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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. 6 . titularizare şi grad.de rezolvări.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Auxiliary verbs 220.127.116.11. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. The Distribution of an Element 1. Complementary distribution .6.Contents: 8 1.2. Insertion 1.1. Constituent Phrase 1.
sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. that is sequences fragmented at random. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. 1. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. For instance.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. very much. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Semantic. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. loves. her mother.2.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Consequently. sequences of the kind her mother very. They are just strings. Syntactic.
etc.) 10 . 1.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. an order given to an interlocutor). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. should. we are dealing with a directive (i.e. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. (Mi-a spus secretul. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. be).4.3. 1. must. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.
) 1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . Consider. live. for instance. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. an ‘empty’ there subject.5. etc. 1. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.6.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.
If the given context is the one under (6). using your own examples: insertion. Munt. complementary distribution. pragmatic. semantic.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. he had not yet been able to estimate. 12 . Pratice Define and illustrate. distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. How much. syntactic. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. as the star indicates. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. this would really hurt. whereas (7) is not.
to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 .
Full – local negation 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 18.104.22.168.5. Negative vs. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Instances of negation 2.7.8. affirmative sentences. Key terms 2. Key terms . Conclusion.4.6. Tests for negativity 2.1. Polarity Items 2.
He didn’t offer her any chocolates.2. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Consequently. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Declarative vs.Unit two Sentence negation 2. in the sense that it states something.) is said to be an assertion. in that they do not state anything. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . For instance.) b. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. it asserts something. This example can be compared to: (2)a. Negative . Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Positive vs.
listen to this.negative (e. Did they tell her the secret? ) . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.interrogative (e./ Don’t do that.g. comparison.) .g.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. 16 .) .non-assertion .Nadina VIŞAN .assertion ./ She can’t wait to read that book./ If you like her. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . They told her the ( e.other (if –clauses. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.positive and declarative secret. don’t bother her. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / Come with me.g.positive sentence . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. / She finally admitted.
(Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the negative word not is not present there.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) b. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Nu demult. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b. John is not happy. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. In the case of the sentences under (4). For example. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. John is unhappy. (John e nefericit.3. Susan dislikes her friends. word negation. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure.) 17 . Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. I met a girl named Susan. Susan doesn’t like her friends. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).
more precisely the phrase it is part of. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. He was not without intelligence. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. In other words. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. just like in the case of word negation. but their meaning tells us a different story. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. I was not a little worried. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. where the word 18 . In other words.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. since the negative word not is present inside them. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) c.) b. these sentences look negative.Nadina VIŞAN In this case.
/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Când a aflat vestea. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or .e.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. semantic negation. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative).
2. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . affirmative sentences. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu în mod special. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. Negative vs. ci doar indecişi. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. dar nu neobişnuit.4. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Era el destul de isteţ. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte.
Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. such as do insertion. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. etc.).1.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (Nu m-am dus acolo. (M-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. For instance. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. (see subsection 1. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.
The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. 22 . / Susan did not get married to Jim. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / We don’t come here often. / I don’t like her very much.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1./ They didn’t leave. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. incorrect. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / She does not hate animals. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag.
) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative. 3. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. 4. not even the smart ones. which is ungrammatical. * and they don’t like her either. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. . Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. *and neither do they like her. *not even the smart ones. which does not happen in the case of (18). since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. and they don’t like her either.Unit two Sentence negation 2. even the smart ones.
/ At no time was he able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. 2. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / Not always a witty interlocutor.5. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / A few of them stayed behind. / Few of them stayed behind. / No problems were caused after all. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / You have never met her. / They caused us no problems. In conclusion. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / This boy is no good. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view.
(N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. Susan could not go to the theatre. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. I went nowhere. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (26) I saw nobody. (N-a venit John). (27) a .Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student.
All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. I didn’t see anybody.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (N-am văzut nici un student. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. No day passed without me thinking of him.) c.) (29) a. I never went to his place.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All that glitters is not gold. 26 . I didn’t see any student. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. no incorporation takes place. / I didn’t ever go to his place. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. Not all that glitters is gold.) b.Nadina VIŞAN b. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) b. I didn’t go anywhere. b.
incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / Not one of them came to meet her. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.) We seldom watch T. scarcely. / I saw nobody. / I showed him nothing. / None of them liked house music.V. etc. barely./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.) They barely read any novels. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. nici măcar din alea scurte. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / He should not be released./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / Not a word fell from her lips. and we don’t go to the theatre either. seldom. not even short ones.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / No one ever listens to her. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.4. rarely.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / I didn’t see anybody. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / Not many women are famous opera composers. . (Nu citesc romane./ They never went there.
/ I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Few people came to see her. / I seldom look at her like that. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. Not for the world would I do such a thing. which triggers inversion): (35) a.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / Hardly anybody liked him. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei.) c.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. .) d. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) b.) 28 them. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I scarcely ever see her. Never have I met a more horrible person.
/ The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. never trust a man again.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / She could rely on nobody but him. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / You must on no account touch this machinery.) They don’t think that he likes them./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. in the sense that the 29 . / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / I didn’t leave the office at any time./ We seldom receive such generous praise. As you can see from the translation of these examples. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.
should be desirable. probability.) but also by the existence of certain elements that.) b. be likely. barely. believe. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. cannot appear in an affirmative context. ought to. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. intention. the negative meaning is less strong. suppose. expect. sound/feel like. seem. / He reckoned he would not win her over. For example.6. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. look like. etc. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. In sentence (37). intend. / They believe she does not like them. etc. want. choose. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. appear. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim.) 30 . (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. guess. etc. although not negative in meaning. / I expect he won’t come here again. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. imagine. advise. 2.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. suggest. be probable. we can very well say something like: (38) a. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / I suppose she doesn’t care. be supposed to.: think.
and sentences such as: (39) a. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. *She likes our chairman at all. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. b. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.*She lifted a finger to help me. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. are clearly not grammatical.2. That is 31 . It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.
still (I don’t love you any more. / I still love you) Either vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) At all vs. / Don’t worry. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I like it .) Until vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / She hardly ever comes here. too (I don’t like it. a lot (I don’t like you much. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. some (I haven’t any money. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.).) Any more vs. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / Well.) Yet vs. / Come on. you can still do something about it.) Hardly ever vs. / He arrived before 5. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well. / Bob is still living at that address. etc. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I like you a lot. / I eat caviar most of the times. / They say he once had someone very close. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / I somehow like him.) Much vs. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). too. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. too. / I have some money. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. either.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I can understand both of these 32 . already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I have already seen him.
/ N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. know a single person./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. last a minute. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. bat an eye(lid). / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. move a muscle. touch a drop. lay a finger on someone. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. have/be worth a red cent. see/ feel/ remember a thing. have a care/ friend in the world. nici unuia dintre noi. de când cu 33 . mulţumesc. find a trace. / You must be telling lies. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / You must pay that fine. give a damn/darn. hear a peep. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. hurt a fly. leave a stone unturned. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Peter knows some English and so does John. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. Translate into English. sleep a wink./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Ajută-mă. crack a smile. flinch. turn a hair. Ion nu e prea deştept.
încercând să prindă criminalul. / I had no end of trouble. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / No sooner said than done. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / No admittance. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Not that I care. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No man is wise all the time. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / No hands wanted. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. nu e vina mea. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Never is a long word. / No entry. / He won’t make old bones. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. budge. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. n-a sunat încă. / He is no end of a fellow. / Hotărât lucru. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. B: Aşi. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. he’s a pig. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. he left the room. / No trouble at all. Translate into Romanian. / Nothing succeeds like success. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. but you really should do something about it. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . As you have noticed from the exercises above.
but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Normally. b) I love asking some funny remarks. c) He is anxious to say something./ I saw no one. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. / I hate making any commitments. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. as well: 35 . 2. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API).Unit two Sentence negation rather). which is not the case of the sentence under (45).7. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. say it. N-am văzut pe nimeni. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.
(A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. B: Nu. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. from a syntactic point of view.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. I don’t. nu îmi place poezia asta. nu-mi place. (Nu.8. I don’t like this poem. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. B: Not this poem. 36 .Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. nu poezia asta. Conclusion. The second negation is somehow independent. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. Key terms. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. however.) 2. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
e. 45 .THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.
Minor Types of Questions 3.2.3 Alternative Questions 3.3.1. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2.1 Tag Questions 3. Direct vs.2.Questions 3. Optional Exercises .3.3.3. Key Terms.2 Wh.2.2 Echo Questions 3.4. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.
If we try to analyze the examples above. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.Unit three Questions 3.1. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. focusing on direct questions mainly. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.
all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.g. pe mama. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. 48 .Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (3) and (4). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (2). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English.
the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. 49 . Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Likewise. because. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the sequence of the tenses is violated. Since the question is not direct any more. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). in this case. In the case of indirect questions.
/ Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / He asked me who she is. c) Ştii ce. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. spune la un moment dat femeia. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. ce culoare are pielea. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. identify the incorrect sentences. / He asked me who she was. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / I don’t know who she is. sau mai bine zis. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on.
Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.2.Unit three Questions 3. Let us provide 51 .V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. In this case. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. as Quirk shows. being typical of spoken language.
( you / lend me some money) ? 3. 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (who / talk to last night)? 5. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.1.2. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1.
instead of Negative Polarity ones. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (Da). (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . are said to be positively – oriented. they did. (Da). A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. it has. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement.
A: You’re still in your pyjamas. A: She had her tenants evicted. ……………? (hear her) B: …. as in the example: 1.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . but I want to play basketball a little longer. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. ……. 4. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. ……………………………. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. I’ve still got plenty of time. A: You’ve been learning German for years. 6. because you always copy everything I do! 5.. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: You look down. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. (speak yet) B: ……. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. 3. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. …………………. 7. A: Your mother is shouting for you. 2.. ...
On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. where. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. ..2 Wh – questions Wh. what . A: There was a terrible car crash. You could have mentioned it earlier.Unit three Questions B: …………………. ………………………………. 3. . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….2. 10. A: It’s past your bedtime. which When.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. . how.. 8. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… ..
/ She dropped her glasses./ Sara owns two cars. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. what ever.000dollars./ I have French lessons twice a week. Nearly two hundred years. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / My new car cost 10./ We’ve lived here for ten years. why ever. / She lives in the suburbs.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / David’s car was stolen. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / Shirley got married to Ben. trying to find places where I resided in life. / There are six students in my class. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / That’s my pen. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. I cannot do that. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. of course. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . (Poppy Z. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever.
• • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 .2. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.
There was a fax for you this morning. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How long is she be spending in America? 8. You can’t be serious. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 3.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. didn’t use he? 11. Who did left the gate open? 18. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 7. wasn’t it there? 17. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. He used to work in a bank. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. didn’t use he? 4. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6.
Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. uneori disperat. How long have you be lived in London? 26. John goes jogging every morning. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. ca şi cei ce au fost. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Whose it is this book? 32. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. How long time does it take to get there? 28. plin de germeni virulenţi. That was Jeremy’s brother. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. neliniştea infantilă. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. will you not? 21. That’s your car. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Pot reveni. despre o lume dură. deci. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. dacă prin absurd 59 . Don’t forget to take some spare socks. isn’t it this? 25. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. deci. will you not? 27. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc.Unit three Questions 19. Ani întregi. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Toate vechi. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. wasn’t it he? 22. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. să-mi înfrâng frica. doesn’t he go? 23.
“Ai fost în parc noaptea. picură apa roşietică. naiv. negru. umed. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Riscul? Ratarea. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. Şi. indiferent de risc. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. ghiceam doar unde se află. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. lung. de atunci. îi ştiu gustul. mă întreb. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. pe care oricum am simţit-o. neîntrerupt. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. murdar. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. “Spune! striga el. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. străină priceperii lor. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. puturos. dar şi drumul. laşii. pe sub bolţile din care. B. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. inactivii. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. iar proştii.
e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. da? (37) Let’s go there. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. will you? (38) She went to Prague.3. golul alb. care i-a determinat alegerea. orbitor. la urma urmei.3. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.Unit three Questions viaţă. didn’t she? . domnule profesor. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. viaţa? Oare e drept. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. nu se poate. 3. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. exclus. Tag Questions Tag questions.1. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo.
(Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. sarcasm. or falling. is it? (Deci. the tag is affirmative too. In this way. it’s all spent.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. au fost cheltuiţi. The suggestion is that in this case. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. the tag is negative too). (Din păcate. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. hasn’t she? (Aha. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. if the host sentence is negative. aren’t they? 62 . hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. or “comment tags”. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising.e.) A: Oh. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.
/ Let’s eat dinner now. after all. / You ought not to smoke. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / Don’t leave without me. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / You will pick me up. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I am older than you. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. 63 . / He has to marry Susan. / There is enough food for everyone. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / I must go now. / You will pick me up at 7. / That was your father. / Tell me. / I don’t think you like my music. / The boy often watched his sister. / I may not see you tomorrow. / A few people like her. / She left an hour ago. / Few people like her. / I am dressed smartly enough.…/ Let me know. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / You have been invited. / He hates his wife. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / The boy never watched his sister. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / She used to talk a lot. / I may see you tomorrow. / Each of us is staying. / They said he liked music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / That’s your car over there. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I think you like my music.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / I think you don’t like my music. / He simply hates empty words. / Surely you have enough money. / She has a brother.
using a question tag at the end./ I’m right about this…. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. So you enjoyed my talk. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / He never used to study so hard…. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. He used to play squash. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 ..Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. 5. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. or what? 3. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….
/ No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.questions which repeat part or all of the message.1. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.) B: Chinese? 65 . Recapitulatory echo questions .3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.3. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.2.1. / Grants… 3. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.
(E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. If the wh. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. rather than the repetition. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. disbelief.2. consternation. (Închide lumina aia. of something just said. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.3.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.phrase is fronted.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.2.
/ He is interested in blue movies. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. I’ve lost the letter. dear. intonation is rising. (Uită-te la asta. whereas with explicatory echo questions.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. / He is interested in music./ We are looking for a purse.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / We are looking for a pixie. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. rather than did you say. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. which letter do you 67 . / I think I’ve found a solution. (i.e. (Vai. with recapitulatory echo questions. am pierdut scrisoarea.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.
Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.4.
şerpoaica. da. cu o casă de copii. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. acuma sporovăiala. pe Condrat de Vica. ca să zic aşa. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . în general. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. aşa.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. lui Stavre Păici. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza.– Crezi tu. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. oameni aşezaţi. lui Luca Horobeţ. Are gust de oameni blânzi. lui Chizlinski. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. stricata. Fenio. în satul nostru. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. şi apoi Vica ce zice. după pofte. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şi care s-a aciuat. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. cumnată Fenia. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. nu purta verighetă. să se încolăcească mai bine. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare.
pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. până la călcâie. abia târându-şi picioarele. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. De asta erai. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. sus. roşu şi galben. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. deci. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Hogea. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. dar cum se face că a 70 .Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. L-a scos din geamie. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. sau cum o chema.
Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
6.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Key Concepts .Contents: 74 22.214.171.124.Coordination and Subordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.1.
Example (2). Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.Unit four Coordination 4. i. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. on the other hand. where there is no indication other than a comma. present) in the sentence. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.e. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. 75 . This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.e. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. that elements are coordinated. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. cu repros. reproachfully.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.1 Syndetic vs.
vei muri. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.Nadina VIŞAN 4. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. From the previously mentioned examples. 76 . Conversely.) (4) If you hit my wife.) Such examples. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. you will die. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.
respectively subordinated constituents. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. the second. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . from a logical & semantic point of view.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. we need to specify that. However. but presupposed.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.
the houses were beautiful and ancient. adorned with cornices. John Steinbeck. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. took off his shoes and emptied them. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. built. with formal walks under rows of trees. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. of cut gray stone. Though the castle had vanished. with enormous solidity. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. his shoes squished. In the second. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. He moved and made a slopping noise. but the 78 . He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. In the first. took off his coat and emptied them. His clothes hung to him. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Then he sat down.
curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Cecil Woocham – Smith. left the house. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. the higher he went the wetter it grew. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. and as the way is with Irish mountains. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 .
(9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. As one can easily notice. we should be seriously annoyed.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. as shown in (9). however distinguished. yesterday and the day before yesterday. were to take down the name of every man. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.K. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.3 Sentence vs. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (G. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.
Our flag is red. 7. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. plays football. but not John.Unit four Coordination example (7).) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 2. John and Mary are ready. 3. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 5. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. / Bob and George are admired by their students. our respective examinations. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. and even tennis. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. Her pet kitten is black and white. John is ready and Mary is ready. 4. 6 John sang and Mary danced. and I passed. / Peter and John played football. 8. yellow and blue. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 9. / Joan plays many games. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Activity 2 sentences: 1. 10. / Peter.
) b.) c. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. 5.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. 3. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Activity 4 2. 6. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune.Nadina VIŞAN b. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. as can be seen in (10b). John writes poetry and Bill prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Jane 82 . or deleted. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.
e. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Besides ellipsis.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 83 . than a longer repetitive one.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. the so-called Principle of Economy. 9. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 7. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. can be reduced by substitution. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. these syntactical processes. the predication buy a pair of shoes. i. 8. 10. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. So. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.) The common element. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying.
the old men and women 2. George and Jane went back to their parents. A citit. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. 2. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. George and Jane are separated. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 3. one or (the) other method. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. simple books and magazines for children 3. 4. In certain cases. 4. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. some reason or another. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Translate the following sentences. using reduced structures: 1.
13. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 15. I need another 100$ ……….I searched ………. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. 11. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. only for damage.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. 12. it’s a case of ………… 7. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. of your proposals later on? 3. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.. the amount I’ve already saved up. 6. A pendulum swings ………. 6. Marks and Spencers. After all their adventures.You gain some things and you lose others. 16. 2. They get on quite well together.. . sweet and sour. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 5. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.… 14. they reached home……….. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. like: salt and pepper. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 5. for my wallet. 8.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. even though they have their little …………. 8.. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 7. fish and chips. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. Can we discuss the ………….
Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari.) There are. and 86 . semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.4. Nor sun. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. etc. 4. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. the expressive function of coordination is. In fact. more often than not. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. For instance. of course. as in: (17) a. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. b.
o respectau si o indrageau. or . the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (I-am dat banii. 20 (b)).) In certain cases. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.g. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.) b. sometimes but. and cherished her. both … and . He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) c. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. where the subordinator is repeated.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. too): (20) a. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. etc).) 87 .
Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. (O admir si imi place. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. and you’ll die. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. and hit my wife. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. if we were to rewrite the example . I like and admire her. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. In this case.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.* I ironed and washed my pants. I admire and like her. From this point of view.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. (Imi place si o admir. I washed and ironed my pants.) b. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.
(A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Brown experiments with humans. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .Unit four Coordination 1.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Dr. he failed). Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) (While Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (If you do that. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.
) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. as the name suggests it.g. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. e. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. 5. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.) 101 . the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. From the functional point of view.which are based on coordination .
) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. such as proud of. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. In a way. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. in certain cases. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. they are still presupposed by the speaker. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. for instance. sentences) required by the verb (or. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. for example). even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. we associate it with these objects. (I-a dat cartea.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. We do not presuppose however something like. an adverbial item. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) 102 .) Whenever we think of this particular verb. by an adjective + preposition.
In other words. Thus. an additional one. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. which is the adverbial willingly. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. i. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.) b. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. A second observation. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. 103 . to add something. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition.e. related to example (4). These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. to her) and one extra-item.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. I am afraid that he won’t come. The second example. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object.
please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. etc. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. make. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. am să mor. like. a închis toate ferestrele. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. I’ll die. such as want. So.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) 104 . (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (11) If you don’t marry me. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.
c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Susan disappeared without saying a word. she looked at me sadly. 5.g. e. 6. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. this to whomever wants it. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. 2.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. [. The book that because they home. After I told her the story. 3. Whoever did that was a genius. They came to e. 4. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.She came to him of her own will. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.
You suggestion that we should. though it was largely politeness. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 6. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. etc. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.) 106 . which. 5. WHETHER. 3. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. As you can see. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 4.He took an intelligent interest in her. not object. at our age. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. stating their function: Activity 2 1. FOR. was a novelty to Mitzi. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. but he declined.
(15) It is John who did it. Who did it was John.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. when. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. Where he went is London. why.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. which. (E de dorit să plece. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. where.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) b.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. etc. (Am vrut să plec imediat. how. 107 . (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. who.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (16) a.
(Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. As you will see. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. however. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. which sums up this classification. In (18). these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. done from a structural point of view. Unlike complement clauses. before. if. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . consider the following table.1. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. Compare.) (18) She told me this before she left. In conclusion. for instance. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. etc.
(…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. surely you cannot sincerely believe. 109 . at your young age.g. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. you understand. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.g. I will come back such as because. whether he will come when I feel like it. etc. as. after.g. Dear Ludwig. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. for. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.: e. I will go there because I feel like it. back.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. Introduced know e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.
Accidental Man) b)1. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. a tightening in her breathing. But she thought that no one would call again. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. As she left the house. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Too. she stopped to speak to Monroe. Late that afternoon.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. he said. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. 2.The day Monroe had died was in May.
Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. That he loved e. 111 .2. I told her everything after she arrived.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. As you have probably noticed already.g. că e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g. However. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.g. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. interesting.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g. a correspondence can be traced.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.
whereas wh complements are the 112 .) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. whenever you identify a wh. Secondly. i. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. We will come back to that in the next chapter.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. So. (Cred că mă place. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). complements. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. Thirdly.. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.2. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.e.1.complement. In the fourth place.
She mistrusted her handwriting. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. because. after. and I do not know how things might stand between us.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. their introductory elements (e. a house. Pratice Consider the following text. outbuildings. a barn. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. but no idea what to do with them. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.g. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. for no matter how she tried. I first thought to tell in 113 . c) I am coming home one way or another. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. before. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes.
subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. it would make you fear to do such again. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. According to a structural criterion. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. these clauses can be complements. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial).4. and I have not the will or the energy. because they modify. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function.e. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.
e. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. ce o fi având. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. după ce că are grâu puţin. (…) “Mă.g. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. be very careful to use this term correctly. Pratice Translate the following. îşi spuseseră că Anton. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. Alţii. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. 115 . making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. think of. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. interested in. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. însă. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. answering the question to whom? So. Nevasta secera în tăcere. look at. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. O zbughi înapoi. etc.
(Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. Nici acum. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. de fapt. Toată lumea înţelesese că. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. întâi. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. timp de un ceas. izolate de sat. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. cât de bolnavă era. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum.
aşa de oţetit. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. stricau totul. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Iată. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. de pildă. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. la Odobeşti. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. amânase scrisul. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. acum sunt desluşiţi. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. la nişte prieteni comuni. Pace nu era. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. În realitate.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Era bine de ştiut. deşi cam târziu.
Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. întâia noapte de război) 118 . nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. frate. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.
whose..SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. subject relative clauses. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc. 119 .g. of which. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. etc).
6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.7.6. The Co-reference Condition 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 126.96.36.199.1.3. Key Concepts .
6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. 121 . b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.Unit six Relative clauses 6.1. The Co-reference Condition . The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).2. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.
By combining these two clauses. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. 122 . John loves that woman. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.
The common element woman is present. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 .Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. John offered flowers to that woman. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. This way. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed.
Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. He liked that book. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I introduced him to Jim. I lost the book’s cover. therefore in spoken English. I bought Jim a book. 2. 4. The students like their teacher. too. 3. 5. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. She came to London. 6. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO 5. I had a book. He’s the author who received the prize. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. They met those students. 10.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. I went to London. 9. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. John told his friend a story about the king. 7. I love my husband very much. WHERE 3. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. None of the students agreed with them. by leaving behind a trace. This is my husband. The students like their teacher. 8. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. WHICH 4. The king was just passing by. Any of the students would answer to questions. WHO 124 . Susan wants to meet Jane. He told Jim everything about his plans. frequently used in written language.
TO 11. .) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. i. WHOM 10. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.e. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. 2. most of them were from England. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHOSE 7. WHICH 8. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (Cine strică plateşte. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOM 6.
is no longer overtly expressed.e. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Cel care strică plăteşte. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. unlike in the case of (14). as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. Unlike their sisters.) So.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. it is covert.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. in a manner of speaking.
defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. care este zeul negoţului. 127 . is my favourite god. they define it). Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (Mercur. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. (Du-te unde pofteşti. who is the god of commerce.) (22) Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. who incidentally is the god of commerce.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want.) (Mercury. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. este zeul meu favorit.
Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 5. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. They are what 128 . on whom nobody could depend. then it is an attribute. i. 10. is a great playwright. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. who came to see me. is a genius. 7.e.This is the village where I spent my youth. 2. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. was the one we all welcomed and admired. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Independent I don’t know what you want. As we were saying. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). She. I have met him where I least expected. Shakespeare. 8. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. who is a genius. restrictive relative clauses. 6. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. this type of relative clauses. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 9.
care a murit acum câţiva ani. 6. . who died a few years ago.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. When the antecedent has no determiner. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. etc. however sad this may be. a. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. etc. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) 2. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. composed The (Freddie Mercury. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.
care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. care-ţi sunt fiu. can see your shortcomings only too well.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. bătrînă morocănoasă. who am your son. iritabilă şi uscată.) (28) They come to me. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 5. numai eu nu. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Dintre toate personajele prezente. who neither work nor am anxious. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 4.) Pratice Translate the following. (Eu. (Ei apeleaza la mine. îţi văd prea bine defectele.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. poftiţi în faţă. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 6. dried-up old maid. 130 . but a peevish.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. ill-tempered. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 7. Mie. care nu sunt o femeie. 3. 2. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. ci o fată a woman.
părăsi camera. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. . in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. heard. erau acum în posesia lui.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. than whom few more can be more crashing. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. were now in his possession. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. (32) service finished late.
(Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. literary style: (37) a.5.) d. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The genitive form with which is still in use. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) c. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. too. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. 6.1. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. as can be seen in (36d). We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. but it is typical of the formal.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) b.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.
but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.
… Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. ships (that can be personified) a. (45) (46) .) b.) b. of which. but to a type or a function: a. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. He is not the man which he used to be. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. … Italy. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. animals.) • states.
(Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. Poland is the place in which Christine was born.) b) dialectal (49) a. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. It is poor what gets the punches. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. pe care o privea direct.Unit six Relative clauses b. reason. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.2 Relative Adverbs: when. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) 135 (47) . while. why. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (Nu ştiam ce vor. France.) b. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. time.) 6. Poland is the place where Christine was born. where.5. how. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. whom it concerned most closely.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.
5. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) 136 .) c. He went where he had been before.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) b. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) b.) 6. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.3. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. This is the place wherefrom they came. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) e. They returned to the land whence they had come. The place whither he goes is unknown.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) b.
the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. Moreover.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).
) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. much. 138 (64) his shoes. every. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.5. not any.4.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. but they are used very infrequently: as. I’ll get you such things as you may want. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. . Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. any.) b.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Honest man as he was. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. but • in standard language a. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.
(Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. ăl de fusese in China…) b. This is the same one that/as you had before.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.) • in dialect a. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. . him as was in China … (Uncle George. It’s the dry weather does it. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.) c. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. Uncle George. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. And always on the buttered side. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.
For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) b.) 140 . This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.
3. That which shows God out of me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. makes me a wart and a wen. The man John spoke to is a genius.) c.3): (72) a. we all have to come to some terms. 6.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. What Inman remembered was this passage. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.5. 7. What I’m saying is.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. The man that John spoke to is a genius. It seemed a thing 141 .) b. 2. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. fortifies me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. Where he was from. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 5.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. The man who John spoke to is a genius. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. This is where we talk money.” 4.
9. of living. 12. Whatever his fate was. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 8.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 10. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. who had not witnessed many dawns.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Oh. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. The rudeness of eating. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. though. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. which is a lot. 13. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. (…) Partly. 142 . when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. he had left Ruby high and dry. 11. Ruby said.
care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. fiu natural al unui morar. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. nu prea sarac. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. poate. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. (Iris Murdoch. mort de tanar. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. pirpiriu. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. un var primar. pe linie paterna. divortata. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carei strabunic. vasnic. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. dar care avea un var de-al doilea.al lui. cumnatul unui portughez. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. Cumnatul meu avea.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. plutonier.
b. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. Teatru) 6. c.6. The opposite phenomenon. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar.2. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Everybody listened to that woman. 144 . She was a woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. insurat de trei ori la rand. I lost the cover of the book. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. By extension.
as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. acting again as a genuine pied piper. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 2. In the interest of public decency. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 3. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. he requested that the public be excluded. 5. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 9. The problem of safe transportation. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory.Unit six Relative clauses b. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 4. The difference between (76) and (77). 7. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 6. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 8. no easy answers to which could be offered. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . has been troubling them forever.
6. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. was now complete. They do not function as attributes. 146 . no matter which. 5. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). has been deleted. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Irene. 10. 2.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. he rarely saw now. This story. 3. Activity 9 were now all gone. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.His father’s friends. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. whose interest he most sincerely shared. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. as the case is). The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. His friends. 4.
2. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. închipuirea. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 7. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. Pentru alţii. Toate sfârşeau. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. pentru dumneata bunăoară. De douazeci de ani. sunt vrednic de invidiat. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 4. Nelu. himeric. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 5. 6. 3.
9. cu surle şi cu tobe. 12. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. nici în searbăda mea versiune.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. 10. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. a făcut el. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. 8. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 .
17. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. fie pe stradă. de unde venea şi Marta. apărură. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 14. dinspre Maria Rosetti. roiuri de fetiţe. pe strada Icoanei.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. 15. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. care era foarte “mondenă”. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. despre care. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. deşi atât de aproape. din direcţia căreia apoi. Dacă mă lovea. zise ea cu ochii mari. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. toată lumea întreba cine e. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. până mai adineauri. 20. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. trăia larg de tot. 16. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 149 . Avea acum un fel de vertij. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. În spatele lor. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. din care cauză pe Dora. 18. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. fie la teatru. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla.
decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. întâia noapte de război) 150 . decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. 24. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. Pentru mine însă. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. aveau un stil al lor. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. pe care ea îi admira acum. până în şosea. de mine. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. pe care eu nu-l aveam. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 23. 22. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. când au urcat râpa iar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Pare-se că snobii. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. de sus de unde eram.
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function. 151 .
1.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 188.8.131.52.2.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2.Clause Shift 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 184.108.40.206.2.3.1.Extraposition 220.127.116.11.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. Key Concepts . That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3.5. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. That Deletion 7.Topicalization 7.4. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.4. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.
(1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. but also of infinitival ones. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. placed in a marginal position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. In other words.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. 7. Apart from those introduced by that.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything. the clause is extraposed. 153 . The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1.
) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.
7. 4. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 8. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 9. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It is nice to meet you. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 3. It appears that no one voted for him. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 13. 6. 4. It is no use trying to convince her. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 10. 5. 9. 14. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 2. 11. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 2. 6. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 3. 10. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 7. 15.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 11. 8. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. Is it true that the children are sick? 5.
Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 2. unde se nimerea. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 5. sub poduri. They never expected it that he would come back. 3. zice Lionel.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 3. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 4. 2. 6.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. în canal. mă ascundeam în grabă. 18. 5. după porţi.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. în gropi. 3.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. atât 156 . I guess it that he will come back. 4. 2. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer.
Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. 6. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. vor căuta să o zdruncine.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. (Nu întotdeauna. fără îndoială. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Spunând cele ce-am spus. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. 7. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. 5. excelentă. Mi s-a părut chiar că. 157 . dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. fără să cârteşti. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi.” 4. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist.
No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Pratice Read the following.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. in the case of topicalization. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.Nadina VIŞAN 7.1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.2. this asymmetry is undone. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. 1.) While in the case of extraposition. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Consequently. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.
6. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. She had always been the slave of chance. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 4. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 2. He did not blame Gracie. This was another era. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. was inconceivable. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 3. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. he felt no spring of interest in her. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. He was utterly gone. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 8. but not now. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . mere chance would decide. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 5. even today. whether it would finally carry her off. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 7.
(A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.1.3. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) 160 . This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.
because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.e.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. 161 . by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. we obtain. the verb to drive). It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.
Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 3. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 8. who had just returned from Africa. 6. 162 . who had just returned from Africa. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 2.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 7./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 5. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 4.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. prime-minister. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.
since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.2.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.Unit seven That complements 7.
That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. etc.2.1. deem. prefer. (I-au promis o casă nouă. consider. They believe that the man is guilty. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. predict. suggest.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. afirm. state. He announced their engagement.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) b. (Cred că omul este vinovat. etc. They believe the man is guilty. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. They promised him that he would received a new house. promise. estimate.: (25) a. He announced that they were engaged. deny. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) 164 . explain.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. judge.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. communicate.) a. desire.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
(Nu-i lipseşte nimic. on condition that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) I like him in that he is smart. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.e. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. for example. they lose their meaning. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. In older stages of English. hope =>purpose. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.) language.) 172 . ibid. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.
(Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He gave an answer such. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) (66) 173 a. He gave such an answer as had expected.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. să o vadă trecând. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) b.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. That can be deleted. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) b. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) When the structure contains the word such. . He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.
) 174 .We discovered that our map has disappeared.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. for better or worse. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. (Iris Murdoch. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. He gave an answer such that I had expected. ibid. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. they were chained to each other forever.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.) b.
omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. 175 . (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.) c.Unit seven That complements 7. (69) a. He showed he was able to do it. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (A prins de veste că ei vin. say. tell). (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.1. He said he had borrowed her money.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.) b. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. He got word they were coming.3.3 ‘That Deletion 7. that he uses a relaxed tone. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. for instance.
2.3. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. 7.) b. bune. (Iris Murdoch. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.3. because that has been deleted. I like it that he was here. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. for better or worse. rele.Nadina VIŞAN 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. ibid. *I like it he was here. they were chained to each other forever. they were chained to each other forever.) (De asemenea. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. for better or worse. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.
4. which is ungrammatical in English. 7.) b)He told me that she was there. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. (“Este acolo”. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 7) They maintain. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. he said. that they were not too late to leave. you want me to believe. spuse el. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.) 177 . (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. simultaneity. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.
) b.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. o să vină el. “She was here”. In the example below. he said. I will leave her. (Am să o părăsesc. The Present complement). (A spus că. până pleacă ea. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. He said he would leave her. (Pâna să plece.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. He told me that she had been there. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) b. vine el. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) Future Perfect -----. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . (“Era acolo”.) b. spuse el. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.
show.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. be aware. With such factive verbs as realize. think. hope. etc. whisper. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. regret. notice. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. report. insist. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. be amazed/concerned. realize it).etc. believe.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. forget. say.) 179 . discover.) On the other hand. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. dream. wish. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. mention. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.) b.
Consider also: (85) a.) b.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. we notice that general truths. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. She realized that all men are fools.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.) b. (Iris Murdoch. cu un respect tandru reciproc. feign habits which are not their own. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. in tender deference to each other. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. He knew that she thought all men were fools.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. 180 . She believed that the earth is round.
) b. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.Unit seven That complements 2. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) In (88). Peter said that John would leave at 5. 181 .) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. such as a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. 3. There are however cases. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) b.
f) John said that Harry would leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. The time is 3 o’clock. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. h) John thought that Harry had run. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. g) John thought that Harry ran. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John said that Harry will leave. c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. But 182 . Imagine. for instance.
Crows will relish what presents itself. quail. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. jaybird. redtailed hawk. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. geese both grey and white. Translate the following. nighthawk. bluebird. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. 183 . lack of pridefulness. a. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lark. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. c. kingfisher. slyness in a fight. Cooper’s hawk. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. b. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She admired their keenness of wit. love of practical jokes. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. whistling swan. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. John told Mary that she should bake a pie.
(Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . the young officer. Now here he stood jailed. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. And they might just hang him. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. he claimed. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. war hero though he was. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. But as the battle raged around them. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. […] During the latter stages of the tale. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. in the very act of expiring. He had fought hard through the war. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying.
object ones up to the attributive function.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. On certain occasions that can be deleted. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.Unit seven That complements 7. from the very frequent subject. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). which they share with wh-complements. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. on other occasions it has to stay there. or else. 185 .
Unul din ei. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Fiind 186 . Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. 4. peste puţin. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. neconvenabil şi primejdios. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. cel mai mare. Mama. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. 3. 2. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii.
va pleca din oraş la vie. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 6. 7. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 9. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. 8. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. de ce constata în sine. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. care îl pândise. venind de la avocat. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. luminos şi apropiat şi când. dacă va mai veni. Nu ţi-a trecut. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. cel puţin pentru un timp. 5. fericit. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. aşa. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. ea.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. un vis de acesta 187 . ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. Se mira. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute.
Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . încă o dată. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. 12. Acesta. 11. liniştit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. fireşte.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Astfel de va fi. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. dar şi teama că. şi mândria că a biruit. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. lucrul era înfăptuit. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.
lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. spre Jurubiţa. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 .Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. ci numai aşa. după cum. să le lămurească pe toate. 14. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. mai puternic decât oricând. fără o vorbă scrisă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. Pe toate. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.Key Concepts .4.3.2.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.1.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 126.96.36.199.8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.5.
(2) a. (3) a. That you love her is something wonderful. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. I told her to be more careful in the future. 193 . (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). Consider the following: • like that complements. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. To love her is something really wonderful.) b.1.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) b. It is important that you should know what you need. From this perspective.) • like that complements. b. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. It is important for you to know what you need. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her that she should be more careful in the future.
etc. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. as opposed to the finite ones. the Participle) (i. 2. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. the Conditional. For instance. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Gerund. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. is the fact that they do not have temporal features.e. d. 194 . * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. gerundial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention. participial clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a.) b. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures.
(Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.) c. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. namely no ending.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) 195 .) b. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.
He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.2. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 3. 2. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 6. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 8. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It is vital this factory to be reopened. the criterion of form. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 8. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 10. 7. 5. (7) They saw her leave. 9.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 4.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.
/ A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. (10) 197 . (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. 2. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. hear.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră.
trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. However.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. Pratice Translate the following.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. . / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. uncharacteristic for literary English. 198 (11) the universe. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. 3. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.
In other words. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Further on. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. 199 . to use the appropriate technical term.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. as I have already mentioned. or the control constructions.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave.
şi creştineşte să ierţi. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) In this situation. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. So far. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. PRO to err is human. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction.) 200 . That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.) b. I hoped for him to be there in time. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. PRO to forgive divine. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) Object: (18) a. It is important for him not to err. namely the agent of the event.) b. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E important ca el să nu greşească. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. the logical subject. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.
the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter.) b. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. In other words. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. but the patient of the verb persuade.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. him is not the agent of the infinitive. him is related to the main clause verb. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. Semantically. not to the infinitive. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .
\ I allowed them to come. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ I would love them to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ They convinced her to come back. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. Likewise. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ 202 . but with the infinitive in the subordinate. I hate animals to be tortured.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ He persuaded her to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ She wanted him to leave. \ She promised him to leave. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ They tempted him to leave.
203 . so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. \ They did not wish her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. • Last but not least. \ They really asked her to come back. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26). this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.) He seems to be a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. So. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.
Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. with special semantic and syntactic properties. seem. hate. which are said to be free. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.). / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. that is not required by certain verbs. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. To sum up the discussion. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. etc. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. appear. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. to meet her. 204 . both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs.
care to. afford. want. Compare: (31) a. arrange. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. deign. refuse. presume./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.) b) verbs such as abide.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. need.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. omit. venture. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. aspire to. propose. etc. 8. mean. dislike. etc. desire.) 205 friend. condescend. try. expect. bear. scheme. prefer.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. seek (= try). contrive. / E greu să îl suporţi. decline. like. endeavour. hope. . scorn. manage. agree to. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. hate. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.3 The Distribution of PRO . intend. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. fail. wish.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. deserve.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. etc.
The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. stand.Nadina VIŞAN b.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) b. endeavour. bear.) 206 . I would like for him to become president of the country. conclude.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. For all of them to have been killed is. verbs of liking and disliking. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.) b. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. desirable. possible. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. threaten. be important. forget. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. claim. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. unlikely. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. ask. I hate that you should say a thing like this. etc. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.) 8. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.etc. however.) b. suggest.
) 2. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) 8. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) 207 . (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) b. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.
Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Like in the case of that complements. I decided for John to represent us. but the meaning remains.) 208 knowledge.Nadina VIŞAN 3. the preposition is deleted.) 4. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. . Direct Objects (39) a. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 5. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.
etc. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. The stew is delicious to eat. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. She is pretty to look at. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. This paint is like concrete to work with. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. curious about. He is a bastard to work for.: (42) a. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. You’re an idiot to go there. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) c) adverbial of result 209 . 6. delicious. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) c.) b. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) d.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.) e.
să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. / Ehei. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. to tell you the truth. / Pe şleau. să nu piardă trenul. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost.) Oh./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie.) I’ve never met him. drept să spun. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. you’re a bad driver. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 .
He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. inform.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. promise. nu mai vreau să te vad. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.etc.: (51) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. etc.) b. According to this. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. influence. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. press. induce. need. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. direct. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. 8. oblige. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.) . b. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. enable. (49) a. inspire. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. swear. encourage. urge.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.
/ … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. name.etc. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului./ And now he 212 . which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. nominate. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. permit. etc. elect.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. count on. vote. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. order. depend on.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. allow. prevail on./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. look to. etc. choose.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. command. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.
) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.verbs: appear. seem. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. 213 (58) (59) . (Se pare că îi place de el. An Accidental Man) 8. etc. grow. i.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. happen. come.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (Iris Murdoch. be going to.e.: (55) She appears to like him. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. this construction is lexically governed.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (57) He is to come any day now. (O să întârzii/ leşin.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. be about to. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).etc. etc.
watch.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). that of intention. be considered.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. . (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. observe.) 8. etc. feel. be reported. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. overhear.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be thought. be alleged.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be rumoured. be claimed. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. etc. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.etc. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. perceive.: (62) They heard him insult her.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. In (57). hear.
(N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. picture. presume. etc. recollect. However.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. (Cred că este un geniu. consider.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. imagine. figure. judge. find. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. have. know. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. occasion.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. remember. believe. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. understand. discover. cause.) • with a full infinitive: get. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.: (68) I believe him to be a genius.) 215 (67) . prove. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. deem. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.
: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. if he himself was out of spirits. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. order. etc. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. desire. command.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. love. wish.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. choose. mean. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.etc.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. prefer.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. Harold. suffer. who wasn’t used to men with moods. expect.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. permit. want.
It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. A little crossly. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays.P. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. though he tended to look down on those below it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. he didn’t envy those above it. He suspected hostility at once. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. Both seemed to him a little unreal. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. so that we might get to the future and have done. (L. the herd instinct was very strong in him. to make sure we attended strictly to business. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it.
we can speak about bare and full infinitives. From this perspective.Nadina VIŞAN 8. The last criterion. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. 218 .9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view.
e important ce întrebări pui. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. fireşte. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. bunăoară. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. e) Când doi oameni. dar să nu-ţi spună. un bărbat şi o femeie. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. de bună seamă. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. lovit şi umilit. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. într-o zi. E posibil.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. să-l capete. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. de asemenea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. Şi tu să fii. mai bine219 .
(Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. mai pline de înţeles. să nu vrea să se şteargă. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. să traiesc numai cu tusea.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. . aşa cum îi apăruse el. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în jos. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. 220 . Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. avusese dreptate. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare.Şt. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt.Nadina VIŞAN zis. (B. d-a lungul gâtului.Delavrancea. în parte. ca să nu şi-o amintească. sau. De era vară. că eşti tânăr. în ploaie. mai bine de două decenii. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. în parte. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. un picior. Să spui de pildă. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.Şt. pe care deja o uitase. încă. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri.
deşi. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji.. un miros îngrozitor. şi prin faţă.. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci..Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. nici ca să 221 .Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. Într-un cuvânt. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). o mizerie. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. orice bucureştean ştie. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. ei. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. biata Muti. fie ea şi grăbită. prin faţă e coborârea. Mă laud singură. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului.. sunt aici cu tot ce am. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. orice-ar fi. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. de fapt. (Al. şi nu un amant.
niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate. parcă la întâmplare.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .
participles. verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .
1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.The Verbal Noun 9.2.Participial Constructions 9.1.The Gerund 188.8.131.52.3.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.1.The Participle Contents: 224 9.5 Key Concepts .2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 184.108.40.206.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1.4. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.2.
Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Due to this situation. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. (Susan doarme. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.1.1.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.) 225 .Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.
been and killed are past participle forms. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.) More infrequently.e. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). blood-shot and painted. it functions attributively. (A venit Susan) b. too: (6) Her eye-lids. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. In (2) the forms come. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. i. 226 . the past participle can appear after a noun. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. Susan has been killed.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle.) As you can see in this second case.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. were closing. Susan has come. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.
) 227 . he will eventually marry her.) c. Knowing who the guy was. (Sosind aici. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) c.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. începură să cânte. a lion can attack. o să ajung la timp. ea o luă la fugă. leul poate să atace. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. they started singing.) d. she ran away.) b.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. Oh. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. I will arrive there on time. If provoked. o să ajung la timp.) b. Weather permitting. I will arrive there on time. (Ştiind cine era el. mother permitting.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. God willing. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. Arriving here. people should pay attention to high notes. When singing.
He was found stealing. They found him killed by a bullet. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. I found him stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. smell. hear. (L-au descoperit că fură. notice.) 228 . respectively.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. behold. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (Am simţit-o tremurând. watch.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) b. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) ii. (L-am descoperit furând. He was found killed by a bullet. which stands for an adverbial clause. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.
(15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . have. feel. (A fost văzut plângând. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. hear. I heard it said that men are a bore.: When she heard his words. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. confess. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) c. etc. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.) • Causative verbs: get . I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. set.) b. start. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) • Causative verbs: get. a. etc. find. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) b.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. I must get my hair cut. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. make a. keep.: a. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. have. leave.) b. know.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. etc. He’ll soon get things going. etc. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. send. recollect. she knew herself dismissed.
/ Nu după multă vreme. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. He wanted his car fixed immediately. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. command I ordered my bill made out. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ L-a trimis la cumpărături.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . lovit şi plin de sânge.) • verbs of permission./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. Men like shopping made easy./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.
before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.e.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / My Lord. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / In any case. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. with its lips drawn back. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 231 . Unlike the gerund. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. sitting taut between her father and her sister. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.2. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.1. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / Dinny.
They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I left. People were sleeping in the next room. She had heard it all before. she enjoyed her trip to Spain.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. I was astonished at what I saw. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 2. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . 7. 3. I knew that the murderer was still at large. I turned on the light. It had been uprooted by the gale.She didn’t want to hear the story again. using either a present participle. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. The tree had fallen across the road.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. 6. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 4. se va opri şi ploaia.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I left. am plecat. the rain will stop. am plecat. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. (Văzând acestea. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Desi nu ştia limba. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 5.
bald. I slammed the door of my room. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. roast. fishy. Climbing down the tree. many. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. cloth. 10. covered. shaven. hearted (twice). open. Tied to the post. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. They found the treasure. dark. skinned. broad. drunken. 10. 7. haired (twice). Getting out of bed. stricken. coloured. stony. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Read the sentences and try to correct them. He fed the dog. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. red (twice). straight. Reading in bed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. three. handed. 3. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 233 . b) Headed (5 times). open. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Barking furiously. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Riding in the first race. Mother punished me for my mistake. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. 9. 9. one of the eggs broke. 12. an idea suddenly occurred to me. narrow. lion. a scorpion bit him. empty. eyed (3 times).Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 4. sharp. quick. Passing under a ladder. wooden. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 6. I let the dog out of the room. 5. Leaving the cinema. minded (3 times).shoulder. 2. 8. my hands often get very cold. his horse fell at the last jump. He sat down to his own dinner. mown. 8. Dropped by parachute. eagle. a pot of paint fell on my head. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 11. lighted. cornered.Running into the room.
_______ by S. were taken to hospital. duty. the same verb is missing twice.I fell on the ice.Nadina VIŞAN sunken._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. b) grass. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. was today taken back to prison. ill-gotten. The escaped prisoner. / Swiss watches. is expected to be a great hit.Spielberg. (grow) 4. (take) 2. wealth. _______ for a bargain. meat. image. (admire) 5. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . The film. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. I stared at the canvas for ages. shorn. meaning. hidden. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. graven.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. deer. shrunken. Translate into English: 1. (produce) 3. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. lead. _______ for their elegance and precision. (injure). head. stream. are in grave danger of extinction. are sold throughout the world. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. rotten. In the following pairs of sentences. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. _______ my arm. man. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. plank. 7. candle. ________ hiding in a barn. lamb. eyes. (hunt). (find) 6. / Three people. bounden. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. Whales./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Many old people . / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today.
le cocea. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. trezit. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. păsări tăiate. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. deodată sufocat. ca şi cum. când strânsă. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. 2. Şi. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. După câtva timp. precum şi foile de plăcintă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. 3. întinse. care le rânduia. 4. O umbreluţă. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. legume date prin mai multe ape. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. şi moi. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. Şi sufletul său. când deschisă. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. nesigur şi moale. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. le fierbea. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia.
The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.Nadina VIŞAN 9. According to this criterion.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. crezi.2.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Dacă vezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.2. 236 . The Gerund 9. Likewise. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.1. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.
+ noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Him winning and you losing was surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. Consider the following table.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. gerunds differ from participles. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. In that. His winning and your losing were both surprising. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) b. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.2.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.2.) 9. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.
(Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) b. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. as being verbal 238 . Consider (32). An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) Unlike participles. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. *It was illegal growing a beard. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) 2. It was illegal to grow a beard. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.
3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Just like in the case of noun phrases. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. It’s no good talking to her. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.) b.) 3.) b.2. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) 9. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. as offered in the table below: 239 . Participles vs. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.
as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . passive ones She was crying. 2. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. babies suck their thumb. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. forms: continuous . 3. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. + noun] 1. perfect.
a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii.
I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He was spotted talking to her. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 9. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 4. 5. eating habits/ eating people. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 14. 12. 2. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 3. shooting gallery / shooting star. 13. 12. crying game / crying woman. 7. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 10. 15. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 11. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 242 . 8. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 6. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. swimming duck / swimming trunks.
they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.) The absence of a determiner like the. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. a The absence of an of phrase.3. but the presence of a direct object (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .Unit nine Ing complements 9. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.
The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. George’s shooting the attacker. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . In the second situation.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. How can we tell? In the first case.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. Thus. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.
/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her. Jim left quietly. / His coming there puzzled her. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. 245 . / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. very large./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. the sheriff.
For instance. whenever we meet an –ing form. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. for example. the meaning is different.Nadina VIŞAN 9. Look. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). ING Forms and Infinitives. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.4. It has been noticed that. However. With the infinitive.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.
) . This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. having left) is infrequently used in English.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) The first example. and the most well-known one.g. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive is future-oriented. (S-a oprit din mâncat.) After looking at this example. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. On the other hand. future-oriented value of the infinitive). containing an infinitive. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. anterior to the verb in the main clause.
b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) As you can see. i.e. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. which means that they are similar in meaning. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.e. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.) . recollect. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.
c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the petrol tank is not filled yet.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. dar asta este. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. the action is not completed. In the second example. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. but that’s it. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) .
it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. the event has not happened yet. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) With [. e) need. The house needs to be repaired.) b. (Casa trebuie reparată.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. In the second example.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. want With [+ human] objects.) 250 . mean has the sense signify. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) wedding. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. The house needs repairing.human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată.
‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. (hold) up his pen and (speak). as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. but they went by too quickly. it’s overrated. (take) down her answer. my Lord. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. however appearances were against us. my Lord. whereas in the second case. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ ‘In any case. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. Lady Corven. Croom (try) (follow) one. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. gerund or infinitive. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . I did ask Mr.’ ‘Tell me.
he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House.’ 252 . ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). he addressed the note. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. I just used the word and they fell.’ said Clare. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. licked the envelope with passion. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. I must go back now. and went out (post) it himself. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. Then. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ said Clare.
We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Participles mainly function as adverbials. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.Unit nine Ing complements 9. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Last but not least. the 253 . The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Pratice In the following texts.5. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.
but then he saw it billowing up from below. covering the girl’s head. slowly rising in a swirling motion. down. He looked up towards the daylight. it 254 . (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. Then he saw movement at his feet. At first. The two sides were moving apart.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down into God knows where. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. someone looking for survivors. hoping he would see somebody up there. It was like a mist. the enormous split in the earth. moving up towards his chest. The sight of the two children. according to the books he read. their edges crashing inwards. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. She started coughing. then the noise and the cracking stone.
brightening to winter brilliance. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. and sunlight. 255 .’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.
Ridicându-se. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. and then went riding with her in the rain. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. 2. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. într-o joi. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Vaucher şi cu mine. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. închizând ochii. mama mea. În urma slugii. cei doi Mamona. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. totul se animă deodată. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. ucenicul său necredincios. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea.
despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. aşezată cu spatele la noi. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. totul mi se părea cunoscut. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. dar ştiutoare. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. Şi deodată. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. am ştiut şi cine. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. se duse lânga mama şi. 3. după cum îi spusese mama. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. afară ploua în continuare. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. pe Vaucher. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. privit. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. o sărută pe frunte. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. la mine. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. auzit şi zadarnic. aplecându-se puţin. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Neclintiţi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. pe mama mea părând absentă.
clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. cu tot cu baraca. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. să se apropie de aşezările din jur.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Au coborât din camion încet. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. 5. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. camionul a plecat. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi cu stiva de lemne. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu soba. şi. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. dar.
Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 .
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
10. whereas if she went away she would get none. since I have decided. he had not yet been able to estimate. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. because of pity. in some way. Having regard to the date of drafting. How much. I am sorry not to have seen you. 12. he had been advised. and meet it right here at home. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 5. was unclear to Mitzi. 4. 6. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. apart from his distress for parents. 9. without profound questioning. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. How this time was to come. 2. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 7. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. and this particularly of late. this would really hurt. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. to retire early from my employment. 3. 13. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. You have been much in my thoughts. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. and that 263 . 11.
/ Before you go on changing the subject. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 17.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. this always makes us feel embarrassed. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. looking forward had not yet taken place. 14. / In the end. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 264 . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. please consider his proposition. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. for attending his sister’s wedding. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. even for months. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. he did not come to see her. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 19. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. I was made say Grace before every dinner. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / Whenever I visited my aunt. one of the eggs broke. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends.
of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. to end in some awful tragedy. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. Tony was a child. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. centered in London and themselves. her old friend Hugh. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. a little girl. of the quick and wiry. without discovery. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. and it was bound. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. her recklessness. quite unexpectedly. They rushed into shops. Though much in request before her marriage. Vulgar men did. Instead of which she had married. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. She felt as when. rather than the hefty type. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . 265 . it was said. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. They hated trying on. At country houses she had met them of course. cotton mills at Manchester. of all people. an open-air person. Clarissa used to think. Essentially. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. (and there he was. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. she said.
dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Reading many novels.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. the more she would be torturing him. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. but lying in her bath. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. era un bun sfatuitor. De uitat. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. ii faceau bine. indeed. nu puteam sa le uit.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului.Over the River) 2. aveam tot mai 266 . she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Bolnava nu se simtea. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she was uneasy. The closer she allowed him to come to her. with all its impatience of restraint. she professed.Rindurile dvs. Cind l-a chemat. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. si in plus. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. cre s-au nascut lent. astfel. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. viguros si vesel in felul lui. to keep abreast of the current. (John Galsworthy . nu a facut-o pentru asta. short of the contacts of love. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea.
desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Milionarule.) 267 . poate fi compensata. vaazut cindva. Personal.) 6. Daca tu. Banulescu – ibid. ca si tine. (St. nu pricep nimic. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. 4. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. mi-am zis. are nevoie. cit mai au de trait.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. o data sau de doua ori. (St. Banulescu – ibid. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Banulescu – ibid.) 5.) 7. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. pe scaunul lui tare. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. se stie. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. fa-o. Banulescu – ibid. latimea si ascutisul labei. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Ce a iesit. (St. lungimea picioarelor. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. (St.
Ernest Richard Atkinson. (. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Arthur Atkinson M. Who when asked about his memories of the War. to Emmanuel College. Who came home from the war. Who. delivered from the holocaust. Translate them.. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Who was may father.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. And had a brother killed in the same battle. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Cambridge.P. Could he be blamed.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts.. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. A story-book romance. my grandfather. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. for being a renegade. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who told me. a wounded soldier. 2. when I was even younger than you.
daughter of an ill-paid journalist. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. he had already engaged himself? 3. Rachel Williams. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. to whom.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. 4. a moody man. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. Fabianism. How 269 . That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. deep-set. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. and because – but this is mere speculation.
How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum au tăcut ei. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. 270 . How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Ion. om mare. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. cu taina aceasta. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a ajuns el. Ion. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. la şcoală. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. satul. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a trăit el.
mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. 271 . cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. L-au derivat cei din teatru. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. de mama lor. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. greşeli dintr-astea. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară.pune totul in discuţie. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Când actriţa. din franţuzeşte. singurul lui stăpân. cu sau fără voie. când voi fi singur. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. împotriva tuturor.
Era să am din cauza asta un duel. 4. Tot aşa. nevasta-mea. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Am început. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. 272 . nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 5. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. traversând. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. pe jumătate prezent. provocându-le. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. dam buzna peste automobile. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. sau ridicole. continuând. de pildă. ci un sistem de acomodare. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. privindu-mă în ochi. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. parcă începusem s-o uit. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. 3. A devenit palid. fostă prietenă din copilărie. 6. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Într-o vreme.
În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Am început.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. E o problemă. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. fireşte. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. să merg întins. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. şi să nu ameţesc. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. iar. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. orice s-ar întâmpla. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. 9. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. Aş vrea să mă las jos. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. fără să mă opresc o clipă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 11. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. ca un acrobat. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. 8. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Dacă nemţii înaintau. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De altminteri. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. şi dacă merg întins. că nu m-am gândit la asta. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda.
dar nu se mai putea. de la lucruri personale. se uita in jos. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. de la obiecte de pret. nu mai semana. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. nu mai pricepu nimic. Uite. cu mirare. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila.. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Ii venea greu. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Auzindu-l. la fata locului. Greu era din partea asta. 17. In curind.. 274 . Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Acum isi ferea privirea.Ma. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. 15. La un moment dat. Adica tot trecutul. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Ilie nu-l asculta. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. nu trebuie sa va suparati. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. la amintiri. de uimire. 13. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. de la proces. la carti. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. trebuia sa le spuna. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. 14. eu am venit sa va intreb. 16. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie.
There was even 275 . zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. . 20. dar. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Nu era nevoie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. se indeparta nepasator. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. i se paru ca aici e ceva. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. which was part of his rich outfit. apoi se uitau la Ilie. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. 19. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie.Ce sa fac. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. asa cum facuse pina acum. cum zicea Anghel. Aici era ceva.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. vorbe asa si-asa. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Zimbea siret. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui.
a simplification. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. at least. She was one 276 . gave an exclamation. rude woman. He felt then.Miller at her hotel. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. the young lady. for the instant. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. He walked a long time. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. 4. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. to move fast. to admit that she was a proud. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. going astray. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. paying no attention. resuming her walk.Nadina VIŞAN relief. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. But Daisy. conversationally. 3. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. 5. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. asked for Mrs. on this occasion. to take his way home on foot.
6. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. 8. smiling and chattering. Advising with me. while residing abroad. She rustled forward. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . as to projected changes. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. indeed. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. He left me musing. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. of studying European society. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. often. in their own phrase. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. on the other hand. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. Her daughter. as text book. and wondering what the deuce he meant. she had a high appreciation of antiquity.Walker. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. uncomfortably. She appeared. make a point. in radiant loveliness. making Paul stop and look at her. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. 7. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. as it were. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease.
not seeing. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. and.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face.’ 278 . though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. 10. 9. was immensely struck with him. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. while Paul. wondered what they were talking about. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. could see he was remarkable. H. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. H. was only half satisfied with this. and acute too. with his humorous density. or at any rate not heeding. which was deliberate. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. The agent became a very familiar type to H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. 11. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. though E. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. and perceived that it must be something important. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler.
Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. had the power to chain his sympathy. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. not glancing at him for a moment. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. as he looked back. H. 15. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. which was very copious. 13. that the haunting wonder which now. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. appeared to fill his whole childhood. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . But she gave him no chance. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 14.
implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. ironically reserved. proudly. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. 18. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. At the theatre. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. It was very possible she was capricious. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. 17.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. 16. yet 280 . It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. where the Pearl of Paraguay. The whole establishment. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. that she must be on the contrary. as a general thing. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. disheveled and distracted. dragging herself on her knees. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. H. and to H. and there were others.
making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. on which the damp breath of the streets. with the poor. No one ever listens to her. 281 . *Old. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. Their mistakes and illusions. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 20. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. young men were invited. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. It came over H. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. would always be more or less irritating. had blown a certain chill. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 3. 19. 2. H./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. and lurking within this nebulous design. didn’t mind. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem.
c) When I saw her sitting there. her shining blue feet twinkling. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. her arms held out. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 10. slipped on some steps. 8.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Rachel. “Oh. 11. 282 . I saw her as a vision. 6. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. 9. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Either John or he * have got to give in. walking quickly. I blundered by. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I walked fast. striding like a Spartan maid. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 7. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 12./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 5. I was definitely going to be sick. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons.
Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9.
2. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. if they were poor. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. could cook my meals. where my servant. 4. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. which was really alarming. 5. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. The old women spoke no English. 3. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. but that we saw and pitied.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. And then I ventured to add that. who is a wonderfully handy fellow.
yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e.g. distress. on Saturday. this would really hurt. Constituents: Margaret. had not been able to estimate. 285 . apart from his distress for parents. before they left town. etc. etc. was anxious. Munt. would really hurt. etc. he. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious = was + anxious. was informed. on a house. he had not yet been able to estimate. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. to pay their annual visit. apart form his distress for parents. Constituents: how much. at noon. this. Constituents: He.apart from his distress = apart from. his. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.g. How much. to settle.
Second clause is an imperative./ She finally admitted. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). – non-assertive./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. second clause is non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. The sentence is however 286 . and is non-assertive. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. – non-assertive. negative/ Come with me. / If you like her. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. negative/ If you like jazz.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – assertive/ Don’t do that. listen to this. which context is non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first clause is an ifclause. interrogative.. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – comparison. – first clause is non-assertive.. it is assertive. interrogative. negative. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. which is not assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. don’t bother her.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .
but to someone else./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ He was smart enough. / I don’t like her very much. – someone hates animals. / She does not hate animals. not even this thing. / He wasn’t unusually bright. not even when it’s quiet around. but it wasn’t them./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. – someone did that. – they told the truth to somebody else. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ When he learned the news. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. only irresolute. but it isn’t Susan. / She does like John. –double negation cancellation./ They weren’t really confused./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ He was exceptionally cunning. everybody used to travel by coach. but not more than she does others.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / You have never met 287 ./ Not long ago. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. but nothing out of the ordinary. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. – I like somebody else./ Hardly interested in the conference. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / They didn’t leave./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. the two brothers dared to protest. he was hardly pleased.
not even when you were very young.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – negative insertion. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. / This is hardly the 288 . not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.. did they? / No problems were caused after all. they go skiing in the mountains.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / Should they not have told her the truth.. not even in my dreams. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. were they? / This boy is no good. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. I could hardly wait to hear the news. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released...negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody...negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.Nadina VIŞAN her.
– Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / I seldom look at her like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Not many people came to see her./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I never see her. Activity 8 I shall never. – I don’t often look at her like that. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. when we started our holiday. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.Never before did anything like that happen in our street.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Almost nobody liked him. / Hardly anybody liked him. but she also lent him a car. – I almost never look at those paintings.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow.. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life.Never shall I trust a man again.. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You’ve eaten hardly anything./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / Few people came to see her. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. never trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.
– He didn’t reckon he would win her over. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares./ Well. – On no account must you touch this machinery. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now.I don’t like his proposal at all. you can’t do anything about it any more. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent).. / They believe she does not like them. / Come on. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I somewhat like his proposal. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – 290 . / He reckoned he would not win her over. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / They say he once had someone very close. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – Come on. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Don’t worry. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. you can still do something about it./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – They don’t believe she likes them.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – Only on this man could she rely. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. –At no time did we leave the office. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ I expect he won’t come here again. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / She could rely on nobody but him. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.
Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. / You must be telling lies./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – You can’t be telling lies. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / You needn’t send her anything. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must pay that fine. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. too. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences./ Bob is still living at that address. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.. –Alice still lives here. either. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Well. – I feel much better for having had a holiday./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – You should send her something. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. 291 ./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / She hardly ever comes here. – She almost always comes here./ I nearly always have to clean it myself.
He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ Nobody told us a thing./ He was a tough man. to any of us./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. It’s no wonder./ Zis si facut. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ N-are nici cap nici coada. not yet. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. / Please. e un magar. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Am avut un car de necazuri. has never studied anywhere. He isn’t that smart./ Nimic de facut./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Have they rung the bell? No. ever since I got this ulcer./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Norocul la noroc trage./ 292 . / Don’t go on believing him. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. I haven’t done anything. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ E un baiat de zahar.D.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. He didn’t move a muscle. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ You took his leaving you very hard. I haven’t seen her in years. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. give me a hand./ You look so tired today. / Jim is so brave./ They say this Ph./ Nu spune nu niciodata. Oh./ He’s a happy man. / He can’t have done a thing like that.
• Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. parasi camera. feebly. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. that I was a decent man. I had never had the opportunity to prove. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol./ Nu-i nici un deranj. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. slowly./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. with the same needs they had. nothing.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. thrown out. 293 .’/ Deloc descurajat. for I thought this threatening. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. We had nothing in common.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . without too much determination. no story. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate ./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. I hadn’t really expected miracles. one way or another.’ ‘Nici o problema. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. no memory./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted.
but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. your story. It’s not made up of theories and the like. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be.. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. let alone irritable. he immediately answered me patronizingly. good. that’s what the world is about. I’d be so happy if it were so. bad. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. or if you understood what I meant. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. You really made me mad. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. clear or confusing. to say the least. by coming here to the monastery. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. he was sitting beside me. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. Unfortunately. Radu had calmed down. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. things you do any moment. We have to judge it as it is. Not for a moment had I thought that.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. the only 294 . a leftover fom other times…” “Well. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. I admit. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. it’s not words. not as we would like it to be or some other way. • It was my turn to say something. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. but facts. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. I was sleepy and tired. Your judgement is false. on the front seat.
or call the respect of others. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. although it was a difficult thing to do. no matter how huge they are. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. and if you like. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. or you are lying hidden. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. me. keep your conscience clean: you have one. behind these big. I won’t interfere. just to please myself. you do as you think fit. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. it’s yours. Look. Anyway. keep it squeaky clean. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. • So. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. fear might be hiding. precious words. soon we’ll be in town. did you ever step up front. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. But what about you and Melania. you can go to Ursu’s. we are leaving. 295 . it solves troubles.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. me. too? A gun is power. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. either. and an inability to act. it’s your problem. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. But I was just wondering. to fight. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. as Baciu would have us be. clears your way. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him.
the sentence is incorrect 3.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. but they gradually got used to it. as soon as he delivered it. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. because before is a positive polarity item 2.incorrect. . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. . She admires neither Susan nor Jane.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . -correct 3. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.. But it was not because I had no answer to give. The villagers were not very religious.Negative attraction b) 1.correct 3. has not arrived yet – double negation.. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. firmly determined not to answer immediately. – incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.Negative incorporation 296 . or some other woman. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. will he?. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. correlatives are mixed 2. has yet arrived -correct 2. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .
Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Her stillness. much less ((NPI) for her. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). (ibid. Avea sufletul prea obosit. (ibid. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. either (NPI). His spirit was too tired. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. too troubled. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. yet. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el.) Însă era cam târziu. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. nu era 297 . Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Nu putea să se mişte. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. not happy at all (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. b) But it was rather (API) late. prea răscolit. she couldn’t marry him. Ştia că are dreptate.
I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. he made his way to the screen. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. if anything (NPI). Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (Salman Rushdie. she looked younger than ever (NPI). (ibid. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. The Satanic Verses. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. inima îi batea năvalnic. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). se îndreptă spre paravan. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. his heart was beating fast. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. şi destul de hotărât. e) At length. and not a little unsteadily.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. 298 .Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit.
The point was. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Home receded from the prodigal son. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. care if the school were willing to treat him. (ibid. i) What did C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. h) C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Ce-i pasă lui C. the gift was useless. 299 . însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. and probably an administrative headache as well. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru.) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. but his father would have none of it (NPI).
QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. 300 . . correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
Stavre Paici. Fenia. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. you are in enough trouble as it is. now she was chatty. She has an eye for gentle men. yes. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. do you really think that this vixen. keep Condrat away from her. she didn’t wear a ring. the bitch. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Luca Horobet. 2. “Now. she likes to entrance them. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. they were. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. and then what do you 308 .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. to make them lust after her. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. Vica. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. Fenia. Chizlinski. all godfearing husbands and fathers.
dragging his feet listlessly. with a railway station and a mosque. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. ankle-long flowered calico. G. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . The mullah. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. what’s her name. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. a seventy-eight year old lad. have a girlfriend. 4. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. It even takes him a while to go to the window. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. 3. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. her hair pinned with blue combs. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. He got him out of his mosque. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. the minister of Tartars and Turks.
But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.
COORDINATION Activity 2 1..sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John is ready and Mary is ready. – sentence coordination 2.phrasal coordination (in this case. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Her pet kitten is black and white. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. and I passed. – similar situation 10. – sentence coordination 7. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John and Mary are ready. Our flag is red. our respective examinations. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. yellow and blue. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.) 9. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE ..
– ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 8. 5. Activity 5 This book and the other. that method and those. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words).Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. her idea and John’s. her son and others. 3. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. but John does not play football. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. We can and will demand payment. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 9. your proposal and his. 10. 2. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. much satisfaction or little 312 . your work and mine. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself.) Joan plays many games. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. many guest or few. 6. but not John. Activity 4 1. and even tennis. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football.
) 6. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Ups and downs 6. Life and soul 5. Activity 8 1. He read. Few and far between 14. 5. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. 3. Over and above 13.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Law and order 8. To and fro 15. Bread and butter 16. Safe and sound 313 . I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Pros and cons 4. Touch and go 10. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 8. Spick and span 9. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. High and low 2. The facts and figures 3. He snapped at him and slapped him. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Thick and thin 11. 7. Swings and roundabouts 7. I have always fought and will fight for progress. etc. 4. but not simple. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Wear and tear 12. magazines are only for children.
5. 7. exclusive 17. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Symmetric 13. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. – symmetric 2. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Either the child or the parents are to blame. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. b. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 10. inclusive 16. Cathy and David have arrived. 2. cause-effect Activity 10 1. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 8. 5. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8..symmetric 11. 6. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 1. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Asymmetric 19. 10. My son and heir is safe. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – similar situation 9. – symmetric. My son and daughter are twins. 3. 314 . – symmetric. 4. 9. 8. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Not John but his two sons are to blame.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 9. 6. Asymmetric 20. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – symmetric 10. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 4. Symmetric 21. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – symmetric. 3. exclusive 15. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 2. 7. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire.
it was too small. 4. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 11. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 10. clothes and all. Her husband is long dead and buried.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. ‘Madam. I’ll still finish this paper. We’ll stick together. 2. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. for better or worse. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 6. 14. 2. He went to bed. (2) 1. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 12. They came to me. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 15. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 7. By hook or by crook. 9. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. No drinking and driving. Not only should you rest 315 . and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Should he pour water in the basin. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. There are doctors and doctors. 3. 8. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. He’s neither fish. thanks for asking. Jim thought it over for a while. Brother or no brother. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 5. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. nor fowl.
but he’d come out a cripple. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. an important man. Whatever she tried her hand at. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. so he’d gone down and died in no time. their common ground. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life.’ (3) 1.Nadina VIŞAN assured. just like when he was thirty. she started doing a great job. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. at equal intervals. it would work out fine. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Mrs. stop dead in his tracks. and then. without mentioning financial matters. what’s its name. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Her first husband had been a professor. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. And. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. You know. What do you know? The moment Mrs. he starts lecturing her about life and things. but she blinks in approval. So she’ll listen to him. This. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. she knows for sure. so he could leap in pursuit. he’d leap high. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. tense like a bow. both dead and buried. 316 . 2. They hadn’t kept him there too long. as she always does. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. and she listens to him. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. tense with concentration. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem.
– obligatory elements: she. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2. cannot tell. functioning as a modifier 3. – she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . – Susan. is aware.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. – she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. looked. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – she. told. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . she looked at me sadly. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. whomever wanted to listen.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . came. you. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater .subordinate.subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – obligatory elements: I.
since the main verb is think of something) 5. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . at our age.subordinate.complement b) 1. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. that we should.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. remove our home yet again . that you are choosing exile .subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.
adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. a barn. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. a house. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . outbuildings. direct object.
direct object/ to write that tale – complement. sickle in hand. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. staring at each other. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. (…) He dashed back. But other people. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. that kept her constantly tense and grim.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . subject/ to do such again – complement.A few days before the war. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. Activity 5 1. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. without straightening her back. When Anton put the sickle down. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. (…) ‘Well. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial.wh complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement.
Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. Ana could not stand a trip now. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. First. Only he had Ana to think of. 3. 321 . Not even at this point. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. rather than a real threat. for even swallowing your food is a big deal.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. but also his sharp nose. he will turn back and no longer be daring. which he doesn’t rely on completely. you need courage even for this small thing. as if they were at his beck and call. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. while they spoke from miles away. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. or other more hidden means. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. but he doesn’t spurn either. or if he does. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. while on other occasions he would show caution. For no bold man really falters. that was for sure. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Why! He was not of two minds. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. 2. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely.
who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. without really knowing why. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. and when things didn’t go as planned. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. come on. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. although he could have said so earlier. he had postponed writing back. 322 . for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. In fact. We were going to drive to a vineyard. 4. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. So. under the silliest of pretexts. and on Monday followed another feast). Twice did we get in the car. by the cars of some of us. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. to see some mutual friends. But it was not ok. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. it was the women. and twice we were requested to get out.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. they would ruin the arrangement. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. in Odobesti. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. And here’s how this first day looked. are we getting off again? What is wrong.
This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 5. most of whom were from England. where I spent my youth . which was a pity. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. who was just passing by. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.She came to London where I went too. which was silly of him. Activity 3 1. 2. 7. 7. You couldn’t join the party. when we first met . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. John told his friend a story about the king.restrictive 6. Activity 2 1.restrictive 7.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. He told her the secret. I bought Jim a book that he liked. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 10. The students. any of whom would answer to questions. 5. 8. on which this occurred . A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 6. 4. like their teacher. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 3. 11. 9. all of whom would answer to his questions. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. The students like their teacher. 8. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 10.free 8. where I least expected 323 . 3. 4. 6. why they all left . This is my husband whom I love very much. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.restrictive 2. These are people who we cannot tell much about.restrictive 4.
adjunct 5. Which – subject 4. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Where . where we talk money – predicative. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.Nadina VIŞAN . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when . which . about why man was born to die – prepositional object. Of all the persons there. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. What – direct object 2. who think so highly of yourselves. Why . who cannot say a word. however sad . All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. the prince chose Cinderella.subject 8. Where .adjunct 6. You. come up front. When .restrictive 10. Activity 5 1. where – predicative 7. 3. 4.free 9.When Ada remarked – adjunct. 2. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.adjunct 3. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. What I’m saying – subject. 7. Who . what their parents made them.adjunct 10.subject 9. Where he was from – adjunct.adjunct 11. 6. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. What Inman remembered – subject. 5. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.free Activity 4 1. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. I. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.
the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. how . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[. what . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . that is ungrammatical because it 325 . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.attribute 12. whatever – predicative 13.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. what little she knew – direct object. which requires an accusative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.
had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. due to its invariable character. having changed quite a number of jobs. a sergeant. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. a rather tiny looking man. but whose second cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. in his turn. got married and had a daughter. who. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose great-grandfather.
– yes. .obligatory 4. no easy answers to which could be offered. Irene. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. The problem of safe transportation. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. has been troubling them forever. – obligatory pied piping 2. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. – no 9. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.no 5.yes 7.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no pied piping 327 . She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. no matter which – [pied piped phrase.His father’s friends. . he rarely saw now. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. In the interest of public decency. . was now complete. . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.yes Activity 9 1. – yes 2. – no 4. .yes 10. This story. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. .Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. His friends. – yes 6.obligatory 3. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. – no pied piping 5. were now all gone.yes 3. he requested that the public be excluded. with deletion of the noun friends].
I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . 328 . In other people’s opinion. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. For all the four children. 7. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. Everything was ending.and he couldn’t thank me enough. 4. Nelu. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. for instance. or as of a vast arena. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 8. I am to be envied. 6. Only an ugly endless dream remained. the third born son. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. For twenty years. yours. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. where two teams battled every day… 5. 3. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. irrespective of age and nature. I did so. 2.
the tram was rattling along. where from Marta was coming too. 17. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 11. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. barely glittering in the distance. What you’re saying sounds very nice. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 15. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 14. she said. on Icoanei street. You are newly arrived here. He was suffering from dizziness. although she was standing quite close to him. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. staring aimlessly. All that you have read is rubbish. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 329 . 16. 12. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. from MR street. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 10. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. since I don’t really know which my true life is.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. leaving streets and houses behind. 13.R. Behind them.
330 . 23. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 20. in her pursuits. or the clash of stars above. While some trees are still green. But. From the vantage point I was in. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. day by day. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. 22. which I did not posses. so optimistic and composed? 19. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. had a huge house in Bucharest. after the car was fixed. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. If he had hit me. So. who prompted everyone on the street. But for me. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. She was a woman of means. While we were poor. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 21. likes and dislikes. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. or the many Egyptian dynasties. had a personal style in clothes. I don’t know what might have happened. 24. who only lived once in this world. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now.Nadina VIŞAN 18. I could see my woman falling away from me.
It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 6. 2. subject 7. prepositional object 11. – questionable. subject 4. – extraposed. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. subject 9. 331 .It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. direct object 3. object 5. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed. – unextraposed. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. direct object 10. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – impossible 7. object 6. – the same as 3. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. – extraposed. 8. for pragmatic reasons 5. 3.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. subject 8. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. subject 2.
correct 4.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. same as 12. I guess it that he will come back. tense influences the 332 . although a bit intricate 2. but pragmatically impossible 4. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – correct 2. – impossible 11. a bit too intricate 5. – grammatical. but pragmatically impossible 3. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. same as 12. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Activity 3: 1. 9. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. It is nice to meet you. – impossible. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. You know it only too well that he will not marry you.grammatical. 14. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill.. – grammatical. I don’t expect it that he will come back. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. . I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – grammatical. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13.grammatical. 18. 17.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 10. – same as 12. – impossible. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.incorrect. – incorrect. . It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 15. – the same as 12. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. They never expected it that he would come back. idiomatic formula 16. same as 12. . – impossible. – impossible. It is no use trying to convince her.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.
(Not always. thus. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. 2.’ 4. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. in the ditch. though.’ Lionel says. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. 3. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. – correct 6. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.incorrect. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 5. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. 333 . behind gates. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . in the pits on the road. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. under bridges.
He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 8. because it is less ambiguous. 2. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 4. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. It is less ambiguous than the first. who had just returned from Africa. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 7. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. without trying to protest too much. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. By saying this. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. 3. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. – the second sentence is questionable. who had just returned from Africa.Nadina VIŞAN 6. prime-minister. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. – the first sentence is the better of the two. since the 334 . which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. Activity 7 1.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.
/ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 8. 7. so there is no need for extraposition. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 335 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. As we have already shown in a previous exercise./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. extraposition is obligatory here. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. – both sentences are grammatical. 6. The second and third sentences are grammatical. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. 5. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete.
required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. coordinated. . (Iris Murdoch.) adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 5. – complement that clause. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – subject.prepositional object.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. they were chained to each other forever. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – prepositional object. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – complement 5.) complement that clauses. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. ibid. – complement 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. . for better or worse. . . required by deverbal noun 336 .relative Activity 9 1.adverbial of sequence/result. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.complement 4. – adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 3. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – direct object.
h) John thought that Harry had run. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. that deletion is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory. that they were not too late to leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. you want me to believe.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.
b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – grammatical sentences. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b. – both sentences are grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. c. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. a. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie.
Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. present perfect instead of past perfect. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. hawk. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. While the first is possible because of the generalization.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. ciocârlii şi şoimi. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. – generalization on habits of birds. present instead of simple past. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. prepeliţe. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. cenuşii şi albe. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. quail. lark. geese both grey and white. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect.
lack of pridefulness. love of practical jokes. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. The generic present is used in this case. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Crows will relish what presents itself. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. lipsa de vanitate. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. She admired their keenness of wit. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). slyness in a fight. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă.
Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. But as the battle raged around them. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. El căzuse pe spate. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. tânărul ofiţer. He had fought hard through the war. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. he claimed. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. in the very act of expiring. the young officer. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He died erect. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Murise în picioare. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. […] During the latter stages of the tale. se ridicase în picioare. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . tragică şi eroică.
to finish my drawing. Now here he stood jailed. war hero though he was. deşi era erou de război. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Acum stătea aici. When he saw me. Activity 13 1. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. But when he reached me. Luptase din răsputeri în război. he closed the album. – similar situation to the one under (c). A short while later. they gathered around my desk. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. And they might just hang him. When the boys saw that mother had left. susţinea el. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. 342 . One of them. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. They all had their hands in their pockets. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. around seventeen or eighteen years old. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. 2. I realized I could not tell him the big news. the oldest. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. în închisoare. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. mother went home and I was left alone. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. How can I explain? I just felt shy. I knew that no matter what words I would pick.
So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. or fear his rage. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot.’ Mr. for her vineyard. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. brightly and closely. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. as if he had been drunk.’ 5. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. or if she would do so again. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. All his senses were now keen. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. 6. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. 4. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.
7. The last time when we met here you scared me. 10. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 8. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 9. 11. And if things were so. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. thinking of him. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. claiming you had no ambition for the future.Nadina VIŞAN to him.
and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. 14. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . towards Jurubita. 12. namely the impatience of this young man. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. which secretly drove him. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. more urgently than ever. without putting anything in a note. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. where he would run to confess everything. We either sell them or we don’t. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 13.
– perfect infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical 3. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home.simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 5.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 10. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. . / He had Mary clean her room. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. 346 . grammatical 2.. / they saw her leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 6. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. . – infinitive continuous.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. 9. grammatical. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 7. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.
Test: *I allowed them.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / It is not too late for him to learn.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: They tempted him. \ She wanted [him to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. \ I would love [ them to come. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: They convinced her. – Test: She promised him. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. Test: *She wanted him. \ They would have hated [her to come back. – Test: They asked her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / I want to never see you again.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. you need to try harder. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. \ I allowed [them to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. Test: * I would like people. Test: *I would love them. / He is believed to have known her 347 . – Test: He persuaded her. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.
to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / I want to tell you what I think of you. I don’t need you or your services.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.Nadina VIŞAN for years. Activity 6 Oh. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is hard to stand. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . . / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb 348 . . / He is young enough to start again. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / He is easy to live with. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. not to miss the train. / He is easy to talk to. / Oh. / To make a long story short.
who wasn’t used to men with moods. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. 349 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. he didn’t envy those above it. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Accusative + Infinitive. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. so that we might get to the future and have done. Both seemed to him a little unreal. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Predicative 4 .to. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 1] A little crossly. Subject. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Harold. they had depressed and fuddled him. Subject. 1 – PRO. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. 1 – PRO-to. the herd instinct was very strong in him. He suspected hostility at once. If he himself was out of spirits. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.
PRO controlled by ‘him’. man and woman. 1 – PRO-to. or better said. object 2 – PRO –to. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. more meaningful. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. And you might also be hit and humiliated. 350 . b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. One day. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘she’. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. excitedly. But when we need to comfort others. direct object 3 – PRO –to. c) Unlike plane trips. PRO controlled by ‘she’. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. e) When two persons.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. cautiously. f) The passing time is important. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. more believable than evidence itself. slowly. true. PRO controlled by ‘me’. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. we seem to forget about our own pain.
that you are young. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. in the street. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. If it was summer. my wish being only to please and serve. not to want to wipe it off. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. to live only with your coughing. all down our neck. which he had already forgotten. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. And to actually start to believe you are so. or. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. while swearing to change my way of life. k) With this considerable dowry. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. h) I want us to go. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. as he had appeared to him in the rain. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. not even those parts where he had been half-right. And I would care for this man so deeply. for instance. or their talk that night. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. Moroi says heavily. Mrs. S. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. 351 . g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. He had not been able to leave Dr. That is it. Stroescu. tickled by the trickles of sweat. even when this love is hurried. I am indeed praising my own merits.
rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. or to speak so fast. 352 . she was suddenly so shocked. If you will have what I can give you. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. met by squalor and terrible smells. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. ready to submit to any demand. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for that’s the door people get off by. Well.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. haphazardly. poor Muti. no matter what. every Bucharester knows it. here I am with all of my own.
if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. 353 ./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. – Attributive past participle. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face../ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. badly beaten and bloodied./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ She sent him shopping. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. with its lips drawn back. / They found it thrown in a corner./ Don’t keep him waiting.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.
10. Attributive present participle. 8. 3. having been uprooted by the gale. 4. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I was astonished at what I saw.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 6. Turning on the light. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. The tree had fallen across the road. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. having heard it all before. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 9. he sat down to his own dinner. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 7. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Sleeping in the next room. Having fed the dog. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Finding the treasure. they began quarreling about how to divide it. – As she was running into the room. – Attributive present participle./ Running into the room. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Running into the room. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 2. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 5. Activity 4 1. I slammed the door of my room. she caught her foot in a rug and fell.
5. 11. I let it out of the room. many-coloured. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. / Climbing down the tree. – As he left the cinema. 4. three-coloured. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 355 . Climbing down the tree. an idea suddenly occurred to me. red-handed. – When I read in bed. lion-hearted. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. fishy-eyed. I often get very cold hands. one of the eggs broke. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship./ Reading in bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. stony-hearted. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 2. broad-shouldered. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. – As he was tied to the post. his horse fell at the last jump. cloth-covered. – As he was riding in the first race.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. empty-headed. – As he was getting out of bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. my hands often get very cold. 9. a scorpion bit him. a scorpion bit him. Dropped by parachute. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. I let the dog out of the room. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. / Getting out of bed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Leaving the cinema. 6. Barking furiously. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 3. my hands often get very cold. – As I was passing under a ladder. his horse fell at the last jump. wooden-headed. bald-headed. Riding in the first race. Getting out of bed. 10. he was bit by a scorpion. open-minded. – As the dog was barking furiously. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Tied to the post. he broke one of the eggs. one of the eggs broke. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Reading in bed. 8. Passing under a ladder. narrow-minded. – As he was climbing down the tree. the sea was tossing it up and down. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. 12. a pot of paint fell on my head. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 7. sharp-eyed/minded.
shrunken stream. ill-gotten wealth. open-hearted./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. shaven head. The film. (grow) 4. Activity 8 1. (produce) 3. / Many old people. graven image. are in grave danger of extinction. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (hunt). / Swiss watches. Whales. I stared at the canvas for ages.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. 7. are sold throughout the world. (find) 6. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (take) 2. mown grass. (admire) 5. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. injuring my arm. eagle-eyed. shorn lamb. admired for their elegance and precision. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. lighted candle. was today taken back to prison. is expected to be a great hit. bounden duty. (injure). rotten plank. were taken to hospital. drunken man. injured when their car crashed on the M1.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. The escaped prisoner.Spielberg. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. produced by S. 356 . / Three people. straight-shouldered. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail.I fell on the ice. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. sunken eyes. hidden meaning. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. dark-skinned. stricken deer. hunting for a bargain. Activity 7 1. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. found hiding in a barn. roast meat. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets.
It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. he were struggling for breath. flat and soft. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. seeking some promised land. 2. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. and the puffed pastry beds. now taken down. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. boil them. the carved chicken. the twice rinsed vegetables. He felt close to his father. 4. hovering uncertain and soft. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. sprinkled with sticky flour. and moreover. its scales scraped off by the knife. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. yet left them room to sway free. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. After a while. A parasol. he started peering anxiously around as if. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. suddenly suffocated. 3. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. bake them. And his soul. 357 . the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. So. thrown in the pots. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. the fish. then put up. streaked with yellow veins of fat. in charge of his house and lands.
/ I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. – Accusative + participle 3. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. – gerund (subject) 4. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury.gerund 5. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. Activity 10 1. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. – participle (attribute) 2. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. he left the store without buying a thing. / I am sorry for being so late./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / After annoying the shop-assistant. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . . / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / I told him not to bother putting things back./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash.
gerund (has a direct object) 359 . attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. 8. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. . gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – gerund (half or full. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts.possessive ING (direct object) 9. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. preceded by preposition). The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence.participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. He was spotted talking to her. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.
verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. take down her answer. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.’ ‘Tell me.. my Lord. – verbal noun (has adjective).’ 360 .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. however appearances were against us. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. adjective. – verbal noun (has determiner. I did ask Mr. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – gerund (full. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. Lady Corven. but they went by too quickly. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Croom to try to follow one. adjective. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund or verbal noun. hold up his pen and speak.
‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ said Clare. I spend all my time hunting a job.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. licked the envelope with passion. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ said Clare. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. I just used the word and they fell. it’s overrated.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. suddenly. he addressed the note. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. ‘I do hate asking for things. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. Then. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I must go back now. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. and went out to post it himself.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.’ 361 . It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. my Lord.
(participle. The two sides were moving apart. attribute. attribute. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. slowly rising (participle. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. adverbial of time. direct object) from below. The sight of the two children. attribute. slightly 362 . direct object) its jagged way along the concrete.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute. attribute). shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. someone looking for survivors (participle. direct object). … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. First the crack snaking (half gerund. after verb of perception. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. functions as direct object) and then the ground. direct object) towards him.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. hoping (participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. …while their edges were crashing inwards). direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. village which is burning). gerund. attribute) in a swirling motion. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute). direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. elliptical here. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. down. It was like a mist. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. down into God knows where. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. At first. the very earth opening up (half gerund. The collapsing shops (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. then the noise and the cracking stone. He looked up towards the daylight. the enormous split in the earth.
I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. you. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. i. has ‘of’ phrase). That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. moving up (participle. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. adverbial of reason).Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. my dear. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. etc. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. prepositional object. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. direct object).’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .).e. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. covering (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. one. early. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. according to the books he read.
and not only in my imagination or theirs. the two Mamonas. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. and everything got suddenly animated. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. attribute) stopped dead. slanted on to her cheek. reluctant or not. Standing up. Young Mamona left the room without a word. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and then went riding (participle. we were all gathered in that room. which beckoned to 364 . She finished what jobs there were. Vaucher and I. preceded by preposition. a door was opened and as a servant entered. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. mother. brightening (participle. for Dornford was busy on an important case. attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. So. preceded by preposition. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. and sunlight. examining (participle. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) to winter brilliance. And. adverbial of manner).Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. adverbial of reason). as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund.
to Vaucher.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. kissed her forehead. 3. he looked like someone who did. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. So when Old Mamona came in. Not so unimaginable though. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. her back towards us. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. about concentrating all our resources. and ended his life in the year 1821. bending a little. 2. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. sitting in his puddle. without taking his sack off his shoulders. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. closing my eyes. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. He cast us a swift glance. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. 4. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . too. Entering our house on a Thursday. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. Vaucher might have known that too. as mother had ordered him. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. he went to mother and. to me. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. And then. And. killed by Young Mamona. each carrying a wooden box. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. about sparing no effort. who knows. let alone greet us or say something. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. I knew who it would be. in the year 1812. and to Young Mamona. he found us sitting each in his place. and smelling so hard of rain. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. for anyway. his disloyal apprentice. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them.
barrack. long board table. stove. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. wood pile. of taking notes and rewriting them. each pausing before jumping down. And all around them was the great field 366 . without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. already seen and heard. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. futile. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. But. They got off the truck slowly. as an afterthought. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. 5. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. everything seemed familiar. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. And suddenly.
The next thing was to go to the well.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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