NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

Constituent Phrase 1.2. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Auxiliary verbs 1. Complementary distribution .1. Insertion 1.5.4.3.

) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. They are just strings. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Consequently. Syntactic. Semantic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . very much. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. that is sequences fragmented at random. sequences of the kind her mother very.2. loves.1. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. her mother.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. For instance. 1.

Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.4.3.e. etc. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. be). should. we are dealing with a directive (i. 1. must.) 10 . An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. an order given to an interlocutor).) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. (Mi-a spus secretul. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. 1. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).

) 1.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. 1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. an ‘empty’ there subject. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. live. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. etc. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.5. Consider. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.6. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. for instance.

using your own examples: insertion. semantic. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. whereas (7) is not. distribution. 12 . Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. this would really hurt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Munt. as the star indicates. How much. complementary distribution.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. syntactic. Pratice Define and illustrate. he had not yet been able to estimate. pragmatic.

13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.6. Negative vs. Tests for negativity 2. Key terms 2.4.1.7.3. Instances of negation 2.2. Full – local negation 2.8. Polarity Items 2. Conclusion.5. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. affirmative sentences. Key terms .2.

in the sense that it states something. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. in that they do not state anything.Positive vs. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .2. This example can be compared to: (2)a.) is said to be an assertion. Consequently. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Negative . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. For instance.Declarative vs. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .) b. it asserts something. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.

/ She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.g. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.other (if –clauses. Did they tell her the secret? ) . comparison./ If you like her.positive sentence . / She finally admitted.g.positive and declarative secret./ We didn’t come here just to talk./ Don’t do that. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.) . Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .assertion .) .negative (e. don’t bother her.Nadina VIŞAN .interrogative (e. 16 .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.g./ She can’t wait to read that book. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / Come with me.non-assertion . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. They told her the ( e. listen to this.

John is unhappy. John is not happy. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) 17 . In the case of the sentences under (4).) b. (Nu demult. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the negative word not is not present there. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. For example. Susan dislikes her friends. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. (John e nefericit. word negation. Susan doesn’t like her friends. (John nu e fericit) (4) a.3.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. I met a girl named Susan.

In other words. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. since the negative word not is present inside them. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) b. She was not an unattractive woman. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. I was not a little worried. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. In other words.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. where the word 18 . He was not without intelligence. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. these sentences look negative. more precisely the phrase it is part of. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. just like in the case of word negation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) c. but their meaning tells us a different story.

/ Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / Când a aflat vestea. semantic negation. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Translate the following sentences into English. without intelligence. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs.

/ Era el destul de isteţ. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. 2. Negative vs. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.4. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu în mod special. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. ci doar indecişi. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept.

Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. etc. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Nu m-am dus acolo. (see subsection 1.1.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.). (M-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) (9) I didn’t go there. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. such as do insertion. For instance. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.

Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. 22 . doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. incorrect. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / I don’t like her very much. / She does not hate animals. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / We don’t come here often. / Susan did not get married to Jim. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends./ They didn’t leave.

Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. even the smart ones. *not even the smart ones. *and neither do they like her.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. . which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. which is ungrammatical.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. which does not happen in the case of (18).Unit two Sentence negation 2. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. 4. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 3. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. * and they don’t like her either. not even the smart ones. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. and they don’t like her either. Example (14) is syntactically negative. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). and neither do they like her.

/ This boy is no good. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / In no time he was able to solve the problem.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. 2. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / They caused us no problems. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / No problems were caused after all. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / Not always a witty interlocutor. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. they go skiing in the mountains. / I can hardly understand what they are saying.5. In conclusion. / A few of them stayed behind. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / You have never met her. / Few of them stayed behind.

a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-a venit John). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-am văzut pe nimeni). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). Susan could not go to the theatre. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (26) I saw nobody. (27) a . In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. I went nowhere.

) b.) b. I didn’t go anywhere. All that glitters is not gold. / I didn’t ever go to his place.Nadina VIŞAN b. I never went to his place. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. No day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. no incorporation takes place. b. (N-am văzut nici un student. 26 . I didn’t see anybody.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. Not all that glitters is gold. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t see any student. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) c.) (29) a.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.

Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. nici măcar din alea scurte.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / I saw nobody. and we don’t go to the theatre either.) We seldom watch T. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. seldom.) They barely read any novels. / Not one of them came to meet her. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. (Nu citesc romane. barely. / No one ever listens to her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. not even short ones. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.4. scarcely. / I didn’t see anybody.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. rarely. / Not a word fell from her lips. / None of them liked house music. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta./ They never went there.V. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. etc. . / He should not be released. / I showed him nothing.

Never have I met a more horrible person. .) 28 them. / Few people came to see her. / I seldom look at her like that.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / Hardly anybody liked him.) d. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I scarcely ever see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.) b. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) c.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. which triggers inversion): (35) a. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor.

(Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / I didn’t leave the office at any time./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. never trust a man again. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.) They don’t think that he likes them. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. in the sense that the 29 .

/ He reckoned he would not win her over.) 30 . She didn’t lift a finger to help me. / They believe she does not like them. etc. be likely. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. 2. want. etc. be probable. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. cannot appear in an affirmative context. For example. probability. etc. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. expect. / I expect he won’t come here again. intention. we can very well say something like: (38) a. look like. In sentence (37).6. intend. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. suppose. guess. although not negative in meaning. appear. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. seem. advise. the negative meaning is less strong. believe. should be desirable. be supposed to. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. sound/feel like. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. suggest. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.) b. imagine. / I suppose she doesn’t care. ought to.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. choose. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute.: think. barely.

for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. b.*She lifted a finger to help me.2. are clearly not grammatical. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. *She likes our chairman at all. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. and sentences such as: (39) a.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. That is 31 .

still (I don’t love you any more. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. already (I haven’t seen him yet. too.) At all vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I somewhat like his proposal. / I somehow like him. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I have already seen him. / I like you a lot. / She hardly ever comes here. some (I haven’t any money. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / They say he once had someone very close. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. etc. too (I don’t like it. / I eat caviar most of the times. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.) Until vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Bob is still living at that address. / You needn’t send her anything. you can still do something about it. / I can understand both of these 32 . / Well. either. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I like it . / Come on.) Yet vs. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.) Much vs.).) Hardly ever vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Don’t worry. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / He arrived before 5. / I still love you) Either vs.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. too. / I have some money.) Any more vs. / Well. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.

/ A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. last a minute. sleep a wink. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. move a muscle. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. mulţumesc. hear a peep. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. have/be worth a red cent. have a care/ friend in the world. lift/raise/ stir a finger. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / You must pay that fine. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. flinch. nici unuia dintre noi. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / You must be telling lies. see/ feel/ remember a thing./ I can understand all of these ten English words. lay a finger on someone. bat an eye(lid). / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. hurt a fly. touch a drop./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. turn a hair. find a trace. say / breathe/ understand a word. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Ajută-mă. give a damn/darn. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. know a single person. de când cu 33 . / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. crack a smile. / Peter knows some English and so does John.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. leave a stone unturned. Ion nu e prea deştept. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). Translate into English.

/ Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / No trouble at all. / No admittance. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / No hands wanted. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Not that I care. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / No entry. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. nu e vina mea. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No sooner said than done. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. but you really should do something about it. / I had no end of trouble. încercând să prindă criminalul. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Hotărât lucru. / He won’t make old bones. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. he’s a pig. / He is no end of a fellow. n-a sunat încă. B: Aşi. budge. / Nothing succeeds like success. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / No man is wise all the time. he left the room. / Never is a long word. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. Translate into Romanian. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă.

Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. c) He is anxious to say something. say it. N-am văzut pe nimeni.Unit two Sentence negation rather). Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). 2. Normally. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. / He is reluctant to ever say anything.7. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone./ I saw no one. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. b) I love asking some funny remarks. as well: 35 . / I hate making any commitments.

) The example above is a sample of Standard English. I don’t like this poem. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. nu îmi place poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.) 2. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. Conclusion. nu-mi place. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. (Nu. B: Not this poem. nu poezia asta. I don’t. The second negation is somehow independent. from a syntactic point of view. 36 . B: Nu.8. however. Key terms. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .e. interrogation).

3.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3.2. Optional Exercises .1. Minor Types of Questions 3.3.2.3 Alternative Questions 3.2.2 Wh.2 Echo Questions 3.2.1 Tag Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Direct vs. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Key Terms.Questions 3.4.

Unit three Questions 3. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.1. If we try to analyze the examples above. for a subsequent section.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . focusing on direct questions mainly. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.

sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary.g. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. (3) and (4). (2). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. 48 . Pratice Translate the following questions in English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. pe mama. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.

(A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. In the case of indirect questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. in this case. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. because. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Likewise. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the sequence of the tenses is violated. Since the question is not direct any more. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). 49 .

paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. identify the incorrect sentences. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / I don’t know who she is. ce culoare are pielea. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / He asked me who she is.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. sau mai bine zis. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. c) Ştii ce. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / I don’t know whom she fancies. spune la un moment dat femeia. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / He asked me who she was. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy.

2. as Quirk shows. being typical of spoken language. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Let us provide 51 .Unit three Questions 3. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.

(you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / keep a secret) ? 8.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . 3. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (which / you like best) ? 4. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.1. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (how long / wait for me?) 10.

are said to be positively – oriented. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . they did. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da). instead of Negative Polarity ones. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. it has.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da).

3.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. as in the example: 1. 6. A: You look down. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. …………………. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 2. ……. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. …………………………….. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: Your mother is shouting for you. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. 7.. I’ve still got plenty of time. A: She had her tenants evicted.. because you always copy everything I do! 5. (speak yet) B: ……. ……………? (hear her) B: …. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 4. . A: You’ve been learning German for years. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No..

why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. A: It’s past your bedtime.2. . how. . which When. A: There was a terrible car crash.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.. I didn’t get home until late last night.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . She’s got a reputation for being heartless.. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .Unit three Questions B: …………………. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….2 Wh – questions Wh. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 10. . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. where. ………………………………. 3. what . ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. You could have mentioned it earlier.. 8. 9.

Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever./ She dropped her glasses. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / Kay’s gone out shopping. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. Nearly two hundred years. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. of course. / My new car cost 10./ Sara owns two cars. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. (Poppy Z. / There are six students in my class.000dollars. / David’s car was stolen.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom./ I have French lessons twice a week. / That’s my pen. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. what ever. why ever. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / Shirley got married to Ben./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. I cannot do that. / She lives in the suburbs. trying to find places where I resided in life. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death.

de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 .2.3. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.

or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Let’s stay for another few days. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How long is she be spending in America? 15. didn’t use he? 4. There was a fax for you this morning. Let’s stay for another few days. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. He used to work in a bank. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. shall we stay? 14.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. wasn’t it there? 17. You can’t be serious. didn’t use he? 11. How far is it the cinema? 3. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 7. He used to work in a bank. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Who did left the gate open? 18.

oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Whose it is this book? 32. să-mi înfrâng frica. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Ani întregi. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Toate vechi. isn’t it this? 25. neliniştea infantilă. ca şi cei ce au fost. uneori disperat. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. will you not? 21. That was Jeremy’s brother. John goes jogging every morning. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. despre o lume dură. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. deci. doesn’t he go? 23. Who did told you about the problem? 31. wasn’t it he? 22. will you not? 27. That’s your car. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Pot reveni. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. How long time does it take to get there? 28. How long have you be lived in London? 26. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. deci. plin de germeni virulenţi.Unit three Questions 19. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. dacă prin absurd 59 . am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile.

iar proştii.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. inactivii. ghiceam doar unde se află. negru. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . puturos. lung. pe sub bolţile din care. străină priceperii lor. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. naiv. mă întreb. dar şi drumul. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. picură apa roşietică. pe care oricum am simţit-o. murdar. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. B. indiferent de risc. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Riscul? Ratarea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. de atunci. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. umed. “Spune! striga el. laşii. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. îi ştiu gustul. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Şi. neîntrerupt.

la urma urmei. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. care i-a determinat alegerea. 3. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. nu se poate. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi.Unit three Questions viaţă. domnule profesor. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. will you? (38) She went to Prague. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. exclus. orbitor. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo.3. da? (37) Let’s go there.3. Tag Questions Tag questions. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. golul alb. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.1. viaţa? Oare e drept. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. didn’t she? . absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui.

the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hasn’t she? (Aha. au fost cheltuiţi. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.) A: Oh. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. In this way. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. aren’t they? 62 . it’s all spent. or “comment tags”. the tag is negative too).e. sarcasm. if the host sentence is negative. (Din păcate. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. is it? (Deci. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. or falling. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. au fost cheltuiţi. the tag is affirmative too. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. The suggestion is that in this case.

/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Surely you have enough money. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I may see you tomorrow. / I may not see you tomorrow. / The boy never watched his sister. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / A few people like her. / He simply hates empty words. / You will pick me up.…/ Let me know. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I don’t think you like my music. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I think you like my music. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / I think you don’t like my music. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / They said he liked music. 63 . / That’s your car over there. / Tell me. / Everyone felt happy about it. nu?) • with a falling intonation. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / She left an hour ago. / There is enough food for everyone. / He has to marry Susan. after all. / You ought not to smoke. / He hates his wife. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / Each of us is staying. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That was your father. / You have been invited. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Few people like her. / Don’t leave without me. / I am older than you. / I must go now. / She used to talk a lot. / I am dressed smartly enough. / The boy often watched his sister. / She has a brother. / You will pick me up at 7.

Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. 5. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. / He never used to study so hard…. So you enjoyed my talk.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. or what? 3. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences.. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on./ I’m right about this…. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one.

recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. Recapitulatory echo questions .3. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.1. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.3. / Grants… 3.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.2.) B: Chinese? 65 . (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.questions which repeat part or all of the message.1.

2.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. consternation.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. rather than the repetition. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . (Închide lumina aia. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.2. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. disbelief. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. If the wh.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.3. of something just said.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.phrase is fronted.

intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. dear.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean./ He is interested in blue movies. / He is interested in music. I’ve lost the letter./ We are looking for a purse.e. rather than did you say. intonation is rising.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a solution. whereas with explicatory echo questions. (Vai. am pierdut scrisoarea. / We are looking for a pixie. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. with recapitulatory echo questions. which letter do you 67 .Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (Uită-te la asta. (i.

Nadina VIŞAN 3. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.4. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .

ca să zic aşa. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. să se încolăcească mai bine. şerpoaica. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. lui Chizlinski. pe Condrat de Vica. şi care s-a aciuat. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. oameni aşezaţi. că tot trebuie să plece pe front.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. da. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. şi apoi Vica ce zice. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. aşa. în satul nostru. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. lui Stavre Păici. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. Are gust de oameni blânzi. stricata. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. nu purta verighetă.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. lui Luca Horobeţ.– Crezi tu. după pofte. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. cu o casă de copii. acuma sporovăiala. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . Fenio. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. în general. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. cumnată Fenia. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit.

pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Hogea. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. până la călcâie. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. L-a scos din geamie. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. sus. De asta erai. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. dar cum se face că a 70 . Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. abia târându-şi picioarele. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. deci. sau cum o chema. roşu şi galben. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera.

Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Contents: 74 4.2.5.1.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.3.Key Concepts .4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.6.

i.e. present) in the sentence.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.e. where there is no indication other than a comma. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. cu repros.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. on the other hand. reproachfully. 75 . that elements are coordinated.

where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. 76 . (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.) (4) If you hit my wife. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. vei muri. Conversely.Nadina VIŞAN 4.) Such examples. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. From the previously mentioned examples. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. you will die. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.

Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. However. we need to specify that. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the second.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. respectively subordinated constituents. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. but presupposed. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . from a logical & semantic point of view. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.

He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. In the second. He moved and made a slopping noise. his shoes squished. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. John Steinbeck. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. Then he sat down. took off his coat and emptied them. took off his shoes and emptied them. with enormous solidity. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. adorned with cornices. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. with formal walks under rows of trees. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. His clothes hung to him. of cut gray stone. but the 78 . Though the castle had vanished. In the first. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. the houses were beautiful and ancient. built.

over some of the roughest ground in the country.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . and as the way is with Irish mountains. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. left the house. the higher he went the wetter it grew. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged.

where we are dealing with a compound constituent. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. as shown in (9). the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.K. we should be seriously annoyed. however distinguished.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.3 Sentence vs. (G. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . yesterday and the day before yesterday. As one can easily notice.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. were to take down the name of every man. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.

/ Joan plays many games. but not John. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. plays football. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Her pet kitten is black and white. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Activity 2 sentences: 1. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. and I passed. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 6 John sang and Mary danced. 5. 9. 2. 4. Our flag is red. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. John is ready and Mary is ready.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 7. yellow and blue. / Peter and John played football. 8. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John and Mary are the newly married couple. our respective examinations. / Peter. 3. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 10. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic.Unit four Coordination example (7). and even tennis. John and Mary are ready.

Jane 82 . *John poetry and Bill writes prose. 3. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. John writes poetry and Bill prose. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. John loves and Bill hates cigars.) c. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 5. or deleted. 6. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. as can be seen in (10b). whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Activity 4 2. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates.) b.Nadina VIŞAN b. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.

(Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. 10. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. So. i. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 83 . 8. than a longer repetitive one. 9.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. can be reduced by substitution. these syntactical processes. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. Besides ellipsis. We can demand payment and we will demand payment.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.) The common element. 7.e. the predication buy a pair of shoes. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. the so-called Principle of Economy.

2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 3. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. one or (the) other method.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. the old men and women 2. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. simple books and magazines for children 3. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 4. A citit. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. George and Jane went back to their parents. Translate the following sentences. using reduced structures: 1. 4. George and Jane are separated. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. some reason or another. In certain cases.

Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 2. 11. of your proposals later on? 3. They get on quite well together. . 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. the amount I’ve already saved up. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time.. After all their adventures. it’s a case of ………… 7. A pendulum swings ………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 15.. for my wallet. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 6. 13. even though they have their little …………. Marks and Spencers. 7.You gain some things and you lose others. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….… 14.I searched ………. like: salt and pepper. 12. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 6. 16. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. only for damage. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Can we discuss the …………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . they reached home………. fish and chips. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 5. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 5. I need another 100$ ……….Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 8. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 8... sweet and sour.

For instance. etc. Nor sun.4. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. In fact. the expressive function of coordination is. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. as in: (17) a. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. more often than not. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. 4. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. and 86 .) There are. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. of course.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. b. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.

) c.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. etc). either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. both … and . 20 (b)). (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (I-am dat banii.) In certain cases. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) 87 . and cherished her. too): (20) a. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) b. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. o respectau si o indrageau.g. or . I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. sometimes but. where the subordinator is repeated.

) b. (O admir si imi place.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.) b. I like and admire her. (Imi place si o admir. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. From this point of view. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. and hit my wife. and you’ll die. In this case. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. if we were to rewrite the example . I washed and ironed my pants.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .* I ironed and washed my pants. I admire and like her. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.

) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.Unit four Coordination 1. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Brown experiments with humans.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) (While Dr.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. he failed). Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (If you do that.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. 97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.

the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . 5.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. e. as the name suggests it.which are based on coordination .g. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) 101 . From the functional point of view. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.

(I-a dat cartea de bună voie. in certain cases. for instance. sentences) required by the verb (or. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. We do not presuppose however something like. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. for example). by an adjective + preposition. we associate it with these objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. For instance.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. they are still presupposed by the speaker. In a way. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) At this point we need to provide some further explanation.) 102 . (I-a dat cartea.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. an adverbial item.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. such as proud of.

has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. to add something.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. related to example (4). under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. I am afraid that he won’t come. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. which is the adverbial willingly. 103 .e. A second observation. an additional one.) b. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. The second example. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. In other words. Thus. i. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. to her) and one extra-item. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.

Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (11) If you don’t marry me. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. such as want. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb.) 104 . They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. I’ll die. like. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. (Înainte să plece din cameră. So. am să mor. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. a închis toate ferestrele. etc.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. make.

After I told her the story.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.g. 5. Whoever did that was a genius. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.g. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. 4. The book that because they home. I cannot tell you what I heard about you.She came to him of her own will. Susan disappeared without saying a word. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. e. 2. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. this to whomever wants it. she looked at me sadly.g. 3. 6. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. [. They came to e.

Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. though it was largely politeness. 5. but he declined. 3.He took an intelligent interest in her. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. WHETHER. As you can see. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. etc. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. stating their function: Activity 2 1. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. You suggestion that we should.) 106 . 4. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. not object. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. at our age. 2. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. was a novelty to Mitzi. which.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. FOR.

when. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. who. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. Where he went is London. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. where. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. which. how. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (E de dorit să plece. (15) It is John who did it.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) (16) a. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. Who did it was John. why.) b. 107 . etc.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.

done from a structural point of view. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.1. however.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. Unlike complement clauses. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. As you will see. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. before. for instance.) (18) She told me this before she left. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. Compare. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. if. consider the following table. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. etc. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. which sums up this classification. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. In conclusion. In (18).

Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. Introduced know e. whether he will come when I feel like it. etc. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. you understand.: e. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.g. for. as. surely you cannot sincerely believe. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. I will come back such as because. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. after. 109 . I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. at your young age. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. I will go there because I feel like it. Dear Ludwig. back. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.g.g.

But she thought that no one would call again. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. Too. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 .The day Monroe had died was in May. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. As she left the house. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. 2. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. Late that afternoon. Accidental Man) b)1. he said. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. a tightening in her breathing. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. she stopped to speak to Monroe.

Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. că e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.g. However.g. I told her everything after she arrived. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. As you have probably noticed already.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. a correspondence can be traced. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. That he loved e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.g.2. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. 111 . interesting. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.

complements. i.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.. (Cred că mă place. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.complement.1. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. Thirdly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.2. So. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. whereas wh complements are the 112 . the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. We will come back to that in the next chapter. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.e.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. whenever you identify a wh. In the fourth place. Secondly.

g. outbuildings. their introductory elements (e. before. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. for no matter how she tried.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. a house. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. I first thought to tell in 113 . It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. because. She mistrusted her handwriting. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. after. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. a barn. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but no idea what to do with them. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Pratice Consider the following text. c) I am coming home one way or another.

objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. and I have not the will or the energy. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . these clauses can be complements. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial).4.e.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. because they modify. it would make you fear to do such again. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. According to a structural criterion. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.

be very careful to use this term correctly. ce o fi având. think of. Nevasta secera în tăcere. după ce că are grâu puţin. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. O zbughi înapoi. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Alţii. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. answering the question to whom? So. etc. (…) “Mă. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian.e. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. look at. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. 115 . însă. interested in. Pratice Translate the following. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e.g. îşi spuseseră că Anton.

întâi. izolate de sat. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. de fapt. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. cât de bolnavă era. timp de un ceas. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Toată lumea înţelesese că. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . Nici acum. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte.

Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. la nişte prieteni comuni. În realitate. de pildă. Iată. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. stricau totul. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Pace nu era. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. deşi cam târziu. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. acum sunt desluşiţi. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. amânase scrisul. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. aşa de oţetit. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. Era bine de ştiut. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. la Odobeşti.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. întâia noapte de război) 118 . frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.

whose.g. of which. 119 . subject relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.. etc. etc).

7.1.3. Key Concepts .4. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.5. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.6. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.6.2.

We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. 121 . The Co-reference Condition .) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. 6.2. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.

Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. 122 . Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. By combining these two clauses. John loves that woman. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause.

The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. John offered flowers to that woman. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. 123 . Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The common element woman is present. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. This way.

He’s the author who received the prize. They met those students. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. 10. frequently used in written language. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. by leaving behind a trace. Any of the students would answer to questions. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. I love my husband very much. I had a book. I lost the book’s cover. 3. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I went to London. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. 8. The students like their teacher. None of the students agreed with them. I introduced him to Jim. John told his friend a story about the king. 2. WHO 5. WHERE 3. WHO 124 . whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. He liked that book. He told Jim everything about his plans. This is my husband. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 9. 7. The king was just passing by. WHICH 4. The students like their teacher. too. 6. 5. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. Susan wants to meet Jane. 4. She came to London. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. therefore in spoken English. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. I bought Jim a book.

WHOM 10. most of them were from England. 2. (Cine strică plateşte. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. i.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. TO 11. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.Unit six Relative clauses 6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. WHICH 8. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. relative clauses are divided into 1. . WHOM 6. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. WHOSE 7. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.e. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.

they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. unlike in the case of (14).Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. these relatives cannot function as attributes.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. Unlike their sisters.) So. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. (Cel care strică plăteşte.e. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. in a manner of speaking. it is covert.) • Predicative This was what she intended. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. is no longer overtly expressed. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.

) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (Mercury. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. (Du-te unde pofteşti.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. They can be thus divided into: 1. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. who is the god of commerce.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who incidentally is the god of commerce. 127 . non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (Mercur. is my favourite god. they define it).) (22) Mercury. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. este zeul meu favorit. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. care este zeul negoţului.

a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 5. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 7. is a genius. 10. I have met him where I least expected. this type of relative clauses. i. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 2. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. is a great playwright. She. On the day on which this occurred I was away.This is the village where I spent my youth. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 8. 6. Independent I don’t know what you want.e. Shakespeare. 9. then it is an attribute. was the one we all welcomed and admired. on whom nobody could depend. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. restrictive relative clauses. who came to see me. As we were saying. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. who is a genius. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). They are what 128 .

etc. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. composed The (Freddie Mercury. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. however sad this may be.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. a.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. 6. .) 2. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. who died a few years ago. When the antecedent has no determiner. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. care a murit acum câţiva ani.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. etc.

căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. who am your son. ci o fată a woman. poftiţi în faţă. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. bătrînă morocănoasă. care-ţi sunt fiu. îţi văd prea bine defectele. 7.) Pratice Translate the following. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) (28) They come to me. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. 5. 4. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Dintre toate personajele prezente. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 3. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. Mie. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care nu sunt o femeie. iritabilă şi uscată. (Eu. can see your shortcomings only too well. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 130 . ill-tempered. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. (Ei apeleaza la mine. dried-up old maid. but a peevish. who neither work nor am anxious. numai eu nu. 6. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 2.

) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. părăsi camera.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. heard. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. than whom few more can be more crashing. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. were now in his possession.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. erau acum în posesia lui. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (32) service finished late.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. .

The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.5. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. as can be seen in (36d). The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. too. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.) b.) b. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.1.) c. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. but it is typical of the formal.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The genitive form with which is still in use.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. 6.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. literary style: (37) a.) d.

Unit six Relative clauses form of which. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch.

revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. of which. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.) b. by the way. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. ships (that can be personified) a. He is not the man which he used to be. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) b.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) • states. but to a type or a function: a. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (45) (46) . al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. animals. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. … Italy.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.

One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) 135 (47) . while. France.5. where. how. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. It is poor what gets the punches. Poland is the place where Christine was born.Unit six Relative clauses b.2 Relative Adverbs: when.) 6. whom it concerned most closely. (Nu ştiam ce vor. why.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. time. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. pe care o privea direct.) b) dialectal (49) a. reason. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) b. etc.

A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) b.) b.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) 6.) b. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.3. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. The place whither he goes is unknown. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) 136 . (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. They returned to the land whence they had come.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) e. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. This is the place wherefrom they came. no antecedents are required: (52) a. He went where he had been before.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) c. A system where by a new discovery will arise.5. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.

) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . Moreover.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.

4. much. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. not any. . Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. but they are used very infrequently: as.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. any. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. 138 (64) his shoes. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. Honest man as he was.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) b. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every.5.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. but • in standard language a.

) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. It’s the dry weather does it. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. . There is no one of us but wishes to help you. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.) • in dialect a. Uncle George. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. And always on the buttered side. This is the same one that/as you had before. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) c. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. him as was in China … (Uncle George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. There’s not many as’ll say that. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.) c. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. ăl de fusese in China…) b.

For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.) b. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.

the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.” 4. 2. 7. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 5. It seemed a thing 141 . The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. b. What Inman remembered was this passage.) c.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 3.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 6. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.5.) b. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.3): (72) a. The man John spoke to is a genius. The man who John spoke to is a genius. we all have to come to some terms. makes me a wart and a wen. That which shows God out of me. What I’m saying is. fortifies me. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. Where he was from.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. This is where we talk money. The man that John spoke to is a genius.

Whatever his fate was. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 9. of living. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. (…) Partly. 11. 8. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. Oh. 142 . though. 12. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. which is a lot. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. he had left Ruby high and dry. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. who had not witnessed many dawns. Ruby said. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 10. 13.

(Iris Murdoch. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. plutonier. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. cumnatul unui portughez. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. mort de tanar. una din nepoatele unui inginer. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. Cumnatul meu avea. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. poate. al carei strabunic. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . fiu natural al unui morar. un var primar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. vasnic. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. pirpiriu. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. divortata. pe linie paterna. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. nu prea sarac.al lui. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var.

) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5.2. By extension. She was a woman. c. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. I lost the cover of the book. b.6. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. insurat de trei ori la rand. Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. The opposite phenomenon. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. This is the book. Teatru) 6.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. 144 . a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.

3. 5. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 8. 4. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.Unit six Relative clauses b. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 .) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. 6. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. has been troubling them forever. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. he requested that the public be excluded. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 9. 2. The problem of safe transportation. In the interest of public decency. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 7. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. The difference between (76) and (77). We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. no easy answers to which could be offered.

he rarely saw now. This story. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. 3. Irene. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 146 . knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. was now complete. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. His friends. They do not function as attributes. 5. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 10. no matter which. 4. 6. 2. as the case is). Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not.His father’s friends. Activity 9 were now all gone. has been deleted.

A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 3. Pentru alţii. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Toate sfârşeau. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 4. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 7. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 5. sunt vrednic de invidiat. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. De douazeci de ani. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 .Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Nelu. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. 6. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 2. himeric. închipuirea. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii.

când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. 8. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 10. 12. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. 9. a făcut el. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . cu surle şi cu tobe. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa.

nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. pe strada Icoanei. din direcţia căreia apoi. fie la teatru. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Avea acum un fel de vertij. 18. 17. 15. dinspre Maria Rosetti. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. până mai adineauri. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. din care cauză pe Dora. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. toată lumea întreba cine e. 14. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. În spatele lor. apărură. trăia larg de tot. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 149 . o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. despre care. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. zise ea cu ochii mari. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. deşi atât de aproape. roiuri de fetiţe. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. care era foarte “mondenă”. de unde venea şi Marta. Dacă mă lovea. 16. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 20. fie pe stradă. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu.

până în şosea. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. 23. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei.Nadina VIŞAN 21. pe care ea îi admira acum. Pare-se că snobii. Pentru mine însă. aveau un stil al lor. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. întâia noapte de război) 150 . când au urcat râpa iar. 24. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care eu nu-l aveam. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. de sus de unde eram. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 22. de mine. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi.

by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 .

1.Topicalization 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.1.5.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.2.2.2.3.1.7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.3.3.1.2.4.1.2. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7. That Deletion 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.2.Clause Shift 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.1.3. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.1.2.6. Key Concepts .Extraposition 7.3.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.3.4. That Complements as Subjects 7.5.

(1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. Apart from those introduced by that. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. the clause is extraposed. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. but also of infinitival ones. 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).1.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. 153 . In other words.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. placed in a marginal position. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.

(A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.

12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 11. 2. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It is no use trying to convince her. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 10. 11. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It was suggested that they should meet the President. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 9. 14. 13. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 8. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 6.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 4. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It is nice to meet you. 9. 7. 10. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 3. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It appears that no one voted for him. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 15. 2. 8. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 7. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 4. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 3. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 5. 6.

2. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. în gropi. 6. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. They never expected it that he would come back. 5.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. zice Lionel. 4. I guess it that he will come back. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. unde se nimerea. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 18. 5. atât 156 . 3. 3.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 2. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. după porţi. I don’t expect it that he will come back. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 2. mă ascundeam în grabă. 3. 4. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. sub poduri. în canal.

Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. 157 . precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 5. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi.” 4. fără îndoială. vor căuta să o zdruncine. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 7. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. (Nu întotdeauna. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Spunând cele ce-am spus. fără să cârteşti. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. excelentă. 6. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci.

Consequently. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) While in the case of extraposition. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Pratice Read the following.2. in the case of topicalization. subject clauses are the frequent situation. this asymmetry is undone.1. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. 1. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.

even today. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 3. He was utterly gone. he felt no spring of interest in her. She had always been the slave of chance. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 5. 2. 8. 7. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He did not blame Gracie. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. mere chance would decide. whether it would finally carry her off. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 6. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. but not now.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . was inconceivable. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. This was another era. 4. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. When this is so one is in extremity indeed.

3. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.) 160 . The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.1.

the verb to drive). It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. we obtain.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.e. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. 161 .

*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 8.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa. 6.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 5. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 7. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 4. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 162 . / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 3.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 2.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.

The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.2.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.Unit seven That complements 7. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.

prefer. They believe that the man is guilty.1.2. They promised him that he would received a new house. etc. consider. afirm. promise. suggest. desire.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) a.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.) b. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. (Cred că omul este vinovat. etc. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. state. He announced that they were engaged. predict. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. deny. judge. They believe the man is guilty.) 164 .) b.: (25) a. He announced their engagement. estimate. explain. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. communicate. deem.

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. hope =>purpose. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. on condition that. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. In older stages of English. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) 172 .e. they lose their meaning. for example. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) I like him in that he is smart. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) language. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.

(Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. să o vadă trecând. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. that we wouldn’t doubt it. . His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) b. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He gave an answer such.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) When the structure contains the word such.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. That can be deleted. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. He gave such an answer as had expected.) (66) 173 a. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) b.

they were chained to each other forever.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.) 174 . 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. He gave an answer such that I had expected.) b. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid. ibid. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.

He said he had borrowed her money.) b. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. tell). 175 . for instance.1. that he uses a relaxed tone. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c.3. (A prins de veste că ei vin. He showed he was able to do it.3 ‘That Deletion 7. He got word they were coming. say. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.Unit seven That complements 7. (69) a.

I like it that he was here. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.) (De asemenea. bune. for better or worse. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.2. because that has been deleted. for better or worse.) b. *I like it he was here. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. 7. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. ibid. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.3.3.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Îmi place că e aici. rele. (Iris Murdoch. they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.3.

2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 7) They maintain. 7. simultaneity. that they were not too late to leave. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.) b)He told me that she was there. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (“Este acolo”. you want me to believe. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.4. he said.) 177 . posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. which is ungrammatical in English. spuse el. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.

he said. He said he would leave her.) b. The Present complement). (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. (“Era acolo”.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. I will leave her. spuse el. In the example below. vine el. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (A spus că o să o părăsească. până pleacă ea. (Pâna să plece. “She was here”. (Am să o părăsesc. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) b.) Future Perfect -----.) b. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . o să vină el. He told me that she had been there. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.

discover. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. wish. notice. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. insist. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. believe. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. show. mention.) b. hope. etc. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. say. dream. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a.) 179 . be aware. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. realize it). Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees.) On the other hand. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.etc. report. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. be amazed/concerned. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. whisper. think. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. forget. With such factive verbs as realize.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. regret.

expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. 180 . (Iris Murdoch. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. in tender deference to each other.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. we notice that general truths. She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. She realized that all men are fools.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. Consider also: (85) a. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. feign habits which are not their own.) b. She believed that the earth is round. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) b.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. He knew that she thought all men were fools. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.

She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. 3. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) In (88). She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) b.Unit seven That complements 2. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. There are however cases. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. 181 .) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Peter said that John will leave at 5. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. such as a. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) b. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.

e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. c) John said that Harry is leaving. But 182 . Imagine. f) John said that Harry would leave. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. for instance. The time is 3 o’clock. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. John said that Harry will leave.

nighthawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. lark. bluebird. quail. whistling swan. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Translate the following. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. c. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. slyness in a fight. kingfisher. She admired their keenness of wit. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. love of practical jokes. jaybird. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. a. John told Mary that she should bake a pie.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Crows will relish what presents itself. lack of pridefulness. redtailed hawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. b. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. 183 . geese both grey and white. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. Cooper’s hawk.

with the hammer snapping on empty loads. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. in the very act of expiring.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. the young officer. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . war hero though he was. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. […] During the latter stages of the tale. But as the battle raged around them. he claimed. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. And they might just hang him. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. He died erect. He had fought hard through the war. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Now here he stood jailed.

Unit seven That complements 7. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. object ones up to the attributive function. 185 . on other occasions it has to stay there. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). or else. from the very frequent subject. On certain occasions that can be deleted. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.

Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. 4. Mama. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. 3. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Unul din ei. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. peste puţin. Fiind 186 . Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. 2. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. cel mai mare. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii.

Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 5.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. venind de la avocat. Se mira. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. un vis de acesta 187 . Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. va pleca din oraş la vie. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. 7. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 9. cel puţin pentru un timp. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. aşa. dacă va mai veni. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. 8. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Nu ţi-a trecut. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. ea. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. luminos şi apropiat şi când. de ce constata în sine. care îl pândise. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. 6. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. fericit. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el.

12. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. dar şi teama că. Acesta. Astfel de va fi. fireşte. lucrul era înfăptuit. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. încă o dată. 11. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. şi mândria că a biruit. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. liniştit. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică.

să le lămurească pe toate. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. fără o vorbă scrisă. după cum. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. 14. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. mai puternic decât oricând.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. spre Jurubiţa. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. ci numai aşa. Pe toate.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.5.3.8.Key Concepts .8.7.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.9.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.2.6.4.1.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.

That you love her is something wonderful. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (2) a. From this perspective.) b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. It is important for you to know what you need. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). Consider the following: • like that complements.) • like that complements. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).1. (3) a. 193 . (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. It is important that you should know what you need.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. I told her to be more careful in the future. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). To love her is something really wonderful.) b. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.

194 .) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. gerundial clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. participial clauses. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. moduri nepersonale) By convention. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. the Gerund. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. as opposed to the finite ones. d. etc. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. the Conditional. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. 2.) b. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.e. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. For instance. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Participle) (i.

) c.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. namely no ending. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 . (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.

It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 7. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.2. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 4. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 3.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. the criterion of form. 8. 6. 2. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 10. 8. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. (7) They saw her leave. 9.

/ Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. hear.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. 2.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. (10) 197 . we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.

the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. 3. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. .) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. However. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. uncharacteristic for literary English. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following. 198 (11) the universe.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.

or the control constructions. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. Further on. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. as I have already mentioned. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. 199 . to use the appropriate technical term.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. In other words. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave.

) Object: (18) a. So far. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. (E important ca el să nu greşească.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) In this situation. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. PRO to err is human. şi creştineşte să ierţi. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. I hoped for him to be there in time.) b. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. namely the agent of the event. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. It is important for him not to err. the logical subject.) 200 . PRO to forgive divine.

(L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). him is related to the main clause verb. not to the infinitive. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) b. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. Semantically.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. but the patient of the verb persuade. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. In other words. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. He stepped aside for her to enter.

whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ She promised him to leave. \ 202 . since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ They tempted him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ She wanted him to leave. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. I hate animals to be tortured. Likewise. \ They convinced her to come back. \ I would love them to come. \ He persuaded her to come. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ I allowed them to come.

But it is clear that he is a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. \ They really asked her to come back. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.) In examples (25) and (26). So. • Last but not least. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. \ They did not wish her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.) He seems to be a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. 203 . and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.

/ Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. hate./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. Pratice Translate the following sentences. seem. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. to meet her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her.). To sum up the discussion. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. which are said to be free. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. that is not required by certain verbs. appear. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. etc. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. with special semantic and syntactic properties. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. 204 . / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei.

) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. arrange. agree to. condescend. / E greu să îl suporţi. mean.3 The Distribution of PRO . etc. decline.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. desire. etc. hope. . propose. prefer. care to. expect.) 205 friend. seek (= try).TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. omit. scheme. fail. dislike.) b) verbs such as abide. like. deign./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. intend. manage. afford. refuse.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. contrive. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. deserve. hate. scorn. bear. presume. Compare: (31) a. wish. venture. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. etc. aspire to. endeavour. need. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. try. 8. want.

(Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. ask.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. I would like for him to become president of the country.) b. bear. desirable. be important. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. verbs of liking and disliking.) 206 . unlikely.) b. however.) b. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. etc. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.) 8. I hate that you should say a thing like this. suggest. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. possible. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. conclude. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. forget. stand. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. For all of them to have been killed is. claim. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.Nadina VIŞAN b. endeavour.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.etc. threaten.

(E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 8. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) 207 .5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) b. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) 2.

(Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b. the preposition is deleted. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Like in the case of that complements. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) 4. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) 208 knowledge. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) b. but the meaning remains.) 5.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Direct Objects (39) a. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. I decided for John to represent us. . (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.

Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) d. This paint is like concrete to work with. She is pretty to look at. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. 6. You’re an idiot to go there. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) e. curious about.) b. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) c. The stew is delicious to eat. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.: (42) a. delicious.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. etc. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. He is a bastard to work for.

/ E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Pe şleau. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. you’re a bad driver./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. conduci prost. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. final or introductory infinitive In this case. drept să spun. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. to tell you the truth. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale.) I’ve never met him.) Oh. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . să nu piardă trenul.

/ Am o vorbă să îţi spun. According to this. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. influence.) . (49) a. inspire. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. encourage. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. enable. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. 8. press. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. urge. swear. oblige. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. direct. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. inform. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. need. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.: (51) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. b.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. etc. promise.) b. nu mai vreau să te vad. induce.etc. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.

(L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. order. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. prevail on. vote. command./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. allow. etc. depend on. elect.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. nominate. choose.etc. name.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. etc.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. permit. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it./ And now he 212 . count on. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. look to.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.

(O să întârzii/ leşin. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). be about to. (56) She grew to like him in the end. come.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. An Accidental Man) 8.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. etc. happen.verbs: appear. be going to.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (57) He is to come any day now. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. 213 (58) (59) .e. etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. this construction is lexically governed.: (55) She appears to like him. (Se pare că îi place de el. grow. (Iris Murdoch.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. i. seem.etc.

(L-au auzit insultând-o. watch. observe. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. be rumoured. perceive.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). hear.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. .) 8. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. be claimed. be reported. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. etc. etc. overhear. be considered. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). that of intention. In (57). d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. be alleged. feel.: (62) They heard him insult her.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.etc. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. be thought.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.

consider. (Cred că este un geniu. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. imagine. picture. discover. judge. find. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. have. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. prove.) • with a full infinitive: get.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. deem. However. figure. recollect. remember. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. know.) 215 (67) . (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. occasion.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. presume. cause. understand. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. believe. etc. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.

) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. who wasn’t used to men with moods.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. prefer. if he himself was out of spirits.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.etc.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. desire. choose. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. he hated anyone to comment 216 .Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. expect. permit. want. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. wish. suffer. etc. they had depressed and fuddled him. love. order.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. mean. command. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Harold.

She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. so that we might get to the future and have done. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. though he tended to look down on those below it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.P. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. He suspected hostility at once. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. the herd instinct was very strong in him. (L.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. he didn’t envy those above it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. to make sure we attended strictly to business. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. A little crossly. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .

we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The last criterion. 218 . This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.Nadina VIŞAN 8. From this perspective.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.

pare că uităm propria noastră durere. de asemenea. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. fireşte. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. e important ce întrebări pui. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. E posibil. mai bine219 . un bărbat şi o femeie. să-l capete. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. de bună seamă. dar să nu-ţi spună. într-o zi. e) Când doi oameni. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. Şi tu să fii. lovit şi umilit. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. bunăoară.

pe care deja o uitase. . Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. încă. Însă Paul Achim trăise. mai pline de înţeles. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. că eşti tânăr. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. d-a lungul gâtului. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Şt. 220 . în parte. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. să traiesc numai cu tusea. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. un picior. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. De era vară. Să spui de pildă. să nu vrea să se şteargă. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. în jos. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale.Şt. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.Nadina VIŞAN zis. aşa cum îi apăruse el. (B. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. avusese dreptate.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. în ploaie. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. ca să nu şi-o amintească. mai bine de două decenii. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. în parte. sau.Delavrancea.

Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. Mă laud singură. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. şi nu un amant. prin faţă e coborârea. orice-ar fi. nici ca să 221 . (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. o mizerie.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte.. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. un miros îngrozitor. deşi. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta... ei. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci.. sunt aici cu tot ce am. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. orice bucureştean ştie. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. biata Muti. de fapt. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. (Al. şi prin faţă. fie ea şi grăbită. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. Într-un cuvânt. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.

parcă la întâmplare. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . în realitate. niciodată ea nu i le pune.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede.

verbal nouns. participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.

A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.2.2.1.1.1.2.1.Participial Constructions 9.The Verbal Noun 9.2.The Gerund 9.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.3.The Participle Contents: 224 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.5 Key Concepts .3.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.2.9.

One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1. Due to this situation.) 225 . The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.

This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. been and killed are past participle forms. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. were closing. Susan has been killed.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.e. it functions attributively. Susan has come. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.) More infrequently.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. In (2) the forms come. 226 . the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). the past participle can appear after a noun. blood-shot and painted.) As you can see in this second case. too: (6) Her eye-lids. i. (A venit Susan) b. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.

) c. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. Knowing who the guy was.) 227 . she ran away. Oh.) b.) d. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. începură să cânte. o să ajung la timp. they started singing. ea o luă la fugă. I will arrive there on time. mother permitting. he will eventually marry her.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. o să ajung la timp. leul poate să atace.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. I will arrive there on time. If provoked.) b. people should pay attention to high notes. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. (Ştiind cine era el. Weather permitting. When singing. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. God willing. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. (Sosind aici. a lion can attack. Arriving here.) c.

The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. He was found stealing. (L-au descoperit că fură. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. smell. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. behold. I found him stealing.) 228 .) ii. notice. respectively. (L-am descoperit furând.) b.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. hear. (Am simţit-o tremurând. He was found killed by a bullet.) b. watch. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. They found him killed by a bullet.

have.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. have. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. recollect. confess. leave. etc. recollect. she knew herself dismissed. I heard it said that men are a bore.) b.: When she heard his words. make a.) b. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. start. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. know. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. He’ll soon get things going. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) c. keep. etc. etc.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.: a. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. find.) • Causative verbs: get.) b. (A fost văzut plângând.) • Causative verbs: get . (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. set.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.) • mental perception verbs: remember. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. hear. send. feel. I must get my hair cut. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. a. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . etc.

/ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. command I ordered my bill made out. / Nu după multă vreme. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. Men like shopping made easy.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. lovit şi plin de sânge. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) b.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi.) • verbs of permission. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. He wanted his car fixed immediately. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 ./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.

Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / My Lord. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.2. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Unlike the gerund. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.e. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. with its lips drawn back. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. 231 . the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. / In any case. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / Dinny. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.1.

6.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 7. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 4. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. the rain will stop. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. (Văzând acestea. I left. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (Desi nu ştia limba.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 3. am plecat. se va opri şi ploaia. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . People were sleeping in the next room. She had heard it all before. 2. I left.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. using either a present participle. 5. I turned on the light. It had been uprooted by the gale. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I was astonished at what I saw. am plecat.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I knew that the murderer was still at large.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. The tree had fallen across the road. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I have looked through the fashion magazine. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.

drunken. He fed the dog. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. They began quarreling about how to divide it. bald. stricken. 8. Getting out of bed. Dropped by parachute. covered. 10. sharp. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 9. 5. I let the dog out of the room. 2. haired (twice). narrow. cornered. Climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. cloth. a pot of paint fell on my head. 233 . 9. straight. 8. his horse fell at the last jump. I slammed the door of my room. an idea suddenly occurred to me. skinned. 4. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Read the sentences and try to correct them.shoulder. Reading in bed. mown. open. many. Leaving the cinema. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. my hands often get very cold. roast. lighted. They found the treasure. hearted (twice). Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Passing under a ladder.Running into the room. 10. coloured. stony. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Riding in the first race.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. fishy. 3. dark. eagle. 11. three. 6. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. handed. empty. eyed (3 times). 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. b) Headed (5 times). minded (3 times). a scorpion bit him. Tied to the post. He sat down to his own dinner. quick. broad. Mother punished me for my mistake. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 12. wooden. open. red (twice). shaven. Barking furiously. 7. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. lion. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar.

/ Many old people . ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / Three people. (grow) 4. (hunt). _______ for their valuable oil and meat. man. eyes. I stared at the canvas for ages. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. _______ my arm. head. (take) 2._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. are sold throughout the world. were taken to hospital. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. graven. / Swiss watches./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. lamb. was today taken back to prison.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. plank. (admire) 5. candle. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (produce) 3. Whales. stream. hidden. The film. (injure). b) grass. ________ hiding in a barn.I fell on the ice.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. image. duty. meaning. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. _______ by S. the same verb is missing twice. bounden. rotten. ill-gotten. shrunken. are in grave danger of extinction. is expected to be a great hit. (find) 6. meat. lead. _______ for a bargain. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. _______ for their elegance and precision. The escaped prisoner. deer. Translate into English: 1. shorn.Spielberg. 7. In the following pairs of sentences. wealth.

Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. întinse. Şi sufletul său. le fierbea. când strânsă. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. 4. deodată sufocat. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. După câtva timp. trezit. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. 2. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. când deschisă. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. care le rânduia. ca şi cum. Şi. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. 3. şi moi. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. le cocea. păsări tăiate. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. precum şi foile de plăcintă. legume date prin mai multe ape. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. O umbreluţă. nesigur şi moale. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia.

) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. crezi. According to this criterion.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. 236 . (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. The Gerund 9.2.2. Likewise. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. (Dacă vezi. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.Nadina VIŞAN 9. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.1. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.

gerunds differ from participles. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. Him winning and you losing was surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Consider the following table.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. That he won and you lost was surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) 9.2. In that. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b. His winning and your losing were both surprising.

Consider (32). as being verbal 238 .) Unlike participles. It was illegal to grow a beard. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. *It was illegal growing a beard. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.) 2. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.) b.

(Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b. as offered in the table below: 239 . Just like in the case of noun phrases.) 3. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.2. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.) 9.3.) b. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. Participles vs. It’s no good talking to her. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.

Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. 3. babies suck their thumb. 2. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. (adverbial of time) 4. forms: continuous . (prepositional object clause) 5. perfect. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. + noun] 1. Participles may function adverbials: house. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. passive ones She was crying.

/ John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc.

înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 7. He was spotted talking to her. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 242 . 4. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 11. 5. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 12. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 8. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 15. 10. Gambling is his favourite pastime.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. shooting gallery / shooting star. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 14. swimming duck / swimming trunks. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 9. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 2. crying game / crying woman. 6. eating habits/ eating people. 12. 3. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 13.

the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.Unit nine Ing complements 9.3.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. a The absence of an of phrase. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. but the presence of a direct object (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.

George’s shooting the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. Thus. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. In the second situation. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it.

/ The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. the sheriff. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. very large. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / His coming there puzzled her. Jim left quietly./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. 245 ./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.

(A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. With the infinitive. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. For instance. However. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. whenever we meet an –ing form. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . It has been noticed that. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.4.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. Look. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. ING Forms and Infinitives. for example. the meaning is different.

posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. containing an infinitive. and the most well-known one. the infinitive is future-oriented. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) . is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. having left) is infrequently used in English. future-oriented value of the infinitive). suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. (S-a oprit din mâncat.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) After looking at this example.) The first example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. On the other hand. anterior to the verb in the main clause.g.

She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). recollect. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.e.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. which means that they are similar in meaning. i.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) . verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.e. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.) As you can see. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.

însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. but that’s it. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. In the second example. the petrol tank is not filled yet. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) . c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. dar asta este. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. the action is not completed.

it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. want With [+ human] objects. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Casa trebuie reparată. The house needs repairing. In the second example. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) With [. (Casa trebuie reparată. mean has the sense signify.) b. the event has not happened yet. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) 250 .Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) wedding. The house needs to be repaired. e) need. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.human] objects.

’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. my Lord. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. whereas in the second case. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. Lady Corven. I did ask Mr. my Lord. (take) down her answer.’ ‘In any case. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. it’s overrated. (hold) up his pen and (speak). And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. but they went by too quickly. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. however appearances were against us.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. gerund or infinitive.’ ‘Tell me. Croom (try) (follow) one. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.

c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. I must go back now. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I just used the word and they fell. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. Then.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ 252 . and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. licked the envelope with passion. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.’ said Clare. suddenly.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.

The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. the 253 . although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Last but not least. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Participles mainly function as adverbials.5.Unit nine Ing complements 9.

(James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. it 254 . It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. It was like a mist. then the noise and the cracking stone. He looked up towards the daylight. covering the girl’s head. but then he saw it billowing up from below. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. Then he saw movement at his feet. their edges crashing inwards. slowly rising in a swirling motion. At first. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. according to the books he read. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. the enormous split in the earth. The two sides were moving apart. The sight of the two children. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. She started coughing. down into God knows where.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. hoping he would see somebody up there. someone looking for survivors. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. down. moving up towards his chest.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. and sunlight. 255 . the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. my dear. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. slanted on to her cheek. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. She finished what jobs there were. Having a French governess. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. brightening to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. for Dornford was busy on an important case.

înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. ucenicul său necredincios. într-o joi. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. totul se animă deodată. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. 2. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. and then went riding with her in the rain. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. închizând ochii. mama mea. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Vaucher şi cu mine. cei doi Mamona. În urma slugii. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Ridicându-se.

afară ploua în continuare. auzit şi zadarnic. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. se duse lânga mama şi. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Şi deodată. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. Neclintiţi. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. aşezată cu spatele la noi. după cum îi spusese mama. am ştiut şi cine. pe Vaucher. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. dar ştiutoare. 3. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. la mine. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. privit. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. totul mi se părea cunoscut. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Ne-a privit o clipa şi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. pe mama mea părând absentă. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. o sărută pe frunte. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aplecându-se puţin. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare.

5. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. dar. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. Au coborât din camion încet. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. camionul a plecat. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 .Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi cu stiva de lemne. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. cu tot cu baraca. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu soba. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul.

259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

12. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 4. 9. apart from his distress for parents. 13. since I have decided. I am sorry not to have seen you. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. because of pity. 11. 10. this would really hurt. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. in some way. 6. without profound questioning. and meet it right here at home. You have been much in my thoughts. he had been advised. How much. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. and this particularly of late. he had not yet been able to estimate. to retire early from my employment.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 2. Having regard to the date of drafting. 3. and that 263 . but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 7. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. How this time was to come. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. whereas if she went away she would get none. 5. was unclear to Mitzi.

so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 14. this always makes us feel embarrassed. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. please consider his proposition. 264 . / Whenever I visited my aunt. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 19. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. for attending his sister’s wedding. even for months. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. he did not come to see her. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I was made say Grace before every dinner. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / Before you go on changing the subject. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. / In the end. looking forward had not yet taken place. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. one of the eggs broke. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 17. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins.

Though much in request before her marriage. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Vulgar men did. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. a little girl. Essentially. centered in London and themselves. rather than the hefty type. At country houses she had met them of course. Instead of which she had married. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. it was said.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. They hated trying on. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. without discovery. her recklessness. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. Tony was a child. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . to end in some awful tragedy. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. They rushed into shops. She felt as when. an open-air person. quite unexpectedly. of the quick and wiry. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. of all people. cotton mills at Manchester. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Clarissa used to think. she said. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. her old friend Hugh. (and there he was. and it was bound. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. 265 . But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient.

Cind l-a chemat. si in plus. astfel. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.Rindurile dvs.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Bolnava nu se simtea. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. aveam tot mai 266 . viguros si vesel in felul lui. (John Galsworthy . sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. De uitat. she professed. she was uneasy. Reading many novels. short of the contacts of love. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. era un bun sfatuitor.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. The closer she allowed him to come to her. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si.Over the River) 2. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. but lying in her bath. indeed. nu puteam sa le uit. cre s-au nascut lent. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. ii faceau bine.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. to keep abreast of the current. nu a facut-o pentru asta. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. the more she would be torturing him. with all its impatience of restraint.

) 6. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. vaazut cindva. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. (St. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. lungimea picioarelor. printr-o asistenta activa din afara.) 5. (St. Banulescu – ibid. Banulescu – ibid.) 7. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. (St. se stie. Banulescu – ibid. Daca tu. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. (St. Ce a iesit. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. latimea si ascutisul labei. mi-am zis. poate fi compensata. fa-o. Milionarule. nu pricep nimic.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. cit mai au de trait. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. Personal. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. pe scaunul lui tare. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. 4. ca si tine. are nevoie. o data sau de doua ori. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 267 . chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Banulescu – ibid.

Could he be blamed.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. delivered from the holocaust. my grandfather. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who told me. Ernest Richard Atkinson. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative.. Cambridge. Who. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. (. to Emmanuel College. 2. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Translate them. Arthur Atkinson M. And had a brother killed in the same battle. for being a renegade. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. a wounded soldier.. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Who when asked about his memories of the War. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Who came home from the war. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. A story-book romance.P. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Who was may father. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. when I was even younger than you. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes.

mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. and because – but this is mere speculation. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. deep-set. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. a moody man. Rachel Williams. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. to whom. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). Fabianism. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. he had already engaged himself? 3. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. How 269 . for flirting with ideas (European socialism. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows.

Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. satul. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum a ajuns el. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. 270 . Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. om mare. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. cu taina aceasta. Cum a trăit el. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Ion. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. la şcoală. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Ion. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history.

pune totul in discuţie. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. de mama lor. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. din franţuzeşte. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. singurul lui stăpân. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . greşeli dintr-astea. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. când voi fi singur. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cu sau fără voie. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Când actriţa. împotriva tuturor. 271 . Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi.

ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. nevasta-mea. uneori şi astăzi chiar. 3. tânăr şi frumos şi el. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. 5. pe jumătate prezent. A devenit palid. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Tot aşa. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. continuând. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. sau ridicole. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. privindu-mă în ochi. 4. Într-o vreme.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Am început. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. parcă începusem s-o uit. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. provocându-le. traversând. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. 272 . Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. 6. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. fostă prietenă din copilărie. de pildă. dam buzna peste automobile. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. ci un sistem de acomodare.

8. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. Dacă nemţii înaintau. orice s-ar întâmpla. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. 11. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. E o problemă. şi dacă merg întins. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. că nu m-am gândit la asta. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Am început. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. să merg întins. 9. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Aş vrea să mă las jos. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. De altminteri. şi să nu ameţesc. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. fireşte. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. iar. fără să mă opresc o clipă. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. ca un acrobat. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12.

nu mai semana. cu mirare. Uite. Acum isi ferea privirea. nu mai pricepu nimic.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului.Ma. 14. de la proces. 15. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. parca i-ar fi fost frica.. trebuia sa le spuna. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. 17. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. la amintiri. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Ilie nu-l asculta. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie.. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. de uimire. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. la fata locului. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. 274 . Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 16. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. se uita in jos. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. 13. In curind. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Ii venea greu. Greu era din partea asta. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Adica tot trecutul. de la obiecte de pret. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. La un moment dat. la carti. de la lucruri personale. dar nu se mai putea. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Auzindu-l. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . eu am venit sa va intreb.

but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. 19. Aici era ceva. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. which was part of his rich outfit. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. vorbe asa si-asa. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. apoi se uitau la Ilie. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. There was even 275 . Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. se indeparta nepasator. dar.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. asa cum facuse pina acum. .Ce sa fac. Zimbea siret. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Ilie nu intelesese nimic. cum zicea Anghel. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. 20. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Nu era nevoie. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically.

quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. for the instant. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done.Nadina VIŞAN relief. rude woman. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. 4. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. on this occasion.Miller at her hotel. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. He walked a long time. asked for Mrs. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. a simplification. to admit that she was a proud. the young lady. conversationally. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. 5. going astray. She was one 276 . gave an exclamation. at least. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. to move fast. paying no attention. to take his way home on foot. He felt then. 3. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. But Daisy. resuming her walk.

He left me musing. as text book. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. in radiant loveliness. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. as to projected changes. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. make a point. indeed. making Paul stop and look at her. uncomfortably. and wondering what the deuce he meant. on the other hand. Her daughter. smiling and chattering. 8. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease.Walker. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. in their own phrase. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. as it were. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. She appeared. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . but strangely cold and shy and sombre. 7. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. while residing abroad. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. Advising with me. She rustled forward. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. of studying European society. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. often. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. 6. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession.

H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. 10. and acute too.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. though E. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. not seeing. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. and. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. while Paul. and perceived that it must be something important. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. which was deliberate. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. wondered what they were talking about. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. 11. was only half satisfied with this. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. could see he was remarkable. H. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. The agent became a very familiar type to H. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. 9. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. or at any rate not heeding. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. with his humorous density.’ 278 . was immensely struck with him. H. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off.

as he looked back. not glancing at him for a moment.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. But she gave him no chance. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 13. that the haunting wonder which now. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. appeared to fill his whole childhood. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. had the power to chain his sympathy. H. 14. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. which was very copious. 15. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure.

H. 17. disheveled and distracted. dragging herself on her knees. that she must be on the contrary. 16. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. ironically reserved. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. yet 280 . The whole establishment. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. It was very possible she was capricious. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. and to H. as a general thing. where the Pearl of Paraguay.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. 18. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. and there were others. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. At the theatre. proudly.

their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. young men were invited. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. No one ever listens to her. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. on which the damp breath of the streets. H. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. It came over H. *Old. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. had blown a certain chill. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. 3. and lurking within this nebulous design. 20. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. with the poor. 281 . didn’t mind. Their mistakes and illusions. 19. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 2. would always be more or less irritating./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her.

I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I saw her as a vision. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I walked fast. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 6. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 10. I was definitely going to be sick. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. striding like a Spartan maid./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 7. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. slipped on some steps. 8. 282 . her shining blue feet twinkling. I blundered by. Rachel. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Either John or he * have got to give in. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. her arms held out.Nadina VIŞAN 4. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. “Oh. 12. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. walking quickly. 11. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 9. 5. c) When I saw her sitting there.

The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.

if they were poor. could cook my meals. 5. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. And then I ventured to add that. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. which was really alarming. 4. where my servant. but that we saw and pitied. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 3. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. The old women spoke no English. 2. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 .

g.g. apart from his distress for parents. before they left town. How much. he. was anxious = was + anxious. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc. was anxious. Munt. at noon. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. apart form his distress for parents. Constituents: how much.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. would really hurt. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. this. his. etc. distress. to pay their annual visit. this would really hurt. Constituents: Margaret. etc.apart from his distress = apart from. was informed. to settle. had not been able to estimate. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house. Constituents: He. on Saturday. 285 .

/ If you like her. – non-assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. negative/ If you like jazz. interrogative./ She finally admitted.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. interrogative. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. and is non-assertive. negative. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – first clause is an ifclause. – first clause is non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question..SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. interrogative. – comparison. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). it is assertive.. negative/ Come with me. Second clause is an imperative. – assertive/ Don’t do that. The sentence is however 286 . positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive..semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. second clause is non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. which context is non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. listen to this. don’t bother her. – non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. which is not assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.

– I like somebody else. – someone did that. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. not even this thing.but to someone else. – someone hates animals./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / She does not hate animals. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. but it wasn’t them. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. but it isn’t Susan. everybody used to travel by coach./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He was smart enough. / You have never met 287 . – they told the truth to somebody else./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / They didn’t leave. not even when it’s quiet around./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. he was hardly pleased. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. but nothing out of the ordinary. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ When he learned the news. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ They weren’t really confused./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. only irresolute. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ Not long ago. but not more than she does others. / I don’t like her very much.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / She does like John. –double negation cancellation. the two brothers dared to protest./ Hardly interested in the conference./ He was exceptionally cunning. / He wasn’t unusually bright.

negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.. / This is hardly the 288 .negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.Nadina VIŞAN her. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. were they? / This boy is no good. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they go skiing in the mountains. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. not even when you were very young. not even in my dreams..negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye...negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.. – I cannot look him in the eye.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. I could hardly wait to hear the news.. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. – negative insertion.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. / Should they not have told her the truth.

– You haven’t eaten a thing. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / Few people came to see her. – I almost never look at those paintings. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – I don’t often look at her like that. when we started our holiday../ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – I never see her. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / I seldom look at her like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. but she also lent him a car.. – Almost nobody liked him. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – Not many people came to see her. / You’ve eaten hardly anything./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. Activity 8 I shall never./ We seldom receive such generous praise. never trust a man again. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path.. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.Never shall I trust a man again./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.

/ They say he once had someone very close. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / Don’t worry./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance./ I expect he won’t come here again. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. –At no time did we leave the office. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – Only on this man could she rely. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / She could rely on nobody but him. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – On no account must you touch this machinery. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. you can’t do anything about it any more. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain./ Well. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ I somewhat like his proposal. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – Nowhere could the keys be found. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / They believe she does not like them. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – I don’t expect he will come here again. you can still do something about it. – They don’t believe she likes them. – They say he never had anyone very close. – 290 .I don’t like his proposal at all. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Come on. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / Come on..

– You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. / You needn’t send her anything./ Bob is still living at that address./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – You can’t be telling lies. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. either. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / You must be telling lies. 291 . / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I can understand all of these ten English words.. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – You should send her something. / You must pay that fine. – She almost always comes here. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / Well. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – Well her husband has always been a good person. too. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. –Alice still lives here. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. / She hardly ever comes here. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t.

ever since I got this ulcer./ Norocul la noroc trage. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ They say this Ph./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. not yet./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ You took his leaving you very hard./ I don’t know a thing about her./ 292 .D./ Zis si facut. He isn’t that smart./ Have they rung the bell? No. give me a hand./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. Oh. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. e un magar. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ You look so tired today./ E un baiat de zahar. It’s no wonder. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ Nobody told us a thing. / Jim is so brave./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ He’s a happy man. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. I haven’t seen her in years. / Don’t go on believing him. has never studied anywhere. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. / Please./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Nimic de facut./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ Nu spune nu niciodata. He didn’t move a muscle. / He can’t have done a thing like that. to any of us. I haven’t done anything. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ He was a tough man./ N-are nici cap nici coada. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc.

Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .’/ Deloc descurajat. thrown out. I had never had the opportunity to prove. We had nothing in common. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. for I thought this threatening. parasi camera. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. I hadn’t really expected miracles. one way or another. feebly./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. no memory. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. nothing. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . with the same needs they had. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ Nu-i nici un deranj. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. slowly. without too much determination. 293 . • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. that I was a decent man.’ ‘Nici o problema.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.

Radu had calmed down. I was sleepy and tired. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. that’s what the world is about. on the front seat. Unfortunately.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. or if you understood what I meant. not as we would like it to be or some other way. he was sitting beside me. bad. he immediately answered me patronizingly. good. things you do any moment. I’d be so happy if it were so. clear or confusing. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. it’s not words. Not for a moment had I thought that. to say the least. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. let alone irritable. the only 294 . but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. • It was my turn to say something. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. We have to judge it as it is.. I admit. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. by coming here to the monastery. your story. You really made me mad. but facts. Your judgement is false. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. It’s not made up of theories and the like.

keep your conscience clean: you have one. fear might be hiding. no matter how huge they are. or you are lying hidden. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. But I was just wondering. me. But what about you and Melania. it’s your problem. I won’t interfere. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. you do as you think fit. as Baciu would have us be. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. soon we’ll be in town. and an inability to act. Look. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. either. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. keep it squeaky clean. although it was a difficult thing to do. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. • So. me. 295 . precious words. clears your way. just to please myself. too? A gun is power. did you ever step up front. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. behind these big. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. and if you like. to fight. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. it solves troubles. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. you can go to Ursu’s. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. it’s yours. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. Anyway. or call the respect of others. we are leaving. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control.

the sentence is incorrect 3.correct 3. . because before is a positive polarity item 2.incorrect. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. -correct 3. will he?. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Negative attraction b) 1.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Negative raising (transportation) f)1.. correlatives are mixed 2.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . She admires neither Susan nor Jane.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. . firmly determined not to answer immediately. but they gradually got used to it. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. – incorrect. has not arrived yet – double negation. has yet arrived -correct 2. as soon as he delivered it.. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . The villagers were not very religious. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. or some other woman. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. But it was not because I had no answer to give.Negative incorporation 296 .

Nu putea să se mişte. His spirit was too tired. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. nu era 297 . which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Avea sufletul prea obosit. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. either (NPI). b) But it was rather (API) late. she couldn’t marry him. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Her stillness. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid. not happy at all (NPI). (ibid. yet. much less ((NPI) for her. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el.) Însă era cam târziu. Ştia că are dreptate. prea răscolit. too troubled. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca.

inima îi batea năvalnic.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. The Satanic Verses.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. (ibid. if anything (NPI). cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. and not a little unsteadily. he made his way to the screen.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. (Salman Rushdie. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. şi destul de hotărât. Ba dimpotrivă. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. his heart was beating fast. she looked younger than ever (NPI). Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (ibid. (ibid. e) At length. se îndreptă spre paravan. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. 298 .

the gift was useless.) C. Home receded from the prodigal son. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. The point was. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. i) What did C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. care if the school were willing to treat him. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. but his father would have none of it (NPI). He wrote to his father refusing the offer. and probably an administrative headache as well. h) C. (ibid. 299 . sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Ce-i pasă lui C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make.

correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. 300 . correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. .

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. She has an eye for gentle men. to make them lust after her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. and then what do you 308 . Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. all godfearing husbands and fathers. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. keep Condrat away from her. Fenia. Luca Horobet. 2. Stavre Paici. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. they were. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Fenia. now she was chatty. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. do you really think that this vixen. she didn’t wear a ring. Chizlinski. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. you are in enough trouble as it is. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. the bitch. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. yes. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Vica. she likes to entrance them. “Now.

Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. G.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. have a girlfriend. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. with a railway station and a mosque. her hair pinned with blue combs. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. what’s her name.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. a seventy-eight year old lad. It even takes him a while to go to the window. dragging his feet listlessly. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. 3. 4. the minister of Tartars and Turks. The mullah. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . He got him out of his mosque. ankle-long flowered calico. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter.

tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.

– phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. yellow and blue. and I passed. John and Mary are ready.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination 2. – sentence coordination 7. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. Her pet kitten is black and white. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.. Our flag is red. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John is ready and Mary is ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .) 9.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white..Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . John and Mary are the newly married couple. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. our respective examinations.phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.

but John does not play football. 3. 8. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. plays football. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 5. Activity 4 1. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 9. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 10. 2.) Joan plays many games. many guest or few. her idea and John’s. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. much satisfaction or little 312 . and even tennis. that method and those. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. but not John. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. her son and others. 7. 6. your proposal and his.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. We can and will demand payment. Activity 5 This book and the other.

Wear and tear 12. The facts and figures 3. 8. Safe and sound 313 . Bread and butter 16. Over and above 13. 5. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Life and soul 5. Few and far between 14. 7.) 6. 4. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. 3. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Thick and thin 11. but not simple. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Activity 8 1. High and low 2. To and fro 15. I have always fought and will fight for progress. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Touch and go 10. He read. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. (I have always fought for progress and always will. magazines are only for children. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Ups and downs 6. etc. Swings and roundabouts 7. Spick and span 9.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. He snapped at him and slapped him. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Law and order 8. Pros and cons 4.

Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 6. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Symmetric 13. My son and daughter are twins. 2. 8. exclusive 17. 7. Asymmetric 20.symmetric 11.. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 6. – similar situation 9. b. 3. 3. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 4. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Either the child or the parents are to blame. My son and heir is safe. 2. 8. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 4. 9. 5. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 9. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 10. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 7. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Symmetric 21.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – symmetric 2. Asymmetric 19. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. inclusive 16. exclusive 15. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 10. 1. Cathy and David have arrived. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 5. – symmetric. 314 . – symmetric. – symmetric.

for better or worse. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. We’ll stick together. 7. (2) 1. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. Her husband is long dead and buried. They came to me. By hook or by crook. clothes and all. 3. Brother or no brother. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. Jim thought it over for a while. 5. 6. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. He’s neither fish. 12. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 9. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. nor fowl. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. ‘Madam. it was too small. 2. 8. 15. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. There are doctors and doctors. 4. 2. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 10. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 11. No drinking and driving. 3. 14. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. thanks for asking. He went to bed. I’ll still finish this paper. Should he pour water in the basin. Not only should you rest 315 . or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1.

triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. so he could leap in pursuit. at equal intervals. their common ground. but she blinks in approval. Her first husband had been a professor. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. it would work out fine. You know. They hadn’t kept him there too long. he’d leap high. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth.Nadina VIŞAN assured. an important man.’ (3) 1. as she always does. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. So she’ll listen to him. both dead and buried. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. what’s its name. he starts lecturing her about life and things. and she listens to him. she knows for sure. she started doing a great job. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. and then. Whatever she tried her hand at. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. just like when he was thirty. 316 . Mrs. tense with concentration. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. From time to time she will launch a helping question. And. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. What do you know? The moment Mrs. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. but he’d come out a cripple. without mentioning financial matters. 2. This. stop dead in his tracks. tense like a bow.

functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. – she. at me Activity 2: 1. cannot tell.subordinate.subordinate. – she. – Susan.subordinate. she looked at me sadly. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – she. told. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. you. about her problems at home After I told her the story. whomever wanted to listen. looked. is aware. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as an adjunct 2. came. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – obligatory elements: I.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.

functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. at our age.subordinate. that you are choosing exile . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . since the main verb is think of something) 5.complement b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN 4. remove our home yet again .subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.subordinate. that we should. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .

direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. a house. direct object b) to dry it – complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement.complement. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. a barn.

wh complement.A few days before the war. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object/ and done – wh complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Activity 5 1. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. When Anton put the sickle down. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. direct object. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. But other people. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. direct object/ to sit there – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. staring at each other. (…) He dashed back. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . without straightening her back. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. (…) ‘Well. sickle in hand. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that.

rather than a real threat. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. For no bold man really falters. 2. Not even at this point. 3. which he doesn’t rely on completely. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. he will turn back and no longer be daring. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. 321 . or if he does. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. you need courage even for this small thing. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. or other more hidden means. but he doesn’t spurn either. that was for sure. while on other occasions he would show caution. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. as if they were at his beck and call. First. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. Ana could not stand a trip now. Why! He was not of two minds. but also his sharp nose.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. while they spoke from miles away. Only he had Ana to think of. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard.

let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. without really knowing why. and on Monday followed another feast). to see some mutual friends. In fact. and when things didn’t go as planned. come on.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. 322 . And here’s how this first day looked. are we getting off again? What is wrong. So. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. We were going to drive to a vineyard. under the silliest of pretexts. in Odobesti. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. 4. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. they would ruin the arrangement. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. and twice we were requested to get out. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. although he could have said so earlier. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. it was the women. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. by the cars of some of us. he had postponed writing back. But it was not ok. Twice did we get in the car.

7. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . These are people who we cannot tell much about.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. most of whom were from England. 4.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. John told his friend a story about the king. Activity 2 1. The students. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. which was a pity.restrictive 7.restrictive 2. 2. 6. which was silly of him.free 8. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 9. like their teacher. all of whom would answer to his questions. 7. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 10. where I spent my youth .restrictive 6. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. Activity 3 1. why they all left . 5. 8. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 6. any of whom would answer to questions. He told her the secret. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. on which this occurred . Who are you writing this letter to? 9. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. where I least expected 323 . The students like their teacher. 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2.restrictive 4. This is my husband whom I love very much. 5. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 8. 11. who was just passing by.She came to London where I went too. You couldn’t join the party. 10. when we first met . who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 4. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 3. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.

When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. 2. 4. What Inman remembered – subject. I. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.subject 8. 6. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.free 9. Where . what their parents made them.restrictive 10. You. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. Why .subject 9. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. where – predicative 7. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.adjunct 3. Where he was from – adjunct. Who . Where . the prince chose Cinderella. What – direct object 2. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Activity 5 1. What I’m saying – subject. Of all the persons there. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who think so highly of yourselves. which . Which – subject 4. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. when . when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . come up front. was very displeased with the situation. 7.When Ada remarked – adjunct.free Activity 4 1. 5.adjunct 6. however sad . When . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. 3. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. who cannot say a word.adjunct 10.adjunct 11. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.Nadina VIŞAN . where we talk money – predicative. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.adjunct 5.

which is ungrammatical due to the[. what .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . whatever – predicative 13.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. what little she knew – direct object. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. which requires an accusative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. how .attribute 12. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.

the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. but whose second cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. a rather tiny looking man. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . due to its invariable character. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. got married and had a daughter. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. having changed quite a number of jobs. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a sergeant. in his turn. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose great-grandfather. who.

.His father’s friends. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. His friends. were now all gone. – yes. no easy answers to which could be offered. .Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . – yes 2. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. In the interest of public decency.yes 3. – no pied piping 327 . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. was now complete. The problem of safe transportation. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. . – no pied piping 5.obligatory 4. – no 4. – yes 6. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. Irene. This story. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. – obligatory pied piping 2. has been troubling them forever. he requested that the public be excluded.yes Activity 9 1. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no 9. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. with deletion of the noun friends]. he rarely saw now. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. .The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.no 5. .obligatory 3.yes 7. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.yes 10. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.

for instance. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. the third born son. 3.and he couldn’t thank me enough. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 7. irrespective of age and nature. where two teams battled every day… 5. or as of a vast arena. Nelu. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 328 . Everything was ending. For twenty years. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 4. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. yours. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. I am to be envied. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . Only an ugly endless dream remained. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. In other people’s opinion. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. I did so. 8. 6. For all the four children. 2.

14. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. leaving streets and houses behind. from MR street. since I don’t really know which my true life is. 16. which was why he saw Dora very far away. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 12. 11. Let me tell you my last conclusion.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9.R. He was suffering from dizziness. on Icoanei street. 10. Behind them. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 17. 329 . where from Marta was coming too. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 13. 15. she said. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. All that you have read is rubbish. although she was standing quite close to him. the tram was rattling along. What you’re saying sounds very nice. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. barely glittering in the distance. staring aimlessly. You are newly arrived here. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one.

But. or the clash of stars above. She was a woman of means. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. after the car was fixed. or the many Egyptian dynasties. While some trees are still green. 21. 20.Nadina VIŞAN 18. 22. who prompted everyone on the street. likes and dislikes. I could see my woman falling away from me. While we were poor. If he had hit me. So. 23. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 24. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. But for me. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 330 . so optimistic and composed? 19. which I did not posses. had a personal style in clothes. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. day by day. From the vantage point I was in. I don’t know what might have happened. who only lived once in this world. in her pursuits. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. had a huge house in Bucharest.

It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. direct object 10. – extraposed. subject 4. object 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . direct object 3. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It was suggested that they should meet the President. subject 8. subject 7. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – unextraposed. 331 . Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 9.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – the same as 3. – impossible 7. – extraposed. 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. 6.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 3. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. subject 2. object 5. for pragmatic reasons 5. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 8. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – extraposed. – extraposed. – questionable.

I guess it that he will come back. It is nice to meet you. – impossible. a bit too intricate 5. 9. – grammatical. .grammatical. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – the same as 12. – incorrect. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. – impossible. . – same as 12. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Activity 3: 1.incorrect. – impossible.grammatical.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 14. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. – impossible 11. 18. but pragmatically impossible 3. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. although a bit intricate 2. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. same as 12. same as 12. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. . but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – correct 2. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. but pragmatically impossible 4. It is no use trying to convince her. 17. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – grammatical. 15. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – grammatical. idiomatic formula 16.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They never expected it that he would come back. 10. tense influences the 332 .correct 4. – impossible. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.

Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. – correct 6. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. 2. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. though.’ 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 3. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). (Not always. thus. in the pits on the road. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. 5. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. under bridges. 333 . in the ditch. behind gates.’ Lionel says. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.incorrect.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.

prime-minister. 7. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. By saying this. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. It is less ambiguous than the first. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift.Nadina VIŞAN 6. without trying to protest too much. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. – the second sentence is questionable.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. Activity 7 1. 4. – the first sentence is the better of the two. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. since the 334 . / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 2. 8. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. because it is less ambiguous. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. who had just returned from Africa. 3. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.

/*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 7. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. extraposition is obligatory here. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. so there is no need for extraposition. 5. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 8. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. – both sentences are grammatical. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 6./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. The second and third sentences are grammatical. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 335 .

required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – subject.relative Activity 9 1. .complement 4. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 3. .) complement that clauses. – relative 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – complement 2. required by deverbal noun 336 . for better or worse. – direct object. – complement 5. – complement that clause. . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. – adverbial of sequence/result. . (Iris Murdoch. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. coordinated.We discovered that our map has disappeared. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. they were chained to each other forever. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. The idea that he had had earned him good money.) adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. – prepositional object. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.prepositional object.

– that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. that they were not too late to leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. that deletion is obligatory. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. you want me to believe. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that is obligatory. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant.

John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – both sentences are grammatical. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. c. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. b. – grammatical sentences.

quail. hawk. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. lark. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. present perfect instead of past perfect. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. cenuşii şi albe. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. geese both grey and white. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. – generalization on habits of birds. present instead of simple past. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. ciocârlii şi şoimi. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. prepeliţe. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow.

a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). love of practical jokes. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. She admired their keenness of wit. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. slyness in a fight. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. as evidenced by its drear plumage. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Crows will relish what presents itself. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. lack of pridefulness. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. lipsa de vanitate. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. The generic present is used in this case. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case.

ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Murise în picioare. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. tragică şi eroică. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. in the very act of expiring. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. he claimed. se ridicase în picioare. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. But as the battle raged around them. He had fought hard through the war. tânărul ofiţer. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. El căzuse pe spate. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. the young officer. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He died erect.

Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. în închisoare.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. But when he reached me. the oldest. Luptase din răsputeri în război. I realized I could not tell him the big news. deşi era erou de război. to finish my drawing. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). mother went home and I was left alone. When he saw me. And they might just hang him. Activity 13 1. 2. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. They all had their hands in their pockets. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. around seventeen or eighteen years old. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. he closed the album. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. One of them. 342 . şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. war hero though he was. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. How can I explain? I just felt shy. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. A short while later. – similar situation to the one under (c). When the boys saw that mother had left. susţinea el. Acum stătea aici. Now here he stood jailed. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. they gathered around my desk.

or if she would do so again. brightly and closely. as if he had been drunk. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. 6. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. for her vineyard. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. All his senses were now keen. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. 4. or fear his rage. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.’ 5. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things.’ Mr. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.

10. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. The last time when we met here you scared me. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. thinking of him. 7. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 8. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . 9. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. And if things were so. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great.Nadina VIŞAN to him. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. claiming you had no ambition for the future. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 11. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.

He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. 14. 13. without putting anything in a note. which secretly drove him. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. We either sell them or we don’t. namely the impatience of this young man. more urgently than ever. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. where he would run to confess everything. 12.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. towards Jurubita. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital.

– simple infinitive. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 10. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 6. 9.. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. grammatical 7. – infinitive continuous.simple infinitive. grammatical 3. / He had Mary clean her room. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It is vital this factory to be reopened. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / they saw her leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. – perfect infinitive. . / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. grammatical 2. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. grammatical. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 346 . grammatical 5. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. / He was forced to send Tom on the front.

] – Accusative + Infinitive. you need to try harder. Test: * I would like people.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ I would love [ them to come. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: She promised him. Test: *I allowed them. Test: *They did not wish her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I want to never see you again.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. – Test: He persuaded her. / It is not too late for him to learn.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. \ She promised him PRO to leave. Test: *I would love them. – Test: They tempted him. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ I allowed [them to come. \ They did not wish [her to come back. Test: *She wanted him. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *They would have hated her. – Test: They convinced her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. – Test: They asked her.

Activity 6 Oh. / I have a word to tell you. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / He is hard to stand. . . / He is easy to live with. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. not to miss the train. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / He is young enough to start again. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. I don’t need you or your services. / Oh. . / I want you to leave my house. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.Nadina VIŞAN for years. . / He is easy to talk to. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / I have never known how to behave in her presence.obligatory subject control verb 348 .

It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. he didn’t envy those above it. 349 . He suspected hostility at once. 1] A little crossly. Predicative 4 . though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2].to. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Harold. 1 – PRO-to. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. 1 – PRO. Both seemed to him a little unreal. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. so that we might get to the future and have done. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Accusative + Infinitive. Subject. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Subject. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. If he himself was out of spirits. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.

more meaningful. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. PRO controlled by ‘me’. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. f) The passing time is important. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. PRO controlled by ‘she’. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. c) Unlike plane trips. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. 350 . more believable than evidence itself. e) When two persons.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. man and woman. true. 1 – PRO-to. excitedly. But when we need to comfort others. object 2 – PRO –to. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. And you might also be hit and humiliated. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. PRO controlled by ‘she’. we seem to forget about our own pain. One day. direct object 3 – PRO –to. cautiously. slowly. or better said. PRO controlled by ‘him’. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing.

351 . Stroescu. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. my wish being only to please and serve. in the street. He had not been able to leave Dr. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. not to want to wipe it off. If it was summer. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. h) I want us to go. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. even when this love is hurried. as he had appeared to him in the rain. k) With this considerable dowry. That is it. while swearing to change my way of life. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. for instance. I am indeed praising my own merits. or. which he had already forgotten. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. or their talk that night. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. to live only with your coughing. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Mrs. And I would care for this man so deeply. S. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. And to actually start to believe you are so. not even those parts where he had been half-right. that you are young. all down our neck. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. tickled by the trickles of sweat. Moroi says heavily.

for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. no matter what. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. for that’s the door people get off by. If you will have what I can give you. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. met by squalor and terrible smells. poor Muti. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). every Bucharester knows it. haphazardly. 352 . or to speak so fast. here I am with all of my own. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. she was suddenly so shocked. ready to submit to any demand. Well. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before.

what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. badly beaten and bloodied. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. with its lips drawn back.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. 353 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE ./ She sent him shopping. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there../ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. / They found it thrown in a corner. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. – Attributive past participle./ Don’t keep him waiting. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.

Accusative + present participle / In any case. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 6. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Attributive present participle./ Running into the room. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. having been uprooted by the gale. – Attributive present participle. 10.Running into the room. he sat down to his own dinner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. – As she was running into the room. 3. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. Having fed the dog. having heard it all before. 8. Sleeping in the next room. Activity 4 1. 4. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 2. Having looked through the fashion magazine.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Turning on the light. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 7. I was astonished at what I saw. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 9. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Finding the treasure. The tree had fallen across the road. I slammed the door of my room. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. they began quarreling about how to divide it. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 5. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.

the sea was tossing it up and down. Tied to the post. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. / Climbing down the tree. – As he was climbing down the tree. my hands often get very cold. stony-hearted. a scorpion bit him. Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. a pot of paint fell on my head. one of the eggs broke. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. fishy-eyed. Riding in the first race. his horse fell at the last jump. bald-headed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As he was tied to the post. one of the eggs broke. an idea suddenly occurred to me. open-minded. Getting out of bed. – As I was passing under a ladder. 11. sharp-eyed/minded. I let it out of the room. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 7. a scorpion bit him. red-handed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 3. 5. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Leaving the cinema. a pot of paint fell on my head. Barking furiously. three-coloured. he broke one of the eggs. he was bit by a scorpion. empty-headed./ Reading in bed. / Getting out of bed. – When I read in bed. broad-shouldered. – As he was riding in the first race. – As the dog was barking furiously. 2. I often get very cold hands. – As he was getting out of bed. I let the dog out of the room. 9. cloth-covered. Passing under a ladder. Reading in bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. wooden-headed. 4. Dropped by parachute. narrow-minded. – As he left the cinema. lion-hearted. 6. his horse fell at the last jump. many-coloured. my hands often get very cold. 10. 355 . 12. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 8.

(hunt). shaven head. (grow) 4. drunken man. I stared at the canvas for ages.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. open-hearted. are sold throughout the world. is expected to be a great hit. 356 . ill-gotten wealth. were taken to hospital. Activity 8 1. / Three people. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. shrunken stream. (injure). / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. The film. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead.Spielberg. was today taken back to prison. admired for their elegance and precision./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. roast meat. Activity 7 1. hunting for a bargain.I fell on the ice. / Many old people. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. lighted candle. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. 7. hidden meaning. The escaped prisoner. (admire) 5. stricken deer. dark-skinned. graven image. injured when their car crashed on the M1. produced by S. found hiding in a barn. (find) 6. bounden duty. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. straight-shouldered. / Swiss watches. mown grass. eagle-eyed. shorn lamb. are in grave danger of extinction. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. injuring my arm. sunken eyes. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (produce) 3. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (take) 2. Whales. rotten plank.

the fish. thrown in the pots. now taken down. 357 . acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. and moreover. its scales scraped off by the knife. hovering uncertain and soft. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. yet left them room to sway free. flat and soft. then put up. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. suddenly suffocated. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. streaked with yellow veins of fat. sprinkled with sticky flour. the twice rinsed vegetables. he were struggling for breath. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. After a while. So. 3. 2. A parasol. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. in charge of his house and lands. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. And his soul. seeking some promised land. boil them. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. He felt close to his father. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. forcing him to ponder over their meaning.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. he started peering anxiously around as if. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. bake them. 4. the carved chicken. and the puffed pastry beds.

/ She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / After annoying the shop-assistant. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. – gerund (subject) 4./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. – participle (attribute) 2. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. Activity 10 1. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. – Accusative + participle 3. he left the store without buying a thing. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day.gerund 5. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / I told him not to bother putting things back. .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I am sorry for being so late. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea.

participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – gerund (attribute. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. . They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – Nominative + participle 13. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. He was spotted talking to her. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 8. possessive ING (predicative) 7.participle vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. preceded by preposition). participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (half or full.possessive ING (direct object) 9. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12.

adjective. however appearances were against us. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – gerund (full. adjective. hold up his pen and speak. Croom to try to follow one. my Lord. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.verbal noun (has determiner.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. – gerund or verbal noun. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. but they went by too quickly. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.’ ‘Tell me. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her..verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (has adjective).’ 360 . – verbal noun (has determiner. take down her answer. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. Lady Corven.

suddenly. he addressed the note. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘I do hate asking for things. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.’ 361 . I must go back now. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. it’s overrated. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. Then. I spend all my time hunting a job. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.’ said Clare. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. my Lord.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. I just used the word and they fell. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. and went out to post it himself.

First the crack snaking (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. after verb of perception. following the verb ‘remember’. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. someone looking for survivors (participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. elliptical here. gerund. attribute. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. adverbial of time. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. slowly rising (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. the enormous split in the earth. village which is burning). stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) from below. slightly 362 . attribute). Has a complex subject) in the hole. the very earth opening up (half gerund. (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. …while their edges were crashing inwards). direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. At first. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. The two sides were moving apart. The collapsing shops (participle. direct object) towards him. functions as direct object) and then the ground. attribute). attribute. hoping (participle. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. It was like a mist. He looked up towards the daylight. down. attribute. direct object). then the noise and the cracking stone.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. down into God knows where. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. attribute. The sight of the two children.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. covering (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. direct object).’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. according to the books he read. etc.). has ‘of’ phrase). adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. you. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. i. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. early. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. one. my dear. moving up (participle. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of reason). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.e.

and sunlight. and everything got suddenly animated. we were all gathered in that room. adverbial of manner). Vaucher and I. Young Mamona left the room without a word. mother. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. Having a French governess (participle. slanted on to her cheek. attribute) a sudden whoop. So. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). Standing up. attribute) stopped dead. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. preceded by preposition. which beckoned to 364 . reluctant or not. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. for Dornford was busy on an important case. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. brightening (participle. And. attribute) to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. and then went riding (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. examining (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. the two Mamonas. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. She finished what jobs there were. adverbial of reason).

2. 3. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. his disloyal apprentice. and ended his life in the year 1821. as mother had ordered him. let alone greet us or say something. And then. sitting in his puddle. Not so unimaginable though. about sparing no effort. to me. 4. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. he went to mother and. bending a little. He cast us a swift glance. And. So when Old Mamona came in. he found us sitting each in his place. closing my eyes. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. and to Young Mamona. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. too. each carrying a wooden box.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. and smelling so hard of rain. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . kissed her forehead. Entering our house on a Thursday. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. I knew who it would be. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. about concentrating all our resources. killed by Young Mamona. for anyway. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. in the year 1812. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. Vaucher might have known that too. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. her back towards us. who knows. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. without taking his sack off his shoulders. to Vaucher. he looked like someone who did.

Reach that place they did one sunny morning.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. everything seemed familiar. And suddenly. 5. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. But. already seen and heard. of taking notes and rewriting them. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. as an afterthought. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. each pausing before jumping down. And all around them was the great field 366 . the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. wood pile. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. stove. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. futile. long board table. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. barrack. They got off the truck slowly. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand.

The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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