While in the case of extraposition.1. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. this asymmetry is undone. Pratice Read the following. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of
7. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.2. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. subject clauses are the frequent situation. 1. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.
He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. He did not blame Gracie. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. but not now. even today. This was another era. 4. mere chance would decide. whether it would finally carry her off. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 7. 2. was inconceivable. 8. 3. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. He was utterly gone. She had always been the slave of chance. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 5. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had
. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 6. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. he felt no spring of interest in her. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now.Unit seven
her only as an instrument.
(A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.1. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.3. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.Nadina VIŞAN
passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.)
. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.
the verb to drive). Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. we obtain.Unit seven
clause shift operates only on object clauses.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.
. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.e. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.
Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 2.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 7.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 3. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 5. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 4. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. who had just returned from Africa. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 8.
./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. prime-minister.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.
(21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. The Distribuition of That Complements
As it will be shown below. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.2. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.Unit seven
. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.
They believe that the man is guilty. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) b.: (25) a. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. prefer. They promised him that he would received a new house.1.) a. deny. estimate. promise.)
.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.2. deem. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. state. afirm. He announced that they were engaged. They believe the man is guilty.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.Nadina VIŞAN
7. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. predict. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) b. consider. desire. He announced their engagement. judge. communicate. etc. (I-au promis o casă nouă. etc. suggest.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. explain. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
(this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. similar to the construction existent in Romanian):
in contemporary English. ibid. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. hope =>purpose. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. they lose their meaning. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) I like him in that he is smart.Nadina VIŞAN
In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.e. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. for example.) language. In older stages of English. on condition that. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.)
. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.
) b. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) (66)
a.) When the structure contains the word such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) b.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.
. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. He gave such an answer as had expected. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. He gave an answer such.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. să o vadă trecând. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.
That can be deleted.Unit seven
c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.
) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. they were chained to each other forever. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.)
. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.We discovered that our map has disappeared. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN
(I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. for better or worse. (Iris Murdoch. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (Iris Murdoch.) b. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.
that he uses a relaxed tone. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.Unit seven
7. say. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.
a. He showed he was able to do it. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. (A prins de veste că ei vin. tell). (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.
That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.3 ‘That Deletion
7. He said he had borrowed her money.3. for instance.)
The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. He got word they were coming.) c.1.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.
. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) b.
ibid. (Îmi place că e aici. I like it that he was here. *I like it he was here.Nadina VIŞAN
7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?)
. 7.) b. they were chained to each other forever. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.) (De asemenea.3.3.
for better or worse. because that has been deleted.3. rele. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.2. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. bune. they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse.
But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming?
This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause.4. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.)
. he said. you want me to believe. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.
7.) b)He told me that she was there. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. spuse el. (“Este acolo”. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. that they were not too late to leave. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 7) They maintain. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses
The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. simultaneity. which is ungrammatical in English.
Future Perfect -----. (Am să o părăsesc. He told me that she had been there. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. He said he would leave her.) b. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. spuse el. (A spus că. (“Era acolo”.
rule can be optional with the so-called
FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their
. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (Pâna să plece. In the example below. I will leave her. “She was here”. vine el.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect
a. he said. o să vină el. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. The Present complement). până pleacă ea.) b. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.
there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. only I don’t
The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. show. think. etc. mention. regret. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the
group was/*is an undercover agent. insist. whisper. notice.) On the other hand. dream. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. believe. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. With such factive verbs as realize. hope. be aware. report. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. say.Unit seven
And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. wish. forget. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.etc. be amazed/concerned. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) b. discover. realize it). (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.)
. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.
in tender deference to each other. She realized that all men are fools. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) b. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.
. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly
married pair. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. cu un respect tandru reciproc. feign habits which are not their own. He knew that she thought all men were fools. She still believed that the earth was flat.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Iris Murdoch.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. Consider also: (85) a. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. we notice that general truths. She believed that the earth is round.
She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.Unit seven
2. such as a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional.
. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) b. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) In (88).) The rule Past -----
Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain
complements which contain a non-durative. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) b. Peter said that John will leave at 5. There are
f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. f) John said that Harry would leave. c) John said that Harry is leaving. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. The time is 3 o’clock. Imagine. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. for instance.Nadina VIŞAN
(Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John said that Harry will leave. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. g) John thought that Harry ran.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. But
John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. kingfisher. geese both grey and white. slyness in a fight. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. nighthawk. Translate the following. whistling swan. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. She admired their keenness of wit. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life.
. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. quail. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. bluebird. lark. redtailed hawk. lack of pridefulness. as evidenced by its drear plumage. love of practical jokes. Cooper’s hawk. c. jaybird. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Crows will relish what presents itself. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow.
She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Now here he stood jailed. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. war hero though he was. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. in the very act of expiring. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He had fought hard through the war.Nadina VIŞAN
C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. the young officer. And they might just hang him. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. But as the battle raged around them. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain)
. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. he claimed. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. He died erect. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.
The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).5 Key Concepts
That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. On certain occasions that can be deleted. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. object ones up to the attributive function. from the very frequent subject. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.Unit seven
7. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. or else. which they share with wh-complements. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).
. on other occasions it has to stay there.
cel mai mare. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. 2. 3. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. 4. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Fiind
. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Unul din ei. Mama. peste puţin.
aşa. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. 5. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. va pleca din oraş la vie. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. 9. luminos şi apropiat şi când. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. un vis de acesta
. cel puţin pentru un timp. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. fericit. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. 7. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. 8. de ce constata în sine. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. ea.Unit seven
de o idioţie celebră. 6. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. care îl pândise. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Nu ţi-a trecut. venind de la avocat. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Se mira. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. dacă va mai veni.
dar şi teama că. şi mândria că a biruit. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Apoi Bubi era şi
. Astfel de va fi. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.Nadina VIŞAN
nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. fireşte. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. 11. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. 12. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. lucrul era înfăptuit. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. încă o dată. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Acesta. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. liniştit. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10.
ci numai aşa. fără o vorbă scrisă. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)
. Pe toate. după cum. 14. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. mai puternic decât oricând. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. spre Jurubiţa. să le lămurească pe toate.Unit seven
obosit de încordare şi de emoţii.
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
3.7.4.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions
22.214.171.124.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Key Concepts
.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 126.96.36.199.
From this perspective.) • like that complements.) b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). I told her to be more careful in the future. Consider the following: • like that complements. b.) b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.
(3) a. To love her is something really wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (2) a. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. It is important that you should know what you need. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).1. That you love her is something wonderful. It is important for you to know what you need. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. What Are Infinitive Complements
Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.Unit eight
. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).
the Participle) (i. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. the Conditional. d. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. moduri nepersonale) By convention. gerundial clauses. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. participial clauses. For instance.
. etc. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.e. the Gerund. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. 2. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift:
(4) a.Nadina VIŞAN
like that complements. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so.) b. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. as opposed to the finite ones.
it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. namely no ending. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.Unit eight
the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving
Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.) b.)
. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) c. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.
10. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.
8.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • •
(6) They told her to leave.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 8.
Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile
(7) They saw her leave. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. the criterion of form.2. 9. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 5. 2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 6. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. A Classification of Infinitives
There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 4. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 7. 3.
/ Au văzut-o că pleaca. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. 2. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (10)
. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. watch: they watched him cry
An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. hear. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.Unit eight
• • • •
Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.
/ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.
. Pratice Translate the following. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. uncharacteristic for literary English. 3. However. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.Nadina VIŞAN
(Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.
the universe.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.
we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. or the control constructions.
In other words. as I have already mentioned. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. to use the appropriate technical term.
We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive.
Further on. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.Unit eight
) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să nu greşească. So far.)
In this situation.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.)
. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. I hoped for him to be there in time. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. PRO to err is human.) b. PRO to forgive divine. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. the logical subject. namely the agent of the event. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. It is important for him not to err. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives:
It is important for him to come back home. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. şi creştineşte să ierţi. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.
) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive.) b. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive. not to the infinitive. He stepped aside for her to enter. but a PRO-TO one:
. In other words. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. Semantically. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.Unit eight
Adjunct: (19) a. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). him is related to the main clause verb. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. but the patient of the verb persuade.
\ They tempted him to leave. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him.
Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ She promised him to leave. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ He persuaded her to come. Likewise. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ I allowed them to come. \ I would love them to come. I hate animals to be tortured. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \
. \ She wanted him to leave. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.Nadina VIŞAN
I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ They convinced her to come back.
\ They really asked her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. So. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. \ They did not wish her to come back. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.) In examples (25) and (26). Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.
.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. • Last but not least.) He seems to be a good linguist.Unit eight
They would have hated her to come back.
/ E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. appear.Nadina VIŞAN
b) Second. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. seem. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.). which are said to be free. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. that is not required by certain verbs. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. +
They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. with special semantic and syntactic properties. etc. To sum up the discussion. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi.
. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. Pratice Translate the following sentences. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. hate. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. to meet her. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6.
dislike. mean. endeavour.
8. agree to.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. want. Compare: (31) a.)
friend. expect.Unit eight
să pleci din casa mea. try. afford. etc. manage. etc./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. propose. deserve. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. seek (= try). need. care to. hope. omit.
. hate.3 The Distribution of PRO . (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. bear. arrange.TO Constructions
In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. scorn. aspire to.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. etc.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. refuse. wish. intend.) b) verbs such as abide. contrive. decline. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. fail. venture. like. / E greu să îl suporţi. presume. prefer. deign. desire. scheme. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. condescend.
be important. verbs of liking and disliking.) b. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. conclude. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. threaten. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. endeavour. however. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions
These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. forget.) b. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. ask. stand. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. etc.etc. I would like for him to become president of the country. suggest. claim.) b. I hate that you should say a thing like this. bear.)
8. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. desirable.Nadina VIŞAN
b. For all of them to have been killed is. possible. unlikely.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.
(Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.Unit eight
The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions
1. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 2. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.)
. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) b. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.)
8. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.
(Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure.) 5. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. Like in the case of that complements. I decided for John to represent us. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
3. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. the preposition is deleted. Direct Objects (39) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 4.)
knowledge. but the meaning remains.) b.
You’re an idiot to go there. She is pretty to look at.) c. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. etc. He is a bastard to work for.) b. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.
(Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) c) adverbial of result
. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. This paint is like concrete to work with.Unit eight
The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.: (42) a. 6. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) d. curious about. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. delicious. The stew is delicious to eat. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) e. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.
/ Ehei. to tell you the truth. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) Oh. you’re a bad driver. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / Ca să nu mai lungim
. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. conduci prost. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă.) I’ve never met him. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. drept să spun. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate?
(Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.Nadina VIŞAN
The plate was too hot to touch./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. final or introductory infinitive In this case. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. să nu piardă trenul. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / Pe şleau.
enable.: (51) a. (49) a. nu mai vreau să te vad. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. induce. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.Unit eight
vorba. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. b.etc. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.
8. swear. etc. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. oblige. influence. press. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. encourage.) b. inform. promise. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. direct. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. need. inspire.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control
By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. According to this.)
. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. urge.)
(A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.
Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once./ And now he
. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. look to.etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. vote. order. nominate. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. etc.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. permit.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. etc. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. choose. count on. command. allow. name. depend on. prevail on.Nadina VIŞAN
In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. elect. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.
) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. i.e.Unit eight
refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (57) He is to come any day now. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. seem.etc. come.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction
As previously mentioned.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. be about to. happen. (O să întârzii/ leşin.verbs: appear. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. grow. etc.
.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. An Accidental Man)
8. this construction is lexically governed. (Se pare că îi place de el.: (55) She appears to like him. etc. (Iris Murdoch. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). be going to.
) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.)
8. etc. be claimed. be considered.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction
This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. overhear. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. that of intention. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. feel.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.: (63)
I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. etc.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. In (57). is well supported by the syntactical analysis. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).: (62) They heard him insult her. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. be alleged. be thought. perceive.etc.Nadina VIŞAN
The meaning of (58). be reported. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be rumoured. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. hear. observe. watch.
. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.
believe. (Cred că este un geniu. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. understand.Unit eight
(Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. cause. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. prove. judge. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. have. find. figure. deem.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. However. consider. occasion. presume. discover.)
. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. etc.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. picture.) • with a full infinitive: get. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. Infinitive)
(Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. imagine. remember.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. recollect. know.
etc. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. expect.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. he hated anyone to comment
.etc.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. suffer. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. command. prefer. order. want. permit.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. Harold. love. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.Nadina VIŞAN
d) verbs of permission and command: allow.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. desire. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. if he himself was out of spirits. wish. choose.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. mean. who wasn’t used to men with moods. they had depressed and fuddled him.
In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. so that we might get to the future and have done. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. though he tended to look down on those below it. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor)
. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. He suspected hostility at once. Both seemed to him a little unreal. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.P. (L. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. he didn’t envy those above it. the herd instinct was very strong in him. A little crossly.Unit eight
on it. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. to make sure we attended strictly to business. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.
we can speak about bare and full infinitives. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.Nadina VIŞAN
8.9 Key Concepts
The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. The last criterion. From this perspective. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.
. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.
într-o zi. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. e important ce întrebări pui. fireşte. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. E posibil. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. de asemenea. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. dar să nu-ţi spună. un bărbat şi o femeie. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. e) Când doi oameni. de bună seamă. Şi tu să fii. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. lovit şi umilit. mai bine219
. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. să-l capete. bunăoară. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. pare că uităm propria noastră durere.Unit eight
Pratice Translate the following texts.
în parte. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. în parte.Şt.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. mai pline de înţeles. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. aşa cum îi apăruse el. mai bine de două decenii. să nu vrea să se şteargă. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.Şt. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Să spui de pildă. ca să nu şi-o amintească. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. că eşti tânăr. avusese dreptate. (B. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în ploaie. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. în jos. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.
. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Însă Paul Achim trăise. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. încă. d-a lungul gâtului.Nadina VIŞAN
zis. . Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. pe care deja o uitase.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt.Delavrancea. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să traiesc numai cu tusea. sau. De era vară. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. un picior.
şi nu un amant. o mizerie. un miros îngrozitor. Mă laud singură. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele.. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. fie ea şi grăbită. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. deşi. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang.. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. sunt aici cu tot ce am. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.Unit eight
Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu..Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. prin faţă e coborârea. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. de fapt. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. (Al. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. şi prin faţă. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. biata Muti. orice bucureştean ştie. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. orice-ar fi. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. Într-un cuvânt. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. nici ca să
. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. ei.
vorbească atât de repede. niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută)
. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate. parcă la întâmplare.
verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions
9.3.Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions
9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 188.8.131.52.4.2.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.2.1.The Verbal Noun 184.108.40.206 Key Concepts
.9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.2.1.The Gerund
9.3.Differences between Participles and Gerunds
Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.Unit nine
The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.1. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The Participle
The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.)
. Let us start with the Participle:
9. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. (Susan doarme.1. Due to this situation.
Susan has come.) As you can see in this second case. too: (6) Her eye-lids. been and killed are past participle forms. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (A venit Susan) b.
. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. the past participle can appear after a noun. In (2) the forms come. blood-shot and painted. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track).) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. it functions attributively. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.) More infrequently. Susan has been killed.Nadina VIŞAN
In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. were closing. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.e. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. i.
. she ran away. începură să cânte. I will arrive there on time. he will eventually marry her. If provoked. ea o luă la fugă. Arriving here. mother permitting. people should pay attention to high notes. Oh. Knowing who the guy was. God willing. o să ajung la timp.) b. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.Unit nine
(I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.) c. (Ştiind cine era el. When singing.) d.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. a lion can attack. Weather permitting.) b. I will arrive there on time. they started singing. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time)
(Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) c. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. (Sosind aici. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. leul poate să atace.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.
watch. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (L-am descoperit furând. Nominative + Present / Past Participle
(9) a. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. smell. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-au descoperit că fură.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. They found him killed by a bullet.
(Am simţit-o tremurând. respectively. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) b. notice. behold. He was found stealing.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found killed by a bullet.) ii.)
. hear.Nadina VIŞAN
The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. I found him stealing.
) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. she knew herself dismissed. send. set. hear. (15)
. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. start. make a. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) • Causative verbs: get.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. recollect. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) • mental perception verbs: remember.Unit nine
He was noticed crying.) b. I heard it said that men are a bore. feel. have. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. etc. etc.: When she heard his words. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. leave. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. recollect.) • Causative verbs: get .
(A fost văzut plângând. find. He’ll soon get things going.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. etc. have. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. a. keep. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. I must get my hair cut. know.) b. confess.) b.: a. etc.) c.
He wanted his car fixed immediately. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios!
. command I ordered my bill made out. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. lovit şi plin de sânge.Nadina VIŞAN
(Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / Nu după multă vreme. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. Men like shopping made easy.) b. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) • verbs of permission. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.
and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.Unit nine
Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). I should be glad to recall the petitioner. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / Dinny. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. with its lips drawn back. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.e. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. Unlike the gerund. / My Lord.1. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / In any case. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever.2.
. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.
a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. se va opri şi ploaia.She didn’t want to hear the story again.Nadina VIŞAN
The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I was astonished at what I saw. I have looked through the fashion magazine. She had heard it all before. The tree had fallen across the road. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. using either a present participle. People were sleeping in the next room.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I turned on the light. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 7. I was (20)
. 4. It had been uprooted by the gale. (Văzând acestea. 2. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 6. I left. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (Desi nu ştia limba. 5. I left. 3. am plecat. am plecat. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. the rain will stop. I knew that the murderer was still at large.
eagle. Getting out of bed. open. wooden. mown. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. roast. covered. quick. They found the treasure. 12. cloth. Tied to the post. empty. I let the dog out of the room. Reading in bed. He fed the dog. open. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. fishy. 3. one of the eggs broke. stony. his horse fell at the last jump.shoulder. coloured. I slammed the door of my room. minded (3 times). 6. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. narrow. 4. 9. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Read the sentences and try to correct them. a pot of paint fell on my head. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Mother punished me for my mistake. handed. straight. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Leaving the cinema. red (twice). shaven. skinned. 2. Riding in the first race. He sat down to his own dinner. my hands often get very cold. 5. haired (twice). dark. 8. stricken. 7. the sea was tossing the post up and down. hearted (twice). broad.Running into the room. lion. drunken. sharp.
. three. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. many. b) Headed (5 times). 10. eyed (3 times). 11. 8. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. a rug caught her foot and she fell. a scorpion bit him. Passing under a ladder. 10. Barking furiously. 9. bald. lighted.Unit nine
extremely reluctant to open the door. cornered. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Dropped by parachute. Climbing down the tree.
bounden.I fell on the ice./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. are in grave danger of extinction. lead. ill-gotten. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. 7. meaning. rotten. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (find) 6. (admire) 5. was today taken back to prison. _______ by S. Translate into English: 1. eyes. stream. The film. the same verb is missing twice._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. _______ my arm. _______ for their elegance and precision. umerii abia ascunşi sub o
. (grow) 4. _______ for a bargain. are sold throughout the world.Nadina VIŞAN
sunken. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. were taken to hospital. Whales. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.Spielberg. (injure). The escaped prisoner. b) grass. In the following pairs of sentences. wealth. hidden. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (hunt). lamb. head. shrunken. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. duty. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. graven. man. I stared at the canvas for ages. image. candle. plank. is expected to be a great hit. / Swiss watches. / Three people. shorn. (take) 2. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. meat. deer. / Many old people . ________ hiding in a barn.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (produce) 3.
S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. nesigur şi moale. ca şi cum. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. După câtva timp. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. precum şi foile de plăcintă. întinse. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. Şi sufletul său. 3. când deschisă. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. păsări tăiate. 2. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. şi moi. Şi. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit.Unit nine
dantelă. legume date prin mai multe ape. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. le fierbea. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. 4. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. trezit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)
. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. care le rânduia. când strânsă. le cocea. O umbreluţă. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. deodată sufocat.
. (Dacă vezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.1. crezi. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. According to this criterion.2. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.Nadina VIŞAN
9.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. The Gerund
9. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. Likewise. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.2.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.
2. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b. In that. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.Unit nine
How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Consider the following table. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. Him winning and you losing was surprising. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. That he won and you lost was surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ?
. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) 9. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.) b.2. gerunds differ from participles.
as being verbal
. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. Consider (32). *It was illegal growing a beard. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. It was illegal to grow a beard. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.
A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally
extrapose (if you remember.Nadina VIŞAN
Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.) Unlike participles.) b. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) 2. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.
She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. as offered in the table below:
. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.3. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) 3.2. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds
There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.Unit nine
in nature.) 9. Participles vs. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) b. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. It’s no good talking to her. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.) b.
PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. + noun] 1. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. forms: continuous . (prepositional object clause) 5. 3. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participles may function adverbials: house. may be preceded by prepositions:
Coming here. 2. passive ones She was crying. perfect. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his
(Accusative + clause)
. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. babies suck their thumb.
/ Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o
. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el.Unit nine
Pratice Translate into English.
eating habits/ eating people. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 11. 6. 13. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 12. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 14. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He was spotted talking to her. crying game / crying woman. 5. 8. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.
. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 15.Nadina VIŞAN
mare agitată. 4. shooting gallery / shooting star. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. Gambling is his favourite pastime. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 7. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 10. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 12. 2. 3. 9.
but the presence of a direct object (i.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3. The Verbal Noun
The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. a The absence of an of phrase. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.)
The absence of a determiner like the.e. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243
The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb:
How can we tell? In the first case. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information:
. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. These are features that normally characterize any noun. Thus. George’s shooting the attacker. In the second situation. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards
Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.Nadina VIŞAN
Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. if we were to go back to our incomplete table.
/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on./ His sudden coming puzzled her. + noun] Gerunds
[+noun] Verbal nouns sudden
the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the
[+ verb] Participles (After) shooting
[+ verb. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. the sheriff./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. very large./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff?
Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. Jim left quietly. / His coming there puzzled her.
the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery?
They saw him shooting whole town. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.
for example.Nadina VIŞAN
9. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.
The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. the meaning is different. ING Forms and Infinitives. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. whenever we meet an –ing form. Look. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. For instance.4.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street)
. However. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.
containing an infinitive.g. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. Compare
She stopped to eat a sandwich. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. and the most well-known one. anterior to the verb in the main clause. On the other hand.Unit nine
the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing)
Another example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. having left) is infrequently used in English. future-oriented value of the infinitive).)
.) After looking at this example.) The first example. the infinitive is future-oriented. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. (S-a oprit din mâncat. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.
having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.)
As you can see. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). i. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.Nadina VIŞAN
She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. which means that they are similar in meaning. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.)
. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. recollect.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. b) Regret
She remembers filling the tank with petrol.
the petrol tank is not filled yet. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.)
I mean to tell her the truth. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.)
The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.Unit nine
(46) versus (47)
I regret filling the tank with petrol.)
. dar asta este.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. but that’s it. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the action is not completed. In the second example.
In the second example. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. the event has not happened yet. The house needs to be repaired. The house needs repairing.)
. (Casa trebuie reparată. mean has the sense signify.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. (Casa trebuie reparată.) wedding.Nadina VIŞAN
In the first example.) b. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. e) need. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. want With [+ human] objects.human] objects. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) With [.
we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. (hold) up his pen and (speak). Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. gerund or infinitive. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.Unit nine
In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ ‘Tell me. but they went by too quickly. So do look out for me about six o’clock
. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. whereas in the second case.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. however appearances were against us. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. I did ask Mr. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. my Lord.’ ‘In any case. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. my Lord. (take) down her answer. Croom (try) (follow) one. it’s overrated. Lady Corven. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.
. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. suddenly. and went out (post) it himself. I just used the word and they fell.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. licked the envelope with passion. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I must go back now. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. he addressed the note. Then. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ said Clare.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).Nadina VIŞAN
tomorrow. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.
The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Last but not least. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns.5. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Pratice In the following texts.Unit nine
9. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. the
. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun).
The two sides were moving apart. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. their edges crashing inwards. covering the girl’s head. She started coughing. down. It was like a mist. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. then the noise and the cracking stone. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. it
. down into God knows where.Nadina VIŞAN
very earth opening up. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. Then he saw movement at his feet. hoping he would see somebody up there. according to the books he read. moving up towards his chest. The sight of the two children. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. He looked up towards the daylight. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. someone looking for survivors. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. the enormous split in the earth. At first. but then he saw it billowing up from below. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. slowly rising in a swirling motion.
’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. slanted on to her cheek. my dear. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. for Dornford was busy on an important case. and sunlight. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. She finished what jobs there were.
. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.Unit nine
had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. brightening to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.
Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Vaucher şi cu mine. cei doi Mamona. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit.Nadina VIŞAN
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. ucenicul său necredincios. and then went riding with her in the rain. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. În urma slugii. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. mama mea. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. 2. Ridicându-se. închizând ochii. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi
. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. într-o joi. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. totul se animă deodată.
Şi deodată. privit. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. am ştiut şi cine. 3. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. o sărută pe frunte. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. dar ştiutoare. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. pe mama mea părând absentă. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. la mine. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Neclintiţi. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. pe Vaucher. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. aşezată cu spatele la noi. totul mi se părea cunoscut. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. aplecându-se puţin. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. auzit şi zadarnic. după cum îi spusese mama. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. în timp ce frazele continuau să
. se duse lânga mama şi. afară ploua în continuare. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult.Unit nine
gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui.
şi. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. camionul a plecat. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. dar.Nadina VIŞAN
curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. cu tot cu baraca. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. Tot ce se vedea era un
. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Au coborât din camion încet. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. 5. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu stiva de lemne. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu soba. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase.
. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine
pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.
TEN REVISION EXERCISES
since I have decided. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. this would really hurt. in some way. 3. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. and that
. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. I am sorry not to have seen you. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. he had been advised. How this time was to come. How much. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. apart from his distress for parents. was unclear to Mitzi. 12. because of pity. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 2. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 6. 4. to retire early from my employment. and meet it right here at home. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 10. Having regard to the date of drafting. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. whereas if she went away she would get none. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 11. 7. 5. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. without profound questioning. 13. 9. and this particularly of late.Unit ten
Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. he had not yet been able to estimate. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. You have been much in my thoughts.
/ Whenever I visited my aunt. this always makes us feel embarrassed. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 17.Nadina VIŞAN
was difficult enough. I was made say Grace before every dinner. 19. for attending his sister’s wedding. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. / In the end. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 14. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. / Before you go on changing the subject. even for months. one of the eggs broke. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. looking forward had not yet taken place. please consider his proposition. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he did not come to see her. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes.
. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured.
talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. cotton mills at Manchester.
. Tony was a child. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. She felt as when. Instead of which she had married. They hated trying on. Clarissa used to think. of the quick and wiry. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. centered in London and themselves. At country houses she had met them of course. her recklessness. They rushed into shops. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. quite unexpectedly. without discovery. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. an open-air person. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. a little girl. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. she said. her old friend Hugh. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. to end in some awful tragedy. Vulgar men did. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. of all people. rather than the hefty type. it was said. (and there he was. Though much in request before her marriage. Essentially. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. and it was bound. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping.Unit ten
Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1.
Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Bolnava nu se simtea. nu a facut-o pentru asta.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.Nadina VIŞAN
Transplanted to Ceylon. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. viguros si vesel in felul lui. De uitat. astfel. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. era un bun sfatuitor. Cind l-a chemat.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. she professed. nu puteam sa le uit. The closer she allowed him to come to her. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. to keep abreast of the current.Rindurile dvs. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. ii faceau bine. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Reading many novels. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. the more she would be torturing him. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. aveam tot mai
. indeed. cre s-au nascut lent. she was uneasy. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night.Over the River) 2. (John Galsworthy . but lying in her bath. si in plus. with all its impatience of restraint. short of the contacts of love.
Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. fa-o. Banulescu – ibid. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. are nevoie. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.) 6. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. pe scaunul lui tare. (St. (St. (St.)
. latimea si ascutisul labei. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Personal.) 7. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia.Unit ten
mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Banulescu – ibid. lungimea picioarelor. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. ca si tine. se stie. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. cit mai au de trait. Banulescu – ibid. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Banulescu – ibid. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. mi-am zis. Daca tu. Ce a iesit. 4. Milionarule. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. vaazut cindva. poate fi compensata.) 5. nu pricep nimic. (St. o data sau de doua ori.
Could he be blamed. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.P. A story-book romance. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. (. a wounded soldier. to Emmanuel College. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who told me.. my grandfather. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. delivered from the holocaust.. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. 2. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. when I was even younger than you. for being a renegade. Who came home from the war. Arthur Atkinson M. Who when asked about his memories of the War. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who was may father. Translate them.Nadina VIŞAN
Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in
. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Cambridge.
But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. Fabianism. How
. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. and because – but this is mere speculation. deep-set. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. he had already engaged himself? 3. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. 4. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. a moody man. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed).Unit ten
undergraduate whims. Rachel Williams. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. to whom.
Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. la şcoală. Cum a trăit el. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. cu taina aceasta. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. om mare. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum a ajuns el. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion. Ion.
. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea.Nadina VIŞAN
fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. satul. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted.
Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Când actriţa. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. de mama lor. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. greşeli dintr-astea. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. împotriva tuturor. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel.Unit ten
Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. cu sau fără voie. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . L-au derivat cei din teatru.
. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. când voi fi singur. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6.pune totul in discuţie. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. singurul lui stăpân. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. din franţuzeşte. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui.
e îndrăgostită de un actor. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. 6. dam buzna peste automobile. privindu-mă în ochi. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. nevasta-mea. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. provocându-le. tânăr şi frumos şi el. pe jumătate prezent. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Tot aşa. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. 5. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. A devenit palid. continuând. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. sau ridicole. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. 3.Nadina VIŞAN
tânără şi frumoasă. ci un sistem de acomodare.
. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. 4. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Am început. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. traversând. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Într-o vreme. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. de pildă. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. uneori şi astăzi chiar. parcă începusem s-o uit.
nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. 8. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. ca un acrobat. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. iar. fără să mă opresc o clipă. 9. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. fireşte. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. orice s-ar întâmpla. Dacă nemţii înaintau. şi să nu ameţesc. şi dacă merg întins. Aş vrea să mă las jos. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. E o problemă. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. De altminteri. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. că nu m-am gândit la asta. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem.Unit ten
7. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la
. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. 11. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. Am început. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. să merg întins. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea.
Auzindu-l. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Adica tot trecutul.. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. 17. eu am venit sa va intreb. se uita in jos.Ma. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Uite. de la obiecte de pret. In curind. la amintiri. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. parca ar fi vorbit in vis.. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. 16. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. 13. Greu era din partea asta. Ilie nu-l asculta. de la lucruri personale. nu mai pricepu nimic. de la proces.
. 14. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. dar nu se mai putea. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Ii venea greu. la carti.Nadina VIŞAN
Constanta. Acum isi ferea privirea. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. nu mai semana. La un moment dat. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. de uimire. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. la fata locului. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. trebuia sa le spuna. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. cu mirare. 15.
care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Ilie nu intelesese nimic. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. 19. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. apoi se uitau la Ilie.Ce sa fac. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. There was even
. Zimbea siret. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. vorbe asa si-asa. 20. se indeparta nepasator. cum zicea Anghel. Nu era nevoie. asa cum facuse pina acum. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. dar. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti.Unit ten
18. . comment on the underlined phrases: 1. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Aici era ceva. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. which was part of his rich outfit.
But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety.Miller at her hotel. gave an exclamation. to admit that she was a proud. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. asked for Mrs. She was one
. on this occasion. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. But Daisy. the young lady. conversationally. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. resuming her walk. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. rude woman. He walked a long time. 3. to move fast. paying no attention. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. for the instant. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy.Nadina VIŞAN
relief. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. He felt then. at least. to take his way home on foot. 4. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. a simplification. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. going astray. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. 5. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2.
7. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. She appeared. making Paul stop and look at her. as text book. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. of studying European society. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. and wondering what the deuce he meant. 8. 6.Walker. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. indeed. in radiant loveliness. That he should admire a marble goddess
. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her.Unit ten
of those American ladies who. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. smiling and chattering. Advising with me. as to projected changes. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. Her daughter. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. as it were. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. make a point. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. while residing abroad. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. She rustled forward. He left me musing. often. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. in their own phrase. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. uncomfortably. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. on the other hand. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms.
was no reason for his despising mankind. 9. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. or at any rate not heeding. H.’
.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. wondered what they were talking about. The agent became a very familiar type to H. and acute too. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. 10. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. and. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. could see he was remarkable. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. H. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. though E. was only half satisfied with this. while Paul. and perceived that it must be something important. with his humorous density. 11. was immensely struck with him. not seeing. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. H. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. which was deliberate.
12. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been
. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. had the power to chain his sympathy. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. appeared to fill his whole childhood. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. not glancing at him for a moment. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. that the haunting wonder which now. which was very copious. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. 15. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. 14. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. H. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. as he looked back. But she gave him no chance. 13.
solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. and to H. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. dragging herself on her knees.Nadina VIŞAN
an achievement of comparatively recent years. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. The whole establishment. yet
. At the theatre. disheveled and distracted. H. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. and there were others. 16. 18. where the Pearl of Paraguay. It was very possible she was capricious. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. proudly. ironically reserved. that she must be on the contrary. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. 17. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. as a general thing. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers.
. Their mistakes and illusions. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. H. No one ever listens to her. It came over H. with the poor. *Old. would always be more or less irritating. and lurking within this nebulous design. on which the damp breath of the streets. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined
words/phrases/sentences: 1. didn’t mind. 2. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. young men were invited.Unit ten
the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 20. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 3. had blown a certain chill. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 19.
/ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 11. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. her shining blue feet twinkling. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale.
. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. walking quickly. I walked fast. Either John or he * have got to give in. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. I saw her as a vision. 9. slipped on some steps. I was definitely going to be sick. 10. Rachel. 8. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. I blundered by.Nadina VIŞAN
4. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. “Oh. her arms held out. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 5. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. 7. striding like a Spartan maid. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 6. c) When I saw her sitting there. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. 12.
Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb
. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.
And then I ventured to add that. but that we saw and pitied. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. which was really alarming.Nadina VIŞAN
Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. could cook my meals. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. 2. if they were poor. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter)
. where my servant. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. 5. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. The old women spoke no English. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. 3. 4. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment.
on Saturday. before they left town. this would really hurt. Constituents: how much. he had not yet been able to estimate. apart form his distress for parents. Constituents: He. apart from his distress for parents.g. distress. How much. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. his. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. had not been able to estimate. etc. Constituents: Margaret. this. would really hurt. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.Key To Chapter One Practice
KEY TO PRACTICE
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION
Activity 2 1.g. Munt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. to pay their annual visit. at noon.
. etc. on a house. to settle. was informed. was anxious = was + anxious.apart from his distress = apart from. he. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. etc. was anxious.
– non-assertive. interrogative. which is not assertive.. – comparison.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). / If you like her. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. negative/ Come with me. it is assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. second clause is non-assertive. interrogative. negative./ She finally admitted./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – first clause is non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – first clause is an ifclause. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. which context is non-assertive..SENTENCE NEGATION
Activity 1 They like her a lot. The sentence is however
. listen to this. don’t bother her. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. and is non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that. negative/ If you like jazz. Second clause is an imperative. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. interrogative. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – non-assertive..
/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / She does like John./ When he learned the news. –double negation cancellation. – someone did that.but to someone else./ He was exceptionally cunning. but not more than she does others. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. but nothing out of the ordinary. / You have never met
. not even this thing. – they told the truth to somebody else./ He was smart enough. he was hardly pleased./ Hardly interested in the conference. / I don’t like her very much./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. – someone hates animals. but it isn’t Susan./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. everybody used to travel by coach.Key To Chapter Two Practice
syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ They weren’t really confused./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. the two brothers dared to protest. / They didn’t leave./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ Not long ago. only irresolute./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / She does not hate animals. not even when it’s quiet around. – I like somebody else. but it wasn’t them. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / Not really convinced by what the had heard.
– I cannot look him in the eye. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.. they go skiing in the mountains... * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. were they? / This boy is no good. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. / This is hardly the
. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.. / Should they not have told her the truth. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. not even when you were very young. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. – negative insertion. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. not even in my dreams.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.Nadina VIŞAN
her.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them...negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. I could hardly wait to hear the news.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.
Key To Chapter Two Practice
time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I seldom look at her like that. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes..Never shall I trust a man again. – I don’t often look at her like that. – I almost never look at those paintings. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / You’ve eaten hardly anything./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Few people came to see her. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. when we started our holiday. never trust a man again./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – I never see her. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes.. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Not many people came to see her.. / I didn’t leave the
./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Hardly anybody liked him. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. Activity 8 I shall never. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Almost nobody liked him./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. but she also lent him a car.
/ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / They say he once had someone very close. –
. – Come on./ Well.Nadina VIŞAN
office at any time. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim../ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – They don’t believe she likes them. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – They say he never had anyone very close. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet.I don’t like his proposal at all. you can’t do anything about it any more. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ I somewhat like his proposal. –At no time did we leave the office. – On no account must you touch this machinery. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – I don’t expect he will come here again. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / They believe she does not like them. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – Nowhere could the keys be found. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / Don’t worry. / She could rely on nobody but him. / Come on. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. you can still do something about it./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – Only on this man could she rely. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over.
/ You must pay that fine./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – You should send her something./ I can understand all of these ten English words./ I nearly always have to clean it myself./ Bob is still living at that address. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words.. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here. / Well. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. either. / You needn’t send her anything. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. too. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t.Key To Chapter Two Practice
It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – She almost always comes here.
. –Alice still lives here. / You must be telling lies. – You can’t be telling lies. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam.
His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. has never studied anywhere. give me a hand. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ You took his leaving you very hard. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. Oh. / Jim is so brave./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Norocul la noroc trage. He didn’t move a muscle./ He’s a happy man. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ E un baiat de zahar. I haven’t done anything./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Zis si facut./ Nimic de facut./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis.D./ Have they rung the bell? No. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./
. / Don’t go on believing him.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. to any of us./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Nobody told us a thing. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. not yet. It’s no wonder. He isn’t that smart./ He was a tough man./ You look so tired today. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. e un magar. / Please. ever since I got this ulcer./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. I haven’t seen her in years./ They say this Ph. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul.
that I was a decent man. one way or another. with the same needs they had. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ Nu-i nici un deranj. We had nothing in common. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. without too much determination. no story.’/ Deloc descurajat. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. no memory./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. I hadn’t really expected miracles.’ ‘Nici o problema. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. nothing. I had never had the opportunity to prove. feebly.Key To Chapter Two Practice
‘Scuze. thrown out. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . for I thought this threatening. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. slowly.
.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . parasi camera. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.
or if you understood what I meant. to say the least.
I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. the only
. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical.
It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that…
After all that morning excitement. clear or confusing. Your judgement is false. bad. I was sleepy and tired. I’d be so happy if it were so. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Radu had calmed down. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. let alone irritable. We have to judge it as it is. your story. Not for a moment had I thought that.Nadina VIŞAN
With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. not as we would like it to be or some other way. good. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. on the front seat. it’s not words. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. he immediately answered me patronizingly.. You really made me mad. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. that’s what the world is about. Unfortunately. he was sitting beside me. I admit. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. by coming here to the monastery. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. but facts. things you do any moment.
It was my turn to say something. It’s not made up of theories and the like.
But what about you and Melania. fear might be hiding. you can go to Ursu’s. it’s yours. too? A gun is power. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. just to please myself. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. But I was just wondering.
. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. I won’t interfere. either. or you are lying hidden. behind these big.Key To Chapter Two Practice
ones I had. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. it’s your problem. to fight. keep it squeaky clean. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. and an inability to act. as Baciu would have us be. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. precious words. and if you like. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. clears your way. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. did you ever step up front. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. or call the respect of others. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. me. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. it solves troubles. no matter how huge they are. keep your conscience clean: you have one. • So. you do as you think fit. Anyway. although it was a difficult thing to do. soon we’ll be in town. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. we are leaving. me. Look.
Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. But it was not because I had no answer to give. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . the sentence is incorrect 3. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . has yet arrived -correct 2. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.Nadina VIŞAN
Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. will he?. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. or some other woman.
I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.
Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. firmly determined not to answer immediately. because before is a positive polarity item 2.incorrect. The villagers were not very religious.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. .correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Negative incorporation
. . The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. has not arrived yet – double negation.. -correct 3.Negative attraction b) 1. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.correct 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. as soon as he delivered it. – incorrect.. correlatives are mixed 2. but they gradually got used to it.
either (NPI). nu era
. (ibid. No one should know to what torture she was subjected.Key To Chapter Two Practice
Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită.) Însă era cam târziu. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Her stillness. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. b) But it was rather (API) late. much less ((NPI) for her. Ştia că are dreptate. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. prea răscolit. not happy at all (NPI). she couldn’t marry him.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. His spirit was too tired. yet. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Nu putea să se mişte. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. too troubled. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. (ibid. Avea sufletul prea obosit.
(ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. he made his way to the screen. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. e) At length.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. se îndreptă spre paravan.
. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. and not a little unsteadily. şi destul de hotărât. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. his heart was beating fast. inima îi batea năvalnic. if anything (NPI). (ibid. (Salman Rushdie. Ba dimpotrivă. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. The Satanic Verses.Nadina VIŞAN
deloc fericit. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. she looked younger than ever (NPI). Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (ibid.
and probably an administrative headache as well. i) What did C. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. care if the school were willing to treat him. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Ce-i pasă lui C.) C. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Home receded from the prodigal son.
. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. The point was. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. but his father would have none of it (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. h) C.Key To Chapter Two Practice
fiind vrăjitoare. (ibid. the gift was useless. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva.
KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.QUESTIONS
Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination.
. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. . correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. She has an eye for gentle men. to make them lust after her. now she was chatty. she likes to entrance them. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. keep Condrat away from her. Fenia. they were. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. the bitch. you are in enough trouble as it is. Chizlinski. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Vica.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. Luca Horobet. 2. all godfearing husbands and fathers. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. do you really think that this vixen. yes. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. and then what do you
. Stavre Paici. Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. “Now.
You said: “Doesn’t this guy. The mullah. with a railway station and a mosque. G. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. dragging his feet listlessly. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t
. her hair pinned with blue combs. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. what’s her name. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. a seventy-eight year old lad. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. 4. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. ankle-long flowered calico.Key To Chapter Three Practice
think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. He got him out of his mosque. It even takes him a while to go to the window. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. the minister of Tartars and Turks. 3. have a girlfriend.
and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden?
. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.Nadina VIŞAN
Sophie up in the attic. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.
the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8.phrasal coordination (in this case. John and Mary are ready. our respective examinations. – similar situation 10. Our flag is red. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – sentence coordination 2.Key To Chapter Four Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . Her pet kitten is black and white.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.) 9. John and Mary are the newly married couple. John is ready and Mary is ready. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – sentence coordination 7.. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. and I passed. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination)
. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. yellow and blue.COORDINATION
Activity 2 1.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.
We can and will demand payment. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 9. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Activity 5 This book and the other. your work and mine. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. many guest or few.Nadina VIŞAN
Peter and John played football. 2. her son and others. Activity 4 1. your proposal and his. and even tennis. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 7. but not John. that method and those.) Joan plays many games. 10. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. her idea and John’s. 3. 8. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. much satisfaction or little
. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. plays football. 5. 6. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. but John does not play football.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend.
8. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Thick and thin 11. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Life and soul 5. He snapped at him and slapped him. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. etc. Touch and go 10.) 6. magazines are only for children. I have always fought and will fight for progress. 7. To and fro 15. but not simple. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Ups and downs 6. He read. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Law and order 8. Few and far between 14. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Safe and sound
. Activity 8 1. Spick and span 9. High and low 2. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. 5. 4. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Pros and cons 4. The facts and figures 3. Wear and tear 12. Swings and roundabouts 7. Bread and butter 16. 3. Over and above 13.Key To Chapter Four Practice
Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary.
The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Symmetric 13. – symmetric 2. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12.There is a table and some chairs in the room. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 4.symmetric 11. – asymmetric 18. Symmetric 21. – similar situation 9. 10. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 5. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 6. cause-effect Activity 10 1.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 9 1. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 2. – symmetric. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 2. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 3. My son and daughter are twins. – symmetric. Either the child or the parents are to blame. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. Cathy and David have arrived. 1. 3. 7.. exclusive 15. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 7. Asymmetric 19. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. Asymmetric 20. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. My son and heir is safe. – symmetric 10. 8. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. exclusive 17. Asymmetric – temporal sequence.
. b. 5. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 6. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. There are some chairs and a table in the room. inclusive 16. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – symmetric. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 9. 9. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 8. 10. 4.
He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 9. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. Brother or no brother. for better or worse. 2. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 4. nor fowl. Should he pour water in the basin. Her husband is long dead and buried. 7. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. We’ll stick together. He’s neither fish. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. He went to bed. thanks for asking.Key To Chapter Four Practice
Activity 11 (1) 1. They came to me. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 5. 10. 15. There are doctors and doctors. By hook or by crook. 6. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. (2) 1. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. No drinking and driving. 14. 2. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 3. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. I’ll still finish this paper. ‘Madam. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. clothes and all. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Jim thought it over for a while. it was too small. Not only should you rest
. 8. 12. 11.
tense like a bow. What do you know? The moment Mrs. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. at equal intervals.
. And. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. so he could leap in pursuit. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. she started doing a great job. what’s its name. You know. This. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. They hadn’t kept him there too long. and then. and she listens to him. Her first husband had been a professor. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. he starts lecturing her about life and things. he’d leap high. From time to time she will launch a helping question. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. tense with concentration.’ (3) 1. but she blinks in approval. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. 2. without mentioning financial matters. just like when he was thirty. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. so he’d gone down and died in no time. it would work out fine. their common ground. both dead and buried. but he’d come out a cripple. she knows for sure. as she always does. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. an important man. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. Mrs. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. stop dead in his tracks. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground.Nadina VIŞAN
assured. Whatever she tried her hand at. So she’ll listen to him. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem.
of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. – she. whomever wanted to listen. she looked at me sadly. is aware. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .subordinate. – she. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. about her problems at home After I told her the story. came. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness .Key To Chapter Five Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as an object (direct). – Susan. told. cannot tell. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. you. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .subordinate. – she. functioning as an adjunct 2. – obligatory elements: I. looked. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days .subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate
.subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3.
4.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he
. remove our home yet again . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that we should. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.complement b) 1. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. at our age. that you are choosing exile .
adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object. a barn. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (time)/
. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice
was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object b) to dry it – complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. outbuildings. a house. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial.complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement.
direct object/ to sit there – complement. When Anton put the sickle down. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. (…) He dashed back. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. But other people. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. (…) ‘Well. subject/ to do such again – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. without straightening her back. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. sickle in hand.Nadina VIŞAN
it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes
. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man.A few days before the war. direct object/ and done – wh complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that.wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. staring at each other. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. Activity 5 1.
but he doesn’t spurn either.
. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. you need courage even for this small thing. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. or other more hidden means. First. but also his sharp nose. rather than a real threat. while on other occasions he would show caution. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Why! He was not of two minds. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Not even at this point. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. that was for sure. Ana could not stand a trip now. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. which he doesn’t rely on completely. while they spoke from miles away. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. 2. Only he had Ana to think of. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. as if they were at his beck and call. or if he does. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. For no bold man really falters.Key To Chapter Five Practice
under the silliest of pretexts. and on Monday followed another feast).
. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. without really knowing why.Nadina VIŞAN
That was clear. in Odobesti. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. are we getting off again? What is wrong. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. In fact. And here’s how this first day looked. to see some mutual friends. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. We were going to drive to a vineyard. So. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. he had postponed writing back. 4. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. although he could have said so earlier. by the cars of some of us. But it was not ok. it was the women. Twice did we get in the car. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. they would ruin the arrangement. and twice we were requested to get out. come on. and when things didn’t go as planned.
10. like their teacher. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. who was just passing by. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 6. 7. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 5. 4.Key To Chapter Six Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . He is the author who they gave a prize to. why they all left . which was silly of him. where I least expected
. This is my husband whom I love very much. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 3. Activity 3 1. Activity 2 1. John told his friend a story about the king. where I spent my youth . 2. 7.She came to London where I went too. These are people who we cannot tell much about.free 8. 8. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo.restrictive 2. The students like their teacher. all of whom would answer to his questions. You couldn’t join the party. which was a pity. 6. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 11. 8.restrictive 7. 5. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. on which this occurred . 9. any of whom would answer to questions. most of whom were from England. 4. when we first met .RELATIVE CLAUSES
Activity 1 1. The students. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.restrictive 4. 3. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. He told her the secret. 10.restrictive 6. I bought Jim a book that he liked.
Activity 5 1. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.adjunct 5. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. What – direct object 2.free Activity 4 1. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. who cannot say a word. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. You. the prince chose Cinderella. Where . where – predicative 7. when . I.adjunct 3.When Ada remarked – adjunct. 7. who think so highly of yourselves. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Where he was from – adjunct. Why . What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Which – subject 4. Of all the persons there. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.subject 9.free 9. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.adjunct 11. What Inman remembered – subject. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. 5. what their parents made them. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object.adjunct 6.Nadina VIŞAN
. however sad . 4. 6. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. was very displeased with the situation. What I’m saying – subject. 2. come up front.subject 8. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional
. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. When . Who .restrictive 10.adjunct 10. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. 3. Where . where we talk money – predicative. which .
what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it
. which is ungrammatical due to the[. what .whom is ungrammatical due to the [. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.Key To Chapter Six Practice
object.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. which requires an accusative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. whatever – predicative 13. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. what little she knew – direct object.
a rather tiny looking man. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine.Nadina VIŞAN
cannot be selected by a preposition. due to its invariable character. a sergeant. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. in his turn. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. but whose second cousin. having changed quite a number of jobs. got married and had a daughter. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife…
. whose great-grandfather. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist.
. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.Key To Chapter Six Practice
Activity 8 1. has been troubling them forever. whose interest he most sincerely shared. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.obligatory 3. His friends. – no 4. . the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.yes 3. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. In the interest of public decency. were now all gone. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. he requested that the public be excluded. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.yes 10. with deletion of the noun friends]. – yes 6. – no 9. – no pied piping
. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. . The problem of safe transportation. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. .His father’s friends. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – yes 2.yes Activity 9 1. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. was now complete. no matter which – [pied piped phrase.obligatory 4. This story.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.no 5. – yes. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he rarely saw now. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – obligatory pied piping 2. . no easy answers to which could be offered. Irene. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.yes 7. . – no pied piping 5. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.
yours. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 3. 6. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. irrespective of age and nature. For all the four children. In other people’s opinion. where two teams battled every day… 5. 8. or as of a vast arena. For twenty years. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 4.and he couldn’t thank me enough.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 10 1. for instance. 2. I did so. Nelu. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. Only an ugly endless dream remained. Everything was ending. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. the third born son.
. I am to be envied. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 7. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway.
furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. Behind them. staring aimlessly. which was why he saw Dora very far away. where from Marta was coming too. on Icoanei street.
. leaving streets and houses behind. barely glittering in the distance. Let me tell you my last conclusion. What you’re saying sounds very nice. from MR street. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 14. the tram was rattling along. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. He was suffering from dizziness. You are newly arrived here. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 11. she said. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 16. 12. since I don’t really know which my true life is. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him.R. 10. 13. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one.Key To Chapter Six Practice
9. 17. 15. All that you have read is rubbish. although she was standing quite close to him.
had a huge house in Bucharest. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. While some trees are still green. or the clash of stars above. 23. If he had hit me. likes and dislikes. in her pursuits. which I did not posses. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. But. 24. had a personal style in clothes. day by day. so optimistic and composed? 19.
. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 20. From the vantage point I was in. 22. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. 21. I don’t know what might have happened. So. I could see my woman falling away from me. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. She was one of those impeccably dressed women.Nadina VIŞAN
18. She was a woman of means. But for me. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. While we were poor. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. who only lived once in this world. who prompted everyone on the street. or the many Egyptian dynasties. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. after the car was fixed.
6. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.
.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – extraposed. object 6. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. – extraposed. – unextraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. 8. – extraposed. object 5. subject 2. subject 7. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – impossible 7. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE .The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. direct object 3. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. prepositional object 11. for pragmatic reasons 5. – questionable. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed. direct object 10. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 3. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 2. – extraposed. subject 9. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. subject 4. – the same as 3. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 8.THAT COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1: 1.
idiomatic formula 16. same as 12. – same as 12. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. tense influences the
. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. They never expected it that he would come back. 9. same as 12. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.. – grammatical. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.correct 4. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 15. Activity 3: 1. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. a bit too intricate 5. 18. .Nadina VIŞAN
It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – grammatical. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. I guess it that he will come back. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. 10. – impossible.grammatical. 14.incorrect. – correct 2. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – impossible 11. although a bit intricate 2. – the same as 12.grammatical. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. 17. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. but pragmatically impossible 3. It is no use trying to convince her. – grammatical.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. same as 12. .That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – impossible. – impossible. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. . but pragmatically impossible 4. – incorrect. It is nice to meet you.
in the ditch. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. thus. though. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.’ 4. under bridges. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. in the pits on the road. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. 3. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.
. (Not always. behind gates. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.’ Lionel says. 2. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform.incorrect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
validity of extraposition 5. 5. – correct 6. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.
without trying to protest too much. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. By saying this.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. 3. It is less ambiguous than the first. since the
. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. – the second sentence is questionable. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. Activity 7 1. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.
7. who had just returned from Africa. 8. because it is less ambiguous. who had just returned from Africa.Nadina VIŞAN
6. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. – the first sentence is the better of the two. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.
Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 4. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. 2.
/ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. extraposition is obligatory here. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. The second and third sentences are grammatical. so there is no need for extraposition. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 8. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 5. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 7.
. – both sentences are grammatical. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 6. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete.
– prepositional object. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. – relative 5. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. coordinated. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. ibid. – complement that clause. required by deverbal noun
. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.adverbial of sequence/result.We discovered that our map has disappeared. – complement 5. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.) complement that clauses. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. ibid. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.relative Activity 9 1. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. (Iris Murdoch. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.prepositional object. (Iris Murdoch. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever.complement 4. – direct object. – subject. . – relative 3. . . His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – complement 2.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 8 1. The idea that he had had earned him good money. they were chained to each other forever. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) adverbial of sequence/result. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. for better or worse. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – adverbial of sequence/result. .
– that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. that they were not too late to leave. you want me to believe. – a) and b) are indirect speech
. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. d) John said that Harry was leaving. that deletion is obligatory. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving.
formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a. – both sentences are grammatical. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – grammatical sentences. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong
. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. b. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. c. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided.
hawk. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. geese both grey and white. present perfect instead of past perfect. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. lark. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. cenuşii şi albe. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. prepeliţe. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. She noted with disapproval that many a
. ciocârlii şi şoimi. present instead of simple past. quail. – generalization on habits of birds. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here.
All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. love of practical jokes. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. She admired their keenness of wit. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. as evidenced by its drear plumage. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. slyness in a fight. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. lack of pridefulness. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager.Nadina VIŞAN
bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. lipsa de vanitate. A companion stooped and cradled his
. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Crows will relish what presents itself. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. The generic present is used in this case. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer.
încercând să-i uşureze chinul. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Murise în picioare. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at
. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. El căzuse pe spate. But as the battle raged around them. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. in the very act of expiring. […] During the latter stages of the tale. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He died erect. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. se ridicase în picioare. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. the young officer. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. tânărul ofiţer. He had fought hard through the war. tragică şi eroică. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
head to soothe his dying. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. he claimed. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei.
deşi era erou de război. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. mother went home and I was left alone. în închisoare. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. They all had their hands in their pockets. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). I knew that no matter what words I would pick. One of them. Acum stătea aici. Now here he stood jailed. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. susţinea el. around seventeen or eighteen years old. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. he closed the album. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. I realized I could not tell him the big news. they gathered around my desk. But when he reached me. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. When he saw me. How can I explain? I just felt shy. 2. war hero though he was. And they might just hang him. A short while later. to finish my drawing.Nadina VIŞAN
Williamsburg. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Activity 13 1. – similar situation to the one under (c). which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. the oldest. When the boys saw that mother had left. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie.
. Luptase din răsputeri în război.
‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. or if she would do so again. All his senses were now keen.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
3. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. brightly and closely. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while.’ Mr. 4. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. or fear his rage. for her vineyard. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. as if he had been drunk. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. he could only think of the fact that she had written
. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all.’ 5. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. 6. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.
that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 10. claiming you had no ambition for the future. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 11. 9. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. And if things were so. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. thinking of him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. The last time when we met here you scared me. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 8.Nadina VIŞAN
to him. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped
namely the impatience of this young man. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 13. We either sell them or we don’t. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
now. 14. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. without putting anything in a note. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. more urgently than ever. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. where he would run to confess everything. which secretly drove him. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem
. towards Jurubita. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. 12.
It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 9. grammatical 2. grammatical. – simple infinitive. / He had Mary clean her room. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 5. – simple infinitive. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. – simple infinitive. . grammatical 10. grammatical 7. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – infinitive continuous. . the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom.. / they saw her leave. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel.simple infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1: 1. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. – infinitive continuous.
. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. grammatical 6. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 3.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. – perfect infinitive. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8.
Test: *She wanted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. – Test: They asked her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She promised him PRO to leave.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It is not too late for him to learn.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I want to never see you again. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ They did not wish [her to come back. Test: *I would love them. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: *They did not wish her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: She promised him. Test: *They would have hated her. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ I would love [ them to come. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. you need to try harder. Test: * I would like people. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. – Test: They convinced her. \ They would have hated [her to come back. – Test: He persuaded her. – Test: They tempted him. / He is believed to have known her
. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. \ I allowed [them to come. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide.
/ Oh. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He is easy to talk to. not to miss the train. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. Activity 6 Oh.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.Nadina VIŞAN
for years. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. . / He is young enough to start again.obligatory subject control verb
. . . I don’t need you or your services. / I want to tell you what I think of you. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / He is easy to live with. / I have a word to tell you. / To make a long story short. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He is hard to stand. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / I want you to leave my house.
He suspected hostility at once. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. so that we might get to the future and have done. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. Subject. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. If he himself was out of spirits. he didn’t envy those above it.to.
. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Harold. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Both seemed to him a little unreal. 1] A little crossly. 1 – PRO. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Predicative 4 . Subject. they had depressed and fuddled him. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 1 – PRO-to. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. who wasn’t used to men with moods.Accusative + Infinitive. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4].
or better said. PRO controlled by ‘she’. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality.Nadina VIŞAN
[PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. f) The passing time is important. more believable than evidence itself. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. 1 – PRO-to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. One day. PRO controlled by ‘me’. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘him’. cautiously. And you might also be hit and humiliated. more meaningful. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. PRO controlled by ‘she’. object 2 – PRO –to. man and woman. direct object 3 – PRO –to. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number.
. we seem to forget about our own pain. e) When two persons. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. true. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. But when we need to comfort others. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. excitedly. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. slowly. c) Unlike plane trips. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition.
j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. He had not been able to leave Dr. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. not even those parts where he had been half-right. or. for instance. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. in the street. And I would care for this man so deeply. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. while swearing to change my way of life. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Moroi says heavily. Although that talk deserved to be remembered.
. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. And to actually start to believe you are so. my wish being only to please and serve. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. even when this love is hurried. which he had already forgotten. or their talk that night. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. I am indeed praising my own merits. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. tickled by the trickles of sweat. all down our neck. h) I want us to go. Mrs. as he had appeared to him in the rain. If it was summer. not to want to wipe it off. That is it. k) With this considerable dowry. that you are young. to live only with your coughing. Stroescu. S. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
ready to submit to any demand. Well.Nadina VIŞAN
In a word. every Bucharester knows it. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. haphazardly. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. poor Muti. met by squalor and terrible smells. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. If you will have what I can give you. here I am with all of my own. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for that’s the door people get off by.
. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. or to speak so fast. she was suddenly so shocked. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. no matter what.
. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.ING COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ He went to have a tooth pulled.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ Don’t keep him waiting./ She sent him shopping. – Attributive past participle./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. / They found it thrown in a corner../ The blow left him sprawled under the table. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. badly beaten and bloodied. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).
Having fed the dog. – As she was running into the room. Sleeping in the next room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 3. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 8. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not
.Running into the room. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. – Attributive present participle. 10. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 4. The tree had fallen across the road. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having looked through the fashion magazine. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. he sat down to his own dinner. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Activity 4 1. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. a rug caught her foot and she fell. having been uprooted by the gale./ Running into the room. having heard it all before. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Attributive present participle. I was astonished at what I saw. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. 7. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 2.Nadina VIŞAN
Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 5. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I slammed the door of my room.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Turning on the light. 6. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Finding the treasure. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. 9. they began quarreling about how to divide it.
8. – As he was getting out of bed. a scorpion bit him.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
identify with that of the main clause. open-minded. a scorpion bit him. bald-headed. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Tied to the post. many-coloured. I let it out of the room. Barking furiously. – As he was climbing down the tree. Climbing down the tree. 9. – As he left the cinema. three-coloured. fishy-eyed. 3. 4. my hands often get very cold. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. his horse fell at the last jump. the sea was tossing it up and down. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 2. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Riding in the first race. wooden-headed. one of the eggs broke. broad-shouldered. a pot of paint fell on my head. he broke one of the eggs. Getting out of bed. cloth-covered. narrow-minded. 12. he was bit by a scorpion. / Getting out of bed. lion-hearted. Reading in bed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 5. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 6. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – When I read in bed. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. I let the dog out of the room. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 11. one of the eggs broke. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – As the dog was barking furiously. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. an idea suddenly occurred to me. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. stony-hearted. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. empty-headed.
. Dropped by parachute. Leaving the cinema. – As he was tied to the post. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 10. – As he was riding in the first race. red-handed./ Reading in bed. my hands often get very cold. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. an idea suddenly occurred to me. I often get very cold hands. / Climbing down the tree. 7. his horse fell at the last jump. – As I was passing under a ladder. Passing under a ladder. sharp-eyed/minded.
are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Swiss watches. The film. hidden meaning.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. lighted candle. graven image. Activity 8 1. 7. (injure). drunken man. (find) 6. are in grave danger of extinction.Spielberg. rotten plank. Activity 7 1. is expected to be a great hit. (take) 2. / Many old people. are sold throughout the world. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. ill-gotten wealth. found hiding in a barn.Nadina VIŞAN
quick-eyed. admired for their elegance and precision. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (hunt). the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Three people. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. injured when their car crashed on the M1. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. injuring my arm. sunken eyes. straight-shouldered. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. hunting for a bargain./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. was today taken back to prison. The escaped prisoner. shorn lamb. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. roast meat. Whales. (admire) 5. dark-skinned. mown grass. were taken to hospital.
. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. eagle-eyed. (produce) 3.I fell on the ice. bounden duty. open-hearted. produced by S. I stared at the canvas for ages. stricken deer. shrunken stream. shaven head. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (grow) 4.
its scales scraped off by the knife.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. he were struggling for breath. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. hovering uncertain and soft. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. And his soul. the carved chicken. 3. boil them. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away.
. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. bake them. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. So. thrown in the pots. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. suddenly suffocated. and the puffed pastry beds. sprinkled with sticky flour. He felt close to his father. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. After a while. yet left them room to sway free. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the twice rinsed vegetables. 4. and moreover. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. seeking some promised land. the fish. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. in charge of his house and lands. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. flat and soft. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. 2. streaked with yellow veins of fat. then put up. now taken down. he started peering anxiously around as if. A parasol.
/ That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / After annoying the shop-assistant. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. . / I am sorry for being so late. / I told him not to bother putting things back. – Accusative + participle 3. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. – participle (attribute) 2. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. Activity 10 1. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. Gambling is his favourite pastime. he left the store without buying a thing. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. – gerund (subject) 4. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. What I don’t understand is you suddenly
participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He was spotted talking to her. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. gerund (has a direct object)
. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
turning against me. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. . – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. preceded by preposition). The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. 8.possessive ING (direct object) 9. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – gerund (half or full.participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute.
– verbal noun (has adjective). – gerund (full. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. take down her answer. my Lord.verbal noun (has determiner. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. Croom to try to follow one. – gerund or verbal noun. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.. hold up his pen and speak. adjective.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.’
. I did ask Mr. adjective.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘Tell me. Lady Corven.. however appearances were against us. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (has determiner. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.
‘I do hate asking for things.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. I just used the word and they fell. licked the envelope with passion. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. I must go back now. it’s overrated. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ said Clare. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. I spend all my time hunting a job. Then. he addressed the note.’
. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
‘In any case. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. suddenly. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. and went out to post it himself. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ said Clare. my Lord.
…while their edges were crashing inwards).’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute) in a swirling motion. It was like a mist. someone looking for survivors (participle. direct object) towards him. The collapsing shops (participle. attribute. the very earth opening up (half gerund. He looked up towards the daylight. attribute. (participle. hoping (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object) from below. the enormous split in the earth. The two sides were moving apart. functions as direct object) and then the ground. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. slowly rising (participle. The sight of the two children. then the noise and the cracking stone. attribute). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. attribute). after verb of perception. down into God knows where. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. adverbial of time. First the crack snaking (half gerund. attribute. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. attribute. gerund. village which is burning). Has a complex subject) in the hole. elliptical here. down. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object). l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. slightly
‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. At first. Then he saw movement at his feet.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. covering (participle. one. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. i. etc. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. direct object). it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.). early. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.e. according to the books he read. moving up (participle. my dear. prepositional object. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of reason). the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. you. has ‘of’ phrase). cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.
attribute) to winter brilliance. Vaucher and I. slanted on to her cheek. for Dornford was busy on an important case. and sunlight. And. preceded by preposition. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. preceded by preposition. attribute) a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and then went riding (participle. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. adverbial of reason). mother. and not only in my imagination or theirs. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. which beckoned to
. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) stopped dead. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. So. examining (participle. adverbial of manner). brightening (participle. the two Mamonas. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. Standing up.Nadina VIŞAN
r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. She finished what jobs there were. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner). reluctant or not. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. and everything got suddenly animated. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Young Mamona left the room without a word. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town.
he looked like someone who did. closing my eyes. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. he found us sitting each in his place. So when Old Mamona came in. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. 3. as mother had ordered him. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. to Vaucher. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. He was talking about gathering up all our strength.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. each carrying a wooden box. killed by Young Mamona. Vaucher might have known that too. and smelling so hard of rain. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. who knows. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . And then. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. bending a little. too. to me. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. And. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. about concentrating all our resources. I knew who it would be. He cast us a swift glance. kissed her forehead. without taking his sack off his shoulders. about sparing no effort. her back towards us. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. in the year 1812. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept
. he went to mother and. for anyway. 4. 2. and ended his life in the year 1821. let alone greet us or say something. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. his disloyal apprentice. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. Not so unimaginable though. and to Young Mamona. sitting in his puddle. Entering our house on a Thursday.
each pausing before jumping down. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. wood pile. barrack. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. They got off the truck slowly. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. already seen and heard. as an afterthought. And suddenly. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. And all around them was the great field
. futile. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. 5.Nadina VIŞAN
rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. of taking notes and rewriting them. everything seemed familiar. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. long board table. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. stove. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. But.
. The next thing was to go to the well.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.
Problemes de linguistique generale. Laurie. 1982. Aspect.. 1966. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. 1989. 1983. CUP.References
Bauer. . 2003. A. Bybee. Cambridge University Press. 1. 1994. Bernard. Institutul European Cornilescu. Complementation in English. The Transformational Syntax of English. Iclezan Dimitriu. Mimo and Marc Moens. 1964. G. Mouton de Gruyter. 1976. English Word-Formation. 51-103. Benveniste.. Caenepeel. English Syntax.II.University of Chicago Press. 1976. Cornilescu. A. Chicago.. 1996. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Emile. 1994. . The Evolution of Grammar. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. eds. English Grammar. Bybee. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. Comrie. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. vol.
. . Cornilescu. Bucuresti. Al. I. TUB Cornilescu. TUB Curme. Joan. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. . Gallimard. Burnes and Noble. A. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. Accuracy and Fluency.. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. Joan and Osten Dahl.
Otto. I. 2000. & R. St Martin’s Press.. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. London. Tubingen. 1968. Longman. Hewing. Longman. Graver.A. Advanced Grammar Practice. 1959. Bucureşti. English Historical Syntax.S.A. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. Longman. Gramatica Academiei. Outlooks and Insights.
. Graur. New York. An Advanced English Practice Course. et al. Gunter Narr Verlag. Hornby. 1931. eds. . Martin. 1976. 1993. 1999.. 1961. M. Longmans. M.S. Progress to Proficiency. & Alfred Rosa (eds). Part IV. 1982. . A. . Alexandru. P. 1987. Aspects of English Morphology. Dutescu-Coliban. Bucureşti.. 1982: 42-70. 1963. J. CUP. Gramatica limbii române. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. R. 1968. Denison. Taina. Alexandru Niculescu. Fenn. 1967. vol. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect.1993. Harris. Hornby. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Hassan. Jones. Bucureşti. 1968. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. Leo. Jespersen. In Vincent and Harris. Longman. London.K. Cohesion in English. London. 1987. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance.Day. Richard. Peter. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Halliday. London and Copenhagen. Iordan. Eschholz. Advanced Grammar in Use. CUP.
and Svartvik.. Kluwer Academic Publishers. CUP. TUB. Seminar Press. Nelson. Kamp. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Groningen Lipka. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. Hans and Uwe Reyle. (advanced).Katz. 1992. 1964. Number 3. volume 68. A Modern English Grammar. The Present Perfect Puzzle. 1993. Negation in English. Bauerle et al. Language. Scott. D.. 2000. G. and J. Kruisinga.J. vol. X. Hans and Christian Rohrer. Transactions of the Philological Society. Leech.Kamp. CUP. A Grammar of Contemporary English. 2002. 2000. E. 1926. Schibsbye. Literature. A Handbook of Present-day English. Klima... Kennedy. 1990.. S. Dordrecht. Foresman and Company. Focus on Proficiency.. 1983. 1973. Wolfgang. Poutsma. McCarthy. Greenbaum. 1970. Jim. A Grammar of Late Modern English. R. L.. An Introduction to Fiction. English Vocabulary in Use
. I. Part II. vol. Sue. 1982. English Syntax. Miller. M. H. Poetry and Drama.. 1931. . 323-352 O’Connell. From Discourse to Logic. in Fodor. & Felicity O’Dell. Groningen. eds. K. 1987. J. An Outline of English Lexicology. E. Klein. Tense in Texts. Parrott. Serban. Quirk. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. J. OUP. 89:2 (2000). London. M. 1991.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vet. Visan. In M. 2001. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Co. e.. Sentence Processes.. Amsterdam. Editura Credis. A Handbook of English Grammar.. Conference on British and American Studies.. Stefanescu. Vet.... Carlota. 1992. Henriette. Modes of Discourse. Le passe simple. London. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. N. Plenat (ed. A. 1990. 2003. de Swart. Mouton de Gruyter. N. I. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Zandvoort. Co.
. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. 1978. Vişan. R. 2003. 1998. Rodopi. Berlin.Schwegler.W. Smith. editia 1. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. 347-385. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. Lectures in English Morphology. 1999. Cahiers de praxematique 19. 2003.) L’emprise du sens. New York. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. 1957 and 1962. a. TUB. Analyticity and Syntheticity.