This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
de rezolvări. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. 6 . titularizare şi grad. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
Constituent Phrase 1.2.1. Auxiliary verbs 184.108.40.206. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.Contents: 8 1.3. Insertion 1. Complementary distribution . The Distribution of an Element 1.
Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. that is sequences fragmented at random. 1. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. very much. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.2. For instance. They are just strings. her mother. Syntactic. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Semantic. sequences of the kind her mother very.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.1. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Consequently. loves.
) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. be). must. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.) 10 . etc. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.4. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.e. (Mi-a spus secretul. should.3. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). 1. we are dealing with a directive (i. an order given to an interlocutor). 1.
1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. etc. Consider. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. live. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. for instance. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. an ‘empty’ there subject.6. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.) 1. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.5. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .
as the star indicates. whereas (7) is not. using your own examples: insertion. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. 12 . Pratice Define and illustrate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Munt. this would really hurt. syntactic. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. semantic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. pragmatic. How much. he had not yet been able to estimate. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.
To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Key terms . Conclusion. Full – local negation 2. Negative vs. affirmative sentences.3.7. Tests for negativity 220.127.116.11. Polarity Items 2.2.8. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.1.2. Key terms 2. Instances of negation 2.
The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Consequently. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.) is said to be an assertion. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. For instance. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. in that they do not state anything.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Positive vs.Declarative vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. in the sense that it states something. it asserts something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.2. Negative . (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .
didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.non-assertion . / Come with me. don’t bother her.g./ If you like her. Did they tell her the secret? ) . 16 . / She finally admitted.interrogative (e. They told her the ( e.) . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens./ We didn’t come here just to talk.g.other (if –clauses.Nadina VIŞAN . comparison. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.) .positive sentence .assertion ./ Don’t do that.g.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.positive and declarative secret./ She can’t wait to read that book. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.negative (e. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . listen to this. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.
since the negative word not is not present there. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. word negation.) b. John is not happy. I met a girl named Susan.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Nu demult.3. (John e nefericit. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) b. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. Susan doesn’t like her friends. In the case of the sentences under (4). since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Susan dislikes her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. John is unhappy.) 17 . (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. For example.
we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. In other words.) c. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. where the word 18 . more precisely the phrase it is part of.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. I was not a little worried. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. just like in the case of word negation. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.) b. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. but their meaning tells us a different story. these sentences look negative. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. He was not without intelligence. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. since the negative word not is present inside them. She was not an unattractive woman.
Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Când a aflat vestea./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. semantic negation.e./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative).Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Translate the following sentences into English. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. without intelligence. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning.
dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. Negative vs. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .4. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. ci doar indecişi. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. affirmative sentences.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. dar nu în mod special. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Era el destul de isteţ. 2. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă.
For instance.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (M-am dus acolo.) (9) I didn’t go there. etc.).1. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. such as do insertion. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (Nu m-am dus acolo.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. (see subsection 1. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.
/ They didn’t leave. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. incorrect. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / She does not hate animals. / I don’t like her very much. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / We don’t come here often. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. 22 . / Susan did not get married to Jim.
3. .) Susan likes / dislikes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. and neither do they like her. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. *not even the smart ones. not even the smart ones. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. which is ungrammatical. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. 4. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which does not happen in the case of (18).Unit two Sentence negation 2. *and neither do they like her. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. and they don’t like her either. * and they don’t like her either. even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends.
Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / In no time he was able to solve the problem.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Few of them stayed behind. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / A few of them stayed behind. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. In conclusion. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / This boy is no good. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. they go skiing in the mountains. / You have never met her. By applying these tests to the sentence in question.5. 2. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / They caused us no problems. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / No problems were caused after all. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.
(N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. I went nowhere. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-a venit John).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (27) a . Susan could not go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody.
Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. b. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. I didn’t see anybody. I didn’t see any student. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I never went to his place. I didn’t go anywhere. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) (29) a. All that glitters is not gold.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. 26 . / I didn’t ever go to his place. (N-am văzut nici un student. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. no incorporation takes place. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. No day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) c. Not all that glitters is gold.
negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. .) They barely read any novels. and we don’t go to the theatre either.) We seldom watch T./ They didn’t come to meet her. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / No one ever listens to her. seldom./ They never went there. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. nici măcar din alea scurte. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I saw nobody. rarely. not even short ones. (Nu citesc romane. / Not many women are famous opera composers.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / Not a word fell from her lips. barely. etc. / None of them liked house music. / He should not be released. / Not one of them came to meet her./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / I didn’t see anybody. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / I showed him nothing.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.4. scarcely.V.
/ I could hardly wait to hear the news. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) 28 them.) d. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. which triggers inversion): (35) a. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) c.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) b. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I scarcely ever see her. . / Few people came to see her. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Hardly anybody liked him. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I seldom look at her like that. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. Never have I met a more horrible person. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.
/ You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.) They don’t think that he likes them. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. never trust a man again. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance./ We seldom receive such generous praise. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / She could rely on nobody but him. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. in the sense that the 29 . / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. As you can see from the translation of these examples.
) but also by the existence of certain elements that. seem. suppose.) b. look like. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. want. / I expect he won’t come here again. imagine. cannot appear in an affirmative context. In sentence (37). etc. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. 2.) 30 .Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / He reckoned he would not win her over. should be desirable. the negative meaning is less strong. be probable. choose. although not negative in meaning. intention. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / They believe she does not like them. For example. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. barely. intend. / I suppose she doesn’t care. believe. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. etc. guess. expect. be likely. we can very well say something like: (38) a. probability. etc. ought to. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. appear. sound/feel like. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. suggest. be supposed to. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.6. advise.: think.
2. and sentences such as: (39) a. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. *She likes our chairman at all. That is 31 . b. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.*She lifted a finger to help me. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. are clearly not grammatical. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items.
/ I have some money.) Yet vs. / I somewhat like his proposal.) Until vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I can understand both of these 32 .) Any more vs.) Much vs. / They say he once had someone very close. still (I don’t love you any more. / I like it . / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / She hardly ever comes here. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Don’t worry. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why.). it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) At all vs. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. some (I haven’t any money. / Bob is still living at that address. / I still love you) Either vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I somehow like him. / I have already seen him. you can still do something about it. too. / I like you a lot. too. / Well. etc. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. too (I don’t like it. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. either. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) Hardly ever vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / Come on. / He arrived before 5. / I eat caviar most of the times. a lot (I don’t like you much. / Well. / You needn’t send her anything. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.
paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. have/be worth a red cent. know a single person. last a minute. bat an eye(lid). de când cu 33 . / You must be telling lies. crack a smile. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. touch a drop. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. lay a finger on someone. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. nici unuia dintre noi. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. mulţumesc. leave a stone unturned. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. Translate into English. move a muscle. Ion nu e prea deştept. hear a peep. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. turn a hair. say / breathe/ understand a word. sleep a wink. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / You must pay that fine. / Ajută-mă. give a damn/darn. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. find a trace. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. hurt a fly. flinch. have a care/ friend in the world. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea.Unit two Sentence negation sentences.
/ No admittance. / No man is wise all the time. Translate into Romanian. budge. nu e vina mea. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Nothing succeeds like success. încercând să prindă criminalul. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No trouble at all. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. n-a sunat încă. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Hotărât lucru. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / No sooner said than done. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Not that I care. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / He is no end of a fellow. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / No hands wanted. / Never is a long word. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. he left the room. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / He won’t make old bones. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. but you really should do something about it. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . B: Aşi. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / No entry. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. he’s a pig. / I had no end of trouble. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă.
Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). b) I love asking some funny remarks. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. as well: 35 . 2. N-am văzut pe nimeni. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. c) He is anxious to say something.7.Unit two Sentence negation rather).) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. say it. / He is reluctant to ever say anything./ I saw no one. Normally. / I hate making any commitments. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.
B: Not this poem. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. Conclusion. I don’t. (Nu. Key terms. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. however. from a syntactic point of view. nu poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. 36 .8. B: Nu. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. I don’t like this poem.) 2. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. The second negation is somehow independent. nu-mi place. nu îmi place poezia asta.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e. 45 . To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. interrogation).
3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 3.3.2 Wh.2.Questions 3. Key Terms. Optional Exercises .2.3 Alternative Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.1 Tag Questions 3.3.4. Direct vs.1.2 Echo Questions 3.
) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.1. focusing on direct questions mainly.Unit three Questions 3. If we try to analyze the examples above. for a subsequent section. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.
However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary.g. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. 48 . pe mama. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. (3) and (4).Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (2). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.
the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Likewise. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Since the question is not direct any more. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). 49 . It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). because. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. in this case. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). In the case of indirect questions.
/ He asked me who she was. spune la un moment dat femeia. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / I don’t know who she is. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. ce culoare are pielea. identify the incorrect sentences. / I don’t know whom she fancies. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . sau mai bine zis. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / He asked me who she is. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. c) Ştii ce. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte.
In this case. Let us provide 51 . Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. being typical of spoken language.Unit three Questions 3.2. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. as Quirk shows.
(which / you like best) ? 4.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (how long / wait for me?) 10. 3. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (who / talk to last night)? 5.2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8.1. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.
(Da). (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. they did. it has. are said to be positively – oriented. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da).
Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. ……………………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No... A: You’re still in your pyjamas. 7. (speak yet) B: ……. …………………. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 6.. A: You’ve been learning German for years. as in the example: 1. but I want to play basketball a little longer. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. A: You look down. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.. 3. 2. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….? (a mean thing to do) 54 . because you always copy everything I do! 5. A: She had her tenants evicted. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. I’ve still got plenty of time.. ……. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. ……………? (hear her) B: …. . 4.
what . A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. 3.. I didn’t get home until late last night. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 9.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. ..2 Wh – questions Wh. A: It’s past your bedtime. . where. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: There was a terrible car crash. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 ..? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . how. which When. . ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. ………………………………. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. You could have mentioned it earlier.Unit three Questions B: …………………. 8.2. 10.
/ We’ve lived here for ten years. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / My new car cost 10.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. Nearly two hundred years. / Shirley got married to Ben. / That’s my pen. / David’s car was stolen. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. why ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever./ She dropped her glasses. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. trying to find places where I resided in life. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / There are six students in my class. of course. / She lives in the suburbs. (Poppy Z. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. what ever./ I have French lessons twice a week. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 .000dollars. I cannot do that. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”./ Sara owns two cars.
Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 . • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2.3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.
How far is it the cinema? 10. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. He used to work in a bank. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. There was a fax for you this morning. How long is she be spending in America? 8. shall we stay? 14. He used to work in a bank. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. can you be? 58 . Would you like have a piece of cake? 13.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 3. didn’t use he? 11. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Who did left the gate open? 18. wasn’t it there? 17. Let’s stay for another few days. Let’s stay for another few days. shall we stay? 7. didn’t use he? 4. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. You can’t be serious.
particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Whose it is this book? 32. That was Jeremy’s brother. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. John goes jogging every morning. wasn’t it he? 22. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. deci. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. That’s your car. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. plin de germeni virulenţi. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Toate vechi. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. isn’t it this? 25. dacă prin absurd 59 . am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. will you not? 21. să-mi înfrâng frica. Ani întregi. Who did told you about the problem? 31. How long have you be lived in London? 26. despre o lume dură.Unit three Questions 19. neliniştea infantilă. will you not? 27. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Pot reveni. uneori disperat. ca şi cei ce au fost. How long time does it take to get there? 28. doesn’t he go? 23. deci. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A.
indiferent de risc.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. Şi. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. picură apa roşietică. laşii. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. B. naiv. străină priceperii lor. inactivii. negru. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. mă întreb. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. de atunci. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. neîntrerupt. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. pe sub bolţile din care. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. lung. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. ghiceam doar unde se află. murdar. iar proştii. Riscul? Ratarea. puturos. pe care oricum am simţit-o. dar şi drumul. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. îi ştiu gustul. umed. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. “Spune! striga el. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea.
absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3.1. orbitor. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. golul alb. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. viaţa? Oare e drept. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. exclus. domnule profesor.Unit three Questions viaţă. Tag Questions Tag questions.3. la urma urmei. nu se poate. care i-a determinat alegerea. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. will you? (38) She went to Prague. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. didn’t she? . când nu-i pot face nici un bine. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. da? (37) Let’s go there. 3.3.
au fost cheltuiţi.) A: Oh. or falling. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. hasn’t she? (Aha. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. aren’t they? 62 . or “comment tags”. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. is it? (Deci. In this way. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative.e. the tag is affirmative too.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. (Din păcate. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. The suggestion is that in this case. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. sarcasm. the tag is negative too). Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. if the host sentence is negative.
after all. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Everyone felt happy about it. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / You will pick me up. / You ought not to smoke. / I don’t think you like my music. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room.…/ Let me know. / Don’t leave without me. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I think you don’t like my music. / That was your father. / I may see you tomorrow. / There is enough food for everyone. / She has a brother. / They said he liked music. / He has to marry Susan. / You have been invited. / He hates his wife. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / That’s your car over there. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Tell me. / You will pick me up at 7. / Each of us is staying. / She left an hour ago. / I must go now. / The boy often watched his sister.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / A few people like her. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Surely you have enough money. / She used to talk a lot. / I am older than you. / Few people like her. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Let’s eat dinner now. / The boy never watched his sister. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. 63 . / I am dressed smartly enough. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I think you like my music. / He simply hates empty words.
/ I’m right about this…. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. or what? 3. He used to play squash. So you enjoyed my talk. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one.. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. 5. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . didn’t he?/ He used to play squash.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. using a question tag at the end. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. / He never used to study so hard….
/ Grants… 3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. Recapitulatory echo questions . as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.1. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.2.) B: Chinese? 65 .2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.1.3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.
rather than the repetition. of something just said. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. disbelief. If the wh. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.2.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.phrase is fronted. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.2.3. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. consternation. (Închide lumina aia. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.
dear. which letter do you 67 . whereas with explicatory echo questions./ He is interested in blue movies.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. with recapitulatory echo questions. intonation is rising. (Uită-te la asta. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. rather than did you say./ We are looking for a purse. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. / I think I’ve found a solution. / He is interested in music. (i.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (Vai. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. am pierdut scrisoarea. / We are looking for a pixie. I’ve lost the letter.e.
Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. she knows about it. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.4.
pe Condrat de Vica. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. şi apoi Vica ce zice. acuma sporovăiala. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. lui Chizlinski. după pofte. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. cumnată Fenia. Fenio. cu o casă de copii. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. în general. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. lui Stavre Păici. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. lui Luca Horobeţ.– Crezi tu. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. şerpoaica. da. nu purta verighetă. aşa. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. în satul nostru. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . oameni aşezaţi. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. Are gust de oameni blânzi. stricata. şi care s-a aciuat. să se încolăcească mai bine. ca să zic aşa. că iepuşoara asta de Vica.
curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. deci. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. abia târându-şi picioarele. dar cum se face că a 70 . pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. până la călcâie. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. sau cum o chema. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. sus. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. L-a scos din geamie. Hogea. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. De asta erai. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. roşu şi galben. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . se vede prea bine.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
6.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Key Concepts .Coordinating Conjunctions 4.5.4.Contents: 74 4.2.1.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.
(S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. on the other hand. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.Unit four Coordination 4. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. 75 . some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. Example (2). cu repros. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. present) in the sentence. where there is no indication other than a comma. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. reproachfully.e. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. i.e. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.1 Syndetic vs. that elements are coordinated.
76 . coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.) Such examples. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. From the previously mentioned examples. you will die.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. vei muri.) (4) If you hit my wife. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. Conversely.Nadina VIŞAN 4.
a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. the second. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. from a logical & semantic point of view. However.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. but presupposed. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . respectively subordinated constituents. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. we need to specify that. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.
with enormous solidity. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. his shoes squished. took off his coat and emptied them. the houses were beautiful and ancient. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. with formal walks under rows of trees. Though the castle had vanished. John Steinbeck. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. adorned with cornices. of cut gray stone. In the second. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. His clothes hung to him. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. built. In the first. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. He moved and made a slopping noise. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. Then he sat down.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. but the 78 . Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. took off his shoes and emptied them.
The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. and as the way is with Irish mountains. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. left the house. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . Cecil Woocham – Smith. the higher he went the wetter it grew. over some of the roughest ground in the country. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking.
as shown in (9). were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.3 Sentence vs. we should be seriously annoyed. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. As one can easily notice. (G. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.K. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. however distinguished. were to take down the name of every man.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. who was caught at a University Extension lecture.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.
Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 9. / Peter and John played football. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. plays football. 10. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. but not John. and I passed. and even tennis. / Peter. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 5. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. / Bob and George are admired by their students.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 7. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Pratice Distinguish coordination. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 4. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. yellow and blue. Her pet kitten is black and white. our respective examinations. / Joan plays many games.Unit four Coordination example (7). Our flag is red. 3. 2. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John is ready and Mary is ready. 8. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. 6 John sang and Mary danced. John and Mary are ready. John and Mary are the newly married couple.
A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. John writes poetry and Bill prose. 3.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. as can be seen in (10b). Activity 4 2. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Jane 82 . b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.) c. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.Nadina VIŞAN b. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. 5. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.) b. 6. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. or deleted. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.
these syntactical processes. Besides ellipsis. can be reduced by substitution. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. So. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. than a longer repetitive one. 83 . i. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. 10. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. the predication buy a pair of shoes.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. the so-called Principle of Economy. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 7.) The common element.e. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 9. 8.
4. In certain cases. George and Jane are separated. Translate the following sentences. simple books and magazines for children 3.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. A citit. 4. the old men and women 2. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. using reduced structures: 1. some reason or another. 2. George and Jane went back to their parents. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. one or (the) other method. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. 3.
13. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori... 6. 12. Can we discuss the …………. for my wallet. it’s a case of ………… 7. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Marks and Spencers. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 7. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together.You gain some things and you lose others. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. I need another 100$ ……….. 11. like: salt and pepper. the amount I’ve already saved up. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. they reached home………. 8. 5. . A pendulum swings ……….. 6. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 16. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.… 14.I searched ………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. sweet and sour. 2.. fish and chips. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 8. After all their adventures. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . of your proposals later on? 3. They get on quite well together. even though they have their little …………. only for damage. 15. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. 5. You can’t claim on insurance for ……….
) There are. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. and 86 .) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. etc. as in: (17) a. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. In fact.4. Nor sun. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. 4. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. b. the expressive function of coordination is. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. of course. more often than not.
(Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. too): (20) a.g. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. and cherished her. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. sometimes but. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) 87 . where the subordinator is repeated. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.) b.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) c. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. 20 (b)).) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (I-am dat banii. etc). or . (Ei o placeau pe Susan. o respectau si o indrageau. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. both … and .) In certain cases.
Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. and you’ll die. I admire and like her. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I like and admire her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I washed and ironed my pants. From this point of view. if we were to rewrite the example .) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. and hit my wife. In this case.* I ironed and washed my pants. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (Imi place si o admir. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) b. (O admir si imi place. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions.) b. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.
he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) (While Dr. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. Brown experiments with humans. (If you do that. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. he failed).Unit four Coordination 1. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .
) 101 .) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. 5. as the name suggests it. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.g. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . e. From the functional point of view. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.which are based on coordination . Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.
(Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. an adverbial item. for example). in certain cases. such as proud of. for instance. In a way. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. they are still presupposed by the speaker. by an adjective + preposition. we associate it with these objects. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). We do not presuppose however something like.) 102 . sentences) required by the verb (or.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. For instance. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. (I-a dat cartea.
) b. In other words. i.e. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. to her) and one extra-item. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. The second example. 103 . I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. to add something. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. an additional one. related to example (4). Thus. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. I am afraid that he won’t come. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. which is the adverbial willingly. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. A second observation. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book.
I’ll die. a închis toate ferestrele. like. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.) (11) If you don’t marry me. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.) 104 . then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. So. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. make. (Înainte să plece din cameră. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. such as want. am să mor. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. etc.
The book that because they home. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. she looked at me sadly. [. 3. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. They came to e. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. this to whomever wants it. 5.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. Susan disappeared without saying a word. e. 6. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.She came to him of her own will. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. After I told her the story. Whoever did that was a genius.g. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 4. 2.g.g.
) 106 . When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. etc. though it was largely politeness. stating their function: Activity 2 1. which.He took an intelligent interest in her. at our age. You suggestion that we should. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. As you can see. FOR. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 6. 2. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. 3. 5. WHETHER. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. but he declined.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. not object. was a novelty to Mitzi. 4.
) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. (E de dorit să plece. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. where. Who did it was John. how. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. when. (15) It is John who did it. 107 . who. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. which.) (16) a.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. why. Where he went is London. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) b.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.
however. which sums up this classification. for instance. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. before. done from a structural point of view. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In conclusion. etc. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. Compare. In (18). the categories are reduced to only three in this case. if. Unlike complement clauses. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .) (18) She told me this before she left. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. As you will see.1. consider the following table. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb.
for. I will go there because I feel like it. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. after. Dear Ludwig. whether he will come when I feel like it. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I will come back such as because. etc. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little.: e. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. 109 . Introduced know e. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.g. you understand. at your young age.g. as.g. back. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.
he said. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. But she thought that no one would call again. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. As she left the house. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. she stopped to speak to Monroe. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. Late that afternoon. Too. a tightening in her breathing. Accidental Man) b)1.The day Monroe had died was in May. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. 2. but he asked her to wake him when she returned.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.g.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g.g. However.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g. interesting.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. că e. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.2. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. a correspondence can be traced. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. That he loved e. As you have probably noticed already. I told her everything after she arrived. 111 .
This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. complements.1. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.complement.. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. whenever you identify a wh.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.2. whereas wh complements are the 112 . Secondly. So. i. (Cred că mă place.e. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. In the fourth place.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. We will come back to that in the next chapter. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. Thirdly.
but no idea what to do with them. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. because. Pratice Consider the following text. and I do not know how things might stand between us. outbuildings. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. c) I am coming home one way or another. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. She mistrusted her handwriting.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. before. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. I first thought to tell in 113 . their introductory elements (e. a barn. after. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce.g. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. a house. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. for no matter how she tried.
(Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. it would make you fear to do such again.e. According to a structural criterion.4. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). because they modify. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. these clauses can be complements. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). and I have not the will or the energy.
115 . fără să-şi ridice spinarea.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. (…) “Mă. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. think of. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ.g.e. Nevasta secera în tăcere. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. answering the question to whom? So. interested in. O zbughi înapoi.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. după ce că are grâu puţin. look at. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. îşi spuseseră că Anton. ce o fi având. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. însă. Pratice Translate the following. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. etc. be very careful to use this term correctly. Alţii.
izolate de sat. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. întâi. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. cât de bolnavă era. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. timp de un ceas. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Toată lumea înţelesese că. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . Nici acum. de fapt. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte.
Pace nu era. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. deşi cam târziu. de pildă. amânase scrisul. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. aşa de oţetit. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. stricau totul. la nişte prieteni comuni.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Era bine de ştiut. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. acum sunt desluşiţi. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. În realitate. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. la Odobeşti. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Iată.
frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 . Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.
g. subject relative clauses. 119 . the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. etc. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. of which..SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). whose.
4.7.1. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.2. The Co-reference Condition 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.5. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.6. Key Concepts .3.6.
(1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.2. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). 6. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The Co-reference Condition . Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.1. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.Unit six Relative clauses 6. 121 . We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.
By combining these two clauses. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. 122 . The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. John loves that woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.
The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The common element woman is present. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. This way. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 .Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.
I introduced him to Jim. He told Jim everything about his plans. This is my husband. too. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 7. WHO 124 . Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. He’s the author who received the prize. The students like their teacher. WHERE 3. 5. John told his friend a story about the king. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 4. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 3. frequently used in written language. 8.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. I bought Jim a book. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. They met those students. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. WHICH 4. I had a book. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. 2. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. Any of the students would answer to questions. I love my husband very much. Susan wants to meet Jane. He liked that book. The students like their teacher. 10. The king was just passing by. 6. She came to London. I lost the book’s cover. I went to London. 9. therefore in spoken English. None of the students agreed with them. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. WHO 5. by leaving behind a trace. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one.
dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHOM 10. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.Unit six Relative clauses 6. i. WHICH 8. WHOM 6. (Cine strică plateşte. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.e. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. relative clauses are divided into 1. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. . 2. most of them were from England. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOSE 7. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. TO 11.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.
(Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. Unlike their sisters.e. is no longer overtly expressed.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. unlike in the case of (14). (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) So.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. it is covert. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. in a manner of speaking. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.
este zeul meu favorit. They can be thus divided into: 1. care este zeul negoţului.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. who is the god of commerce. (Du-te unde pofteşti.) (Mercury. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.) (22) Mercury. who incidentally is the god of commerce. (Mercur. is my favourite god. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. 127 . (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They only provide supplementary information about it. they define it).) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.
I have met him where I least expected. She.e. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. i. Shakespeare. on whom nobody could depend. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. who is a genius. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. restrictive relative clauses. 2. As we were saying.This is the village where I spent my youth. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. is a genius. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. 5. is a great playwright. who came to see me. this type of relative clauses. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 9. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Independent I don’t know what you want. 7. 8. then it is an attribute. 10.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. They are what 128 . 6. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man.
): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.) 2. composed The (Freddie Mercury. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. however sad this may be.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. who died a few years ago. etc. etc. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. care a murit acum câţiva ani. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. . Consider the following points of discussion: 1. When the antecedent has no determiner. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. a.
Mie. 2. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. iritabilă şi uscată. who am your son. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. who neither work nor am anxious. ci o fată a woman. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. 7. can see your shortcomings only too well.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. ill-tempered. dried-up old maid. poftiţi în faţă. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 5. care-ţi sunt fiu. 130 . 6. but a peevish. 4. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. (Eu. 3. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Dintre toate personajele prezente. (Ei apeleaza la mine. bătrînă morocănoasă.) Pratice Translate the following. care nu sunt o femeie. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. numai eu nu. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate.) (28) They come to me.
Unit six Relative clauses 6. .) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. heard. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. erau acum în posesia lui. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. than whom few more can be more crashing. (32) service finished late. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. were now in his possession. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. părăsi camera.
The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. 6. but it is typical of the formal. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără.) d.1. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. too. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) c. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. literary style: (37) a. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The genitive form with which is still in use.) b. as can be seen in (36d).5. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.
(Iris Murdoch. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.
… Italy.) b. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. but to a type or a function: a. animals. ships (that can be personified) a. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.) b. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. He is not the man which he used to be.) • states. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (45) (46) . of which.
where. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. time. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. while. etc.) 6. etc. whom it concerned most closely. how.5. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches.) b) dialectal (49) a. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) b. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. why. It is poor what gets the punches. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. pe care o privea direct. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. France. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.) 135 (47) .2 Relative Adverbs: when. reason.Unit six Relative clauses b. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. (Nu ştiam ce vor. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.
) When they introduce free relative clauses. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) c. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.They left when they decided it was proper to.) b. They returned to the land whence they had come. This is the place wherefrom they came.) b.) 136 . Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.3. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) b. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) 6.) e. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. The place whither he goes is unknown. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. He went where he had been before.5. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A system where by a new discovery will arise. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. no antecedents are required: (52) a.
(Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. Moreover.
5.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. .) b.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. every. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.4. 138 (64) his shoes. Honest man as he was. much.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. but • in standard language a. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. not any. any. but they are used very infrequently: as. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.
să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. This is the same one that/as you had before. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. There’s not many as’ll say that. And always on the buttered side. It’s the dry weather does it. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.) • in dialect a. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. . the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. ăl de fusese in China…) b. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.) c. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. him as was in China … (Uncle George. Uncle George.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti.) c.
It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.
the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. makes me a wart and a wen. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 7. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 5. we all have to come to some terms.) c.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. That which shows God out of me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.” 4. The man that John spoke to is a genius.5. 2. 3. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 6. fortifies me. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. What I’m saying is.3): (72) a. It seemed a thing 141 . The man John spoke to is a genius. What Inman remembered was this passage.) b. Where he was from. This is where we talk money. b.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. The man who John spoke to is a genius. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.
(…) Partly. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 9. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 142 . e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. who had not witnessed many dawns. 11. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 13. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 8.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Ruby said. he had left Ruby high and dry. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 10. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 12. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. which is a lot. Oh. The rudeness of eating. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. Whatever his fate was. of living. though.
care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. vasnic. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. mort de tanar. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. un var primar.al lui. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carei strabunic. poate. Cumnatul meu avea. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. una din nepoatele unui inginer. fiu natural al unui morar. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. (Iris Murdoch. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. cumnatul unui portughez. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. pe linie paterna. divortata. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. plutonier. pirpiriu. nu prea sarac. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.
by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was a woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. By extension. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . Everybody listened to that woman. 144 . where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. b. c. The opposite phenomenon. Teatru) 6. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. This is the book. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.6.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. I lost the cover of the book. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. insurat de trei ori la rand.2.
5. 7. 3. In the interest of public decency. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . he requested that the public be excluded. has been troubling them forever. 4. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. acting again as a genuine pied piper. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The difference between (76) and (77). 6.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 8. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. no easy answers to which could be offered. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.Unit six Relative clauses b. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 2. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The problem of safe transportation. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 9.
This story. has been deleted. as the case is). Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. no matter which. 5. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 10. was now complete. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. 3. whose interest he most sincerely shared. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. They do not function as attributes. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 6. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Activity 9 were now all gone. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). he rarely saw now. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back.His father’s friends. 4.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. 2. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Irene. 146 . His friends.
unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 7. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. 2. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 3. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. sunt vrednic de invidiat. himeric. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 6. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. De douazeci de ani. Nelu. închipuirea. 5. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Toate sfârşeau. 4. Pentru alţii. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească.
Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 9. 12. 8. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. cu surle şi cu tobe. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 10. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. nici în searbăda mea versiune. a făcut el. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11.
pe strada Icoanei. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. din direcţia căreia apoi. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. deşi atât de aproape. 15. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. despre care. 14. fie la teatru. trăia larg de tot. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. din care cauză pe Dora. de unde venea şi Marta. Avea acum un fel de vertij. 20. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. care era foarte “mondenă”. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. 17. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. până mai adineauri. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. toată lumea întreba cine e. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Dacă mă lovea. 18. roiuri de fetiţe. 16. zise ea cu ochii mari. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. fie pe stradă. În spatele lor. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. 149 . apărură. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac.
de sus de unde eram. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el.Nadina VIŞAN 21. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. aveau un stil al lor. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. întâia noapte de război) 150 . alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care ea îi admira acum. pe care eu nu-l aveam. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. Pare-se că snobii. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 23. 24. până în şosea. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. 22. când au urcat râpa iar. Pentru mine însă. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. de mine. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei.
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 . by stating their syntactic function.
1. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.Clause Shift 18.104.22.168. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.6.1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 22.214.171.124.3.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.Topicalization 7.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 126.96.36.199.1.5.4. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.Extraposition 188.8.131.52. That Complements as Subjects 7.5. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 184.108.40.206.2. That Deletion 7.1.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. Key Concepts . The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.3.4.
) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1. but also of infinitival ones. (3) Tell me if you need anything. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. Apart from those introduced by that. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. placed in a marginal position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. 153 . the clause is extraposed.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. In other words.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. 7. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.
Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.
7. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It appears that no one voted for him. It is nice to meet you. 4. 7. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 14. 13. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 15. It is no use trying to convince her.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 8. 11. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 11. 10. 3. 2. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 5. 6. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It was suggested that they should meet the President.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 3. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 6. 9. 10. 4. 2. 9. 8.
2. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. după porţi. They never expected it that he would come back. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 4.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. mă ascundeam în grabă. unde se nimerea. 3. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 3. 18.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. I guess it that he will come back. atât 156 . 3. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 5. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. zice Lionel. I don’t expect it that he will come back. sub poduri. 2.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. în canal. 6. în gropi. 2. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 4.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 5. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1.
Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 5. fără să cârteşti. vor căuta să o zdruncine. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. fără îndoială. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii.” 4. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. 6. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. 157 . Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Spunând cele ce-am spus. excelentă. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. (Nu întotdeauna. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. 7.
) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. 1. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.1. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) While in the case of extraposition.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. subject clauses are the frequent situation. this asymmetry is undone.2. Pratice Read the following. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Consequently. in the case of topicalization. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.
3. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 7. This was another era. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. She had always been the slave of chance. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 8. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. mere chance would decide. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. was inconceivable. whether it would finally carry her off.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. even today. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 5. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. He was utterly gone. He did not blame Gracie. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. but not now. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 2. 6. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. he felt no spring of interest in her. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 4.
Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.1.) 160 . (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.3.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.
Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. we obtain. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. 161 .) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.e. the verb to drive). (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.
5. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 162 .They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 3./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 2. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 6.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 8.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
(Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.Unit seven That complements 7. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.
deem.2. (I-au promis o casă nouă. prefer.) b. He announced their engagement. (Cred că omul este vinovat. etc. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. afirm. They believe the man is guilty. He announced that they were engaged. communicate. state. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. etc.1.) 164 . desire. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. explain.Nadina VIŞAN 7. They promised him that he would received a new house.: (25) a. promise.) b. suggest. judge. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. estimate.) a. They believe that the man is guilty. consider. predict.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. deny.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) language. hope =>purpose. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.) I like him in that he is smart. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) 172 . In older stages of English. they lose their meaning. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. on condition that. ibid. for example. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.e. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.
That can be deleted. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. He gave such an answer as had expected.) b. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. să o vadă trecând.) When the structure contains the word such. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. that we wouldn’t doubt it. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. .) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave an answer such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) (66) 173 a.
10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. (Iris Murdoch. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.) 174 . (Iris Murdoch. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.We discovered that our map has disappeared.) b. for better or worse. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever. ibid.
for instance. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.3. that he uses a relaxed tone.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (A prins de veste că ei vin.Unit seven That complements 7. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. 175 . (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.1.3 ‘That Deletion 7. say. tell).) b. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. He showed he was able to do it. (69) a. He said he had borrowed her money. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) c. He got word they were coming.
3.3.3.) (De asemenea.) b. rele. I like it that he was here. bune. because that has been deleted. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. for better or worse. for better or worse. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.2. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. they were chained to each other forever. (Îmi place că e aici. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. (Iris Murdoch. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN 7. *I like it he was here. 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. they were chained to each other forever.
) 177 . 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. spuse el. (“Este acolo”. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. simultaneity.) b)He told me that she was there. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause.4. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. which is ungrammatical in English. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. you want me to believe. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 7. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. that they were not too late to leave. 7) They maintain. he said. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke.
(A spus că o să o părăsească. In the example below.) Future Perfect -----. The Present complement). până pleacă ea. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. he said. He said he would leave her. (“Era acolo”.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) b. (Pâna să plece.) b. “She was here”.) b. (Am să o părăsesc. o să vină el. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . He told me that she had been there. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. vine el.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (A spus că. I will leave her. spuse el. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.
(Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. etc. think.etc. regret. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. wish. believe. say. discover. With such factive verbs as realize. be aware. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. insist.) On the other hand. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. report.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. notice. forget.) 179 . the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. whisper. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. show. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. dream. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. hope. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.) b. realize it). be amazed/concerned. mention.
) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Iris Murdoch. He knew that she thought all men were fools. 180 . She believed that the earth is round.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) b.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. cu un respect tandru reciproc. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) b. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. She realized that all men are fools. Consider also: (85) a. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. feign habits which are not their own. She still believed that the earth was flat. we notice that general truths. in tender deference to each other.
simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. Peter said that John will leave at 5.) b. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. such as a. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) In (88). the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) b. There are however cases. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.Unit seven That complements 2. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. 181 . She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Peter said that John would leave at 5. 3. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.
for instance. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. The time is 3 o’clock. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. John said that Harry will leave. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. But 182 . g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. Imagine.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. g) John thought that Harry ran. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past.
Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. lack of pridefulness. lark. b. redtailed hawk. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a. love of practical jokes. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. slyness in a fight. whistling swan. quail. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. geese both grey and white. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Cooper’s hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. nighthawk. Translate the following. Crows will relish what presents itself. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. jaybird. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. c. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She admired their keenness of wit. 183 . as evidenced by its drear plumage. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. kingfisher. bluebird.
(Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Now here he stood jailed. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He died erect. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. the young officer. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. he claimed. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. war hero though he was. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He had fought hard through the war. in the very act of expiring. And they might just hang him. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. […] During the latter stages of the tale. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. But as the battle raged around them.
5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. which they share with wh-complements.Unit seven That complements 7. 185 . adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). or else. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). On certain occasions that can be deleted. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. on other occasions it has to stay there. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). object ones up to the attributive function. from the very frequent subject.
Mama. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Fiind 186 . Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. 2. cel mai mare. neconvenabil şi primejdios. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Unul din ei. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 3. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. peste puţin. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar.
un vis de acesta 187 . va pleca din oraş la vie.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Nu ţi-a trecut. Se mira. 5. care îl pândise. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. 8. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. aşa. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. fericit. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. de ce constata în sine. cel puţin pentru un timp. 9. dacă va mai veni. ea. venind de la avocat. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. luminos şi apropiat şi când. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. 6. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 7.
Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Acesta. încă o dată.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. 12. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. fireşte. Astfel de va fi. 11. dar şi teama că. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. şi mândria că a biruit. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . lucrul era înfăptuit. liniştit.
14.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să le lămurească pe toate. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. după cum. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Pe toate. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. ci numai aşa. spre Jurubiţa. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. mai puternic decât oricând. fără o vorbă scrisă. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
6.A Classification of Infinitives 8.Key Concepts .8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 220.127.116.11.9.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.4.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.7.5.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.1.
Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). That you love her is something wonderful.1. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.) • like that complements. 193 . (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). It is important for you to know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). (2) a. From this perspective. I told her to be more careful in the future.) b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. It is important that you should know what you need. Consider the following: • like that complements. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). b. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. To love her is something really wonderful. (3) a.) b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.
that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. the Participle) (i. etc. participial clauses. gerundial clauses. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. d. the Conditional. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. 2. moduri nepersonale) By convention. 194 . they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. as opposed to the finite ones. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. the Gerund.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.) b. For instance. is the fact that they do not have temporal features.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.e.
The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. namely no ending.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) c.) b.) 195 . He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.
She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 3. 8. 9. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.2. 7. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 5. 8. 10. It is vital this factory to be reopened. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . the criterion of form. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 2. (7) They saw her leave. 6. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 4. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.
) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. hear. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (10) 197 . (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. 2. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Au văzut-o că pleaca.
) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. uncharacteristic for literary English. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 3. . trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. 198 (11) the universe. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. Pratice Translate the following. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. However.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.
since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. as I have already mentioned.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. 199 .) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. In other words. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. to use the appropriate technical term. Further on. or the control constructions. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive.
Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. It is important for him not to err. the logical subject.) Object: (18) a. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) 200 . şi creştineşte să ierţi. I hoped for him to be there in time. namely the agent of the event. PRO to err is human. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) In this situation. So far.) b. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. PRO to forgive divine. (E important ca el să nu greşească. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.
) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. him is not the agent of the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).) b. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. him is related to the main clause verb. Semantically. not to the infinitive. In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. but the patient of the verb persuade. He stepped aside for her to enter.
from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ I would love them to come.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ 202 . nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ He persuaded her to come. \ They convinced her to come back. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ I allowed them to come. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ She wanted him to leave. \ They tempted him to leave. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ She promised him to leave. I hate animals to be tortured. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. Likewise. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals.
and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. 203 . (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) He seems to be a good linguist. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. \ They really asked her to come back.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. \ They did not wish her to come back. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. So. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. • Last but not least. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.) In examples (25) and (26).Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.
204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. with special semantic and syntactic properties. that is not required by certain verbs. etc. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. appear. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. To sum up the discussion. hate. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. which are said to be free. seem. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. to meet her. Pratice Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second.).
afford.3 The Distribution of PRO . endeavour. hate. Compare: (31) a. fail. aspire to. manage. etc. propose. ./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.) 205 friend. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. agree to. bear. scorn. wish. contrive. try. omit. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. decline. / E greu să îl suporţi. presume. intend. want.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. seek (= try). prefer. refuse. etc. mean. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. dislike.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) b) verbs such as abide.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. expect. hope. like. 8. arrange. need. care to. etc. deign.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. deserve.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. desire. scheme. condescend. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. venture.
I hate that you should say a thing like this. claim. bear.) 206 . stand. conclude. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.etc. threaten. however. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. forget. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) 8. suggest.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. desirable.) b.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. verbs of liking and disliking. ask.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. be important.) b. For all of them to have been killed is. etc. unlikely. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. possible.) b. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. endeavour.Nadina VIŞAN b. I would like for him to become president of the country.
) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) b. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) 8. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) 207 .5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) 2. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.
(Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) b. I decided for John to represent us.) b. .) 208 knowledge. the preposition is deleted.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. but the meaning remains. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 4. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 5. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Direct Objects (39) a. Like in the case of that complements. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.
) b. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) e. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. 6.: (42) a. delicious.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. etc. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) d. He is a bastard to work for. You’re an idiot to go there.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) c. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) c) adverbial of result 209 . bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. She is pretty to look at. curious about. This paint is like concrete to work with. The stew is delicious to eat.
) I’ve never met him. / Ehei. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. să nu piardă trenul. conduci prost. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. drept să spun. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Pe şleau.) Oh. final or introductory infinitive In this case./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. you’re a bad driver. to tell you the truth. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament.
b.) b. inspire.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. influence. direct. inform. (49) a. swear. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. press. According to this. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife.etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.: (51) a. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. encourage. enable.) . b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. etc. urge. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. promise. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. 8. nu mai vreau să te vad. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. induce. need. oblige. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.
look to. command.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. etc.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. prevail on.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. nominate.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. depend on./ And now he 212 . / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. allow. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. permit.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. count on.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. elect. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. choose. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. etc. vote. name./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. order.etc.
etc.etc. be about to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (57) He is to come any day now. (56) She grew to like him in the end. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. An Accidental Man) 8. (Iris Murdoch.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. this construction is lexically governed. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. happen. 213 (58) (59) .Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. grow. etc.e. seem. (O să întârzii/ leşin. come.: (55) She appears to like him.verbs: appear. i. be going to.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Se pare că îi place de el.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).
) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. etc. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. observe.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be rumoured. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. . be claimed.: (62) They heard him insult her. be thought. be considered. hear.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. (L-au auzit insultând-o. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. In (57). watch.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. that of intention.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.) 8. be alleged.etc. overhear. perceive. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. be reported. etc. feel. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.
: (68) I believe him to be a genius. discover. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. However. imagine.) • with a full infinitive: get. believe. prove. (Cred că este un geniu. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. occasion. understand. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. remember. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. judge.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. cause. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. deem. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. consider. know. picture. recollect. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. have. find. etc. presume.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. figure.) 215 (67) .
Harold. want. they had depressed and fuddled him. who wasn’t used to men with moods.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. expect. suffer. love. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. etc. choose. he hated anyone to comment 216 . wish.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. order.etc. if he himself was out of spirits.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. permit. command.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. prefer. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. desire.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. mean. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.
It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.P. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. to make sure we attended strictly to business. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. though he tended to look down on those below it. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . A little crossly. he didn’t envy those above it. He suspected hostility at once. (L. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. the herd instinct was very strong in him.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. so that we might get to the future and have done. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. Both seemed to him a little unreal. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad.
This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN 8. 218 . we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The last criterion.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. From this perspective. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.
e) Când doi oameni. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. E posibil. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. lovit şi umilit. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. bunăoară. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. e important ce întrebări pui. să-l capete. Şi tu să fii. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. fireşte. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. mai bine219 . dar să nu-ţi spună. într-o zi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. de asemenea. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. de bună seamă. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. un bărbat şi o femeie.
în parte. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. să nu vrea să se şteargă. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. mai bine de două decenii. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. sau. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. în parte. d-a lungul gâtului. avusese dreptate. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. mai pline de înţeles. în ploaie. (B. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Să spui de pildă. că eşti tânăr. încă. 220 . să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. să traiesc numai cu tusea. De era vară.Şt. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi.Şt. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure.Nadina VIŞAN zis. ca să nu şi-o amintească. în jos. .să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet.Delavrancea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. un picior. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. aşa cum îi apăruse el. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. pe care deja o uitase.
Într-un cuvânt. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. fie ea şi grăbită. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. orice bucureştean ştie.. sunt aici cu tot ce am. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă.. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. un miros îngrozitor. ei. deşi. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. Mă laud singură. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. de fapt. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. prin faţă e coborârea. o mizerie. nici ca să 221 . ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). şi nu un amant. biata Muti. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. şi prin faţă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. orice-ar fi. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci.. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. (Al..
ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.
Characteristics of Participial Constructions 18.104.22.168.2.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.3.The Participle Contents: 224 9.9.1.The Gerund 9.1.2.Participial Constructions 9.4.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.1.The Verbal Noun 9.3.5 Key Concepts .Differences between Participles and Gerunds 22.214.171.124. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.
1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.) 225 .1.1. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. (Susan doarme. Let us start with the Participle: 9. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Due to this situation.
) As you can see in this second case. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. it functions attributively. been and killed are past participle forms. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. (A venit Susan) b. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. too: (6) Her eye-lids.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. In (2) the forms come. blood-shot and painted. Susan has come. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.e.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. were closing. i. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. the past participle can appear after a noun. 226 . (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track).) More infrequently. Susan has been killed.
) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. o să ajung la timp. I will arrive there on time. Oh. he will eventually marry her.) b. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. a lion can attack.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. If provoked. they started singing. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) b. God willing. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. începură să cânte. I will arrive there on time. (Sosind aici. people should pay attention to high notes.) 227 .) d. mother permitting. Arriving here.) c. Knowing who the guy was. Weather permitting. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. When singing. o să ajung la timp. ea o luă la fugă. leul poate să atace.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.) c. she ran away. (Ştiind cine era el.
) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. which stands for an adverbial clause. hear. He was found stealing. notice.) 228 .Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.) b. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. (Am simţit-o tremurând. (L-au descoperit că fură. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. smell. I found him stealing. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. respectively. He was found killed by a bullet. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-am descoperit furând. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. watch. behold. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) ii.) b. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.
(O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. recollect. have. set.) b.) b. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. send. feel. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.: When she heard his words. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. I must get my hair cut. have. etc.) c. He’ll soon get things going. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (A fost văzut plângând. find. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. a. make a. keep. etc. recollect. she knew herself dismissed. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. know. confess. I heard it said that men are a bore.) • Causative verbs: get. leave. etc.) b. etc.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) • mental perception verbs: remember. start. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.: a.) • Causative verbs: get . (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 .: Imagine him saying a thing like that. hear.
/ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. lovit şi plin de sânge. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. Men like shopping made easy. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Nu după multă vreme./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English.) • verbs of permission. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. command I ordered my bill made out.) b. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. He wanted his car fixed immediately.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.
e. / In any case. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. Unlike the gerund. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / Dinny. with its lips drawn back. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. 231 . / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.2.1.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. sitting taut between her father and her sister. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / My Lord.
) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. (Văzând acestea. 7.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I turned on the light. 6. am plecat. am plecat. 2. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. she enjoyed her trip to Spain.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. It had been uprooted by the gale. the rain will stop. (Desi nu ştia limba. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I was astonished at what I saw. People were sleeping in the next room. The tree had fallen across the road. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 5. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 4. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . I left. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 3. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. se va opri şi ploaia. She had heard it all before. using either a present participle. I have looked through the fashion magazine. I left.
the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. They began quarreling about how to divide it. 11. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 8. broad. 4. I slammed the door of my room. eagle. Dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. his horse fell at the last jump. cloth. fishy.shoulder. 8. Passing under a ladder. 233 . dark. 12. 6. minded (3 times). 10. hearted (twice). straight. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. bald. 9. lion. haired (twice). 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. red (twice). 5. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. the sea was tossing the post up and down. narrow. 10. Reading in bed. roast. cornered. many. quick. eyed (3 times). Riding in the first race. one of the eggs broke. 2. sharp. drunken.Running into the room.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 7. b) Headed (5 times). 9. Read the sentences and try to correct them. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. wooden. Getting out of bed. Leaving the cinema. Tied to the post. He sat down to his own dinner. covered. a scorpion bit him. open. handed. coloured. skinned. They found the treasure. Mother punished me for my mistake. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. I let the dog out of the room. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. stricken. He fed the dog. Barking furiously. Climbing down the tree. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. lighted. shaven. an idea suddenly occurred to me. empty. mown. 3. open. stony. three. my hands often get very cold.
Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. head. were taken to hospital. man. (grow) 4. are sold throughout the world. hidden. are in grave danger of extinction. / Many old people . b) grass. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. wealth. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. meaning. stream. The escaped prisoner. _______ by S.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . shrunken. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. duty. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. image. _____ when their car crashed on the M1.Spielberg. deer.I fell on the ice. bounden. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (hunt). the same verb is missing twice. (injure). was today taken back to prison. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. shorn. _______ for a bargain. The film. lead. (find) 6. candle. / Swiss watches. / Three people. Whales.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. graven. meat. I stared at the canvas for ages. plank. (produce) 3. (take) 2. ill-gotten. Translate into English: 1._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. rotten. is expected to be a great hit. 7. lamb. _______ for their elegance and precision. eyes. (admire) 5. _______ my arm. ________ hiding in a barn. In the following pairs of sentences.
stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. 2. legume date prin mai multe ape. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. nesigur şi moale. 3. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. întinse. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. le cocea. le fierbea. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. când deschisă. şi moi. precum şi foile de plăcintă. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. O umbreluţă. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. 4. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. când strânsă. deodată sufocat. ca şi cum. După câtva timp. trezit. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. păsări tăiate. Şi. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Şi sufletul său. care le rânduia.
) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. Likewise.2.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.1.2. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.Nadina VIŞAN 9. According to this criterion. The Gerund 9. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. 236 . A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. crezi. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. (Dacă vezi. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.
Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.2.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Consider the following table. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b.) b.) 9. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. In that. That he won and you lost was surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. gerunds differ from participles. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. Him winning and you losing was surprising.2.
which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.) b. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. *It was illegal growing a beard. It was illegal to grow a beard. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. as being verbal 238 .) 2. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. Consider (32).) Unlike participles. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.
) b. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Participles vs. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.3. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.) b. It’s no good talking to her. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. as offered in the table below: 239 . and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) 9. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.2.) 3.
(direct object She was interested in him marrying her.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. + noun] 1. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . 3. forms: continuous . may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles may function adverbials: house. (adverbial of time) 4. passive ones She was crying. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. babies suck their thumb. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. perfect. 2. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping.
/ Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine.
boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. shooting gallery / shooting star. Gambling is his favourite pastime. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 7. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 12. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 9. 6. 242 . 14. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. swimming duck / swimming trunks. crying game / crying woman. 5. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 8. 11. He was spotted talking to her. 10. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 3. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 15. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 12. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 4. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 2. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 13. eating habits/ eating people.
the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.Unit nine Ing complements 9. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.3.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. a The absence of an of phrase. but the presence of a direct object (i. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.) The absence of a determiner like the.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.
Thus. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. In the second situation. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . How can we tell? In the first case. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. These are features that normally characterize any noun.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. George’s shooting the attacker.
the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. very large. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. 245 . / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. Jim left quietly. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / His coming there puzzled her.
(A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. Look. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.4. However. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. With the infinitive. for example. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. ING Forms and Infinitives. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. whenever we meet an –ing form. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. It has been noticed that. For instance. the meaning is different.
(S-a oprit din mâncat. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. anterior to the verb in the main clause.) .) The first example. On the other hand. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. containing an infinitive.) After looking at this example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. having left) is infrequently used in English.g. and the most well-known one. future-oriented value of the infinitive).
(Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.) . having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. recollect. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). which means that they are similar in meaning.) As you can see. i. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).
Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. In the second example. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. but that’s it.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. the action is not completed.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) . dar asta este.
(Casa trebuie reparată. In the second example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. The house needs repairing. mean has the sense signify. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) wedding.human] objects. The house needs to be repaired.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) With [.) 250 . e) need. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) b.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. the event has not happened yet. want With [+ human] objects.
only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. gerund or infinitive. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. but they went by too quickly. however appearances were against us.’ ‘In any case. Lady Corven. (hold) up his pen and (speak). what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. it’s overrated.’ ‘Tell me.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. (take) down her answer. my Lord. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . my Lord. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. whereas in the second case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. Croom (try) (follow) one. I did ask Mr.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.
licked the envelope with passion.’ said Clare.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. I must go back now. and went out (post) it himself.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. Then. he addressed the note. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. suddenly.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare. I just used the word and they fell. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ 252 . ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.
Unit nine Ing complements 9.5. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Pratice In the following texts. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Last but not least. the 253 .
the enormous split in the earth. but then he saw it billowing up from below. hoping he would see somebody up there. according to the books he read. She started coughing. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. then the noise and the cracking stone. down. It was like a mist. At first. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. someone looking for survivors. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. their edges crashing inwards. covering the girl’s head. moving up towards his chest. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The sight of the two children. it 254 . the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. slowly rising in a swirling motion. He looked up towards the daylight. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. Then he saw movement at his feet. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down into God knows where.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. The two sides were moving apart.
She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. 255 . slanted on to her cheek. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. Having a French governess. brightening to winter brilliance.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. and sunlight. for Dornford was busy on an important case. my dear.
înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Vaucher şi cu mine. într-o joi. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. În urma slugii. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. 2. totul se animă deodată. ucenicul său necredincios. and then went riding with her in the rain. mama mea. închizând ochii. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Ridicându-se. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. cei doi Mamona. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început.
continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. am ştiut şi cine. la mine. aplecându-se puţin. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. dar ştiutoare. afară ploua în continuare. 3. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. se duse lânga mama şi. Neclintiţi. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Şi deodată. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. privit. o sărută pe frunte. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. auzit şi zadarnic. aşezată cu spatele la noi. pe mama mea părând absentă. pe Vaucher. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. după cum îi spusese mama. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. totul mi se părea cunoscut. despre salvgardarea realizărilor.
camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi cu soba. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. 5. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi cu stiva de lemne. Au coborât din camion încet. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. dar. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. camionul a plecat. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. cu tot cu baraca.
Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
3. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. I am sorry not to have seen you. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. and that 263 . He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. How much. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 6. was unclear to Mitzi. 9. to retire early from my employment. and this particularly of late. 2. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. You have been much in my thoughts. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. whereas if she went away she would get none. he had not yet been able to estimate. 12. because of pity. Having regard to the date of drafting. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. this would really hurt. since I have decided. 10. without profound questioning. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 11. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and meet it right here at home. apart from his distress for parents. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. he had been advised. 13. How this time was to come. 7. 5. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. in some way. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter.
No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 17. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. please consider his proposition. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. one of the eggs broke. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. looking forward had not yet taken place. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / Before you go on changing the subject. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 14. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 264 . 19. even for months. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / Whenever I visited my aunt. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. this always makes us feel embarrassed. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. for attending his sister’s wedding. / In the end. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. he did not come to see her.
She felt herself much older by nature and experience. to end in some awful tragedy. a little girl. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. They hated trying on. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. 265 . she said. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . centered in London and themselves. quite unexpectedly. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. Tony was a child. They rushed into shops. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. her recklessness. (and there he was. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Clarissa used to think. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. she had done something unpleasing to her governess.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. Though much in request before her marriage. Instead of which she had married. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. without discovery. of the quick and wiry. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. She felt as when. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Essentially. At country houses she had met them of course. Vulgar men did. an open-air person. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. rather than the hefty type. cotton mills at Manchester. and it was bound. it was said. of all people. her old friend Hugh.
with all its impatience of restraint. si in plus. nu a facut-o pentru asta. cre s-au nascut lent. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. era un bun sfatuitor.Over the River) 2. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. to keep abreast of the current. but lying in her bath. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Reading many novels. the more she would be torturing him. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. ii faceau bine.Rindurile dvs. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. she professed. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. indeed. nu puteam sa le uit. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Bolnava nu se simtea.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. De uitat. The closer she allowed him to come to her. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. short of the contacts of love. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. she was uneasy. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. astfel.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. aveam tot mai 266 . (John Galsworthy . Cind l-a chemat. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.
(St. latimea si ascutisul labei.) 5. are nevoie. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. lungimea picioarelor. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. nu pricep nimic. se stie. vaazut cindva. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Banulescu – ibid. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. ca si tine. (St. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin.) 7. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. (St. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.) 267 . Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Banulescu – ibid. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. pe scaunul lui tare. 4. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. poate fi compensata. (St. Personal.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Banulescu – ibid. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Banulescu – ibid. Milionarule. o data sau de doua ori. Daca tu.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. fa-o. Ce a iesit.) 6. cit mai au de trait. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. mi-am zis. printr-o asistenta activa din afara.
And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who told me. to Emmanuel College. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Who came home from the war. a wounded soldier. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Arthur Atkinson M. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . A story-book romance. my grandfather. 2. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Who when asked about his memories of the War. (. for being a renegade. Who was may father. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Ernest Richard Atkinson. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Translate them. Could he be blamed.P.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man.. when I was even younger than you. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Cambridge. delivered from the holocaust.
to whom. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. he had already engaged himself? 3. Rachel Williams. How 269 . and because – but this is mere speculation. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. deep-set. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. a moody man. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. Fabianism.
om mare. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Ion. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum a ajuns el. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum au tăcut ei. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. la şcoală. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. satul. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. 270 . cu taina aceasta. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Ion. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum a trăit el.
cu sau fără voie. 271 . te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. L-au derivat cei din teatru.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi.pune totul in discuţie. Când actriţa. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. împotriva tuturor. din franţuzeşte. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. de mama lor. greşeli dintr-astea. când voi fi singur. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. singurul lui stăpân. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui.
şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. 6. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. dam buzna peste automobile. 5. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. provocându-le. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. pe jumătate prezent. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. de pildă. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. 272 . A devenit palid.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. continuând. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. nevasta-mea. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. traversând. sau ridicole. Am început. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Într-o vreme. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Tot aşa. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. privindu-mă în ochi. parcă începusem s-o uit. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. 4. fostă prietenă din copilărie. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. 3. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. ci un sistem de acomodare.
fireşte. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. şi dacă merg întins. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. fără să mă opresc o clipă. E o problemă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Dacă nemţii înaintau. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. 9. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. orice s-ar întâmpla. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . 11. Am început. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. că nu m-am gândit la asta. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. Aş vrea să mă las jos. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. 8. De altminteri. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. să merg întins. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. ca un acrobat. iar. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. şi să nu ameţesc.
Ilie nu-l asculta. de la proces. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. eu am venit sa va intreb. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. 274 . Greu era din partea asta. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. parca i-ar fi fost frica. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. se uita in jos. 13. Adica tot trecutul. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. la fata locului. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Auzindu-l. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. 17.Ma. la amintiri. nu mai semana. cu mirare. Ii venea greu. Acum isi ferea privirea. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. de uimire. de la lucruri personale. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Uite. la carti. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. 16. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. In curind.. nu trebuie sa va suparati. trebuia sa le spuna. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. dar nu se mai putea. de la obiecte de pret. 14. 15. nu mai pricepu nimic. La un moment dat.. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. dar nu-i spuse si de ce.
asa cum facuse pina acum. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. which was part of his rich outfit. . comment on the underlined phrases: 1. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. dar. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Nu era nevoie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit.Ce sa fac. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. i se paru ca aici e ceva. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». se indeparta nepasator. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Aici era ceva. There was even 275 . Zimbea siret. apoi se uitau la Ilie. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. 20. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». cum zicea Anghel. vorbe asa si-asa. 19.
It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. He walked a long time. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. to admit that she was a proud.Nadina VIŞAN relief. paying no attention. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. But Daisy. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. to take his way home on foot. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. on this occasion. to move fast. 4. the young lady.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. conversationally. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. 3. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. going astray. She was one 276 . 5. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. for the instant. and to declare that they needn’t mind her.Miller at her hotel. gave an exclamation. at least. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. resuming her walk. asked for Mrs. He felt then. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. a simplification. rude woman. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he.
but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. while residing abroad. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. in their own phrase. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. in radiant loveliness. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. indeed. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. 6. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. of studying European society. as to projected changes. on the other hand. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. Advising with me. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease.Walker. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. 8. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. smiling and chattering. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. 7. and wondering what the deuce he meant. Her daughter. She rustled forward. as text book. often. uncomfortably. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. She appeared. as it were. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . making Paul stop and look at her. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. make a point. He left me musing.
9. H. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. and perceived that it must be something important. 11. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. 10. which was deliberate. H. and. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. not seeing.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. though E. H.’ 278 . while Paul. was immensely struck with him. could see he was remarkable. was only half satisfied with this. and acute too. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. with his humorous density. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. The agent became a very familiar type to H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. wondered what they were talking about. or at any rate not heeding. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character.
At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . the affair having been quite a cause celebre. H. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. But she gave him no chance. 13. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. not glancing at him for a moment. that the haunting wonder which now. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. 14. had the power to chain his sympathy. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 15. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. which was very copious. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. appeared to fill his whole childhood. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. as he looked back.
so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. H. dragging herself on her knees. and there were others. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. yet 280 . had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. as a general thing. 16. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. that she must be on the contrary. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. It was very possible she was capricious. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. where the Pearl of Paraguay. 18. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. At the theatre. and to H. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. disheveled and distracted. 17. proudly. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. The whole establishment. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. ironically reserved.
that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. young men were invited. 3. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. Their mistakes and illusions. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. on which the damp breath of the streets. No one ever listens to her. 2. 19. It came over H. didn’t mind. with the poor.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. *Old. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. had blown a certain chill. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. and lurking within this nebulous design. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. would always be more or less irritating. 281 . was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 20. H.
I walked fast. 282 . Rachel. I was definitely going to be sick. 5. slipped on some steps. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. I saw her as a vision. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 8. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. her shining blue feet twinkling. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I blundered by. “Oh. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. 11. her arms held out. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen.Nadina VIŞAN 4. c) When I saw her sitting there. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 9. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 6. 12. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 10. 7. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. striding like a Spartan maid. walking quickly. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Either John or he * have got to give in.
One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9.
And then I ventured to add that. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 2. 4. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . 3. if they were poor. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. could cook my meals. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. where my servant.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. but that we saw and pitied. 5. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. The old women spoke no English. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. which was really alarming.
to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. Munt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. this would really hurt. would really hurt. Constituents: He. etc. he. How much. was anxious. etc. distress. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. was anxious = was + anxious. Constituents: Margaret. he had not yet been able to estimate.g. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. before they left town. this. etc.apart from his distress = apart from. Constituents: how much. to settle. to pay their annual visit. on a house. apart from his distress for parents. apart form his distress for parents.g. had not been able to estimate. on Saturday. 285 . was informed. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. his. at noon.
interrogative. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ Come with me.. – non-assertive. interrogative. – non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. / If you like her. second clause is non-assertive. and is non-assertive. – comparison. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – first clause is an ifclause../ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . Second clause is an imperative. – assertive/ Don’t do that. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. The sentence is however 286 . Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. which context is non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz./ She finally admitted. which is not assertive. negative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). don’t bother her.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – first clause is non-assertive. it is assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.. listen to this. interrogative.
/ She does not hate animals. / You have never met 287 ./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ He was smart enough./ Not long ago. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / He wasn’t unusually bright. the two brothers dared to protest. not even this thing. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. only irresolute./ Hardly interested in the conference. – I like somebody else.but to someone else./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ He was exceptionally cunning./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. not even when it’s quiet around.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. –double negation cancellation. but nothing out of the ordinary. / They didn’t leave. he was hardly pleased. but it wasn’t them./ When he learned the news./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. everybody used to travel by coach. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ They weren’t really confused. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. – someone hates animals. / She does like John. but it isn’t Susan. – someone did that./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / I don’t like her very much. but not more than she does others. – they told the truth to somebody else.
negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. – negative insertion. / Should they not have told her the truth.. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.Nadina VIŞAN her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.. I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye..negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. not even when you were very young.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. is he? / Few of them stayed behind...negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. were they? / This boy is no good. – I cannot look him in the eye. did they? / No problems were caused after all. they go skiing in the mountains. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. not even in my dreams. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. did they? / A few of them stayed behind..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. / This is hardly the 288 .
Activity 8 I shall never. / I seldom look at her like that. / I didn’t leave the 289 . –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.. – I almost never look at those paintings. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. when we started our holiday. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her./ We seldom receive such generous praise./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Almost nobody liked him. – Not many people came to see her. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether.Never shall I trust a man again. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – I never see her. – You haven’t eaten a thing./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / Few people came to see her. never trust a man again. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. but she also lent him a car. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes...Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.
– They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. – Come on./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – They say he never had anyone very close. you can still do something about it. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. you can’t do anything about it any more./ Well. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / You must on no account touch this machinery. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – Only on this man could she rely. / They believe she does not like them. – 290 . / He reckoned he would not win her over. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Nowhere could the keys be found. / She could rely on nobody but him.I don’t like his proposal at all. – They don’t believe she likes them. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I somewhat like his proposal. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / They say he once had someone very close./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Don’t worry. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / Come on. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now.. –At no time did we leave the office. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.
– You should send her something. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. / You must be telling lies. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / You needn’t send her anything. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. too. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – You can’t be telling lies. 291 . (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / Well. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. either. –Alice still lives here. – Well her husband has always been a good person./ Bob is still living at that address. / You must pay that fine./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – She almost always comes here./ Peter knows some English and so does John.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t.
/ N-are nici cap nici coada. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. He didn’t move a muscle. / Please. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. / Jim is so brave. He isn’t that smart./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. Oh./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. e un magar. give me a hand./ He was a tough man. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. has never studied anywhere. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ I don’t know a thing about her. / Nu chema necazul asuprati.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ He’s a happy man. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ I don’t know why she’s crying. / Don’t go on believing him./ Nobody told us a thing. I haven’t seen her in years. ever since I got this ulcer. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ You look so tired today./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. It’s no wonder. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ You took his leaving you very hard. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t done anything./ Have they rung the bell? No.D. to any of us. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Zis si facut. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. not yet./ They say this Ph./ E un baiat de zahar./ 292 ./ Nimic de facut./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc.
negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . slowly.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. We had nothing in common. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. feebly. 293 ./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. no story. I had never had the opportunity to prove. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. thrown out. I hadn’t really expected miracles. no memory./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.’ ‘Nici o problema. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. with the same needs they had.’/ Deloc descurajat. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . one way or another./ Nu-i nici un deranj. nothing. parasi camera. that I was a decent man. without too much determination. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . for I thought this threatening. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.
• I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. by coming here to the monastery. he was sitting beside me. Radu had calmed down. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. clear or confusing. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move.. bad. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. I admit. I was sleepy and tired. it’s not words. You really made me mad.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. the only 294 . your story. good. We have to judge it as it is. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. or if you understood what I meant. Your judgement is false. • It was my turn to say something. that’s what the world is about. Unfortunately. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. It’s not made up of theories and the like. let alone irritable. he immediately answered me patronizingly. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. to say the least. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. I’d be so happy if it were so. Not for a moment had I thought that. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. but facts. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. on the front seat. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. things you do any moment. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case.
because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. it’s yours. too? A gun is power. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. did you ever step up front. • So. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. clears your way. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. as Baciu would have us be. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. or you are lying hidden. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. or call the respect of others. keep it squeaky clean. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. you do as you think fit. it’s your problem. behind these big. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. although it was a difficult thing to do. me. it solves troubles. to fight. no matter how huge they are. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. fear might be hiding. But I was just wondering. Look. 295 . I won’t interfere. and if you like. soon we’ll be in town. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. precious words. just to please myself. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. and an inability to act. either. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. you can go to Ursu’s. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. But what about you and Melania. me. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. we are leaving. Anyway. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. keep your conscience clean: you have one. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born.
She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. – incorrect. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. But it was not because I had no answer to give.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .. firmly determined not to answer immediately. but they gradually got used to it. has yet arrived -correct 2. will he?. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. .Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . as soon as he delivered it.. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She admires neither Susan nor Jane. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. . The villagers were not very religious.Negative incorporation 296 . has not arrived yet – double negation.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. or some other woman.Negative attraction b) 1.correct 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. the sentence is incorrect 3. -correct 3. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. because before is a positive polarity item 2.incorrect. correlatives are mixed 2. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.
she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. much less ((NPI) for her. (ibid. nu era 297 . not happy at all (NPI). prea răscolit. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Ştia că are dreptate.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. her lack of motion would have to do (API). either (NPI). b) But it was rather (API) late. Avea sufletul prea obosit. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Her stillness. (ibid. yet. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. she couldn’t marry him. His spirit was too tired. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită.) Însă era cam târziu. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Nu putea să se mişte. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. too troubled.
) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). his heart was beating fast. e) At length.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. if anything (NPI). (ibid. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. The Satanic Verses. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. and not a little unsteadily. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. şi destul de hotărât. she looked younger than ever (NPI). slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. Ba dimpotrivă. (ibid. 298 . and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. he made his way to the screen. inima îi batea năvalnic. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. se îndreptă spre paravan. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. (Salman Rushdie. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. (ibid.
Ce-i pasă lui C. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. care if the school were willing to treat him. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. The point was. the gift was useless. and probably an administrative headache as well. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. but his father would have none of it (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). He wrote to his father refusing the offer. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. i) What did C. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Home receded from the prodigal son. h) C. (ibid. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity.) C. 299 . the school wasn’t budging (NPI). că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare.
correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. 300 . as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. . correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. the bitch. “Now. 2. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. do you really think that this vixen. She has an eye for gentle men. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. to make them lust after her. Fenia. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. she didn’t wear a ring. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. and then what do you 308 . all godfearing husbands and fathers.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. they were. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. she likes to entrance them. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Luca Horobet. Vica. Stavre Paici. Fenia. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. you are in enough trouble as it is. keep Condrat away from her. now she was chatty. Chizlinski. yes. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her.
G. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. dragging his feet listlessly. the minister of Tartars and Turks. He got him out of his mosque. a seventy-eight year old lad. It even takes him a while to go to the window. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. The mullah. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. her hair pinned with blue combs. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. ankle-long flowered calico. have a girlfriend. with a railway station and a mosque. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. 3. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. what’s her name. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. 4. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha.
for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.
) 9.. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination 2.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. John is ready and Mary is ready. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. yellow and blue. – similar situation 10. John and Mary are the newly married couple.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. our respective examinations.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – sentence coordination 7.. Her pet kitten is black and white.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. Our flag is red. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. John and Mary are ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . and I passed.phrasal coordination (in this case.
plays football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. and even tennis. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). much satisfaction or little 312 . 6.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 5. that method and those. but John does not play football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Activity 5 This book and the other.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 3. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. your proposal and his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 9. 2. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. We can and will demand payment. 8. but not John. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 7. many guest or few. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune.) Joan plays many games. her son and others. 10. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. Activity 4 1. her idea and John’s.
etc.) 6. 3. The facts and figures 3. 4. Safe and sound 313 . interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. (I have always fought for progress and always will. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. I have always fought and will fight for progress. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. but not simple. High and low 2. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Spick and span 9. Life and soul 5. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. To and fro 15. Pros and cons 4. Few and far between 14. Thick and thin 11. Law and order 8. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. He snapped at him and slapped him. Swings and roundabouts 7. Over and above 13. Ups and downs 6. He read.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Activity 8 1. 8. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. magazines are only for children. Bread and butter 16. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 5. Wear and tear 12. Touch and go 10. 7. I like the sentences below or those on the next page.
– asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 5. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – symmetric. 6. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 2. – symmetric. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 314 . Either the child or the parents are to blame. 10. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 3. – symmetric. – symmetric 10. exclusive 17. 10. – symmetric 2. – asymmetric 18. My son and heir is safe. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 7. Symmetric 21. 4. 9. 1. Symmetric 13. – similar situation 9. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 2. 5.symmetric 11. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 8. b. 7. inclusive 16. Asymmetric 20. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. exclusive 15. Asymmetric 19. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 6. 4. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 9. 3.There is a table and some chairs in the room. Asymmetric – temporal sequence.. My son and daughter are twins.
for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. for better or worse. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. it was too small. nor fowl. I’ll still finish this paper. 2. There are doctors and doctors. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. ‘Madam. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 4.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. He went to bed. 15. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 7. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. They came to me. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. He’s neither fish. Jim thought it over for a while. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 10. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. Should he pour water in the basin. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. clothes and all. (2) 1. Brother or no brother. 14. We’ll stick together. 2. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 6. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 12. Not only should you rest 315 . 5. thanks for asking. 9. By hook or by crook. Her husband is long dead and buried. 8. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 11. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. No drinking and driving. 3.
but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. tense like a bow. tense with concentration. just like when he was thirty. Whatever she tried her hand at. And.’ (3) 1. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. it would work out fine. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. what’s its name. 2. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. This. but he’d come out a cripple. and she listens to him. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. So she’ll listen to him. he starts lecturing her about life and things. Her first husband had been a professor. so he could leap in pursuit. What do you know? The moment Mrs. she started doing a great job. so he’d gone down and died in no time.Nadina VIŞAN assured. 316 . You know. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. and then. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. They hadn’t kept him there too long. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. an important man. but she blinks in approval. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. stop dead in his tracks. Mrs. their common ground. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. he’d leap high. From time to time she will launch a helping question. both dead and buried. she knows for sure. as she always does. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. without mentioning financial matters. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. at equal intervals. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands.
– she. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. whomever wanted to listen. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as a modifier 3.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . told. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. – she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. she looked at me sadly. you.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – she. is aware. – obligatory elements: I.subordinate. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – Susan. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . – obligatory elements: she. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. looked. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. cannot tell. came. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.subordinate.
functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that you are choosing exile . that we should. since the main verb is think of something) 5.subordinate. at our age.complement b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate. remove our home yet again . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate.subordinate.
subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. a barn. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement.complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . direct object/ and seen – wh complement. direct object. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. outbuildings. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. a house. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object b) to dry it – complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano .
Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. staring at each other. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement.wh complement. Activity 5 1. direct object. sickle in hand. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that.A few days before the war. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. without straightening her back. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. subject/ to do such again – complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. But other people. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. (…) ‘Well. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ to sit there – complement. When Anton put the sickle down.
you need courage even for this small thing.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. as if they were at his beck and call. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Ana could not stand a trip now. 3. First. while they spoke from miles away. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. he will turn back and no longer be daring. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. that was for sure. which he doesn’t rely on completely. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. or if he does. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. but he doesn’t spurn either. rather than a real threat. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. or other more hidden means. Only he had Ana to think of. For no bold man really falters. 2. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. 321 . Why! He was not of two minds. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. but also his sharp nose. Not even at this point. while on other occasions he would show caution.
We were going to drive to a vineyard. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. by the cars of some of us. So. In fact. are we getting off again? What is wrong. he had postponed writing back. without really knowing why. Twice did we get in the car. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. although he could have said so earlier. 322 . And here’s how this first day looked. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and twice we were requested to get out. 4. in Odobesti. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. come on. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. But it was not ok. and when things didn’t go as planned. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. it was the women. under the silliest of pretexts.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they would ruin the arrangement. to see some mutual friends. and on Monday followed another feast). in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok.
These are people who we cannot tell much about. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 2. which was a pity. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 8. on which this occurred . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 5. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2.restrictive 6. 8. where I spent my youth . Who are you writing this letter to? 9. when we first met . where I least expected 323 . who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.restrictive 2. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. all of whom would answer to his questions.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. most of whom were from England. I bought Jim a book that he liked. why they all left . 9. 6. which was silly of him. 7. 4. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. The students like their teacher.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 7. like their teacher.She came to London where I went too. any of whom would answer to questions. Activity 2 1. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 6. 10.free 8. John told his friend a story about the king. 11.restrictive 7. You couldn’t join the party. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. He is the author who they gave a prize to. who was just passing by. This is my husband whom I love very much. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 5. 3. 3. He told her the secret. 10.restrictive 4. 4. Activity 3 1. The students.
What Inman remembered – subject. Where . 6. where we talk money – predicative. however sad . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Where he was from – adjunct. When .Nadina VIŞAN . I. What I’m saying – subject. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Of all the persons there. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. 5. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. when .free 9. which . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . What – direct object 2. Which – subject 4. 3.adjunct 6. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . You.adjunct 3. was very displeased with the situation. 4. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.When Ada remarked – adjunct. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.adjunct 10. the prince chose Cinderella. come up front.adjunct 11. what their parents made them. Why . 7. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. who cannot say a word. 2. Where .subject 8. where – predicative 7.adjunct 5.restrictive 10. Of all the persons there you had to choose me.subject 9. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object.free Activity 4 1. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Activity 5 1. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Who . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. who think so highly of yourselves.
human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.attribute 12. how .adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. what little she knew – direct object.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . what . which requires an accusative form. which is ungrammatical due to the[. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. whatever – predicative 13. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .
who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. a sergeant. in his turn. who. having changed quite a number of jobs. whose great-grandfather. got married and had a daughter. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. a rather tiny looking man. due to its invariable character. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. but whose second cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law.
. This story. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. . was now complete. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. – obligatory pied piping 2. . the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – no pied piping 327 .no 5.yes 3. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.obligatory 3. In the interest of public decency. Irene. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.yes 10. – no 4. he requested that the public be excluded. has been troubling them forever.obligatory 4. he rarely saw now. . . were now all gone. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.His father’s friends. . – yes. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. His friends.yes Activity 9 1. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. – no 9. . no easy answers to which could be offered. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – no pied piping 5. – yes 6.yes 7. with deletion of the noun friends]. The problem of safe transportation.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. whose interest he most sincerely shared. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – yes 2.
Nelu. or as of a vast arena. 7. In other people’s opinion. for instance. For twenty years. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 3. irrespective of age and nature. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. For all the four children. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. Everything was ending. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . the third born son. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. yours. I did so. where two teams battled every day… 5. 8. 6. 328 . or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. I am to be envied. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 4.and he couldn’t thank me enough. Only an ugly endless dream remained. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 2.
If any of your qualities were to persuade them. on Icoanei street. which was why he saw Dora very far away. He was suffering from dizziness. since I don’t really know which my true life is. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. Behind them. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 329 .R. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. barely glittering in the distance. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. You are newly arrived here. leaving streets and houses behind. although she was standing quite close to him. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. where from Marta was coming too. 12. she said. 16. staring aimlessly. from MR street. All that you have read is rubbish. 11. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 15. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 14.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 17. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. Let me tell you my last conclusion. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. 10. 13. What you’re saying sounds very nice. the tram was rattling along.
or the many Egyptian dynasties. who prompted everyone on the street. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 330 .Nadina VIŞAN 18. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. While we were poor. which I did not posses. in her pursuits. 21. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. But. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 22. She was a woman of means. so optimistic and composed? 19. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. likes and dislikes. had a huge house in Bucharest. I don’t know what might have happened. after the car was fixed. I could see my woman falling away from me. While some trees are still green. day by day. had a personal style in clothes. or the clash of stars above. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. So. 24. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. From the vantage point I was in. But for me. If he had hit me. 23. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 20. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. who only lived once in this world.
object 5. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 2. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 6. 3. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. 2. subject 9. direct object 10. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – questionable.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. prepositional object Activity 2: 1.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. subject 7. 331 . – extraposed. subject 8. prepositional object 11. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. – the same as 3. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. object 6. direct object 3. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – impossible 7. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. 8. subject 4.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. – unextraposed. It appears that no one voted for him.
grammatical. – impossible.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 15. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. idiomatic formula 16. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – incorrect. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 18. 14. same as 12. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. but pragmatically impossible 3. same as 12.. Activity 3: 1. – same as 12. They never expected it that he would come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 17. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.correct 4. 9.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – the same as 12. – impossible. – correct 2. . Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. a bit too intricate 5.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 10. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. . tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. same as 12. – grammatical. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. I guess it that he will come back. – impossible. – grammatical. – impossible 11. You know it only too well that he will not marry you.incorrect. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.grammatical. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – grammatical. It is nice to meet you. but pragmatically impossible 4. . It is no use trying to convince her. tense influences the 332 . although a bit intricate 2. – impossible.
thus. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.’ 4. in the ditch. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. 333 . under bridges. behind gates.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.’ Lionel says. 3. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). 5. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. in the pits on the road. – correct 6. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. (Not always. 2. though. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.incorrect.
/ ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. prime-minister. since the 334 . 7. 3. Activity 7 1. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. who had just returned from Africa. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. By saying this. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. because it is less ambiguous. It is less ambiguous than the first. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 4. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 8. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.Nadina VIŞAN 6. 2. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. – the second sentence is questionable. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. without trying to protest too much. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. – the first sentence is the better of the two. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. who had just returned from Africa. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot.
/ He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 8. 5. so there is no need for extraposition. 335 ./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. – both sentences are grammatical.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 6. The second and third sentences are grammatical. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. although the third one has not undergone clause shift./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 7. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. extraposition is obligatory here. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.
Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.adverbial of sequence/result. . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) complement that clauses. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – complement 5.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – relative 3. they were chained to each other forever. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. coordinated. – complement 2.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. . – subject.relative Activity 9 1. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. ibid. required by deverbal noun 336 . – adverbial of sequence/result.) adverbial of sequence/result.prepositional object. – direct object. . The idea that he had had earned him good money. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. for better or worse. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.complement 4. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – complement that clause. – relative 5. – prepositional object. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. ibid. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. (Iris Murdoch.
– that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that deletion is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. that they were not too late to leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. h) John thought that Harry had run.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that is obligatory. you want me to believe. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave.
as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. c. a. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – grammatical sentences. sequence of tenses is observed 4. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. b. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – both sentences are grammatical. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – sequence of tenses is observed 9.
– generalization on habits of birds. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . ciocârlii şi şoimi. geese both grey and white. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. lark. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. prepeliţe. quail. present instead of simple past. present perfect instead of past perfect. hawk. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. cenuşii şi albe.
a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. The generic present is used in this case. slyness in a fight. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. love of practical jokes. She admired their keenness of wit. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Crows will relish what presents itself. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . lack of pridefulness. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. lipsa de vanitate. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. as evidenced by its drear plumage. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie.
Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. tragică şi eroică. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. El căzuse pe spate. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. se ridicase în picioare. But as the battle raged around them. He had fought hard through the war. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. in the very act of expiring. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. He died erect. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. he claimed. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. tânărul ofiţer. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Murise în picioare. the young officer.
deşi era erou de război. the oldest. Activity 13 1. – similar situation to the one under (c). But when he reached me. How can I explain? I just felt shy. he closed the album. mother went home and I was left alone. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. 2. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. în închisoare. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. One of them. Luptase din răsputeri în război. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. susţinea el. 342 . şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. they gathered around my desk.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. When the boys saw that mother had left. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. to finish my drawing. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. A short while later. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. When he saw me. They all had their hands in their pockets. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Acum stătea aici. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. I realized I could not tell him the big news. And they might just hang him. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. war hero though he was. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Now here he stood jailed. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now).
one might think that you sought refuge by her side. 4. or if she would do so again. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. as if he had been drunk. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her.’ 5. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. or fear his rage. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. 6. All his senses were now keen. brightly and closely. for her vineyard.’ Mr.
thinking of him. 7.Nadina VIŞAN to him. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 11. 8. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. And if things were so. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. The last time when we met here you scared me. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 9. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. 10. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. claiming you had no ambition for the future. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew.
Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. without putting anything in a note. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . which secretly drove him. more urgently than ever. We either sell them or we don’t. 13. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. where he would run to confess everything. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. 14. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. namely the impatience of this young man. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. towards Jurubita. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. 12.
. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. grammatical 10. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. 346 .ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. / they saw her leave. grammatical 6.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. grammatical 7. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.simple infinitive. grammatical 5. . the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. 9. grammatical 2. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 3. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. – infinitive continuous. – perfect infinitive. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – simple infinitive. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. / He had Mary clean her room. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. – simple infinitive.
Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: He persuaded her. you need to try harder.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / I want to never see you again. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: She promised him. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. – Test: They asked her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They tempted him PRO to leave.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. \ I would love [ them to come. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Test: *I allowed them. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: *She wanted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ I allowed [them to come. / It is not too late for him to learn. \ They did not wish [her to come back. – Test: They tempted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *They would have hated her. Test: *I would love them. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *They did not wish her. Test: * I would like people.
/ He is young enough to start again. . to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / I want you to leave my house. / Oh. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. . / He is easy to live with. I don’t need you or your services. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / I have a word to tell you. . / He is easy to talk to.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want to tell you what I think of you. / To make a long story short. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. . Activity 6 Oh. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. not to miss the train. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He is hard to stand. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / I have never known how to behave in her presence.
to. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. 1] A little crossly. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. If he himself was out of spirits. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Subject. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Harold. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. so that we might get to the future and have done. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Subject. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Predicative 4 . coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. He suspected hostility at once. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods. they had depressed and fuddled him. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 349 .Accusative + Infinitive. he didn’t envy those above it. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. 1 – PRO. 1 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal.
we seem to forget about our own pain. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. more meaningful. object 2 – PRO –to. man and woman. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. true. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. One day. And you might also be hit and humiliated. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. excitedly. PRO controlled by ‘she’. 1 – PRO-to. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. f) The passing time is important. c) Unlike plane trips. 350 . But when we need to comfort others. PRO controlled by ‘me’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. e) When two persons. or better said. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. more believable than evidence itself. direct object 3 – PRO –to. slowly. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. cautiously. PRO controlled by ‘him’.
If it was summer. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. which he had already forgotten. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. k) With this considerable dowry. as he had appeared to him in the rain. 351 . your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Moroi says heavily. And I would care for this man so deeply. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Mrs. not even those parts where he had been half-right. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. tickled by the trickles of sweat. even when this love is hurried. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. h) I want us to go. for instance. That is it. And to actually start to believe you are so. He had not been able to leave Dr. while swearing to change my way of life. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. not to want to wipe it off. that you are young. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Stroescu. or. S. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. my wish being only to please and serve. to live only with your coughing. I am indeed praising my own merits. in the street. all down our neck. or their talk that night.
o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. poor Muti. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. ready to submit to any demand. haphazardly. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. no matter what. met by squalor and terrible smells. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. 352 . I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for that’s the door people get off by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. she was suddenly so shocked. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. or to speak so fast. Well. here I am with all of my own. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. every Bucharester knows it. If you will have what I can give you.
as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. – Attributive past participle./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ He went to have a tooth pulled. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. badly beaten and bloodied. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second../ Don’t keep him waiting.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. 353 ./ She sent him shopping. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. / They found it thrown in a corner.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. with its lips drawn back.
sitting taut between her father and her sister. a rug caught her foot and she fell. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Turning on the light. he sat down to his own dinner. having heard it all before. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 5. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. – Attributive present participle. 10. 7. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Finding the treasure. 6. 9. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Attributive present participle. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Having fed the dog. having been uprooted by the gale. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 3. 2. Activity 4 1. 4. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. – As she was running into the room. The tree had fallen across the road. 8. she caught her foot in a rug and fell./ Running into the room. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord.Running into the room. I was astonished at what I saw. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . they began quarreling about how to divide it. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I slammed the door of my room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. Sleeping in the next room.
Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Getting out of bed. 6. a scorpion bit him. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was getting out of bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. I often get very cold hands. – As the dog was barking furiously. narrow-minded. a pot of paint fell on my head. his horse fell at the last jump. / Climbing down the tree. – As he was tied to the post. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Riding in the first race. 7. Tied to the post. 12. 2. he broke one of the eggs. – As he was climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. broad-shouldered. one of the eggs broke. I let it out of the room./ Reading in bed. Leaving the cinema. three-coloured. 355 . Dropped by parachute. an idea suddenly occurred to me. wooden-headed. – As he was riding in the first race. sharp-eyed/minded. my hands often get very cold. he was bit by a scorpion. fishy-eyed. lion-hearted. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. many-coloured. his horse fell at the last jump. red-handed. cloth-covered. one of the eggs broke. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. my hands often get very cold. a scorpion bit him. 4. 9. stony-hearted. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. Barking furiously. bald-headed. I let the dog out of the room. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 11. Passing under a ladder. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. – As he left the cinema. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 8. Reading in bed. 10. the sea was tossing it up and down. 5. empty-headed. Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. open-minded. – As I was passing under a ladder. a pot of paint fell on my head. 3. / Getting out of bed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – When I read in bed. Activity 5 Fair-haired.
hidden meaning. lighted candle. hunting for a bargain. rotten plank. sunken eyes. (find) 6. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. The escaped prisoner. (grow) 4. were taken to hospital. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. dark-skinned. found hiding in a barn. The film. Activity 7 1.I fell on the ice. straight-shouldered. roast meat. admired for their elegance and precision. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. shrunken stream.Spielberg. Activity 8 1. was today taken back to prison. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. I stared at the canvas for ages. injured when their car crashed on the M1. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. 7. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Whales. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. produced by S. is expected to be a great hit.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Swiss watches. (injure). / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. are sold throughout the world. (take) 2. shaven head. injuring my arm. (hunt). 356 . shorn lamb. open-hearted. graven image. / Three people. / Many old people. ill-gotten wealth. stricken deer. bounden duty. drunken man. are in grave danger of extinction. mown grass. eagle-eyed. (produce) 3. (admire) 5.
yet left them room to sway free. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. bake them. and moreover. its scales scraped off by the knife. the fish. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. And his soul. boil them. 4. hovering uncertain and soft. he were struggling for breath. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. 3. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. flat and soft. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. He felt close to his father. So. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. seeking some promised land. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. suddenly suffocated. A parasol. forcing him to ponder over their meaning.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. in charge of his house and lands. sprinkled with sticky flour. now taken down. he started peering anxiously around as if. and the puffed pastry beds. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. 2. the twice rinsed vegetables. the carved chicken. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. thrown in the pots. streaked with yellow veins of fat. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. After a while. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. 357 . then put up.
/ I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. – participle (attribute) 2. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / I told him not to bother putting things back. . – Accusative + participle 3. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. – gerund (subject) 4. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. he left the store without buying a thing./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / I am sorry for being so late.gerund 5. Activity 10 1.
– gerund (prepositional object) 15. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – gerund (half or full. – Nominative + participle 13. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. . The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.participle vs. He was spotted talking to her. – gerund (attribute. 8. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. possessive ING (predicative) 7. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. preceded by preposition). attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.
take down her answer. hold up his pen and speak. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. adjective. – verbal noun (has determiner. I did ask Mr. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.’ 360 . – gerund or verbal noun. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it..’ ‘Tell me. Lady Corven.. – verbal noun (has adjective). adjective. however appearances were against us. – gerund (full. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. but they went by too quickly. Croom to try to follow one.verbal noun (has determiner. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. my Lord.
I spend all my time hunting a job.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ 361 . I just used the word and they fell. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. and went out to post it himself.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ said Clare. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. it’s overrated. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. Then. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. suddenly. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. I must go back now. he addressed the note. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. my Lord. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. licked the envelope with passion. ‘I do hate asking for things.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ said Clare. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.
attribute) in a swirling motion. attribute). direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. direct object). l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. slowly rising (participle. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute. following the verb ‘remember’. the enormous split in the earth. At first. attribute. village which is burning). It was like a mist. attribute). direct object) towards him. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. after verb of perception. attribute. direct object) from below. down. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. …while their edges were crashing inwards). The two sides were moving apart. down into God knows where. the very earth opening up (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. elliptical here. (participle. The sight of the two children. Has a complex subject) in the hole. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. adverbial of time. gerund. hoping (participle.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. First the crack snaking (half gerund. slightly 362 . The collapsing shops (participle. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance.
Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. adverbial of reason).). my dear. prepositional object.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. i.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. direct object). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.e. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. early. covering (participle. according to the books he read. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. moving up (participle. has ‘of’ phrase). one. etc. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. you. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.
Standing up. and then went riding (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. So. preceded by preposition. She finished what jobs there were. mother. Young Mamona left the room without a word. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. which beckoned to 364 . and everything got suddenly animated. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. preceded by preposition. slanted on to her cheek. a door was opened and as a servant entered. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. And. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. adverbial of reason). examining (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. for Dornford was busy on an important case. attribute) stopped dead. Having a French governess (participle. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. the two Mamonas. reluctant or not. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. brightening (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and sunlight. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner). Vaucher and I. adverbial of manner). and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle.
Vaucher might have known that too. about sparing no effort. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. kissed her forehead. I knew who it would be. he found us sitting each in his place. to Vaucher. sitting in his puddle. 3. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. Not so unimaginable though. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. Entering our house on a Thursday. without taking his sack off his shoulders. in the year 1812. let alone greet us or say something. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . her back towards us. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. each carrying a wooden box. his disloyal apprentice. 2. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. he looked like someone who did. So when Old Mamona came in. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. who knows. closing my eyes. 4. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. and smelling so hard of rain. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. as mother had ordered him. He cast us a swift glance. too. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . bending a little. killed by Young Mamona. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. And. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. he went to mother and. for anyway. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. And then.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. and ended his life in the year 1821. to me. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. and to Young Mamona. about concentrating all our resources.
while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. each pausing before jumping down. of taking notes and rewriting them. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. And suddenly. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. already seen and heard. They got off the truck slowly. barrack.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. everything seemed familiar. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. But. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. long board table. futile. And all around them was the great field 366 . as an afterthought. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. wood pile. stove. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. 5.
The next thing was to go to the well. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
1964. Aspect. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. Burnes and Noble. G.. Cambridge University Press. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. Joan and Osten Dahl. 1994. Bucuresti. . Problemes de linguistique generale. Cornilescu. 1976. 1996. 1989. .. Benveniste.. Chicago. Joan. The Transformational Syntax of English. 1994. A. I. Institutul European Cornilescu. 51-103. Iclezan Dimitriu.University of Chicago Press. 369 . 1983. Bybee. A. 2003. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. Mimo and Marc Moens. TUB Curme. 1982. A. 1. English Word-Formation. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Accuracy and Fluency. English Grammar. Mouton de Gruyter. Comrie. eds. Bybee. English Syntax. TUB Cornilescu. Complementation in English. Gallimard. . Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. Al.. Bernard. Laurie.References Bauer. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. 1976.II. CUP. vol. Cornilescu. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. Emile. 1966. The Evolution of Grammar. . Caenepeel.
Dutescu-Coliban. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 1999. Bucureşti. M. . CUP. & Alfred Rosa (eds). Harris. Graur. Hornby. Taina. et al. Tubingen. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. 1982. 1982: 42-70. Cohesion in English. Otto. eds. CUP. Longman.K. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române.S. Gunter Narr Verlag. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Jespersen. J. Progress to Proficiency. 1931. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. Bucureşti. R. Richard. Peter. 1987. 1967. Longmans. London. Jones. Gramatica Academiei. Longman. Graver. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. I. An Advanced English Practice Course. Alexandru. Advanced Grammar Practice. 1961.. Eschholz. Martin. A. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English.. Aspects of English Morphology. Outlooks and Insights. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. London and Copenhagen. 1959. English Historical Syntax. . In Vincent and Harris. 1968. Denison.. Part IV. Halliday. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. Hassan. Hewing. & R. Longman. M. vol. 1963. Alexandru Niculescu. . P. Fenn.A. London. Hornby. 1987. 1976. 1968. 1968. 370 . Bucureşti.1993.Day. 2000. Longman.S.A. Iordan. New York. Gramatica limbii române. 1993. Advanced Grammar in Use. London. St Martin’s Press. Leo.
Hans and Christian Rohrer. A Modern English Grammar. X. OUP. McCarthy.. Hans and Uwe Reyle. Jim. Schibsbye. 2000.. CUP. TUB. . Quirk. volume 68. Literature. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. 323-352 O’Connell. A Grammar of Late Modern English. vol. K. E. G. From Discourse to Logic. D. R.. 1983. A Handbook of Present-day English. Focus on Proficiency. An Introduction to Fiction.Katz. The Present Perfect Puzzle. 2000. Poutsma.. in Fodor.J. Kennedy. English Syntax. Groningen. 1973. and Svartvik. (advanced).. 1990. Miller. Wolfgang. eds.Kamp. 1991. Klima.. London. Part II. M. Kamp. Sue. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Greenbaum. Tense in Texts. Number 3. Seminar Press. CUP. Dordrecht. Klein. 1926. 1987. Scott. Transactions of the Philological Society. 1931. Kluwer Academic Publishers. H. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Parrott. & Felicity O’Dell. 89:2 (2000). Bauerle et al. Negation in English. 1982.. An Outline of English Lexicology. J. and J. 1992. 1964. Foresman and Company. 1993. J. A Grammar of Contemporary English. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. E. Kruisinga. Serban. Groningen Lipka. vol. 2002.. 1970. M. I. Nelson. Leech. Language. S. L. Poetry and Drama.
I. Stefanescu. N. 1957 and 1962. Berlin. 1998.W. a. A Handbook of English Grammar. Amsterdam. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Co. Zandvoort. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. 2001. 1990. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. editia 1. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. 372 . Visan. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov... Aspect Shift and Coercion. Carlota. 1999. Sentence Processes... Modes of Discourse. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. TUB. London. Le passe simple. Vet. de Swart. Co.Schwegler. A. In M. 347-385. 2003. Smith.. Rodopi. Vet. N. 2003.) L’emprise du sens. Editura Credis. Vişan. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Lectures in English Morphology. Conference on British and American Studies. Mouton de Gruyter. Henriette. e. 1992. 2003. Structures linguistiques et interpretations.. Plenat (ed.. New York. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. R. 1978.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.