Sentence Processes v1 | Clause | Linguistic Typology

NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. titularizare şi grad.de rezolvări. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

Complementary distribution .5.3. Insertion 1.1. Constituent Phrase 1. Auxiliary verbs 1.6. The Distribution of an Element 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.Contents: 8 1.2.4.

Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. that is sequences fragmented at random. very much.1. Consequently. 1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. loves. For instance. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).2. sequences of the kind her mother very. Semantic. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Syntactic. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. They are just strings. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. her mother.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan.

be). An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. 1.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.3. must.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. etc. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).) 10 . The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. an order given to an interlocutor). (Mi-a spus secretul. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. 1. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.4. we are dealing with a directive (i. should.e.

that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. an ‘empty’ there subject. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. etc. Consider.) 1.5. for instance.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.6. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. live. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. 1. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret.

using your own examples: insertion. complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Munt. as the star indicates. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. 12 . distribution. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. pragmatic. he had not yet been able to estimate. syntactic. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. this would really hurt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much. semantic. Pratice Define and illustrate. whereas (7) is not.

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .

Instances of negation 2. Negative vs.1.8.7.6.2. Key terms . Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Tests for negativity 2. affirmative sentences. Conclusion. Polarity Items 2.2.5. Key terms 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.3.4. Full – local negation 2.

Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. it asserts something. Negative . a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Positive vs. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. in that they do not state anything. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .) is said to be an assertion.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2.Declarative vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a. in the sense that it states something. Consequently.2. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . For instance.

/ We didn’t come here just to talk.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. don’t bother her./ She can’t wait to read that book.) . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / Come with me. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.interrogative (e. Did they tell her the secret? ) . comparison.positive sentence . / She finally admitted.negative (e. They told her the ( e.g. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) ./ If you like her./ Don’t do that.) .Nadina VIŞAN .g.non-assertion .assertion . 16 .other (if –clauses. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. listen to this.g. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive and declarative secret.

am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (John e nefericit. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. For example.) b. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).Unit two Sentence negation 2. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. In the case of the sentences under (4).) 17 . whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. Susan doesn’t like her friends. John is not happy. Susan dislikes her friends. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. I met a girl named Susan. John is unhappy.) b. since the negative word not is not present there. word negation.3. (Nu demult. (John nu e fericit) (4) a.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not.

In other words. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) b. more precisely the phrase it is part of. these sentences look negative.) c. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. but their meaning tells us a different story. He was not without intelligence.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. just like in the case of word negation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. where the word 18 . since the negative word not is present inside them. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. I was not a little worried.

Translate the following sentences into English./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. without intelligence./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / Când a aflat vestea. semantic negation. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.

/ Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. affirmative sentences. ci doar indecişi.4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. Negative vs. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. dar nu în mod special. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. 2. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală.

whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. such as do insertion. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (Nu m-am dus acolo. For instance. etc. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).1. (M-am dus acolo.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. (see subsection 1.). syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.

nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / We don’t come here often. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. 22 . / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / She does not hate animals. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. incorrect./ They didn’t leave. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan did not get married to Jim. / I don’t like her very much.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim.

even the smart ones. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. *and neither do they like her. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. not even the smart ones. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. . * and they don’t like her either. and they don’t like her either. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. *not even the smart ones. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. 4. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative. and neither do they like her. 3. which is ungrammatical. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.

2. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / No problems were caused after all. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / A few of them stayed behind. In conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. they go skiing in the mountains.5. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / They caused us no problems. / You have never met her. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / This boy is no good. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Few of them stayed behind.

(27) a . Susan could not go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (N-a venit John). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 .Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. I went nowhere. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object.

All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. 26 .) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. I didn’t go anywhere. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) c. I didn’t see anybody. Not all that glitters is gold. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) (29) a.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (N-am văzut nici un student. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. No day passed without me thinking of him. I didn’t see any student.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. I never went to his place. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. no incorporation takes place. All that glitters is not gold.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) b. b.

(Nu citesc romane. / He should not be released.) We seldom watch T. / None of them liked house music. etc. not even short ones. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / Not many women are famous opera composers./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not a word fell from her lips. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / I didn’t see anybody. barely. / No one ever listens to her. . / Not one of them came to meet her. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. seldom. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1./ They never went there. and we don’t go to the theatre either. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. nici măcar din alea scurte.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / I saw nobody. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / I showed him nothing.) They barely read any novels.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. scarcely.4. rarely./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.V.

/ I seldom look at her like that.) d. / Hardly anybody liked him.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) 28 them. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) c. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. . Hardly have they heard a thing like that.) b. / I scarcely ever see her. Never have I met a more horrible person. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.

/ The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / You must on no account touch this machinery. in the sense that the 29 . negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. never trust a man again. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We seldom receive such generous praise.) They don’t think that he likes them. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.

cannot appear in an affirmative context. / I expect he won’t come here again. etc. / I suppose she doesn’t care.6. ought to. although not negative in meaning. etc. intend. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. She doesn’t like our chairman at all.) b.) 30 . should be desirable. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. expect. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. the negative meaning is less strong. imagine. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. etc. be likely. In sentence (37). be supposed to. suppose. appear. suggest. guess. probability. barely. sound/feel like. advise. / They believe she does not like them. 2. we can very well say something like: (38) a.: think. For example.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. want. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. intention. choose. believe. seem. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. / He reckoned he would not win her over. be probable. look like. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.

It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. b. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. *She likes our chairman at all. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. and sentences such as: (39) a. are clearly not grammatical. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă.2. That is 31 . This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence).Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.*She lifted a finger to help me.

/ I somewhat like his proposal. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. a lot (I don’t like you much. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. still (I don’t love you any more. / I can understand both of these 32 . either. / I like you a lot. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Don’t worry. some (I haven’t any money. / I eat caviar most of the times. / He arrived before 5. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) At all vs. / I like it . / I have already seen him. / I still love you) Either vs. / Well. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / You needn’t send her anything. / She hardly ever comes here. already (I haven’t seen him yet.). you can still do something about it.) Hardly ever vs. / Come on. / Well. too. too. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / They say he once had someone very close.) Yet vs.) Much vs. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Bob is still living at that address.) Until vs. too (I don’t like it.) Any more vs. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. etc.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I have some money. / I somehow like him.

/ A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. Translate into English. leave a stone unturned. / Ajută-mă. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. bat an eye(lid). mulţumesc. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. say / breathe/ understand a word. have a care/ friend in the world.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. turn a hair. find a trace. / I nearly always have to clean it myself./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Peter knows some English and so does John. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. know a single person. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. de când cu 33 ./ I can understand all of these ten English words. hear a peep. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. give a damn/darn. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. have/be worth a red cent. lay a finger on someone. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. touch a drop. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. see/ feel/ remember a thing. last a minute. sleep a wink. Ion nu e prea deştept. / You must pay that fine. / You must be telling lies. hurt a fly. crack a smile. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. nici unuia dintre noi. flinch. move a muscle. lift/raise/ stir a finger. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge.

B: Aşi. / No admittance. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. budge. încercând să prindă criminalul. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. Translate into Romanian. / No man is wise all the time. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Hotărât lucru. nu e vina mea. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Never is a long word. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Not that I care. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No trouble at all. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / I had no end of trouble. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / He is no end of a fellow. but you really should do something about it. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. he’s a pig. he left the room. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / He won’t make old bones. / No hands wanted. / Nothing succeeds like success. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. n-a sunat încă. / No entry. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No sooner said than done.

In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Normally. N-am văzut pe nimeni. / I hate making any commitments.7. 2. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. say it. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it.Unit two Sentence negation rather). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. as well: 35 . Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. c) He is anxious to say something. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API)./ I saw no one.

One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. The second negation is somehow independent. 36 . mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. however.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. (Nu. nu îmi place poezia asta.) 2. nu poezia asta. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. nu-mi place. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.8. from a syntactic point of view. I don’t. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. Conclusion. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Key terms. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. B: Not this poem. I don’t like this poem. B: Nu. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

e.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 . interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.

Key Terms.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3.2.3.1. Optional Exercises . Direct vs.2 Wh.Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.2.4.3 Alternative Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.2.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.

for a subsequent section. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. If we try to analyze the examples above.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.Unit three Questions 3. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. focusing on direct questions mainly.1.

48 . Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. pe mama. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. (3) and (4). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. (2).g. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.

Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. because. Likewise. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. 49 . and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. in this case. In the case of indirect questions. Since the question is not direct any more. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). the sequence of the tenses is violated.

/ He asked me who she is. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. ce culoare are pielea. spune la un moment dat femeia. sau mai bine zis. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. identify the incorrect sentences. / I don’t know who she is. / He asked me who she was. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. c) Ştii ce. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta.

being typical of spoken language. the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows.2. Let us provide 51 .Unit three Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. In this case.

1. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.2. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. 3.

(20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. it has. they did. (Da). (Da). are said to be positively – oriented. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones.

A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. A: Your mother is shouting for you.. …………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. 7. 4. 6. 2. (speak yet) B: ……. 3. …….. A: You look down. …………………………….. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. as in the example: 1. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. I’ve still got plenty of time.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . but I want to play basketball a little longer. because you always copy everything I do! 5. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: You’ve been learning German for years.. ……………? (hear her) B: …. .

I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . I didn’t get home until late last night. 3. . 9. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . what .Unit three Questions B: …………………. 8. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. ………………………………. 10..2 Wh – questions Wh. .. A: It’s past your bedtime. how. which When.. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….2. where. A: There was a terrible car crash. You could have mentioned it earlier.

/ Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. trying to find places where I resided in life. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. I cannot do that. Nearly two hundred years.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / That’s my pen. / My new car cost 10./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / David’s car was stolen. (Poppy Z./ Sara owns two cars. / There are six students in my class. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are./ She dropped her glasses./ I have French lessons twice a week.000dollars. what ever. / Kay’s gone out shopping. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. of course. why ever. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / Shirley got married to Ben. / She lives in the suburbs. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 .

de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.2.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 . Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.

How far is it the cinema? 10. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. He used to work in a bank.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 3. There was a fax for you this morning. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Let’s stay for another few days. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. You can’t be serious. shall we stay? 7. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Who did left the gate open? 18. He used to work in a bank. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. How long is she be spending in America? 15. shall we stay? 14. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. wasn’t it there? 17. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. didn’t use he? 11. didn’t use he? 4. can you be? 58 . Let’s stay for another few days.

How long have you be lived in London? 26. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. plin de germeni virulenţi. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Pot reveni. wasn’t it he? 22. doesn’t he go? 23. ca şi cei ce au fost. will you not? 21. Whose it is this book? 32. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. despre o lume dură. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. neliniştea infantilă.Unit three Questions 19. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Toate vechi. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. Ani întregi. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. That was Jeremy’s brother. să-mi înfrâng frica. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. isn’t it this? 25. That’s your car. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. How long time does it take to get there? 28. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. deci. deci. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. will you not? 27. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. dacă prin absurd 59 . Who did told you about the problem? 31. John goes jogging every morning. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. uneori disperat.

mă întreb. B. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. murdar. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. neîntrerupt. “Spune! striga el. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. îi ştiu gustul. puturos. lung. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . naiv. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. indiferent de risc. laşii. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Şi. iar proştii. Riscul? Ratarea. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. dar şi drumul. pe care oricum am simţit-o. străină priceperii lor. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. inactivii. de atunci. negru. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. ghiceam doar unde se află. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. pe sub bolţile din care. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. picură apa roşietică. umed.

chiar când prin absurd aş putea. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. care i-a determinat alegerea. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. domnule profesor. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. exclus. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. golul alb. da? (37) Let’s go there. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.3. la urma urmei. nu se poate. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. didn’t she? . da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. 3.1.3. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English.Unit three Questions viaţă. viaţa? Oare e drept. orbitor. Tag Questions Tag questions. will you? (38) She went to Prague.

The suggestion is that in this case. In this way. it’s all spent. if the host sentence is negative. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. aren’t they? 62 . au fost cheltuiţi. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. sarcasm.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. hasn’t she? (Aha. is it? (Deci. (Din păcate. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. au fost cheltuiţi. or falling. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. the tag is negative too). the tag is affirmative too. or “comment tags”. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i.) A: Oh. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa.e.

/ I am older than you. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / The boy often watched his sister. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / She left an hour ago. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Few people like her. / She has a brother. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / He simply hates empty words. / I think you like my music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / A few people like her. / I may see you tomorrow. / I don’t think you like my music. / He has to marry Susan. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I am dressed smartly enough. after all.…/ Let me know. / I may not see you tomorrow. 63 . / I think you don’t like my music. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / You will pick me up at 7. / There is enough food for everyone. / Surely you have enough money. / You have been invited. / Don’t leave without me. / The boy never watched his sister. / Let’s eat dinner now. / He hates his wife. / You will pick me up. / That’s your car over there. / I must go now. / They said he liked music. / Tell me. / Each of us is staying. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / You ought not to smoke. / That was your father. / She used to talk a lot. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul.

5.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. So you enjoyed my talk. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. or what? 3. / He never used to study so hard…. using a question tag at the end. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one./ I’m right about this…. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. He used to play squash.

) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.3.2.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.1.1. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.2. Recapitulatory echo questions . recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.questions which repeat part or all of the message.) B: Chinese? 65 .) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. / Grants… 3.

of something just said.3.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.2. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. consternation. (Închide lumina aia. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.phrase is fronted. If the wh. rather than the repetition.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.2. disbelief. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.

) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. intonation is rising./ He is interested in blue movies. (i. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. I’ve lost the letter. / He is interested in music. with recapitulatory echo questions. rather than did you say.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. whereas with explicatory echo questions. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.e. / We are looking for a pixie. am pierdut scrisoarea. / I think I’ve found a solution. (Vai. which letter do you 67 . dear. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. (Uită-te la asta./ We are looking for a purse.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean.

4. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .

care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. lui Luca Horobeţ. cumnată Fenia. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. cu o casă de copii. Fenio. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. după pofte. în general. în satul nostru. acuma sporovăiala. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. ca să zic aşa. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. şerpoaica. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi care s-a aciuat. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. lui Stavre Păici. da. şi apoi Vica ce zice. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. să se încolăcească mai bine. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. aşa. nu purta verighetă.– Crezi tu. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. pe Condrat de Vica. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. lui Chizlinski. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. stricata. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. oameni aşezaţi. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră.

Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. De asta erai. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. sau cum o chema. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. roşu şi galben. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. deci. abia târându-şi picioarele. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. dar cum se face că a 70 . În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. sus. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. L-a scos din geamie. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. până la călcâie. Hogea.

Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Contents: 74 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.2.1.6.4.5.Coordination and Subordination 4.Key Concepts .Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.

The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. that elements are coordinated.Unit four Coordination 4. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. 75 .1 Syndetic vs. on the other hand. reproachfully. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. i.e. where there is no indication other than a comma. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. cu repros. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. present) in the sentence. Example (2).

Conversely. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.) (4) If you hit my wife. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.Nadina VIŞAN 4. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. vei muri. you will die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. From the previously mentioned examples. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. 76 . In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank.) Such examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.

a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. from a logical & semantic point of view. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. respectively subordinated constituents. we need to specify that. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. but presupposed. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. the second.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. However.

his shoes squished. John Steinbeck. Though the castle had vanished. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. with enormous solidity. took off his coat and emptied them. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. He moved and made a slopping noise. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. Then he sat down. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the first. In the second. of cut gray stone. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. His clothes hung to him. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. but the 78 . built. adorned with cornices. the houses were beautiful and ancient. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. took off his shoes and emptied them. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. with formal walks under rows of trees. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description.

and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. left the house.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Cecil Woocham – Smith. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. and as the way is with Irish mountains. the higher he went the wetter it grew. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. over some of the roughest ground in the country. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged.

As one can easily notice. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. as shown in (9). were to take down the name of every man.3 Sentence vs. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.K. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. we should be seriously annoyed. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . yesterday and the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. however distinguished. (G.

John and Mary are the newly married couple. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. John is ready and Mary is ready. 3. 7. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John and Mary are ready. 9. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. yellow and blue. plays football. 4. / Bob and George are admired by their students. and I passed. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 8. but not John. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Her pet kitten is black and white. 2. 5. and even tennis. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. our respective examinations. Activity 2 sentences: 1. / Peter.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. / Joan plays many games. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 10.Unit four Coordination example (7). John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 6 John sang and Mary danced.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. / Peter and John played football. Our flag is red.

whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. 3. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. 5. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Activity 4 2.) c. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. 6. John writes poetry and Bill prose.Nadina VIŞAN b. as can be seen in (10b). or deleted. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.) b. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Jane 82 . b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves and Bill hates cigars.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune.

8. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. can be reduced by substitution. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.) The common element. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. these syntactical processes. 9. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. Besides ellipsis. 10. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 83 . the so-called Principle of Economy. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. i. than a longer repetitive one. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. the predication buy a pair of shoes.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself.e. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 7. So.

one or (the) other method. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. some reason or another. 3. 2. using reduced structures: 1. A citit. George and Jane went back to their parents. 4. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. 4. the old men and women 2. George and Jane are separated. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . simple books and magazines for children 3. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. In certain cases.

I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. sweet and sour.… 14. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. A pendulum swings ………. 13. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.. 12. they reached home………. it’s a case of ………… 7. 6. They get on quite well together. 11. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 2.. . bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 6. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 15. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….. I need another 100$ ……….You gain some things and you lose others. like: salt and pepper. 7.I searched ………. for my wallet. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. Can we discuss the …………. 5. only for damage.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 5. After all their adventures.. 8. even though they have their little …………. of your proposals later on? 3. 8. 16. the amount I’ve already saved up. fish and chips.. Marks and Spencers.

For instance. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. Nor sun. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. more often than not. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. the expressive function of coordination is. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.) There are. In fact. of course. etc.4. and 86 .) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. as in: (17) a. 4. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. b.

(I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. sometimes but. where the subordinator is repeated. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) 87 . If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (I-am dat banii.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.) c.) In certain cases. both … and . (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. etc).g. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. and cherished her. o respectau si o indrageau.) b. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. 20 (b)). the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. or . (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. too): (20) a. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.

and you’ll die. In this case. I like and admire her. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. (Imi place si o admir. (O admir si imi place. if we were to rewrite the example . I washed and ironed my pants. I admire and like her.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) b. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.* I ironed and washed my pants.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. and hit my wife. From this point of view.

) (While Dr. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (If you do that.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed). Brown experiments with humans. Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .Unit four Coordination 1. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.

e. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.which are based on coordination .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. 5. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . From the functional point of view.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. as the name suggests it.g. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.) 101 .) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.

For instance. for example). we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. in certain cases. by an adjective + preposition.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. an adverbial item. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (I-a dat cartea. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. for instance. we associate it with these objects.) 102 . even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. such as proud of. We do not presuppose however something like. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. In a way. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. sentences) required by the verb (or. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.

and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. to add something. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.) b. i.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. Thus. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. related to example (4). That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. I am afraid that he won’t come. to her) and one extra-item. In other words. A second observation. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. 103 .e. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. an additional one. The second example. which is the adverbial willingly.

They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. like. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) (11) If you don’t marry me. a închis toate ferestrele. am să mor. make. etc. (Înainte să plece din cameră. I’ll die. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.) 104 . then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. such as want. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.

Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. [.g. this to whomever wants it. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. The book that because they home.She came to him of her own will. 4.g. 5. 2. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. e. After I told her the story. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.g. Whoever did that was a genius. 3. 6.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. she looked at me sadly. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . They came to e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. Susan disappeared without saying a word. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.

6. etc. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 5. You suggestion that we should.He took an intelligent interest in her. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. which. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. 3. was a novelty to Mitzi. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 4.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. not object. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. FOR. at our age. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. 2.) 106 . The Romanian term is translated by object in English. WHETHER. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. though it was largely politeness. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. As you can see. but he declined.

(14) I was afraid of what he might say. when.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. Where he went is London. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) b. how. (E de dorit să plece.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. which. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (15) It is John who did it.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. who. (Am vrut să plec imediat. Who did it was John. etc. 107 .) (16) a. why. where.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.

1.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. Compare. which sums up this classification.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. consider the following table. In conclusion. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. if. before. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. done from a structural point of view. Unlike complement clauses. As you will see.) (18) She told me this before she left. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. etc. however. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In (18). for instance. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .

that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. back. whether he will come when I feel like it. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. Dear Ludwig. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. etc.: e. as. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. after. Introduced know e. for.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.g. I will go there because I feel like it. I will come back such as because. 109 . I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. you understand. at your young age. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.g. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.g.

but he asked her to wake him when she returned. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. Accidental Man) b)1. a tightening in her breathing. As she left the house. she stopped to speak to Monroe.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Late that afternoon.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. Too. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. 2. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening.The day Monroe had died was in May. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. But she thought that no one would call again. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. he said.

I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. a correspondence can be traced. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. That he loved e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. As you have probably noticed already. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I told her everything after she arrived.2.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.g.g.g. interesting. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. However. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. că e. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g. 111 .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.

Secondly. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.complement.e. We will come back to that in the next chapter. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. whereas wh complements are the 112 . (Cred că mă place.1.2. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.. whenever you identify a wh. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. In the fourth place. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. So. complements. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. i. Thirdly.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.

Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. Pratice Consider the following text. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. and I do not know how things might stand between us. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. because. for no matter how she tried. a barn. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. their introductory elements (e. I first thought to tell in 113 . but no idea what to do with them.g. after. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. outbuildings.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. a house. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. She mistrusted her handwriting. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. before. c) I am coming home one way or another.

But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany).Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. According to a structural criterion. these clauses can be complements. because they modify. it would make you fear to do such again. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. and I have not the will or the energy.e. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate.4. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.

după ce că are grâu puţin. interested in.g. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Pratice Translate the following. O zbughi înapoi. Nevasta secera în tăcere. Alţii. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. ce o fi având. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul.e. answering the question to whom? So. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. be very careful to use this term correctly. etc. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. look at.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. însă. (…) “Mă. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. 115 . think of.

de fapt. izolate de sat. timp de un ceas. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Nici acum. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Toată lumea înţelesese că. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât de bolnavă era. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. întâi. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii.

Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. deşi cam târziu. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. de pildă. aşa de oţetit. la Odobeşti. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Iată. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Pace nu era. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . la nişte prieteni comuni. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. acum sunt desluşiţi. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Era bine de ştiut. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. În realitate. stricau totul. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. amânase scrisul. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti.

Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar.

accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). 119 . subject relative clauses.g.. whose. of which.

6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.5.7.6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.1.2. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. The Co-reference Condition 6. Key Concepts .4. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.3.

It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The Co-reference Condition . 6. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.2. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). 121 . (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.Unit six Relative clauses 6. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.1.

like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. 122 . The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. John loves that woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. By combining these two clauses. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.

Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The common element woman is present. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. John offered flowers to that woman. This way. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 .

Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. He’s the author who received the prize. They met those students. 10. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. by leaving behind a trace. WHO 5. This is my husband. The students like their teacher. 3. 5. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. WHICH 4. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. The students like their teacher. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 2. WHERE 3. 9. Susan wants to meet Jane. John told his friend a story about the king. WHO 124 . 6. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. None of the students agreed with them. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. therefore in spoken English. The king was just passing by.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. I bought Jim a book. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 8. I introduced him to Jim. He liked that book. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 7. I lost the book’s cover. He told Jim everything about his plans. I love my husband very much. I had a book. Any of the students would answer to questions. 4. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. too. frequently used in written language. I went to London. She came to London.

that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOSE 7. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. i. . TO 11. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. WHICH 8. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. (Cine strică plateşte.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. relative clauses are divided into 1. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. most of them were from England. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 6.e.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHOM 10.Unit six Relative clauses 6. 2.

) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. unlike in the case of (14).) So. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.e. is no longer overtly expressed.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. it is covert. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . in a manner of speaking. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Cel care strică plăteşte. Unlike their sisters.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.

127 .) (Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want.) (22) Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. They only provide supplementary information about it. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. care este zeul negoţului. They can be thus divided into: 1. they define it). defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. is my favourite god. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. who incidentally is the god of commerce. este zeul meu favorit. who is the god of commerce. (Mercur. (Du-te unde pofteşti.

On the day on which this occurred I was away. was the one we all welcomed and admired. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. She. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius.e. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). who came to see me. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 9.This is the village where I spent my youth. then it is an attribute. who is a genius. this type of relative clauses. Independent I don’t know what you want. They are what 128 . I have met him where I least expected. 6. Shakespeare. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 5. is a great playwright. restrictive relative clauses. 2. on whom nobody could depend. As we were saying. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. 7. is a genius. 8. 10. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. i. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.

however sad this may be. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. etc. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. who died a few years ago. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. 6. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. When the antecedent has no determiner.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. . care a murit acum câţiva ani.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.) 2. etc. composed The (Freddie Mercury. a. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.

căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. poftiţi în faţă. ci o fată a woman. 6. iritabilă şi uscată. (Ei apeleaza la mine. ill-tempered. can see your shortcomings only too well. Dintre toate personajele prezente. 7. bătrînă morocănoasă. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. who neither work nor am anxious.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care nu sunt o femeie. dried-up old maid. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. but a peevish. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. who am your son. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Pratice Translate the following. 3. (Eu. 4. 5. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 2. Mie. numai eu nu. 130 .) Anybody else would have done something except myself. care-ţi sunt fiu. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. îţi văd prea bine defectele.) (28) They come to me. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu.

in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (32) service finished late. than whom few more can be more crashing.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. părăsi camera. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. heard. were now in his possession. erau acum în posesia lui. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. . each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.

The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) b. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. literary style: (37) a. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. but it is typical of the formal. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.5. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) c. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. 6. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . too. The genitive form with which is still in use.) b. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina.) d. as can be seen in (36d). (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.1.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.

There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Iris Murdoch. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.

ships (that can be personified) a. … Italy. by the way. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) • states. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) b.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (45) (46) . revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. animals. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea.) b. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. but to a type or a function: a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. of which. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (Nu mai este omul care era odată.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. He is not the man which he used to be. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.

France. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. etc. time. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. how.) 135 (47) . It is poor what gets the punches.) 6. why. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Nu ştiam ce vor.Unit six Relative clauses b. Poland is the place where Christine was born. where. pe care o privea direct. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) b. whom it concerned most closely.) b) dialectal (49) a. Poland is the place in which Christine was born.2 Relative Adverbs: when. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.5. while. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. etc. reason.

(Acesta este locul din care au venit.) e.) 136 . (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) 6. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.3. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b.) b. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b. He went where he had been before.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.5. This is the place wherefrom they came. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) c. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. They returned to the land whence they had come. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.They left when they decided it was proper to. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) When they introduce free relative clauses.

) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. Moreover.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.

) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. every. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.4. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. . I’ll get you such things as you may want. but they are used very infrequently: as.) b.5.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. not any. Honest man as he was. any.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. much.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. but • in standard language a.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. 138 (64) his shoes.

) c. This is the same one that/as you had before. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. There’s not many as’ll say that.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. ăl de fusese in China…) b. It’s the dry weather does it. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.) • in dialect a. And always on the buttered side.) c. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. . (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. Uncle George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.

(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) b.

makes me a wart and a wen. The man that John spoke to is a genius. The man John spoke to is a genius. The man who John spoke to is a genius. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. That which shows God out of me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.) b. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. 6. b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What I’m saying is. It seemed a thing 141 . This is where we talk money. What Inman remembered was this passage.” 4. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 7. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. fortifies me.5. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity.3): (72) a. 3. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. Where he was from. we all have to come to some terms. 5.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1.) c. 2. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.

who had not witnessed many dawns. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. (…) Partly. though. 12. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Ruby said. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 10. of living. 13. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. The rudeness of eating. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 142 . Whatever his fate was. 9. Oh. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 11. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 8. he had left Ruby high and dry. which is a lot. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields.

nu prea sarac. divortata. Cumnatul meu avea.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. un var primar. una din nepoatele unui inginer. fiu natural al unui morar. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. (Iris Murdoch. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . dar care avea un var de-al doilea. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. vasnic. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. mort de tanar. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. cumnatul unui portughez.al lui. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. pirpiriu. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. al carei strabunic. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. pe linie paterna. plutonier. poate.

you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Teatru) 6. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. Everybody listened to that woman. c. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. I lost the cover of the book. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was a woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. By extension. 144 .2.6. This is the book. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. b. The opposite phenomenon.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.

5.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. In the interest of public decency. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. he requested that the public be excluded. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 7. The problem of safe transportation. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 2. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 6. 9.Unit six Relative clauses b. 4. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. no easy answers to which could be offered. acting again as a genuine pied piper. The difference between (76) and (77). For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 8. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. has been troubling them forever. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 3.

the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. 6. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). was now complete. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. Activity 9 were now all gone. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. They do not function as attributes. no matter which. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. he rarely saw now. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 10. Irene. 5. His friends. as the case is). whose interest he most sincerely shared. 4. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 146 . She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 3. This story. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1.His father’s friends. 2. has been deleted.

pentru dumneata bunăoară. 6. Toate sfârşeau. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 4. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Pentru alţii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. închipuirea. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 7. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 3. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 5. himeric. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. De douazeci de ani.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). 2. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Nelu. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 .

speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. 10.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. a făcut el. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. cu surle şi cu tobe. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. 8. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. 9. 12. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. nici în searbăda mea versiune. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte.

printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 16. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. care era foarte “mondenă”. trăia larg de tot. de unde venea şi Marta. 18. roiuri de fetiţe. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. fie la teatru. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. dinspre Maria Rosetti. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 149 . 15. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. apărură. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. deşi atât de aproape. 17. 14. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. fie pe stradă. pe strada Icoanei. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. până mai adineauri. În spatele lor. despre care. din direcţia căreia apoi. Dacă mă lovea. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. Avea acum un fel de vertij. 20. zise ea cu ochii mari. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. toată lumea întreba cine e. din care cauză pe Dora. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos.

pe care eu nu-l aveam. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. pe care ea îi admira acum. de mine. de sus de unde eram. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. întâia noapte de război) 150 . aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. aveau un stil al lor. 22. până în şosea. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. când au urcat râpa iar. Pare-se că snobii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. 24. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. 23. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Pentru mine însă. după ce maşina a fost reparată. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el.

151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.

1.4.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.2.Clause Shift 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.3.1. That Deletion 7.Topicalization 7.3.2.5.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.3. Key Concepts .2.2.5.7. That Complements as Subjects 7.4.2.6.1.1.3.Extraposition 7.1.1.2.2.2. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.1.3.

(1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. the clause is extraposed. 153 .) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. 7. In other words. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. (3) Tell me if you need anything. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. Apart from those introduced by that. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. but also of infinitival ones.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. placed in a marginal position.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).

(A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .

It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 6. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 11.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 4. 8. 3. 15. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 10. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 7. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 7. It appears that no one voted for him. 10. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 4. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 3. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It is no use trying to convince her. It is nice to meet you. 2. 6. 8. 14. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 5. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 9. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 2. 11. It will be soon announced when you can leave.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 13. 9.

I don’t expect it that he will come back.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. după porţi. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 3. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 2. I guess it that he will come back. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. în canal. în gropi. sub poduri. 2. 3. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. atât 156 . “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 5. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 3. mă ascundeam în grabă. 5.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. They never expected it that he would come back.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 4. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. zice Lionel. 18. 6. unde se nimerea. 4.

precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Spunând cele ce-am spus.” 4. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. fără îndoială. Mi s-a părut chiar că. 6. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. (Nu întotdeauna. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. vor căuta să o zdruncine.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. fără să cârteşti. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). 157 . E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 5. excelentă. 7.

since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.2.) While in the case of extraposition. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently. 1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Pratice Read the following.Nadina VIŞAN 7. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. this asymmetry is undone. in the case of topicalization.1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.

That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. mere chance would decide. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. This was another era. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 3. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 8. even today. he felt no spring of interest in her. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. was inconceivable. He was utterly gone. He did not blame Gracie. 6. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 4. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. She had always been the slave of chance. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. 2. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 5. but not now.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. 7. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. whether it would finally carry her off.

3. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.1. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.

) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. 161 . (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.e. we obtain.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. the verb to drive).

prime-minister. 2. who had just returned from Africa. 7. 8.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 5. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 3.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 6. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. who had just returned from Africa. 162 . / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.

) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.Unit seven That complements 7. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.2. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.

consider. deem. state.) 164 .) b. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.1. They believe the man is guilty. He announced that they were engaged.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. etc. estimate.) b.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. They promised him that he would received a new house.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. promise. desire. (Cred că omul este vinovat. suggest. afirm. (I-au promis o casă nouă. He announced their engagement. communicate. judge. prefer. explain. deny. etc. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. predict. They believe that the man is guilty.2. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) a. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.: (25) a. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.

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That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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… now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) 172 . She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. ibid. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) language. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. they lose their meaning. for example. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. In older stages of English.) I like him in that he is smart. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. hope =>purpose. on condition that. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.e. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.

His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) b. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. He gave such an answer as had expected. să o vadă trecând. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. He gave an answer such.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. That can be deleted. . (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) (66) 173 a. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) When the structure contains the word such.

12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. ibid.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. He gave an answer such that I had expected.) 174 .) b.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. (Iris Murdoch.

(Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. tell). (69) a.Unit seven That complements 7. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (A prins de veste că ei vin. that he uses a relaxed tone.1. He got word they were coming. for instance. He showed he was able to do it. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) b. 175 . say. He said he had borrowed her money.3. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.3 ‘That Deletion 7. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.) c. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.

condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. ibid. bune. (Iris Murdoch. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. rele. for better or worse. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) (De asemenea.Nadina VIŞAN 7. *I like it he was here.3.3. (Îmi place că e aici. for better or worse.2.3. because that has been deleted. 7. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . they were chained to each other forever. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.) b. they were chained to each other forever. I like it that he was here.

Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. you want me to believe. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.) b)He told me that she was there. 7) They maintain.) 177 . that they were not too late to leave.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. he said. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. (“Este acolo”.4. simultaneity. 7. spuse el. which is ungrammatical in English. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.

He will have arrived by the time she leaves. He said he would leave her. o să vină el. (Am să o părăsesc.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. vine el.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (Pâna să plece.) b. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. He told me that she had been there. “She was here”. spuse el. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (“Era acolo”. In the example below. (A spus că.) b. he said. până pleacă ea. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) Future Perfect -----. The Present complement). I will leave her. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.

Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.etc. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. insist. With such factive verbs as realize. report. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. regret. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. realize it). wish. be aware. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. say.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. whisper. notice. mention. etc. hope. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. discover. be amazed/concerned.) 179 . forget. dream. think.) b. believe. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. show.) On the other hand. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.

(Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. She realized that all men are fools. (Iris Murdoch. She believed that the earth is round.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. feign habits which are not their own. She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. 180 . cu un respect tandru reciproc.) b. we notice that general truths. in tender deference to each other.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. Consider also: (85) a. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. He knew that she thought all men were fools.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.

) b. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. 3. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) In (88). Peter said that John will leave at 5.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. such as a. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) b. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. There are however cases. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. Peter said that John would leave at 5.Unit seven That complements 2. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. 181 .

f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. f) John said that Harry would leave. for instance. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. The time is 3 o’clock. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. Imagine. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. g) John thought that Harry ran. c) John said that Harry is leaving. But 182 . d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.

c. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. She admired their keenness of wit. love of practical jokes. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. whistling swan. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. redtailed hawk. lark. slyness in a fight. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. nighthawk. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. kingfisher. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. geese both grey and white. a. Cooper’s hawk. lack of pridefulness. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Translate the following. 183 . b. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. as evidenced by its drear plumage. bluebird. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. jaybird. quail. Crows will relish what presents itself.

But as the battle raged around them. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. And they might just hang him. He had fought hard through the war. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He died erect. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. the young officer. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. in the very act of expiring.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. war hero though he was. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . with the hammer snapping on empty loads. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. he claimed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. Now here he stood jailed. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting.

adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). object ones up to the attributive function. On certain occasions that can be deleted. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. which they share with wh-complements. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. from the very frequent subject.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function.Unit seven That complements 7. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). or else. on other occasions it has to stay there. 185 .

cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Unul din ei. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Mama. 2. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Fiind 186 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. cel mai mare. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. neconvenabil şi primejdios. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. 3. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. 4. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. peste puţin. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit.

Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. 7. care îl pândise.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. luminos şi apropiat şi când. aşa. Se mira. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. va pleca din oraş la vie. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 6. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 8. dacă va mai veni. 5. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 9. cel puţin pentru un timp. Nu ţi-a trecut. ea. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. un vis de acesta 187 . fericit. de ce constata în sine. venind de la avocat.

şi mândria că a biruit. Acesta. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Astfel de va fi. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. încă o dată. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. lucrul era înfăptuit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. 11. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. dar şi teama că. liniştit. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. 12. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. fireşte. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor.

simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Pe toate. după cum. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. spre Jurubiţa. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . să le lămurească pe toate. 14. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. ci numai aşa. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. mai puternic decât oricând. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. fără o vorbă scrisă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

4.8.7.1.Key Concepts .3.6.8.2.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.5.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.9.

(A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).1. (3) a. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her to be more careful in the future. It is important that you should know what you need. That you love her is something wonderful.) • like that complements. (2) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. Consider the following: • like that complements. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. It is important for you to know what you need. To love her is something really wonderful.) b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. b. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). 193 . From this perspective. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.

is the fact that they do not have temporal features.) b. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. the Conditional. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. 194 . as opposed to the finite ones. d. the Participle) (i. 2. etc. moduri nepersonale) By convention. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. the Gerund. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.e. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. For instance. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. participial clauses. gerundial clauses.

it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) c. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 . To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. namely no ending. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.

He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 9. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 5. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 3.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 6. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 8. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 10.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 4. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 8. 2. the criterion of form.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.2. 7.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. (7) They saw her leave.

Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (10) 197 . according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. 2. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. hear. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă.

the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. . trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. uncharacteristic for literary English. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. However. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following. 3. 198 (11) the universe. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting.

In other words. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. to use the appropriate technical term. or the control constructions. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. Further on. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. 199 . (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. as I have already mentioned. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive.

(A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. namely the agent of the event. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.) Object: (18) a.) In this situation. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. şi creştineşte să ierţi. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. So far.) 200 . What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. It is important for him not to err.) b. I hoped for him to be there in time. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. PRO to err is human. PRO to forgive divine.) b. the logical subject.

) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. In other words. Semantically. He stepped aside for her to enter. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive.) b. not to the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. him is not the agent of the infinitive. him is related to the main clause verb. but the patient of the verb persuade. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .

This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ He persuaded her to come. \ She wanted him to leave. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ I would love them to come. Likewise. \ 202 . Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. I hate animals to be tortured. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ They convinced her to come back. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ She promised him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ I allowed them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.

so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. 203 . and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. \ They really asked her to come back. So.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. • Last but not least. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They did not wish her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26).) He seems to be a good linguist. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.

bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. appear. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. which are said to be free.). with special semantic and syntactic properties.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. hate. 204 . /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. Pratice Translate the following sentences. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. etc. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. to meet her. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. To sum up the discussion. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. seem. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. that is not required by certain verbs.

fail./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. venture. seek (= try). Compare: (31) a. dislike. wish. scheme. arrange. hope. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. decline. etc. 8. try. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. desire. etc. deserve. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. like. condescend. prefer. presume. mean. hate. refuse. propose.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. deign.) 205 friend. expect. . scorn.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. want. contrive. care to. bear. omit. manage. intend. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. endeavour. / E greu să îl suporţi. agree to.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. etc. need. afford. aspire to.) b) verbs such as abide.3 The Distribution of PRO .

suggest. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. bear. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.etc. be important.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. For all of them to have been killed is.) b.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. stand. possible. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. endeavour. however. conclude. I would like for him to become president of the country.) b.) 206 . I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. etc.) b. ask. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. unlikely. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.Nadina VIŞAN b. forget. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. threaten. desirable. I hate that you should say a thing like this.) 8. verbs of liking and disliking. claim.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.

Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) b. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Predicative Clauses (39) a. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) 207 . (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) 8. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 2. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.

(Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b. Direct Objects (39) a.) 5. I decided for John to represent us.) 208 knowledge. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 4. Like in the case of that complements. . but the meaning remains. the preposition is deleted. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure.

(Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. You’re an idiot to go there. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. She is pretty to look at.) c.) e. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. The stew is delicious to eat. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. curious about.) d. He is a bastard to work for.) c) adverbial of result 209 . etc.) b. This paint is like concrete to work with. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.: (42) a. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. 6. delicious. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.

to tell you the truth.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.) I’ve never met him. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. conduci prost. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. you’re a bad driver. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. să nu piardă trenul. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / Pe şleau.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie.) Oh. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. drept să spun. / Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp.

6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. induce.: (51) a. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. promise. oblige. inspire. inform. encourage. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. influence. direct.) b.etc. swear. need. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. (49) a. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. press. nu mai vreau să te vad. According to this. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. b. etc. enable.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. 8. urge. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.) . / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.

(I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. allow.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. look to. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. etc. prevail on. name. elect.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. permit. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. etc. vote. command. choose. order.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. count on. nominate. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. depend on. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului./ And now he 212 .

(În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. i.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.e. be going to. (56) She grew to like him in the end. 213 (58) (59) .verbs: appear. seem.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. be about to.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.etc. An Accidental Man) 8.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. happen. etc. grow.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. come.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. this construction is lexically governed. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (Se pare că îi place de el.: (55) She appears to like him. (57) He is to come any day now. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Iris Murdoch. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). etc.

be thought. (L-au auzit insultând-o.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. feel. that of intention. watch.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be alleged. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). etc. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. be rumoured.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. be reported. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. perceive.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.etc. overhear. . (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. etc. In (57). be claimed.) 8. hear. be considered.: (62) They heard him insult her. observe.

prove.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. However. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. judge. understand. deem. picture. cause. (Cred că este un geniu.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. occasion. imagine. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. believe. consider. find. figure. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. discover. etc. know.) 215 (67) .) • with a full infinitive: get. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. recollect. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. presume. have. remember.

: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. permit. etc. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. love. mean. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. choose. expect. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. who wasn’t used to men with moods. suffer. they had depressed and fuddled him. want. desire. Harold. order.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. he hated anyone to comment 216 . prefer. wish. command.etc. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.

It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. though he tended to look down on those below it. so that we might get to the future and have done. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. He suspected hostility at once. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. to make sure we attended strictly to business. he didn’t envy those above it. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.P. (L. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. Both seemed to him a little unreal. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. the herd instinct was very strong in him. A little crossly. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.

having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.Nadina VIŞAN 8. The last criterion. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. From this perspective. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. 218 .

stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. fireşte. E posibil. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. de bună seamă. dar să nu-ţi spună. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. într-o zi. un bărbat şi o femeie. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. să-l capete. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. bunăoară. e important ce întrebări pui. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. e) Când doi oameni. mai bine219 . c) Călătoriile cu liftul. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. Şi tu să fii.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. lovit şi umilit. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. de asemenea.

Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. pe care deja o uitase. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. avusese dreptate. mai pline de înţeles.Delavrancea.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. mai bine de două decenii. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Să spui de pildă. De era vară. Însă Paul Achim trăise.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. încă. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. . pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. aşa cum îi apăruse el. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi.Nadina VIŞAN zis. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.Şt. sau. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. în parte. un picior. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să nu vrea să se şteargă.Şt. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. (B. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să traiesc numai cu tusea. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. în parte. că eşti tânăr. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în ploaie. d-a lungul gâtului. în jos. 220 .

Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. orice-ar fi. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. (Al. Într-un cuvânt. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. biata Muti. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. orice bucureştean ştie. şi nu un amant.. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere.. fie ea şi grăbită. nici ca să 221 . şi prin faţă. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. un miros îngrozitor.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. deşi. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. Mă laud singură. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.. prin faţă e coborârea. de fapt. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta.. o mizerie. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. ei. sunt aici cu tot ce am. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte.

niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate. parcă la întâmplare.

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.

1.2.1.The Participle Contents: 224 9.5 Key Concepts .2.3.The Verbal Noun 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.1.2.The Gerund 9.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.2.2.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.9.3.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1.Participial Constructions 9.

This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1.1. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Due to this situation. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Let us start with the Participle: 9. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.) 225 .

Susan has come. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.e. In (2) the forms come. Susan has been killed.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. been and killed are past participle forms. blood-shot and painted. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. 226 .) As you can see in this second case. the past participle can appear after a noun.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. it functions attributively. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. i. (A venit Susan) b. too: (6) Her eye-lids. were closing.) More infrequently.

) b.) c. If provoked. leul poate să atace. (Ştiind cine era el. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. Weather permitting.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. people should pay attention to high notes. începură să cânte.) 227 .) c. a lion can attack. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. he will eventually marry her. o să ajung la timp. When singing. I will arrive there on time. they started singing. o să ajung la timp. ea o luă la fugă.) b. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. she ran away.) d. mother permitting. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Oh. Arriving here. God willing. I will arrive there on time. (Sosind aici.

He was found killed by a bullet. He was found stealing.) 228 . behold. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-au descoperit că fură. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-am descoperit furând. notice. watch. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. hear. smell. I found him stealing. (Am simţit-o tremurând. respectively. They found him killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.) ii.

know. set.) • Causative verbs: get . etc.) c. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. recollect.: When she heard his words. start.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) b. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. leave. I must get my hair cut. He’ll soon get things going. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. I heard it said that men are a bore. find. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.: a.) b. have. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. a. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. etc.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.) b. have. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. (A fost văzut plângând. etc. etc. feel. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. recollect. confess.) • Causative verbs: get. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. she knew herself dismissed. send. hear. keep. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 .) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. make a.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.

/ L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.) • verbs of permission. Men like shopping made easy. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. He wanted his car fixed immediately. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 .) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Nu după multă vreme.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. command I ordered my bill made out. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. lovit şi plin de sânge. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.) b.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.

/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. with its lips drawn back. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.1. / In any case.e. 231 . I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. sitting taut between her father and her sister. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / My Lord.2. Unlike the gerund. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / Dinny. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).

I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.She didn’t want to hear the story again. It had been uprooted by the gale. (Văzând acestea. 6. using either a present participle. I was astonished at what I saw. I left. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I turned on the light.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. The tree had fallen across the road. I left.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I knew that the murderer was still at large. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. 7. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. am plecat. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. se va opri şi ploaia. She had heard it all before. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. the rain will stop.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 2. am plecat. 3. 4. 5. (Desi nu ştia limba. I have looked through the fashion magazine. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . People were sleeping in the next room.

skinned. fishy. bald. 9. open. a pot of paint fell on my head. handed. eagle. eyed (3 times). 233 . the sea was tossing the post up and down. empty. Read the sentences and try to correct them. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 2. mown. sharp. 4. Barking furiously.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Dropped by parachute. stricken. He sat down to his own dinner. Reading in bed. 12. quick. Passing under a ladder. haired (twice). He fed the dog. roast. narrow. coloured. a scorpion bit him. 8. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. covered. 8. broad. 6. cloth. drunken. his horse fell at the last jump. Tied to the post. dark. 7. Mother punished me for my mistake. red (twice). 11. 10. straight. my hands often get very cold. 3. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. I slammed the door of my room. Leaving the cinema. Climbing down the tree. Getting out of bed. a rug caught her foot and she fell. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. They began quarreling about how to divide it. three. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. I let the dog out of the room. lighted. an idea suddenly occurred to me. cornered. stony.shoulder. hearted (twice). Riding in the first race.Running into the room. lion. 5. minded (3 times). wooden. shaven. many. b) Headed (5 times). They found the treasure. 10. open. 9. one of the eggs broke.

_______ by S. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (injure)./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast.Spielberg. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. lamb. rotten. man. _____ when their car crashed on the M1.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. deer. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. I stared at the canvas for ages. b) grass. stream. were taken to hospital. candle. / Three people. plank. Translate into English: 1. (take) 2. are sold throughout the world. (admire) 5.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (grow) 4. In the following pairs of sentences. (produce) 3. / Swiss watches. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . shorn. image. ill-gotten. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (hunt). shrunken. duty. The film. hidden. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. bounden. The escaped prisoner. _______ my arm. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. _______ for a bargain. meat. meaning. 7. is expected to be a great hit. lead. wealth. graven. was today taken back to prison. eyes._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. _______ for their elegance and precision.I fell on the ice. / Many old people . ________ hiding in a barn. are in grave danger of extinction. head. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. Whales. the same verb is missing twice. (find) 6.

începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. trezit. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. După câtva timp. când strânsă. şi moi. precum şi foile de plăcintă. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. Şi sufletul său. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. care le rânduia. le fierbea. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. ca şi cum. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Şi. păsări tăiate. legume date prin mai multe ape. 4. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. nesigur şi moale. O umbreluţă. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. întinse. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. când deschisă. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. le cocea. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. 2. deodată sufocat. 3. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa.

function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. 236 .) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Dacă vezi. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.2.1. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.2. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. The Gerund 9. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. According to this criterion.Nadina VIŞAN 9. Likewise. crezi. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.

That he won and you lost was surprising. Consider the following table. Him winning and you losing was surprising. In that. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. gerunds differ from participles. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His winning and your losing were both surprising.2.) b. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.) b. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) 9. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.2. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.

) Unlike participles. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. Consider (32). (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. as being verbal 238 . This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) b. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. It was illegal to grow a beard. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. *It was illegal growing a beard. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.) 2. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.

2. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Just like in the case of noun phrases.) b.) 3. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) 9. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.3. It’s no good talking to her. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) b. Participles vs.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. as offered in the table below: 239 .

Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. 2. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. 3. (prepositional object clause) 5.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (adverbial of time) 4. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . forms: continuous . passive ones She was crying. + noun] 1. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. babies suck their thumb. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. perfect.

/ Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri.

crying game / crying woman. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. shooting gallery / shooting star. 5. 11. 4. 6.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 2. swimming duck / swimming trunks. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 13. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 10. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. He was spotted talking to her. 15. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 242 . 7. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 3. 12. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 9. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 12. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. eating habits/ eating people. 14. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 8.

the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.Unit nine Ing complements 9. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e.e. a The absence of an of phrase.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. but the presence of a direct object (i. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.

the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . George’s shooting the attacker.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. How can we tell? In the first case. These are features that normally characterize any noun. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. In the second situation. if we were to go back to our incomplete table.

/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. 245 . / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. very large. / His coming there puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Jim left quietly.

The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. for example.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. However. It has been noticed that.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.4. whenever we meet an –ing form. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN 9. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). the meaning is different. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. ING Forms and Infinitives. With the infinitive. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. Look. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.

we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.g. and the most well-known one. (S-a oprit din mâncat. anterior to the verb in the main clause. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.) . having left) is infrequently used in English. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.) After looking at this example.) The first example. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. future-oriented value of the infinitive). containing an infinitive. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. On the other hand. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. the infinitive is future-oriented.

recollect.e. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. i. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.) As you can see. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) .Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. which means that they are similar in meaning. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.

(Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. but that’s it.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. dar asta este. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. the action is not completed.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. In the second example. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) . însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.

) 250 .Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. the event has not happened yet. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. In the second example. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. e) need. (Casa trebuie reparată.) With [. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. mean has the sense signify.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparată.human] objects.) wedding. want With [+ human] objects. The house needs repairing. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) b.

And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. it’s overrated. (take) down her answer. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Croom (try) (follow) one. I did ask Mr. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. Lady Corven.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.’ ‘In any case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. however appearances were against us.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. but they went by too quickly. gerund or infinitive. (hold) up his pen and (speak). and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. my Lord. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. whereas in the second case. my Lord.’ ‘Tell me.

’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. and went out (post) it himself.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. licked the envelope with passion. he addressed the note. suddenly.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. I must go back now. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ said Clare. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ 252 . ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). Then. I just used the word and they fell. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.

The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features.5. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Last but not least. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. the 253 . since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Participles mainly function as adverbials. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits.Unit nine Ing complements 9. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Pratice In the following texts. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.

moving up towards his chest. He looked up towards the daylight. according to the books he read. She started coughing. At first. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. the enormous split in the earth. The sight of the two children. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The two sides were moving apart. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. down. slowly rising in a swirling motion. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. then the noise and the cracking stone. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. their edges crashing inwards. someone looking for survivors. Then he saw movement at his feet. It was like a mist. covering the girl’s head. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. but then he saw it billowing up from below. hoping he would see somebody up there. it 254 . (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. down into God knows where.

Having a French governess. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. brightening to winter brilliance. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. 255 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. my dear.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. and sunlight.

dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. într-o joi. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. cei doi Mamona. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. mama mea. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. ucenicul său necredincios. închizând ochii. totul se animă deodată. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Vaucher şi cu mine. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Ridicându-se. and then went riding with her in the rain. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . 2. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. În urma slugii. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr.

la mine. se duse lânga mama şi. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. o sărută pe frunte. 3. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. auzit şi zadarnic. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. aşezată cu spatele la noi. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. am ştiut şi cine. Neclintiţi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. afară ploua în continuare. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. Şi deodată. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. dar ştiutoare. privit. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. pe mama mea părând absentă. totul mi se părea cunoscut. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. pe Vaucher. aplecându-se puţin. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. după cum îi spusese mama. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat.

şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu masa lungă de scândură.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu soba. Au coborât din camion încet. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. cu tot cu baraca. şi. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. 5. şi cu stiva de lemne. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. dar. camionul a plecat.

259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

Having regard to the date of drafting. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and meet it right here at home. 10. since I have decided. You have been much in my thoughts. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. How this time was to come. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. he had been advised. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. apart from his distress for parents. 5. was unclear to Mitzi.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 11. he had not yet been able to estimate. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. and this particularly of late. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 2. How much. 9. 3. 13. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 4. I am sorry not to have seen you. this would really hurt. because of pity. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. to retire early from my employment. 12. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. in some way. 6. whereas if she went away she would get none. without profound questioning. 7. and that 263 . There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8.

she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. even for months. 19. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. please consider his proposition. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / In the end. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / Whenever I visited my aunt. for attending his sister’s wedding. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / Before you go on changing the subject. looking forward had not yet taken place.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 264 . 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. I was made say Grace before every dinner. he did not come to see her. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. one of the eggs broke. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 17. 14.

They hated trying on. 265 . an open-air person. rather than the hefty type. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. it was said. and it was bound. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . She felt as when. of the quick and wiry. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Tony was a child. Essentially. her old friend Hugh. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. Instead of which she had married. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. to end in some awful tragedy. quite unexpectedly. Though much in request before her marriage. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Clarissa used to think. a little girl. without discovery. At country houses she had met them of course. Vulgar men did. centered in London and themselves. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. They rushed into shops. (and there he was. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. cotton mills at Manchester. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. of all people. she said. her recklessness.

cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Cind l-a chemat. Reading many novels. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. but lying in her bath. si in plus. indeed. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. nu puteam sa le uit. nu a facut-o pentru asta. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. ii faceau bine. The closer she allowed him to come to her. astfel.Rindurile dvs. era un bun sfatuitor. short of the contacts of love. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. cre s-au nascut lent. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Bolnava nu se simtea. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. she was uneasy. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. aveam tot mai 266 . ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. (John Galsworthy . to keep abreast of the current. De uitat.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. with all its impatience of restraint. she professed. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. the more she would be torturing him. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea.Over the River) 2.

) 7. Banulescu – ibid. nu pricep nimic. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Banulescu – ibid. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. lungimea picioarelor. Personal. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului.) 6. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. pe scaunul lui tare. (St. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. (St. Ce a iesit. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Banulescu – ibid. (St. ca si tine.) 5. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. poate fi compensata. Milionarule. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. 4. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Banulescu – ibid. se stie. Daca tu. cit mai au de trait. o data sau de doua ori. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. vaazut cindva. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. are nevoie. latimea si ascutisul labei.) 267 . mi-am zis. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. fa-o. (St. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.

Who came home from the war.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses.. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. A story-book romance. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who when asked about his memories of the War. for being a renegade. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Arthur Atkinson M. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .P. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who was may father. Ernest Richard Atkinson. when I was even younger than you. Who.. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Cambridge. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. (. Could he be blamed. delivered from the holocaust. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Translate them. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. my grandfather. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. a wounded soldier. Who told me. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. to Emmanuel College. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.

a moody man. Fabianism. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. he had already engaged himself? 3. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. How 269 . But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. and because – but this is mere speculation. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. to whom.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. 4. Rachel Williams. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). deep-set.

Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. satul. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. 270 . just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum au tăcut ei. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum a ajuns el. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. cu taina aceasta. om mare. la şcoală. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum a trăit el. Ion. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Ion.

(Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. din franţuzeşte. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. greşeli dintr-astea. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. singurul lui stăpân. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. L-au derivat cei din teatru. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . Când actriţa. de mama lor. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. 271 . Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cu sau fără voie. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună.pune totul in discuţie. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. împotriva tuturor. când voi fi singur. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama.

pe jumătate prezent. Am început. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. 272 . să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Într-o vreme. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. provocându-le. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. dam buzna peste automobile. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. 5. traversând. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. parcă începusem s-o uit. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. de pildă. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. 3. 6. sau ridicole. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. 4. nevasta-mea. ci un sistem de acomodare. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. continuând. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. A devenit palid.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. fostă prietenă din copilărie. privindu-mă în ochi. Tot aşa. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. e îndrăgostită de un actor.

pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. Dacă nemţii înaintau. E o problemă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Am început. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. şi dacă merg întins. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. 9. să merg întins. iar. 8. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. că nu m-am gândit la asta. fără să mă opresc o clipă.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. ca un acrobat. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. orice s-ar întâmpla. 11. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De altminteri. şi să nu ameţesc. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Aş vrea să mă las jos. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. fireşte. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10.

14. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie.. Greu era din partea asta. de uimire. trebuia sa le spuna. la fata locului. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Acum isi ferea privirea.. Ilie nu-l asculta. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. cu mirare. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. eu am venit sa va intreb. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. 17. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. nu mai semana. nu mai pricepu nimic. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. dar nu se mai putea. de la proces. 13. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 15. de la lucruri personale. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. la amintiri. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. de la obiecte de pret. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Uite. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. la carti. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. parca i-ar fi fost frica. 16. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Ii venea greu. se uita in jos. 274 . Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Adica tot trecutul. In curind. Auzindu-l. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . nu trebuie sa va suparati. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent.Ma. La un moment dat.

apoi se uitau la Ilie. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . se indeparta nepasator. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. vorbe asa si-asa. cum zicea Anghel. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». i se paru ca aici e ceva. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface.Ce sa fac. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Zimbea siret. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. 19. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. 20.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. . There was even 275 . dar. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. asa cum facuse pina acum.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Aici era ceva. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. which was part of his rich outfit. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Nu era nevoie. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea.

at least. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. 4. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done.Miller at her hotel. 3. the young lady. He felt then. on this occasion. to take his way home on foot. for the instant. a simplification. going astray. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. asked for Mrs.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. resuming her walk. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. She was one 276 . conversationally.Nadina VIŞAN relief. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. He walked a long time. rude woman. 5. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. But Daisy. to move fast. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. paying no attention. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. to admit that she was a proud. gave an exclamation. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2.

but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. She appeared. in radiant loveliness. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. Her daughter. indeed. 6. of studying European society. 8. as to projected changes. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. as it were. on the other hand. and wondering what the deuce he meant. He left me musing. smiling and chattering. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. in their own phrase. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. often. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. She rustled forward. 7.Walker. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. as text book. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. making Paul stop and look at her. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. while residing abroad. make a point. uncomfortably. Advising with me. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .

for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. 10. H. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. H. not seeing. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. was only half satisfied with this. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. could see he was remarkable.’ 278 . was immensely struck with him. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. or at any rate not heeding. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. wondered what they were talking about. and perceived that it must be something important. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. 9. with his humorous density. though E. The agent became a very familiar type to H. H. 11. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. and acute too. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. which was deliberate. while Paul. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H.

had the power to chain his sympathy. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. But she gave him no chance. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. 13. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. which was very copious. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. 15. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. not glancing at him for a moment. that the haunting wonder which now. 14. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. appeared to fill his whole childhood. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. as he looked back. H.

he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. At the theatre. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. where the Pearl of Paraguay. disheveled and distracted. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. proudly. and there were others. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. that she must be on the contrary. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. as a general thing. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. 18. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. dragging herself on her knees. 16. The whole establishment. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. yet 280 . his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. It was very possible she was capricious. 17. and to H. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. H. ironically reserved. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour.

2. 19. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. No one ever listens to her.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. had blown a certain chill. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 20. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 281 . One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. didn’t mind. *Old. young men were invited. Their mistakes and illusions. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. with the poor. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. H. It came over H. and lurking within this nebulous design. 3. would always be more or less irritating. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. on which the damp breath of the streets. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose.

striding like a Spartan maid. her arms held out. Either John or he * have got to give in. 8. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 282 . 5. walking quickly. 12. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I walked fast. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Rachel. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. 7. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. slipped on some steps. 10. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. c) When I saw her sitting there. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 11. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. I saw her as a vision. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I was definitely going to be sick. 9. her shining blue feet twinkling. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping.Nadina VIŞAN 4. “Oh. I blundered by. 6.

Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.

and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 5. 3. if they were poor.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. could cook my meals. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. 2. where my servant. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. which was really alarming. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. but that we saw and pitied. 4. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. And then I ventured to add that. The old women spoke no English. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish.

apart from his distress for parents. before they left town. had not been able to estimate. was anxious = was + anxious. to pay their annual visit.apart from his distress = apart from. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. his. etc.g.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. etc. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. distress. on Saturday. this. to settle. How much. at noon. Constituents: how much. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Constituents: He. Munt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: Margaret. 285 . on a house. was informed. he. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. this would really hurt. would really hurt. was anxious. etc. apart form his distress for parents. he had not yet been able to estimate.g.

negative/ Come with me. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. don’t bother her. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). negative. The sentence is however 286 .syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – assertive/ Don’t do that. it is assertive. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. and is non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night..semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. which is not assertive./ She finally admitted. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – non-assertive. second clause is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause.. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. which context is non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. interrogative. interrogative.. – comparison. – non-assertive. listen to this./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – first clause is non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / If you like her. Second clause is an imperative.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.

/ You have never met 287 . but it wasn’t them. not even when it’s quiet around. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ Not long ago. / They didn’t leave./ They weren’t really confused. – I like somebody else./ He was smart enough. – someone hates animals. –double negation cancellation. everybody used to travel by coach. but it isn’t Susan. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. but nothing out of the ordinary. – someone did that. – they told the truth to somebody else./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. not even this thing./ Hardly interested in the conference./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ Susan did not get married to Jim . only irresolute./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / She does like John. / She does not hate animals./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ When he learned the news.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. he was hardly pleased. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place.but to someone else. but not more than she does others. / I don’t like her very much./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. the two brothers dared to protest./ He was exceptionally cunning.

– negative insertion. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. not even in my dreams..negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / This is hardly the 288 . / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. did they? / No problems were caused after all. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. were they? / This boy is no good.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. not even when you were very young. – I cannot look him in the eye. I could hardly wait to hear the news... is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. did they? / A few of them stayed behind..Nadina VIŞAN her.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her... they go skiing in the mountains.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.

Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.. – I almost never look at those paintings.. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – You haven’t eaten a thing.. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – I never see her. but she also lent him a car. / I seldom look at her like that. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. never trust a man again. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / I didn’t leave the 289 ./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Few people came to see her. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. when we started our holiday. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. Activity 8 I shall never. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – Not many people came to see her.Never shall I trust a man again./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Almost nobody liked him.

you can still do something about it./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. –At no time did we leave the office. / He reckoned he would not win her over. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Don’t worry. – 290 . – It isn’t likely that he will help her. you can’t do anything about it any more. – Come on. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / They believe she does not like them. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ Well. – Only on this man could she rely. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / Come on. / She could rely on nobody but him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent).I don’t like his proposal at all. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – They say he never had anyone very close. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / They say he once had someone very close. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ I somewhat like his proposal. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – They don’t believe she likes them../ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / You must on no account touch this machinery.

– He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must be telling lies. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / Well. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Well her husband has always been a good person.. – I can’t understand either of these sentences.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. –Alice still lives here. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ Peter knows some English and so does John./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. either. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / She hardly ever comes here. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives./ Bob is still living at that address. – You should send her something.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You needn’t send her anything. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – You can’t be telling lies. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I nearly always have to clean it myself./ I can understand all of these ten English words. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. 291 . – She almost always comes here. / You must pay that fine. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. too.

It’s no wonder./ You look so tired today./ You took his leaving you very hard. has never studied anywhere. / Please./ I don’t know why she’s crying. Oh. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Nu spune nu niciodata. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Norocul la noroc trage. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Have they rung the bell? No./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ He was a tough man./ He’s a happy man./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ E un baiat de zahar. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Nimic de facut. not yet./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. I haven’t done anything. ever since I got this ulcer. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ 292 . / Jim is so brave. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. I haven’t seen her in years. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ I don’t know a thing about her. / He can’t have done a thing like that. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. He didn’t move a muscle./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. to any of us. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ Zis si facut./ Nobody told us a thing./ They say this Ph. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Am avut un car de necazuri. give me a hand. e un magar./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. / Don’t go on believing him./ N-are nici cap nici coada. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. He isn’t that smart.D.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart.

no story./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. thrown out. We had nothing in common. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. nothing. slowly.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. I hadn’t really expected miracles. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. I had never had the opportunity to prove. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.’ ‘Nici o problema.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . that I was a decent man. 293 . without too much determination. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . one way or another. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. for I thought this threatening. parasi camera. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.’/ Deloc descurajat. with the same needs they had. feebly. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta./ Nu-i nici un deranj. no memory./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor.

the only 294 . not as we would like it to be or some other way. Radu had calmed down. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. to say the least. You really made me mad. I’d be so happy if it were so. Your judgement is false. it’s not words. your story. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. I admit. • It was my turn to say something. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. that’s what the world is about. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. I was sleepy and tired. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. bad. things you do any moment. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. Unfortunately. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. Not for a moment had I thought that. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement.. he was sitting beside me. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. We have to judge it as it is. let alone irritable. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. clear or confusing. by coming here to the monastery. or if you understood what I meant. It’s not made up of theories and the like. good. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. he immediately answered me patronizingly. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. but facts. on the front seat.

you can go to Ursu’s. and if you like. it’s yours. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. did you ever step up front. as Baciu would have us be. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. But what about you and Melania. keep it squeaky clean. fear might be hiding. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. just to please myself. to fight. and an inability to act. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. too? A gun is power. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. clears your way. you do as you think fit. or call the respect of others. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. it’s your problem. But I was just wondering. keep your conscience clean: you have one. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. we are leaving. although it was a difficult thing to do. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. • So. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. 295 . a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. me. it solves troubles. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. either.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. Look. or you are lying hidden. Anyway. I won’t interfere. me. precious words. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. no matter how huge they are. behind these big. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. soon we’ll be in town.

.incorrect. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.correct 3.. but they gradually got used to it. because before is a positive polarity item 2. -correct 3. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. will he?. as soon as he delivered it. The villagers were not very religious.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. the sentence is incorrect 3. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. firmly determined not to answer immediately.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. has not arrived yet – double negation. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. correlatives are mixed 2. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. or some other woman. But it was not because I had no answer to give.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. . have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.Negative incorporation 296 . She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . – incorrect. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Negative attraction b) 1. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . has yet arrived -correct 2.. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.

No one should know to what torture she was subjected. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. much less ((NPI) for her. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Avea sufletul prea obosit. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. too troubled. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. prea răscolit. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). she couldn’t marry him. b) But it was rather (API) late. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). (ibid. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. either (NPI). not happy at all (NPI). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Her stillness. (ibid. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. yet. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei.) Însă era cam târziu. nu era 297 . c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Ştia că are dreptate. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. His spirit was too tired. Nu putea să se mişte.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted.

arăta mai tânără ca oricând. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. e) At length. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. she looked younger than ever (NPI). his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. if anything (NPI). (ibid.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. inima îi batea năvalnic. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. şi destul de hotărât. se îndreptă spre paravan. and not a little unsteadily. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. The Satanic Verses. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. 298 .) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. he made his way to the screen.

Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. but his father would have none of it (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Home receded from the prodigal son. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. and probably an administrative headache as well. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity.) C. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. The point was. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). the gift was useless. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Ce-i pasă lui C. 299 . Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. (ibid. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. care if the school were willing to treat him. i) What did C. h) C.

. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. – indirect question. 300 . correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct.indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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she didn’t wear a ring. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. the bitch. keep Condrat away from her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Fenia. Luca Horobet. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Stavre Paici. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. all godfearing husbands and fathers. 2. She has an eye for gentle men. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. they were. and then what do you 308 . During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. “Now. you are in enough trouble as it is. Vica. Chizlinski. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. yes. she likes to entrance them. to make them lust after her. now she was chatty. Fenia. do you really think that this vixen.

G. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. 4. dragging his feet listlessly. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . and would have broken Mr G’s jaw.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. her hair pinned with blue combs. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. a seventy-eight year old lad. with a railway station and a mosque. ankle-long flowered calico. 3. what’s her name. He got him out of his mosque. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. The mullah. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the minister of Tartars and Turks. have a girlfriend. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. It even takes him a while to go to the window. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk.

But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.

– sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.phrasal coordination (in this case. John is ready and Mary is ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. John and Mary are the newly married couple. John and Mary are ready.. – sentence coordination 2.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. and I passed. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – similar situation 10. – sentence coordination 7. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. our respective examinations. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.) 9. yellow and blue..Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . Our flag is red. Her pet kitten is black and white. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.

and even tennis. 2. Activity 5 This book and the other.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. your proposal and his. 9. We can and will demand payment. her idea and John’s. but not John. 8. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 6. 10. her son and others.) Joan plays many games. 3.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). plays football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. Activity 4 1. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. that method and those. your work and mine. much satisfaction or little 312 . Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. but John does not play football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 5. 7. many guest or few.

Swings and roundabouts 7. magazines are only for children. Few and far between 14. To and fro 15. Ups and downs 6.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. 5. Bread and butter 16. Law and order 8. Wear and tear 12. (I have always fought for progress and always will. He snapped at him and slapped him. Life and soul 5. The facts and figures 3. 4. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Thick and thin 11. Touch and go 10. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related.) 6. Pros and cons 4. 7. He read. but not simple. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. 8. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Safe and sound 313 . I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Activity 8 1. I have always fought and will fight for progress. etc. 3. Spick and span 9. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Over and above 13. High and low 2. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1.

2. 1. 10. 7. 6. My son and heir is safe. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 4. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. Cathy and David have arrived. exclusive 15. 4. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 314 .. 3. – similar situation 9. – symmetric. 9. exclusive 17. 10. inclusive 16. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 8. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. b. My son and daughter are twins. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. – symmetric. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 5. Symmetric 21. 3. – symmetric 10. – symmetric 2. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Asymmetric 20. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 7. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Asymmetric 19. 5. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 6. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 8. 9. – symmetric. Symmetric 13. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric 18.There is a table and some chairs in the room. cause-effect Activity 10 1.symmetric 11. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 2. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – asymmetric: temporal sequence.

it was too small. 11. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. 2. Not only should you rest 315 . for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 12. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. (2) 1. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 3. He’s neither fish. He went to bed. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. nor fowl. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. Should he pour water in the basin. clothes and all. 8. Brother or no brother. 6.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. There are doctors and doctors. ‘Madam. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. Her husband is long dead and buried. 15. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. Jim thought it over for a while. thanks for asking. 7. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. No drinking and driving. 10. I’ll still finish this paper. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 3. for better or worse.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 4. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 9. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 5. By hook or by crook. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. They came to me. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. We’ll stick together. 2. 14.

whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. tense with concentration.Nadina VIŞAN assured. he’d leap high. and she listens to him. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. 2. What do you know? The moment Mrs. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. so he could leap in pursuit. their common ground. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. This. so he’d gone down and died in no time. at equal intervals. Mrs. but she blinks in approval. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Whatever she tried her hand at. she knows for sure. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. but he’d come out a cripple. Her first husband had been a professor. They hadn’t kept him there too long. as she always does. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. both dead and buried. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. So she’ll listen to him. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. without mentioning financial matters. what’s its name. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. You know. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. and then. tense like a bow. just like when he was thirty. it would work out fine. she started doing a great job. an important man. 316 . From time to time she will launch a helping question. And.’ (3) 1. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. stop dead in his tracks. he starts lecturing her about life and things.

what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . told. – Susan. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. about her problems at home After I told her the story.subordinate. you.subordinate.subordinate. she looked at me sadly. came. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – she. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – she. – obligatory elements: she. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . cannot tell.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. looked. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an object (direct). functioning as a modifier 3. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as an adjunct 2. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.subordinate. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. is aware. – she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater .

functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . remove our home yet again .Nadina VIŞAN 4. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate.complement b) 1. that we should.subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that you are choosing exile .

a barn. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. but no idea – relative that complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . outbuildings. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement.complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . a house. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement.

direct object. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. (…) He dashed back. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. direct object/ to sit there – complement. sickle in hand. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. When Anton put the sickle down. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly.A few days before the war. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. staring at each other. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ and done – wh complement. But other people. that kept her constantly tense and grim. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame.wh complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. Activity 5 1. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. without straightening her back. (…) ‘Well. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind.

or if he does. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. while they spoke from miles away. First. Not even at this point. you need courage even for this small thing. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. but he doesn’t spurn either. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. or other more hidden means. that was for sure. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Only he had Ana to think of. 2. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Ana could not stand a trip now. 321 . 3. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Why! He was not of two minds. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. while on other occasions he would show caution. rather than a real threat. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. For no bold man really falters. but also his sharp nose. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. as if they were at his beck and call. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home.

He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. to see some mutual friends. and twice we were requested to get out. and on Monday followed another feast). when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. And here’s how this first day looked. without really knowing why. although he could have said so earlier. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. But it was not ok. by the cars of some of us. are we getting off again? What is wrong. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. under the silliest of pretexts. Twice did we get in the car. they would ruin the arrangement. and when things didn’t go as planned. We were going to drive to a vineyard. 322 . In fact. 4. it was the women. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. come on. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. So. in Odobesti.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. he had postponed writing back. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply.

where I least expected 323 . 2. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2.restrictive 2. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. which was silly of him. He told her the secret.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1.restrictive 6. This is my husband whom I love very much.She came to London where I went too. on which this occurred . Activity 3 1. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. I bought Jim a book that he liked. Activity 2 1. 5.restrictive 4. 8. 10. when we first met . like their teacher. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 7. all of whom would answer to his questions.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 9. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. why they all left . These are people who we cannot tell much about. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 3. where I spent my youth . 5. who was just passing by. 6. The students. 6. 3. 11. He is the author who they gave a prize to. John told his friend a story about the king. 10. any of whom would answer to questions. The students like their teacher. You couldn’t join the party. 4. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 7. what you want – free/ where you can park your car .free 8. 4. most of whom were from England. which was a pity. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 8.restrictive 7.

who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. was very displeased with the situation. however sad . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 .free 9. Of all the persons there. who cannot say a word.subject 9. Where . Where he was from – adjunct. the prince chose Cinderella. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.adjunct 3.restrictive 10. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative.adjunct 11. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who think so highly of yourselves. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. which . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. what their parents made them. 7. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.adjunct 6.When Ada remarked – adjunct. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. Activity 5 1.subject 8.adjunct 10. 3.adjunct 5. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.Nadina VIŞAN . about why man was born to die – prepositional object. Which – subject 4. Who . when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. You. come up front. 4. where – predicative 7. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. When . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. 2.free Activity 4 1. I. 6. 5. What Inman remembered – subject. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. What – direct object 2. Where . Why . where we talk money – predicative. What I’m saying – subject. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. when .

that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. how . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.attribute 12. what . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. whatever – predicative 13.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. which is ungrammatical due to the[.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. what little she knew – direct object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. which requires an accusative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.

My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. having changed quite a number of jobs. a rather tiny looking man. a sergeant. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose great-grandfather. due to its invariable character. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. but whose second cousin. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. got married and had a daughter. in his turn. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition.

with deletion of the noun friends]. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. . were now all gone. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.obligatory 3. . he requested that the public be excluded. . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.no 5. has been troubling them forever. – no pied piping 5. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. was now complete. Irene. This story. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. – no 9. he rarely saw now. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. In the interest of public decency.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. – yes. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. – no 4.yes 7. – obligatory pied piping 2.yes Activity 9 1. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.obligatory 4. The problem of safe transportation. . – yes 6. His friends. – no pied piping 327 . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. .yes 10. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. no easy answers to which could be offered. .His father’s friends. whose interest he most sincerely shared. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.yes 3. – yes 2.

8. 328 . yours. 6. 3. I am to be envied. For twenty years. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . for instance. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 2. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. where two teams battled every day… 5. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. I did so. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 7. Everything was ending.and he couldn’t thank me enough. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. For all the four children. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. Only an ugly endless dream remained. irrespective of age and nature. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. the third born son. In other people’s opinion. 4. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. or as of a vast arena. Nelu. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive.

Let me tell you my last conclusion. 16. He was suffering from dizziness. 12. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 13. since I don’t really know which my true life is. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. from MR street. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. she said. staring aimlessly. You are newly arrived here. which was why he saw Dora very far away. where from Marta was coming too. Behind them. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. on Icoanei street. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 11. barely glittering in the distance. What you’re saying sounds very nice. the tram was rattling along. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 329 . leaving streets and houses behind. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. although she was standing quite close to him. 15. 10. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee.R. All that you have read is rubbish. 17. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. 14.

21. after the car was fixed. But. in her pursuits. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I don’t know what might have happened. While we were poor. I could see my woman falling away from me. So. day by day. had a huge house in Bucharest. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. which I did not posses. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. But for me. 330 . She was a woman of means. 24. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. or the clash of stars above. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 22. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. While some trees are still green. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. who prompted everyone on the street. had a personal style in clothes. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. so optimistic and composed? 19. likes and dislikes. 20.Nadina VIŞAN 18. who only lived once in this world. 23. or the many Egyptian dynasties. If he had hit me. From the vantage point I was in.

prepositional object Activity 2: 1. subject 9. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – unextraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . You may depend on it that I will pick you up. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. subject 7. – extraposed. – extraposed. – questionable. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. prepositional object 11. 8. 331 . object 6.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. subject 2. direct object 10. It appears that no one voted for him. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It was suggested that they should meet the President.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. direct object 3. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. subject 4. – the same as 3. object 5. subject 8. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. 3. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – extraposed. – impossible 7. for pragmatic reasons 5. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 6. 2. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed.

although a bit intricate 2. – impossible. . You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 18. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 14. a bit too intricate 5. – impossible. – correct 2. – grammatical. same as 12. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. but pragmatically impossible 3. – grammatical. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 17.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. idiomatic formula 16. – the same as 12. – grammatical. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – impossible. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.incorrect. It is nice to meet you. I guess it that he will come back. – same as 12. 15.correct 4. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible 11. same as 12. tense influences the 332 .grammatical. .grammatical. – incorrect. but pragmatically impossible 4. 10. – impossible. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 9. Activity 3: 1.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. .. They never expected it that he would come back. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. same as 12. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.

thus. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. under bridges.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.’ Lionel says. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . in the pits on the road. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 333 .incorrect. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.’ 4. behind gates. – correct 6. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. 5. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). 3. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. (Not always. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. in the ditch. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. though. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. 2. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.

who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. 3. since the 334 . It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. because it is less ambiguous. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Activity 7 1. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. It is less ambiguous than the first. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. 7. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. – the first sentence is the better of the two. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 2. By saying this. 4.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. without trying to protest too much. – the second sentence is questionable. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 8. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel.Nadina VIŞAN 6.

They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 335 . – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. 5./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. so there is no need for extraposition. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 7. although the third one has not undergone clause shift.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 8. The second and third sentences are grammatical. extraposition is obligatory here. – both sentences are grammatical. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 6./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.

His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.complement 4. – complement that clause. – direct object. . ibid. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. . for better or worse. required by deverbal noun 336 . The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – prepositional object.) adverbial of sequence/result. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – complement 2. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. – complement 5. ibid. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. coordinated. – relative 5. . – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. (Iris Murdoch. .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.We discovered that our map has disappeared.) complement that clauses.relative Activity 9 1. The idea that he had had earned him good money. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.adverbial of sequence/result. (Iris Murdoch. – relative 3.prepositional object. they were chained to each other forever. – subject. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.

– a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. that they were not too late to leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. h) John thought that Harry had run. you want me to believe. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. f) John said that Harry would leave. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. that deletion is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that is obligatory. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.

I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a. – both sentences are grammatical. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – grammatical sentences. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. c. b. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.

ciocârlii şi şoimi. present instead of simple past. cenuşii şi albe. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. quail. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. hawk. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. prepeliţe. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. geese both grey and white. lark. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. present perfect instead of past perfect. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. – generalization on habits of birds.

It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. lack of pridefulness. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. She admired their keenness of wit. Crows will relish what presents itself.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. The generic present is used in this case. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. love of practical jokes. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lipsa de vanitate. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. slyness in a fight.

he claimed. in the very act of expiring.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. But as the battle raged around them. tragică şi eroică. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. se ridicase în picioare. He died erect. […] During the latter stages of the tale. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Murise în picioare. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. He had fought hard through the war. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. the young officer. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. tânărul ofiţer. El căzuse pe spate. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case.

they gathered around my desk. Luptase din răsputeri în război. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Activity 13 1. he closed the album. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. A short while later. Acum stătea aici. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Now here he stood jailed. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. to finish my drawing. When he saw me. around seventeen or eighteen years old. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. 342 . în închisoare. And they might just hang him. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). One of them. war hero though he was. – similar situation to the one under (c). They all had their hands in their pockets. When the boys saw that mother had left. the oldest. But when he reached me. 2. susţinea el. deşi era erou de război. mother went home and I was left alone. How can I explain? I just felt shy. I realized I could not tell him the big news. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă.

or fear his rage. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. for her vineyard. 4. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.’ 5. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. brightly and closely. or if she would do so again. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good.’ Mr. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. All his senses were now keen. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. 6. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. as if he had been drunk. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself.

with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 9. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. And if things were so. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. claiming you had no ambition for the future.Nadina VIŞAN to him. 10. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. 11. 8. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. 7. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. The last time when we met here you scared me. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. thinking of him. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 .

exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. more urgently than ever. which secretly drove him. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. 14. We either sell them or we don’t. towards Jurubita. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. namely the impatience of this young man. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. where he would run to confess everything. without putting anything in a note. 13. 12. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled.

/ I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 2. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. 346 . It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom.. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. grammatical 7. 9. – perfect infinitive. grammatical 6. / they saw her leave. grammatical 3.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / He had Mary clean her room. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. . – simple infinitive. . the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 10.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8.simple infinitive. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. – simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It is vital this factory to be reopened. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. – simple infinitive. grammatical 5. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.

\ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ They would have hated [her to come back. – Test: They tempted him. / I want to never see you again. \ She promised him PRO to leave. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / He is believed to have known her 347 . Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *They would have hated her. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: *She wanted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people. \ I allowed [them to come. \ I would love [ them to come. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. you need to try harder. Test: *They did not wish her.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: He persuaded her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / It is not too late for him to learn. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ He persuaded her PRO to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. – Test: They convinced her. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. – Test: She promised him. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. – Test: They asked her. Test: *I would love them.

/ He is young enough to start again.Nadina VIŞAN for years. . / I have never known how to behave in her presence. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / Oh.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. . not to miss the train. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. Activity 6 Oh. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / I want you to leave my house. / To make a long story short. I don’t need you or your services. / I have a word to tell you. . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation.obligatory subject control verb 348 . to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. . / He is easy to talk to. / He is easy to live with. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is hard to stand.

Direct object 3 – PRO –to.Accusative + Infinitive. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4].to. Harold. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. 1 – PRO-to. 349 . extraposed 2 – PRO-to. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. they had depressed and fuddled him. the herd instinct was very strong in him. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. so that we might get to the future and have done.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. 1] A little crossly. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 1 – PRO. Predicative 4 . who wasn’t used to men with moods. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. he didn’t envy those above it. Both seemed to him a little unreal. He suspected hostility at once. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Subject. If he himself was out of spirits. Subject. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.

PRO controlled by ‘me’. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. man and woman. c) Unlike plane trips. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. But when we need to comfort others. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. 1 – PRO-to. true. slowly. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. object 2 – PRO –to. And you might also be hit and humiliated. f) The passing time is important. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. PRO controlled by ‘she’. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. excitedly. cautiously. PRO controlled by ‘she’. PRO controlled by ‘him’. more meaningful. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. One day. direct object 3 – PRO –to. or better said. 350 . e) When two persons. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. more believable than evidence itself. we seem to forget about our own pain. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to.

Moroi says heavily. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. 351 . which he had already forgotten. for instance. or their talk that night. That is it. that you are young. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. He had not been able to leave Dr. k) With this considerable dowry. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. And I would care for this man so deeply. Stroescu. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. as he had appeared to him in the rain. to live only with your coughing. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. If it was summer. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. And to actually start to believe you are so. not even those parts where he had been half-right. even when this love is hurried. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. I am indeed praising my own merits. tickled by the trickles of sweat. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. all down our neck. not to want to wipe it off. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. while swearing to change my way of life. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. S. h) I want us to go. Mrs. in the street. my wish being only to please and serve. or. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us.

or to speak so fast. she was suddenly so shocked. met by squalor and terrible smells.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. ready to submit to any demand. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. for that’s the door people get off by. If you will have what I can give you. no matter what. here I am with all of my own. Well. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. haphazardly. every Bucharester knows it. 352 . I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. poor Muti. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him.

/ You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. 353 . – Attributive past participle./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made.. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ She sent him shopping.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / They found it thrown in a corner. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. badly beaten and bloodied./ Don’t keep him waiting. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. with its lips drawn back. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother.

Sleeping in the next room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. Turning on the light. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Finding the treasure. I slammed the door of my room. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 5. 3. Having looked through the fashion magazine. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 7. The tree had fallen across the road. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. having heard it all before. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Attributive present participle. having been uprooted by the gale. Activity 4 1. 10. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. 8. – Attributive present participle./ Running into the room. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. he sat down to his own dinner. they began quarreling about how to divide it. – As she was running into the room.She didn’t want to hear the story again.Running into the room. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. I was astonished at what I saw. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Having fed the dog. 9. 2.

Passing under a ladder. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. one of the eggs broke. Barking furiously. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. red-handed. broad-shouldered. Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. / Getting out of bed. a scorpion bit him. 4. stony-hearted. – As he was tied to the post. 9. cloth-covered. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Dropped by parachute. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 7. a pot of paint fell on my head. he was bit by a scorpion. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. – As the dog was barking furiously. 3. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Activity 5 Fair-haired. I let the dog out of the room. – As he was climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. he broke one of the eggs. 11. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 2. 355 . Tied to the post. a scorpion bit him. fishy-eyed. – As he was getting out of bed. – As he was riding in the first race. 8. – As I was passing under a ladder. the sea was tossing the post up and down. empty-headed. many-coloured. sharp-eyed/minded. his horse fell at the last jump. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. – As he left the cinema. – When I read in bed. Leaving the cinema. 10. the sea was tossing it up and down. a pot of paint fell on my head. my hands often get very cold./ Reading in bed. lion-hearted. 6. an idea suddenly occurred to me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. wooden-headed. 5. Getting out of bed. open-minded. his horse fell at the last jump. / Climbing down the tree. Riding in the first race. my hands often get very cold. bald-headed. I often get very cold hands. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. I let it out of the room. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. three-coloured. narrow-minded. 12. Reading in bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar.

shaven head. found hiding in a barn. Activity 7 1. shorn lamb. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. are sold throughout the world. (take) 2. / Many old people. rotten plank. stricken deer. open-hearted. (grow) 4. (find) 6. dark-skinned.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. I stared at the canvas for ages. ill-gotten wealth. 7. straight-shouldered. were taken to hospital. shrunken stream. 356 .I fell on the ice. Whales. bounden duty. injured when their car crashed on the M1. produced by S. / Swiss watches. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (injure). drunken man. eagle-eyed. mown grass. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. roast meat. The film. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today.Spielberg. The escaped prisoner./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (admire) 5. sunken eyes. / Three people. are in grave danger of extinction. injuring my arm. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. was today taken back to prison. graven image. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (hunt). hidden meaning. lighted candle. admired for their elegance and precision. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Activity 8 1. is expected to be a great hit. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. hunting for a bargain. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (produce) 3.

now taken down. 4. After a while. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. seeking some promised land. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. So. 357 . 2. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. yet left them room to sway free. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. flat and soft. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. streaked with yellow veins of fat. He felt close to his father. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. the carved chicken. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. the twice rinsed vegetables. A parasol. he started peering anxiously around as if. hovering uncertain and soft. suddenly suffocated. and moreover. And his soul. the fish. thrown in the pots. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. its scales scraped off by the knife. 3. sprinkled with sticky flour. then put up. in charge of his house and lands. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. boil them. bake them. and the puffed pastry beds. he were struggling for breath. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt.

Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash.gerund 5. / I am sorry for being so late. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. – participle (attribute) 2./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. . Activity 10 1. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . – gerund (subject) 4. – Accusative + participle 3. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. he left the store without buying a thing. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / I told him not to bother putting things back. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. Gambling is his favourite pastime. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / After annoying the shop-assistant.

– gerund (prepositional object) 10. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence.possessive ING (direct object) 9. . possessive ING (predicative) 7. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. 8. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – gerund (half or full. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – gerund (attribute. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs.participle vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He was spotted talking to her. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. preceded by preposition).

so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – gerund or verbal noun. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (has adjective). adjective. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. however appearances were against us.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.’ 360 .. I did ask Mr. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.verbal noun (has determiner. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Lady Corven. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – gerund (full. – verbal noun (has determiner. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. take down her answer. hold up his pen and speak. adjective.’ ‘Tell me. my Lord. Croom to try to follow one.. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.

what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. he addressed the note.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. my Lord. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ said Clare. I must go back now. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow.’ said Clare. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. it’s overrated. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ 361 . but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. I spend all my time hunting a job. I just used the word and they fell.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. Then. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. licked the envelope with passion. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘I do hate asking for things. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. and went out to post it himself. suddenly. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.

It was like a mist. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. direct object). He looked up towards the daylight.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. attribute). down. functions as direct object) and then the ground. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. the enormous split in the earth. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute. direct object) towards him. At first. village which is burning). slightly 362 . The sight of the two children. attribute) in a swirling motion.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. The collapsing shops (participle. slowly rising (participle. The two sides were moving apart. the very earth opening up (half gerund. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object) from below. hoping (participle. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. elliptical here. First the crack snaking (half gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. …while their edges were crashing inwards). (participle. attribute). after verb of perception. someone looking for survivors (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. attribute. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. attribute. adverbial of time. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. down into God knows where. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. gerund.

m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. i. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. has ‘of’ phrase). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. prepositional object. my dear. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. you. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. moving up (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. one. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .). It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. early. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. direct object). adverbial of manner) towards his chest. according to the books he read. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. adverbial of reason). etc. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. covering (participle. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund.e. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. subject of ‘being’) being (participle.

whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. Standing up. slanted on to her cheek. and then went riding (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. brightening (participle. attribute) stopped dead. we were all gathered in that room. And. preceded by preposition. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. and sunlight. mother. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. attribute) a sudden whoop. Vaucher and I. and everything got suddenly animated. examining (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of manner). reluctant or not. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. adverbial of manner). adverbial of reason). Having a French governess (participle. So. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. for Dornford was busy on an important case. preceded by preposition. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. the two Mamonas. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) to winter brilliance. She finished what jobs there were. and not only in my imagination or theirs.

4. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. killed by Young Mamona. to me. and to Young Mamona. Not so unimaginable though. to Vaucher.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. without taking his sack off his shoulders. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. And. closing my eyes. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . his disloyal apprentice. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. who knows. he went to mother and. about sparing no effort. bending a little. he looked like someone who did. kissed her forehead. And then. I knew who it would be. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. 2. Entering our house on a Thursday. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. too. So when Old Mamona came in. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. each carrying a wooden box. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . as mother had ordered him. He cast us a swift glance. her back towards us. in the year 1812. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. let alone greet us or say something. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. and ended his life in the year 1821. Vaucher might have known that too. he found us sitting each in his place. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. sitting in his puddle. 3. and smelling so hard of rain. for anyway. about concentrating all our resources.

of taking notes and rewriting them. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. barrack. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. everything seemed familiar. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. 5. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. They got off the truck slowly. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. futile. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. And suddenly. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. as an afterthought. stove. But. already seen and heard. long board table. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. wood pile. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. each pausing before jumping down. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. And all around them was the great field 366 . and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing.

367 . They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The next thing was to go to the well.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

Gallimard. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. TUB Cornilescu. Mouton de Gruyter. Caenepeel. . Iclezan Dimitriu. A.. Bybee. 1982. 51-103. Aspect.. Chicago. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. Accuracy and Fluency. A. Bucuresti. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. A. 369 .. Al. I. Institutul European Cornilescu. 1994. 1996. English Grammar. Bernard. G. CUP. Comrie.II. 1964. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. English Syntax. vol. . 1966. 2003. English Word-Formation. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais.University of Chicago Press. eds. 1989. 1983. Bybee. Emile. Cornilescu.References Bauer. The Transformational Syntax of English.. Cambridge University Press. TUB Curme. Mimo and Marc Moens. Benveniste. Burnes and Noble. Joan and Osten Dahl. 1. Problemes de linguistique generale. Laurie. The Evolution of Grammar. Complementation in English. 1976. Joan. 1976. . The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. 1994. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. Cornilescu. .

A. Gunter Narr Verlag. Cohesion in English. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. Aspects of English Morphology. Hornby. Tubingen. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Advanced Grammar in Use. 2000. Gramatica limbii române. & Alfred Rosa (eds). . Gramatica Academiei. Progress to Proficiency. Longman. Halliday. 1987. London. Alexandru Niculescu. Jespersen. Hewing.. Outlooks and Insights. St Martin’s Press. P. R. Dutescu-Coliban. 1968. 1967. An Advanced English Practice Course. Otto.. Longmans. Alexandru. Advanced Grammar Practice. Eschholz.A. Longman. Graur. Longman. 370 . Longman.S. Graver.K. Part IV. CUP. New York. Martin. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. Leo. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. vol. 1931. 1982: 42-70. Jones. 1963. 1982. 1976. & R. . M. eds. Harris. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. 1968. Bucureşti. J. 1987.Day. London and Copenhagen. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Hornby. Peter. Taina. Bucureşti. CUP. In Vincent and Harris. Iordan. 1968. M.S.A. et al. Bucureşti. I. Richard. 1993. 1961. . 1959. Denison. Fenn. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Hassan.. London. 1999. English Historical Syntax. London.1993.

Sue. Part II. Foresman and Company. 1973. L.. Parrott. K. 2002. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Transactions of the Philological Society. Hans and Christian Rohrer. Greenbaum. Kruisinga.J. An Outline of English Lexicology. Seminar Press. Groningen Lipka. Negation in English. 1991. Tense in Texts. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Hans and Uwe Reyle. E. Kennedy. TUB. A Grammar of Late Modern English. vol. Bauerle et al. 2000. X. Dordrecht. 1993. A Modern English Grammar. J. A Grammar of Contemporary English. in Fodor. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. CUP.. OUP. English Syntax. Nelson.Katz. Schibsbye. Number 3. vol. 1987. Kamp.... McCarthy. R. eds. 2000.Kamp. 1931. 1964. Serban. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. Poetry and Drama. Groningen. volume 68. 323-352 O’Connell. From Discourse to Logic.. Poutsma. J. Leech. 1982. (advanced). M. Focus on Proficiency. Jim.. 1970. 89:2 (2000). and J. CUP. Quirk. A Handbook of Present-day English. Language. 1990. London. Klima. Literature. and Svartvik. Klein. An Introduction to Fiction. S. M. D. Wolfgang. . Miller. H. Scott. I. E. G.. 1992. & Felicity O’Dell. 1926. 1983. The Present Perfect Puzzle. English Vocabulary in Use 371 .

Vet. Aspect Shift and Coercion... 1990.. a. New York. e. 1998. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Plenat (ed. Berlin. Modes of Discourse. 372 . Co. A. de Swart. I.. 1978. Henriette. Co. 2001. In M. N. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. Editura Credis.) L’emprise du sens. 1957 and 1962. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Rodopi. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London. Smith. 1999. A Handbook of English Grammar. Conference on British and American Studies. 347-385. TUB. 2003. Lectures in English Morphology.Schwegler. Stefanescu. editia 1. 2003.W. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. N. Visan. Mouton de Gruyter. Vet. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It... Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. Vişan. Carlota. Sentence Processes. Le passe simple. 2003. R. Zandvoort.. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Amsterdam. 1992.

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