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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.de rezolvări. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. titularizare şi grad. 6 .
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
4.1. Complementary distribution .Contents: 8 184.108.40.206. Auxiliary verbs 1. Insertion 1. Constituent Phrase 1. The Distribution of an Element 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.2.
Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. loves. Semantic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). 1. For instance. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Consequently. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Syntactic. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. sequences of the kind her mother very. very much. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. her mother. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. They are just strings.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. that is sequences fragmented at random.2.
etc. 1. be). an order given to an interlocutor).) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. (Mi-a spus secretul. 1.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.3.4. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) 10 . Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. must. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.e. we are dealing with a directive (i. should.
5.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.6. live. an ‘empty’ there subject. etc. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. 1.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.) 1. for instance. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. Consider.
whereas (7) is not. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. pragmatic. this would really hurt. syntactic. How much.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. If the given context is the one under (6). he had not yet been able to estimate. Pratice Define and illustrate. semantic. distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. 12 . Munt. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. complementary distribution. using your own examples: insertion. as the star indicates.
To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .
2. Key terms .1. affirmative sentences.4.7. Negative vs. Full – local negation 2.5.2. Tests for negativity 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.8. Key terms 2. Polarity Items 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Instances of negation 2.6. Conclusion.3.
2. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Negative .Declarative vs. in the sense that it states something.) b. For instance. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.) is said to be an assertion. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.Unit two Sentence negation 2.Positive vs. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Consequently. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. it asserts something. in that they do not state anything. This example can be compared to: (2)a.
subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / She finally admitted.non-assertion .) .) . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. don’t bother her.assertion .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret./ She can’t wait to read that book. / Come with me. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ If you like her.g.g. comparison.negative (e. 16 . listen to this. Did they tell her the secret? ) .g.positive sentence .Nadina VIŞAN .positive and declarative secret.other (if –clauses./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens./ Don’t do that. They told her the ( e.interrogative (e. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .
Unit two Sentence negation 2. since the negative word not is not present there. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) 17 . am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. I met a girl named Susan. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. (John e nefericit. John is unhappy.) b. In the case of the sentences under (4). since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). John is not happy. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. word negation.) b. Susan dislikes her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. For example. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. (Nu demult. Susan doesn’t like her friends.
(Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. since the negative word not is present inside them. She was not an unattractive woman.) b. where the word 18 . the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) c.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. In other words. these sentences look negative. He was not without intelligence.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. just like in the case of word negation.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. In other words. I was not a little worried. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. but their meaning tells us a different story. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. more precisely the phrase it is part of. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.
the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. without intelligence./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. Translate the following sentences into English. / Când a aflat vestea. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive.e. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning.
/ Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. dar nu în mod special. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.4. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. Negative vs. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. affirmative sentences. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . ci doar indecişi. dar nu neobişnuit. 2. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John.
) (9) I didn’t go there. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (see subsection 1.). syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. For instance. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (M-am dus acolo. etc.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.1. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Nu m-am dus acolo. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. such as do insertion. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.
/ She does not hate animals. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. incorrect. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / We don’t come here often. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. 22 ./ They didn’t leave. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / I don’t like her very much. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan did not get married to Jim.
Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. * and they don’t like her either. which does not happen in the case of (18). which is ungrammatical. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). not even the smart ones. 3.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. and they don’t like her either. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. .Unit two Sentence negation 2. 4. even the smart ones. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Example (14) is syntactically negative.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. *and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and neither do they like her.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. *not even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends.
/ They caused us no problems. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. 2. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / This boy is no good.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / No problems were caused after all. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Few of them stayed behind. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. they go skiing in the mountains. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / You have never met her. In conclusion. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / A few of them stayed behind.5. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / Not always a witty interlocutor.
Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. I went nowhere.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (27) a . (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-a venit John). (N-am văzut pe nimeni). b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (26) I saw nobody. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan could not go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English.
Not all that glitters is gold. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. All that glitters is not gold. (N-am văzut nici un student. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. 26 .) (29) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. no incorporation takes place.) b. / I didn’t ever go to his place. No day passed without me thinking of him. I never went to his place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) c. I didn’t go anywhere. I didn’t see anybody.) b. b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. I didn’t see any student.Nadina VIŞAN b. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.
scarcely. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. nici măcar din alea scurte. / I saw nobody. . / I didn’t see anybody. rarely. / He should not be released. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / Not many women are famous opera composers./ They didn’t come to meet her.) They barely read any novels. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.4. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / None of them liked house music. barely./ They never went there./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. seldom. not even short ones. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / Not one of them came to meet her. / No one ever listens to her. / Not a word fell from her lips.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / I showed him nothing.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. etc.V.) We seldom watch T. (Nu citesc romane.
/ This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. Never have I met a more horrible person. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.) c. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Few people came to see her. / I seldom look at her like that. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) b. / I scarcely ever see her.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / Hardly anybody liked him. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) 28 them.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) d. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. . Not for the world would I do such a thing.
negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. never trust a man again./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / I didn’t leave the office at any time.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.) They don’t think that he likes them. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. in the sense that the 29 . (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / She could rely on nobody but him. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.
guess. seem. 2. look like. should be desirable. although not negative in meaning. be probable. appear. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte.: think. we can very well say something like: (38) a. probability. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly.) 30 . expect. / I suppose she doesn’t care.6. want. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. She doesn’t like our chairman at all.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. In sentence (37). sound/feel like. the negative meaning is less strong. For example. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. intend. choose. / I expect he won’t come here again. suppose. be supposed to. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. advise. cannot appear in an affirmative context. / He reckoned he would not win her over. etc. suggest. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. etc.) b. ought to.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. believe. etc. / They believe she does not like them. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. imagine. intention. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. be likely. barely.
It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă.*She lifted a finger to help me. That is 31 . and sentences such as: (39) a. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context.2.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. *She likes our chairman at all. b. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.
somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I like it . either. / I can understand both of these 32 . it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I somehow like him. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Bob is still living at that address. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.). / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.) Yet vs. too. / I have some money. etc. / Well. / I like you a lot. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.) Much vs. too. / I have already seen him. you can still do something about it. a lot (I don’t like you much. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Don’t worry. / They say he once had someone very close. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I eat caviar most of the times. some (I haven’t any money. / I somewhat like his proposal. / She hardly ever comes here. / Come on. still (I don’t love you any more. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) Until vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) Any more vs. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / He arrived before 5. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.) At all vs. / I still love you) Either vs.) Hardly ever vs. too (I don’t like it. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.
touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. Translate into English. / You must pay that fine. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Peter knows some English and so does John. see/ feel/ remember a thing. last a minute. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must be telling lies. / Ajută-mă. turn a hair. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. leave a stone unturned. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. mulţumesc. nici unuia dintre noi. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge./ I can understand all of these ten English words. sleep a wink. hurt a fly. touch a drop. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. lift/raise/ stir a finger. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / I nearly always have to clean it myself. have/be worth a red cent. de când cu 33 . crack a smile. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. have a care/ friend in the world. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. flinch. bat an eye(lid). n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. move a muscle. lay a finger on someone. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. find a trace. Ion nu e prea deştept. hear a peep. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. give a damn/darn. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. know a single person./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives.
/ No entry. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. nu e vina mea. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. but you really should do something about it. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Hotărât lucru. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / He is no end of a fellow. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / No trouble at all. / Not that I care. he left the room. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No man is wise all the time. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Never is a long word. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. n-a sunat încă. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / He won’t make old bones. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Nothing succeeds like success. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. Translate into Romanian. / No hands wanted. / No admittance. he’s a pig. budge. / I had no end of trouble. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No sooner said than done. B: Aşi.
say it. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. as well: 35 . Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). b) I love asking some funny remarks. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. c) He is anxious to say something. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). 2./ I saw no one. Normally. N-am văzut pe nimeni.Unit two Sentence negation rather).7. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. / I hate making any commitments.
Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. I don’t. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. I don’t like this poem. Conclusion. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. The second negation is somehow independent. from a syntactic point of view. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. B: Nu. however. nu-mi place. Key terms. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. nu îmi place poezia asta.) 2. (Nu. 36 . (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu poezia asta.8. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. B: Not this poem.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .e.
4.2.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Direct vs.2.Questions 3.1.2. Minor Types of Questions 220.127.116.11.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Key Terms.3 Alternative Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.3. Optional Exercises .2 Wh.1 Tag Questions 3.
) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.Unit three Questions 3. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.1. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. If we try to analyze the examples above. for a subsequent section. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.
Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). 48 . all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. pe mama. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. (3) and (4). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. (2).g. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences.
Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the sequence of the tenses is violated. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Since the question is not direct any more. In the case of indirect questions. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. 49 . in this case. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). Likewise. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. because. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going.
cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / He asked me who she is. / I don’t know whom she fancies. identify the incorrect sentences. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. c) Ştii ce.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. ce culoare are pielea. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / He asked me who she was. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. spune la un moment dat femeia. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. sau mai bine zis. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I don’t know who she is. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are.
those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. In this case.Unit three Questions 3.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. being typical of spoken language.2. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Let us provide 51 . the type of answer the respective question requires. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. as Quirk shows.
(what time / shops close today) ? 7. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (how long / wait for me?) 10.1.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (who / talk to last night)? 5. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.2. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.
are said to be positively – oriented. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da). it has. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . instead of Negative Polarity ones. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (Da). they did. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.
A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ……….. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: You’ve been learning German for years. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. ……. ……………? (hear her) B: …. because you always copy everything I do! 5. (speak yet) B: ……. A: You look down..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. 3. A: What a lovely hairdo! ………………….. ……………………………. as in the example: 1. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.. I’ve still got plenty of time. A: Your mother is shouting for you.. 7. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. . …………………. 2. but I want to play basketball a little longer. 6. 4. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.
2. what .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 8. how. 10.Unit three Questions B: ………………….. which When. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 3. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . . why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. I didn’t get home until late last night. ………………………………. 9..questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. A: There was a terrible car crash. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. where. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.2 Wh – questions Wh. A: It’s past your bedtime. You could have mentioned it earlier..
/ I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often./ I have French lessons twice a week. / My new car cost 10./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / That’s my pen. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. I cannot do that. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. what ever./ She dropped her glasses. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death./ Sara owns two cars.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. of course. (Poppy Z. why ever. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / David’s car was stolen. / Shirley got married to Ben.000dollars. / There are six students in my class. / She lives in the suburbs. trying to find places where I resided in life. Nearly two hundred years.
2.3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.) 57 . Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.
How long is she be spending in America? 15. How long is she be spending in America? 8. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. didn’t use he? 4. There was a fax for you this morning. How far is it the cinema? 10. He used to work in a bank. He used to work in a bank. shall we stay? 7. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. You can’t be serious. didn’t use he? 11. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How far is it the cinema? 3. Let’s stay for another few days. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. can you be? 58 . Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. wasn’t it there? 17. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Who did left the gate open? 18.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not.
uneori disperat. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. neliniştea infantilă.Unit three Questions 19. isn’t it this? 25. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. will you not? 27. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. That was Jeremy’s brother. plin de germeni virulenţi. Pot reveni. That’s your car. Toate vechi. deci. Who did told you about the problem? 31. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. Whose it is this book? 32. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. wasn’t it he? 22. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. ca şi cei ce au fost. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Ani întregi. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. dacă prin absurd 59 . How long have you be lived in London? 26. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. despre o lume dură. să-mi înfrâng frica. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. deci. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. will you not? 21. John goes jogging every morning. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. doesn’t he go? 23.
de atunci. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. puturos. mă întreb. lung. îi ştiu gustul. B. pe sub bolţile din care. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. murdar. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. naiv. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. inactivii. picură apa roşietică. ghiceam doar unde se află. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. “Spune! striga el. Şi. neîntrerupt. indiferent de risc. dar şi drumul. laşii. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Riscul? Ratarea. iar proştii. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. străină priceperii lor. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. umed. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. negru. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 .
absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. golul alb. domnule profesor. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când nu-i pot face nici un bine.3. will you? (38) She went to Prague. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. exclus. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. didn’t she? . da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. la urma urmei. orbitor.1. viaţa? Oare e drept. nu se poate. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. da? (37) Let’s go there. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. care i-a determinat alegerea. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.3. Tag Questions Tag questions. 3. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi.Unit three Questions viaţă. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.
e. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. is it? (Deci. In this way.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. it’s all spent. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. the tag is negative too). constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. The suggestion is that in this case. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.) A: Oh. aren’t they? 62 . reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. sarcasm. au fost cheltuiţi. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. if the host sentence is negative. or “comment tags”. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. hasn’t she? (Aha. or falling. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. the tag is affirmative too. (Din păcate.
/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I am older than you. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / There is enough food for everyone. 63 . / The boy never watched his sister. / You have been invited. after all. / That was your father. / I am dressed smartly enough. / They said he liked music. / She has a brother. / He has to marry Susan. / I think you like my music. / Few people like her. / She used to talk a lot. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / I must go now. / Let’s eat dinner now. / You ought not to smoke. / Don’t leave without me. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / She left an hour ago. / You will pick me up at 7. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago.…/ Let me know. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / He simply hates empty words. / A few people like her. / The boy often watched his sister. / Each of us is staying.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Surely you have enough money. / He hates his wife. / I may see you tomorrow. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I think you don’t like my music. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You will pick me up. / That’s your car over there. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I don’t think you like my music. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Tell me.
isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. or what? 3. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. using a question tag at the end. So you enjoyed my talk. 5. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…./ I’m right about this…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party.. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. He used to play squash. / He never used to study so hard….
/ No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2. / Grants… 3. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) B: Chinese? 65 .3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.2.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. Recapitulatory echo questions .1.1.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.3.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.
Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. rather than the repetition. consternation.2. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .phrase is fronted. (Închide lumina aia.3.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. of something just said. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. If the wh.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. disbelief. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.2. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.
Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. am pierdut scrisoarea. / I think I’ve found a solution./ We are looking for a purse.e. with recapitulatory echo questions. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this./ He is interested in blue movies. intonation is rising. rather than did you say. I’ve lost the letter. (Vai. (i.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. which letter do you 67 . / We are looking for a pixie. dear. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. whereas with explicatory echo questions. / He is interested in music. (Uită-te la asta.
she knows about it. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.4. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.Nadina VIŞAN 3. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.
nu purta verighetă. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. cu o casă de copii. stricata. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. şi apoi Vica ce zice. şerpoaica. acuma sporovăiala. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. aşa. lui Luca Horobeţ. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. şi care s-a aciuat. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. da. Are gust de oameni blânzi.– Crezi tu. cumnată Fenia. lui Chizlinski. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. după pofte. oameni aşezaţi. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. Fenio. în general. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. ca să zic aşa. să se încolăcească mai bine. pe Condrat de Vica. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. lui Stavre Păici. în satul nostru.
Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Hogea. deci. L-a scos din geamie. sau cum o chema. De asta erai. roşu şi galben. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. dar cum se face că a 70 . pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. până la călcâie. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. abia târându-şi picioarele. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. sus.
niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.5.Key Concepts .3.6.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.2.1.
some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. where there is no indication other than a comma. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. that elements are coordinated. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.Unit four Coordination 4.1 Syndetic vs. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. reproachfully. i. cu repros. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.e. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. 75 . present) in the sentence. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. Example (2).e. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. on the other hand.
Nadina VIŞAN 4. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. Conversely. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. 76 .) Such examples. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. From the previously mentioned examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. vei muri.) (4) If you hit my wife. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. you will die.
c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. we need to specify that. the second. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. but presupposed. from a logical & semantic point of view. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . However. respectively subordinated constituents. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.
the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. adorned with cornices. his shoes squished. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. took off his coat and emptied them. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. In the second. the houses were beautiful and ancient. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. In the first. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. with enormous solidity. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. His clothes hung to him. Then he sat down.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. built. Though the castle had vanished. with formal walks under rows of trees. took off his shoes and emptied them. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. but the 78 . Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He moved and made a slopping noise. John Steinbeck. of cut gray stone.
After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. over some of the roughest ground in the country. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. the higher he went the wetter it grew. Cecil Woocham – Smith.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . left the house. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. and as the way is with Irish mountains. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours.
(9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. however distinguished.3 Sentence vs. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (G. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. as shown in (9). yesterday and the day before yesterday. were to take down the name of every man.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. As one can easily notice. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. we should be seriously annoyed. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.K. who was caught at a University Extension lecture.
7. 6 John sang and Mary danced.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Pratice Distinguish coordination. John and Mary are ready. 4. our respective examinations.Unit four Coordination example (7). plays football. John is ready and Mary is ready. 9. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 3. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John and Mary are the newly married couple. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 2. yellow and blue. and even tennis. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. / Joan plays many games. / Peter. 5. Her pet kitten is black and white. 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. but not John. 8. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. and I passed. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Activity 2 sentences: 1. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / Peter and John played football. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Our flag is red.
(Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 3. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Activity 4 2. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Jane 82 . *John poetry and Bill writes prose.) c. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. 6. 5.) b. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.Nadina VIŞAN b.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. or deleted. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. as can be seen in (10b).
9. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. i.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself.e. the so-called Principle of Economy. these syntactical processes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.) The common element. can be reduced by substitution. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 83 . 7. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. So. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Besides ellipsis. 10. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. We can demand payment and we will demand payment.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. than a longer repetitive one. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.
ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. George and Jane went back to their parents. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 3. some reason or another. the old men and women 2. 2. A citit. In certain cases. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. using reduced structures: 1. Translate the following sentences. George and Jane are separated. simple books and magazines for children 3. 4. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. one or (the) other method. 4.
She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. they reached home………. 5. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. for my wallet. A pendulum swings ………. 15. Marks and Spencers. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. even though they have their little …………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 .You gain some things and you lose others. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. 2. 16. They get on quite well together. of your proposals later on? 3. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 13. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………... 11. 8. sweet and sour. like: salt and pepper. 5. After all their adventures. the amount I’ve already saved up. 7. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. Can we discuss the …………. 8. only for damage. . Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. it’s a case of ………… 7.. You can’t claim on insurance for ……….I searched ……….… 14. 12. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. 6. fish and chips. 6. I need another 100$ ………...
4. of course. For instance. Nor sun. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. In fact.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. more often than not. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. etc. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) There are. and 86 . the expressive function of coordination is. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. 4. as in: (17) a. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. b. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.
(I-am dat banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) In certain cases. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. or . too): (20) a. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii.) b. o respectau si o indrageau. etc). both … and . sometimes but.g. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) c. and cherished her.) 87 . (Ei o placeau pe Susan. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. 20 (b)). either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. where the subordinator is repeated. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.
I like and admire her.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I admire and like her. if we were to rewrite the example . Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . From this point of view. (O admir si imi place. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (Imi place si o admir. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. I washed and ironed my pants. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. In this case.) b.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.* I ironed and washed my pants. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. and you’ll die.
He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he failed). (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (If you do that. Brown experiments with humans. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.Unit four Coordination 1.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) (While Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.
If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. From the functional point of view. 5.which are based on coordination . subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. e. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.) 101 . as the name suggests it.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.g.
) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. We do not presuppose however something like. an adverbial item. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). sentences) required by the verb (or. in certain cases. such as proud of. In a way. (I-a dat cartea. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) 102 . even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. by an adjective + preposition. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. for instance.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. For instance.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. they are still presupposed by the speaker. we associate it with these objects. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. for example).
to add something. Thus. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. to her) and one extra-item. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition.) b. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. which is the adverbial willingly.e. The second example. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. an additional one. i. related to example (4). I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. A second observation. 103 . (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. In other words. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. I am afraid that he won’t come.
The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. such as want. (Înainte să plece din cameră. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. am să mor. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. etc. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (11) If you don’t marry me. make. like. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.) 104 .Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. I’ll die. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.
They came to e. she looked at me sadly. this to whomever wants it. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 3. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. 6. 4. Susan disappeared without saying a word.g. After I told her the story. 2. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 5.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. [. Whoever did that was a genius. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . The book that because they home.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. e. I cannot tell you what I heard about you.g.She came to him of her own will.
was a novelty to Mitzi. etc. at our age. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. but he declined. not object. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. though it was largely politeness. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.He took an intelligent interest in her. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. 2. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. 3.) 106 .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. You suggestion that we should. WHETHER. 4. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. which. As you can see. 6. stating their function: Activity 2 1. FOR. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.
how. why. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. which. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. Who did it was John.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (E de dorit să plece. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) (16) a. 107 .) b.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (15) It is John who did it. where. who.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. Where he went is London. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. when. (Am vrut să plec imediat.
(Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. In (18).1. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. done from a structural point of view. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. Compare. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. Unlike complement clauses. which sums up this classification. In conclusion. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. if. etc. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.) (18) She told me this before she left. however. for instance. before. As you will see. consider the following table.
Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. after. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.: e. etc.g. as. surely you cannot sincerely believe. whether he will come when I feel like it. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. you understand. for.g. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. 109 . I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. I will come back such as because. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. Introduced know e. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. Dear Ludwig. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. at your young age. back. I will go there because I feel like it.g.
She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. she stopped to speak to Monroe. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. As she left the house.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. Late that afternoon. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.The day Monroe had died was in May. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. but he asked her to wake him when she returned.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. But she thought that no one would call again. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. a tightening in her breathing. 2. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. he said. Too. Accidental Man) b)1. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g. 111 . I told her everything after she arrived.g. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. That he loved e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. că e.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.2. a correspondence can be traced. interesting. However. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. As you have probably noticed already.g.g.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.g.
none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. complements.e.complement. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.2. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. (Cred că mă place.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. So.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.. Secondly. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.1. In the fourth place. i.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. whenever you identify a wh. Thirdly. whereas wh complements are the 112 . We will come back to that in the next chapter.
but no idea what to do with them. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. and I do not know how things might stand between us. for no matter how she tried. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. because. She mistrusted her handwriting. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. a barn. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out.g. a house. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. before. outbuildings. c) I am coming home one way or another. their introductory elements (e. I first thought to tell in 113 . etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Pratice Consider the following text. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials.
and I have not the will or the energy. According to a structural criterion. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.4. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). these clauses can be complements. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). it would make you fear to do such again. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. because they modify. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.e.
115 . Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. ce o fi având. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. însă. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. după ce că are grâu puţin. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. answering the question to whom? So. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. (…) “Mă. be very careful to use this term correctly. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. O zbughi înapoi. look at. etc. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. Pratice Translate the following. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. interested in.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e.e. Alţii.g. îşi spuseseră că Anton. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Nevasta secera în tăcere. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. think of.
Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. Toată lumea înţelesese că. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. izolate de sat. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Nici acum. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . întâi. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. cât de bolnavă era. timp de un ceas. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. de fapt. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2.
Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. În realitate. la Odobeşti. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . cu automobilele unora dintre ei. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. deşi cam târziu. la nişte prieteni comuni. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Pace nu era. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Iată. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. de pildă. stricau totul. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. aşa de oţetit. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. amânase scrisul. acum sunt desluşiţi.
frate. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. subject relative clauses. 119 . whose. etc). the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.g.. of which. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc.
Key Concepts . The Co-reference Condition 6.1.7. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 18.104.22.168.2. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.5.6. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.
(1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).1. 6. 121 .) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The Co-reference Condition .2. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.
We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. By combining these two clauses. John loves that woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. 122 . Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.
John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The common element woman is present. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. 123 .Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed.
The students like their teacher. 2. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. He told Jim everything about his plans. frequently used in written language. WHO 5. Any of the students would answer to questions. I bought Jim a book. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 7. He’s the author who received the prize. 8. I lost the book’s cover. 10. I went to London. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. too. 9. WHICH 4. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. therefore in spoken English. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. She came to London. 3. 5. John told his friend a story about the king. This is my husband.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. The students like their teacher. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Susan wants to meet Jane. 6. WHERE 3. WHO 124 . I love my husband very much. by leaving behind a trace. They met those students. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 4. I had a book. I introduced him to Jim. The king was just passing by. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. None of the students agreed with them. He liked that book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret.
3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. (Cine strică plateşte. WHOSE 7. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. . It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. WHOM 6. most of them were from England. WHOM 10. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.Unit six Relative clauses 6.e. 2. WHICH 8. TO 11. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. i. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. relative clauses are divided into 1.
only their antecedent is no longer expressed. it is covert.) • Predicative This was what she intended. Unlike their sisters. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.e. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. is no longer overtly expressed.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. in a manner of speaking. (Cel care strică plăteşte. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. these relatives cannot function as attributes.) So.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. unlike in the case of (14).) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.
They can be thus divided into: 1.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. 127 . (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (22) Mercury. care este zeul negoţului. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Mercur. (Du-te unde pofteşti. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. they define it). is my favourite god. who is the god of commerce. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Mercury. who incidentally is the god of commerce. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. este zeul meu favorit. They only provide supplementary information about it.
was the one we all welcomed and admired. 5. can only function as attributes (or modifiers).Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. restrictive relative clauses. is a great playwright.This is the village where I spent my youth. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Shakespeare. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. is a genius. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. They are what 128 . 7.e. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. who came to see me. who is a genius. 2. 9. 8. this type of relative clauses. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. On the day on which this occurred I was away. She. As we were saying. i. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 6. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. then it is an attribute. 10. on whom nobody could depend. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. I have met him where I least expected. Independent I don’t know what you want.
When the antecedent has no determiner. etc. a. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun.) 2. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. composed The (Freddie Mercury. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. .Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. care a murit acum câţiva ani.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. etc. 6. who died a few years ago. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. however sad this may be.
care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. but a peevish. care-ţi sunt fiu.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). îţi văd prea bine defectele. who am your son. poftiţi în faţă. who neither work nor am anxious. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care nu sunt o femeie. can see your shortcomings only too well. 4. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari.) Pratice Translate the following. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. 3. 5. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. (Eu. 130 . 7. bătrînă morocănoasă. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. ci o fată a woman. 2. Mie. 6. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. dried-up old maid. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. numai eu nu. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie.) (28) They come to me. ill-tempered. Dintre toate personajele prezente. iritabilă şi uscată. (Ei apeleaza la mine.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.
) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. heard. erau acum în posesia lui.Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. . than whom few more can be more crashing.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. were now in his possession.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. (32) service finished late. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. părăsi camera. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.
6. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.5. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. but it is typical of the formal. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones.) c. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) d.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The genitive form with which is still in use. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. as can be seen in (36d). (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. too. literary style: (37) a.1.) b. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.
) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Iris Murdoch. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.
Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. by the way. He is not the man which he used to be.) b. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. ships (that can be personified) a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (45) (46) .) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. … Italy. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) b. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. but to a type or a function: a. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. of which. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) • states. animals. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.
One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. France. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. reason. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches.) 6. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. pe care o privea direct. time. how.) b.2 Relative Adverbs: when.) 135 (47) . why. Poland is the place where Christine was born. while.Unit six Relative clauses b. It is poor what gets the punches. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. where. (Nu ştiam ce vor. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) b) dialectal (49) a. etc.5. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. etc. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. whom it concerned most closely.
He went where he had been before. They returned to the land whence they had come. This is the place wherefrom they came. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) 6. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.5. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.They left when they decided it was proper to. A system where by a new discovery will arise.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) 136 . A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.3.) b.) b. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) c. no antecedents are required: (52) a. The place whither he goes is unknown.) e. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.
) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. Moreover.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.
but they are used very infrequently: as. I’ll get you such things as you may want. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. much. .* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Honest man as he was. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.4.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. not any. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.5. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. any. but • in standard language a. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. every.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. 138 (64) his shoes.
There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) c.) • in dialect a. This is the same one that/as you had before. There’s not many as’ll say that. ăl de fusese in China…) b. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. And always on the buttered side. It’s the dry weather does it. . There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English.) c. Uncle George. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.
For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) b. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 . This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.
*The man John spoke to is an idiot. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. This is where we talk money.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. What Inman remembered was this passage. 3. Where he was from. What I’m saying is. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.3): (72) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. we all have to come to some terms. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 5.5.” 4. 7. makes me a wart and a wen.) b. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 6. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 2. fortifies me. It seemed a thing 141 .) c. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. The man that John spoke to is a genius. The man who John spoke to is a genius. The man John spoke to is a genius. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. That which shows God out of me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.
which is a lot. The rudeness of eating. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. he had left Ruby high and dry. though. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 142 . It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 10. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 11. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 13. (…) Partly. Whatever his fate was. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 9. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 8. 12. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Ruby said. Oh. who had not witnessed many dawns. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. of living. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag.
al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. poate. (Iris Murdoch. cumnatul unui portughez. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. pirpiriu. nu prea sarac. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . Cumnatul meu avea. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. mort de tanar. al carei strabunic. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. divortata. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. vasnic. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. plutonier. pe linie paterna. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”.al lui. un var primar. fiu natural al unui morar.
b. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. 144 .6. I lost the cover of the book. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. She was a woman. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Everybody listened to that woman.2. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. The opposite phenomenon. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. insurat de trei ori la rand. Teatru) 6. By extension. c. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. This is the book.
3. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. has been troubling them forever. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. In the interest of public decency. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 8. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 5. he requested that the public be excluded. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. no easy answers to which could be offered. 6. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 7.Unit six Relative clauses b. The difference between (76) and (77).) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 9. 4. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The problem of safe transportation. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 2.
Activity 9 were now all gone. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. no matter which. whose interest he most sincerely shared. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.His father’s friends. 6.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 10. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. as the case is). 146 . Irene. has been deleted. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. he rarely saw now. 3. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 5. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 4. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 2. They do not function as attributes. His friends. This story. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. was now complete.
pentru dumneata bunăoară. Nelu. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. 3. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Toate sfârşeau. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. închipuirea. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. 7. 4. De douazeci de ani. 5. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pentru alţii. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 6. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 2. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . himeric.
Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. 8. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. a făcut el. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. nici în searbăda mea versiune. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 10. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 9. cu surle şi cu tobe. 12.
roiuri de fetiţe. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Dacă mă lovea. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. trăia larg de tot. din care cauză pe Dora. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. care era foarte “mondenă”.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. 17. 20. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. fie la teatru. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 16. deşi atât de aproape. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Avea acum un fel de vertij. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. toată lumea întreba cine e. 18. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. apărură. fie pe stradă. dinspre Maria Rosetti. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. În spatele lor. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. despre care. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. 15. zise ea cu ochii mari. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 149 . din direcţia căreia apoi. pe strada Icoanei. 14. de unde venea şi Marta. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. până mai adineauri.
decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. după ce maşina a fost reparată. întâia noapte de război) 150 . Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. de sus de unde eram. de mine. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN 21. 22. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. 24. până în şosea. Pentru mine însă. 23. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. Pare-se că snobii. aveau un stil al lor. pe care eu nu-l aveam. când au urcat râpa iar. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. pe care ea îi admira acum. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei.
Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 . by stating their syntactic function.
3. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 22.214.171.124.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7. That Complements as Subjects 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.Clause Shift 126.96.36.199.1. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.Topicalization 7.1. Key Concepts .2.7.Extraposition 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. That Deletion 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.1.
but also of infinitival ones. 153 . the clause is extraposed. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. Apart from those introduced by that. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. In other words. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. placed in a marginal position. 7.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.
but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.
Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It appears that no one voted for him. 2. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 3. 15. It was suggested that they should meet the President. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 7. 14.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 4. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 3. 8. 13. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 9. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 11. 10. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It is nice to meet you. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 9. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 6. 6. 11. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is no use trying to convince her. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 8. 2. 10.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 7. 4. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 5.
zice Lionel. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. sub poduri. după porţi. 4. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. în gropi. 6. 5. 3. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 3. They never expected it that he would come back. mă ascundeam în grabă.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. în canal. 2.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 2. 3. unde se nimerea.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 4. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 2. atât 156 . 18. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 5. I guess it that he will come back.
Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. (Nu întotdeauna. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). 157 . dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 5.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. vor căuta să o zdruncine. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. 7. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 6. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Mi s-a părut chiar că. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. fără îndoială. excelentă. fără să cârteşti.” 4. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos.
) While in the case of extraposition. 1. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Pratice Read the following. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. in the case of topicalization. Consequently. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.2. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. this asymmetry is undone. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.1.
he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 3. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 4. 5. 6. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. but not now. He did not blame Gracie. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. he felt no spring of interest in her. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 2. 7. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. whether it would finally carry her off. He was utterly gone. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. mere chance would decide. This was another era. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. was inconceivable. She had always been the slave of chance. even today. 8. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity.
according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.3. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.) 160 .Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.1.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.
(Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. 161 . because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.e. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. we obtain. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. the verb to drive). It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.
He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 6.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 8./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. 3. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 162 . 2. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa. 7. 5.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 4.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.
) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.2. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.Unit seven That complements 7. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.
etc. estimate. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. afirm. He announced that they were engaged. desire. communicate. prefer.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. deny.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.2. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat. judge. consider. state. They believe the man is guilty. They believe that the man is guilty.) 164 .) b.: (25) a. etc. deem. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) b. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. He announced their engagement. suggest. predict. explain.1. promise.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) a.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
) I like him in that he is smart.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. on condition that. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.e.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. In older stages of English. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.) 172 . similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. for example. ibid. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. hope =>purpose. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. they lose their meaning. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) language.
să o vadă trecând. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) b.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. He gave an answer such. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) When the structure contains the word such. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave such an answer as had expected. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. . (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.) (66) 173 a. That can be deleted.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.
13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.) b. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) 174 . (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. He gave an answer such that I had expected. for better or worse.We discovered that our map has disappeared.
175 . He got word they were coming. He said he had borrowed her money. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) c.3 ‘That Deletion 7.Unit seven That complements 7.3.) b. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. for instance. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. that he uses a relaxed tone. tell). (A prins de veste că ei vin.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. He showed he was able to do it. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. say. (69) a.
‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. rele.3. *I like it he was here. they were chained to each other forever. I like it that he was here.) b. for better or worse.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. 7. (Iris Murdoch. (Îmi place că e aici. bune.Nadina VIŞAN 7.2. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. because that has been deleted.) (De asemenea. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3. ibid. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.3.
Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause.4. which is ungrammatical in English.) 177 . 7. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. (“Este acolo”. that they were not too late to leave.) b)He told me that she was there. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. he said. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. spuse el. simultaneity. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 7) They maintain. you want me to believe.
până pleacă ea.) b. (Am să o părăsesc. (Pâna să plece. He said he would leave her.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. he said. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (A spus că. I will leave her. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. vine el. (“Era acolo”. o să vină el. The Present complement). He told me that she had been there.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. In the example below. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .) Future Perfect -----. spuse el. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.) b.) b. “She was here”. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.
(Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. discover. be amazed/concerned. etc.) On the other hand. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.etc. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. believe. mention. realize it). (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. forget. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. think. hope. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius.) 179 .Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. dream. With such factive verbs as realize. say. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. show. insist. report. be aware. regret. wish. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. notice. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.) b. whisper.
) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. we notice that general truths.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. in tender deference to each other.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. She still believed that the earth was flat. 180 . (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. Consider also: (85) a. feign habits which are not their own. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. She realized that all men are fools. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. She believed that the earth is round. He knew that she thought all men were fools. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) b. (Iris Murdoch.
There are however cases. Peter said that John would leave at 5. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) In (88). (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) b. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Peter said that John will leave at 5.Unit seven That complements 2. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. such as a.) b. 181 . simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. 3.
f) John said that Harry would leave. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Imagine.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. But 182 . for instance. c) John said that Harry is leaving.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. The time is 3 o’clock. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.
finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. redtailed hawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. 183 . Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Translate the following. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. as evidenced by its drear plumage. a. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. b. slyness in a fight. kingfisher. whistling swan. She admired their keenness of wit. love of practical jokes. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. lark. quail. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. c. lack of pridefulness. nighthawk. bluebird. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Cooper’s hawk. Crows will relish what presents itself. jaybird. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. geese both grey and white. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil.
Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . he claimed. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. And they might just hang him. in the very act of expiring. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. the young officer. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He had fought hard through the war. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Now here he stood jailed. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He died erect. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. war hero though he was. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. […] During the latter stages of the tale. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. But as the battle raged around them.
The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).Unit seven That complements 7. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. 185 . That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). which they share with wh-complements. on other occasions it has to stay there. object ones up to the attributive function. On certain occasions that can be deleted. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. or else. from the very frequent subject.
Când au văzut că mama a plecat. peste puţin. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. cel mai mare. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Fiind 186 . – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 2. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. neconvenabil şi primejdios. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Mama. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. 4. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Unul din ei.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar.
un vis de acesta 187 . Se mira. Nu ţi-a trecut. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. va pleca din oraş la vie. 6. care îl pândise. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. luminos şi apropiat şi când. ea. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. de ce constata în sine. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. venind de la avocat. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 8. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. aşa. 9. dacă va mai veni. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. cel puţin pentru un timp. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. 7. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. 5. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. fericit.
încă o dată. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . lucrul era înfăptuit. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Astfel de va fi. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Acesta. 12.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. 11. şi mândria că a biruit.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. fireşte. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. dar şi teama că. liniştit.
unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. spre Jurubiţa. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să le lămurească pe toate. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. ci numai aşa. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. mai puternic decât oricând. Pe toate. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. după cum. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . 14. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. fără o vorbă scrisă.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.7.1.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.6.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Key Concepts .9.8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 22.214.171.124.A Classification of Infinitives 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.4.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.3.
(E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (2) a. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (3) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. That you love her is something wonderful. Consider the following: • like that complements. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. To love her is something really wonderful. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. I told her that she should be more careful in the future.) b. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.) b. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. It is important that you should know what you need.) • like that complements. It is important for you to know what you need. From this perspective. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. 193 .1. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).
etc. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. d. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. the Participle) (i. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. as opposed to the finite ones. 194 . they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. participial clauses. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. the Conditional.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.e. the Gerund.) b. gerundial clauses. For instance. moduri nepersonale) By convention. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. 2.
(Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) c. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) b. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. namely no ending.) 195 . To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.
It is vital for our factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 10. 8. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 7.2.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 5. 3. the criterion of form. 4. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 9. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. 6. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. (7) They saw her leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 8. 2. It is vital this factory to be reopened.
2. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. (10) 197 .) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. hear. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă.
Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 3. Pratice Translate the following. . / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. However. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. uncharacteristic for literary English. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. 198 (11) the universe. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.
) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. In other words. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. or the control constructions. as I have already mentioned. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. to use the appropriate technical term. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. 199 . so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. Further on.
What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. PRO to err is human. So far.) b. PRO to forgive divine. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. I hoped for him to be there in time. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) Object: (18) a. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. namely the agent of the event. the logical subject. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.) b. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. şi creştineşte să ierţi.) 200 .Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) In this situation.
) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. not to the infinitive. In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) b. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . but the patient of the verb persuade. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. Semantically. him is related to the main clause verb. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).
This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ They convinced her to come back. \ I would love them to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ 202 . from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ She promised him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. I hate animals to be tortured. \ He persuaded her to come.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Likewise. \ She wanted him to leave. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ I allowed them to come.
and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. So. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. \ They really asked her to come back. \ They did not wish her to come back. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. • Last but not least. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. 203 . (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) He seems to be a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.
204 . / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. appear. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. which are said to be free. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. hate. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. seem.). / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. To sum up the discussion. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. etc. Pratice Translate the following sentences. to meet her. that is not required by certain verbs. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli.
scheme. prefer. expect. etc. 8. etc. wish. mean. contrive. etc. venture.) b) verbs such as abide. desire.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. intend. agree to. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. manage.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. arrange. deserve. aspire to. like. seek (= try). refuse.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. scorn.) 205 friend. condescend. presume. need. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.3 The Distribution of PRO . care to. fail. propose. omit.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. decline. afford. Compare: (31) a. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. want. endeavour. hope./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. hate. / E greu să îl suporţi. deign. try. . (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. dislike. bear.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose.
Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.) 8. For all of them to have been killed is. endeavour.) b. I hate that you should say a thing like this. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. stand.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.Nadina VIŞAN b.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. be important. I would like for him to become president of the country. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) b. threaten. possible. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) b. verbs of liking and disliking. conclude.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. however. ask. desirable. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. claim.) 206 . unlikely. etc. forget. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.etc. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. bear. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. suggest.
) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) 8.) 2. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) b. Predicative Clauses (39) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) 207 . The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.
) 5. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. I decided for John to represent us. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. the preposition is deleted.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. but the meaning remains. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. .Nadina VIŞAN 3.) 208 knowledge. Like in the case of that complements.) b. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) 4.) b. Direct Objects (39) a. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.
This paint is like concrete to work with. delicious.) d.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. You’re an idiot to go there. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) b. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. The stew is delicious to eat.) e. She is pretty to look at.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. curious about. He is a bastard to work for.) c. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. etc.: (42) a. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. 6.
/ E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Pe şleau.) Oh. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / Ehei./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to tell you the truth. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale.) I’ve never met him. you’re a bad driver.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. să nu piardă trenul. final or introductory infinitive In this case. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. drept să spun. conduci prost.
inform.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.: (51) a. (49) a. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. influence. nu mai vreau să te vad. urge. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. direct. inspire. swear. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. 8.) .) b. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. etc. enable. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. b. oblige. press. According to this. induce. need. promise. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. encourage.etc. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.
(53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. command.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint./ And now he 212 . (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.etc. choose. depend on. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. etc. permit.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. order. nominate. etc. allow. vote. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. prevail on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. count on. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. look to. name.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. elect.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.
(O să întârzii/ leşin. (Iris Murdoch. be going to.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. etc.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. An Accidental Man) 8. i. come.verbs: appear. this construction is lexically governed. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.: (55) She appears to like him. 213 (58) (59) . happen.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.e. (56) She grew to like him in the end. etc. (Se pare că îi place de el. grow. seem. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (57) He is to come any day now.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.etc. be about to.
be thought. be claimed.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). (L-au auzit insultând-o. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause.etc. be reported.) 8.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). watch. overhear. . In (57). is well supported by the syntactical analysis.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.: (62) They heard him insult her. etc. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. observe. be considered. perceive. that of intention. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. feel.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be rumoured. hear.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. be alleged. etc.
find.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. recollect. (Cred că este un geniu. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. figure. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. deem. presume.) • with a full infinitive: get. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. understand. discover. know. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. cause.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. have. believe. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. consider. etc. remember. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. imagine. However. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) 215 (67) . judge. prove. occasion. picture. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.
Harold. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. etc. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. prefer. wish. if he himself was out of spirits. choose.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. expect. who wasn’t used to men with moods. mean. command. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.etc. order. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. they had depressed and fuddled him. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. desire.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. love.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. suffer. permit. want.
the herd instinct was very strong in him. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. He suspected hostility at once. so that we might get to the future and have done. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. he didn’t envy those above it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. (L. A little crossly. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.P. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. to make sure we attended strictly to business. though he tended to look down on those below it. Both seemed to him a little unreal.
we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. The last criterion. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN 8. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. 218 . We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. From this perspective.
e) Când doi oameni. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. de asemenea. într-o zi. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. fireşte. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. lovit şi umilit. bunăoară. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. E posibil. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. mai bine219 . (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. un bărbat şi o femeie. de bună seamă. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. e important ce întrebări pui. Şi tu să fii. dar să nu-ţi spună. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. să-l capete.
ca să nu şi-o amintească.Şt. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. sau. mai bine de două decenii. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. 220 . în parte.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. d-a lungul gâtului. aşa cum îi apăruse el. încă. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Să spui de pildă. mai pline de înţeles. că eşti tânăr. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. (B.Şt.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. să traiesc numai cu tusea. un picior. în parte. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. De era vară. . care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Însă Paul Achim trăise. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. în jos. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.Delavrancea. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. avusese dreptate. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi.Nadina VIŞAN zis. pe care deja o uitase. să nu vrea să se şteargă. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în ploaie.
nici ca să 221 . Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. sunt aici cu tot ce am.. şi nu un amant. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. de fapt. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. fie ea şi grăbită.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. şi prin faţă. orice bucureştean ştie. (Al.. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. deşi. ei. biata Muti. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. orice-ar fi. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele..Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. Mă laud singură. un miros îngrozitor. prin faţă e coborârea. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). o mizerie. Într-un cuvânt.
parcă la întâmplare.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate.
verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .
3.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.1.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.5 Key Concepts .126.96.36.199.3.2.The Verbal Noun 188.8.131.52.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2.The Gerund 9.2.Participial Constructions 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.
Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us start with the Participle: 9.) 225 . The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Due to this situation. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1.1. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.
i. it functions attributively. the past participle can appear after a noun. 226 . (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. blood-shot and painted.) As you can see in this second case. were closing. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. too: (6) Her eye-lids. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (A venit Susan) b. In (2) the forms come. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.) More infrequently. been and killed are past participle forms. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.e. Susan has come. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. Susan has been killed.
leul poate să atace. o să ajung la timp. o să ajung la timp. (Ştiind cine era el. I will arrive there on time.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) d. Knowing who the guy was. ea o luă la fugă. Weather permitting. people should pay attention to high notes. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. When singing. he will eventually marry her. If provoked. (Sosind aici. a lion can attack. they started singing.) b. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Oh.) c.) b. Arriving here.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. mother permitting. începură să cânte. I will arrive there on time. she ran away. God willing.) c.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) 227 .
) b. respectively. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) b. I found him stealing. watch. He was found stealing. smell. (L-au descoperit că fură.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) 228 . (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found killed by a bullet. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) ii. which stands for an adverbial clause. hear.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. notice. behold. (L-am descoperit furând. (Am simţit-o tremurând. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.
(Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. know.) • Causative verbs: get. send. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. recollect. etc. (A fost văzut plângând. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. make a. He’ll soon get things going. etc.) • mental perception verbs: remember. have. confess.) b. etc. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. leave.) b.) b. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. start. etc.: When she heard his words.) c. recollect. I heard it said that men are a bore. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. have. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.: a.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. I must get my hair cut.) • Causative verbs: get . I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. she knew herself dismissed. hear.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. keep. set. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . find. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. a. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. feel.
/ Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. Men like shopping made easy.) • verbs of permission./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.) b. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . command I ordered my bill made out. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. lovit şi plin de sânge. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. He wanted his car fixed immediately. / Nu după multă vreme./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota.
as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / In any case. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / My Lord. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.2. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. with its lips drawn back.1. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.e. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / Dinny. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Unlike the gerund. 231 . We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.
) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. (Desi nu ştia limba. I left. 4. 7. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. The tree had fallen across the road. am plecat.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 5. I left. I was astonished at what I saw. People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 6. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. I turned on the light. She had heard it all before. I knew that the murderer was still at large. (Văzând acestea. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . I have looked through the fashion magazine. the rain will stop.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. se va opri şi ploaia. using either a present participle. It had been uprooted by the gale.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. am plecat. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. 3. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 2. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.
8. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Barking furiously. Mother punished me for my mistake. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. hearted (twice). minded (3 times). roast. eyed (3 times). shaven. 10. Read the sentences and try to correct them. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. 7. drunken. straight. 11. Tied to the post. dark. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. coloured. handed. I let the dog out of the room. He fed the dog. cornered. three. empty. stony. open. 12. skinned. 2. stricken. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 6. haired (twice). an idea suddenly occurred to me. broad. 9. Getting out of bed. Dropped by parachute. sharp. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. b) Headed (5 times). I slammed the door of my room. Leaving the cinema. my hands often get very cold. many.shoulder. They found the treasure. Reading in bed. 3. quick. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. wooden. his horse fell at the last jump. narrow. open. cloth. a scorpion bit him. one of the eggs broke. covered.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. They began quarreling about how to divide it. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. 9. mown. 4. 8. bald. Riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree. a pot of paint fell on my head. 233 . the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. lighted. 5. 10. the sea was tossing the post up and down. lion. He sat down to his own dinner. fishy. Passing under a ladder. eagle. Sitting in the dentist’s chair.Running into the room. red (twice).
(produce) 3. bounden. (admire) 5. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. 7. shorn. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. candle. The film. hidden. In the following pairs of sentences. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. _______ by S. Translate into English: 1. ill-gotten.Spielberg. graven. meaning. I stared at the canvas for ages. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . meat. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. eyes. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. ________ hiding in a barn.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. plank. was today taken back to prison. duty. deer. b) grass. image. / Swiss watches. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. (hunt). are in grave danger of extinction.I fell on the ice. The escaped prisoner. (grow) 4. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. rotten. (take) 2. (injure). the same verb is missing twice._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. head. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. Whales. are sold throughout the world. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. were taken to hospital. shrunken. / Many old people . lamb. _______ my arm. stream. _______ for their elegance and precision. (find) 6. wealth. is expected to be a great hit. / Three people. man. lead./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. _______ for a bargain.
cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. când strânsă. precum şi foile de plăcintă. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Şi. După câtva timp. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. legume date prin mai multe ape. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. Şi sufletul său. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. le fierbea. O umbreluţă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. păsări tăiate.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. şi moi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. le cocea. 4. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. când deschisă. întinse. nesigur şi moale. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. trezit. ca şi cum. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. 2. care le rânduia. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. 3. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. deodată sufocat. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 .
Likewise.1. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. (Dacă vezi. According to this criterion.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.2. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. 236 . crezi. The Gerund 9.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.Nadina VIŞAN 9. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.2. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.
whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. In that.2. gerunds differ from participles. Consider the following table.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. His winning and your losing were both surprising. Him winning and you losing was surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. That he won and you lost was surprising.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.2. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .) b.) 9. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.
(31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. Consider (32). Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. It was illegal to grow a beard.) Unlike participles. *It was illegal growing a beard. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) 2. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. as being verbal 238 . extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds.) b.
She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) 3. It’s no good talking to her.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Participles vs.) b. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.2. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.3. as offered in the table below: 239 . it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) 9. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.
Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . passive ones She was crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. 3. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. forms: continuous . + noun] 1. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. (adverbial of time) 4. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. babies suck their thumb. 2. Participles may function adverbials: house. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here.
/ În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului.
9. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 8. 6. He was spotted talking to her.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. eating habits/ eating people. 12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 11. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 3. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 12. shooting gallery / shooting star. 14. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 242 . 15. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. crying game / crying woman. 13. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 5. 10. 2. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 4. 7.
e. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e.3. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.) The absence of a determiner like the.Unit nine Ing complements 9. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. but the presence of a direct object (i. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. a The absence of an of phrase. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.
These are features that normally characterize any noun. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. In the second situation. How can we tell? In the first case. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. George’s shooting the attacker. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article.
/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. very large. 245 ./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / His coming there puzzled her. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. Jim left quietly. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town.
(A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.4. for example. For instance. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.Nadina VIŞAN 9. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. the meaning is different. ING Forms and Infinitives. whenever we meet an –ing form. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive. Look. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. However.
prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.) After looking at this example.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) . the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. containing an infinitive. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. On the other hand. future-oriented value of the infinitive). is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. anterior to the verb in the main clause. the infinitive is future-oriented. and the most well-known one. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.g.) The first example. having left) is infrequently used in English. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. (S-a oprit din mâncat.
) As you can see.e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. i. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian.) .e. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. recollect.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. which means that they are similar in meaning. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.
Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the petrol tank is not filled yet. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. dar asta este. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. In the second example. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) . the action is not completed. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. but that’s it.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.
they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) b.) 250 . The house needs repairing.) With [. e) need. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.) wedding.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. In the second example. (Casa trebuie reparată. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. want With [+ human] objects. the event has not happened yet. mean has the sense signify. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. The house needs to be repaired.
Croom (try) (follow) one. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ ‘Tell me. but they went by too quickly. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. gerund or infinitive.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. I did ask Mr. (take) down her answer. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. it’s overrated. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. whereas in the second case. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘In any case. Lady Corven. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. however appearances were against us. my Lord.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.
the sisters started about eleven o’clock. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. I just used the word and they fell.’ 252 .Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.’ said Clare. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.’ said Clare. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. licked the envelope with passion. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. Then. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. I must go back now. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and went out (post) it himself. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.
identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. the 253 . since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun).5. Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Last but not least. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.Unit nine Ing complements 9. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.
according to the books he read. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. the enormous split in the earth. hoping he would see somebody up there. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. but then he saw it billowing up from below. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. down into God knows where. She started coughing. At first. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The sight of the two children. covering the girl’s head. He looked up towards the daylight. then the noise and the cracking stone. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. Then he saw movement at his feet. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. It was like a mist. someone looking for survivors. down. it 254 . The two sides were moving apart. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. their edges crashing inwards. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. slowly rising in a swirling motion. moving up towards his chest.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up.
Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. my dear. slanted on to her cheek. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. and sunlight.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. Having a French governess. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. brightening to winter brilliance. 255 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.
cei doi Mamona. Vaucher şi cu mine. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. ucenicul său necredincios. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. închizând ochii. mama mea. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. 2. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. În urma slugii. Ridicându-se. totul se animă deodată. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. într-o joi. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. and then went riding with her in the rain.
continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. 3. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. se duse lânga mama şi. o sărută pe frunte. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. după cum îi spusese mama. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aplecându-se puţin. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. Neclintiţi. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. auzit şi zadarnic. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . Şi deodată. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. pe mama mea părând absentă. la mine. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. dar ştiutoare. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. pe Vaucher. totul mi se părea cunoscut. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. afară ploua în continuare. am ştiut şi cine. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. privit.
fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. 5. şi cu soba. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu stiva de lemne. dar. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Au coborât din camion încet. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. camionul a plecat. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . să se apropie de aşezările din jur. cu tot cu baraca. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă.
259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
in some way. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and meet it right here at home. How much. 6. 11. this would really hurt. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 13. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. apart from his distress for parents. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 3. he had not yet been able to estimate. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. without profound questioning. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 7. was unclear to Mitzi. How this time was to come. I am sorry not to have seen you. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. since I have decided. and this particularly of late. 12. 4. Having regard to the date of drafting. 2. because of pity. 10. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. he had been advised. to retire early from my employment. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. and that 263 . You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 5. You have been much in my thoughts. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 9. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. whereas if she went away she would get none. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter.
Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. please consider his proposition. one of the eggs broke. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. he did not come to see her. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / Whenever I visited my aunt. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 264 . 19. even for months. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. I was made say Grace before every dinner. 14. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. for attending his sister’s wedding. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / Before you go on changing the subject. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / In the end. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 17. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. looking forward had not yet taken place.
Instead of which she had married. and it was bound. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. it was said. At country houses she had met them of course. Clarissa used to think. of the quick and wiry. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Tony was a child. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Vulgar men did. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. rather than the hefty type. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. her old friend Hugh. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. quite unexpectedly. to end in some awful tragedy. a little girl. her recklessness. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. They hated trying on. an open-air person. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. cotton mills at Manchester. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. 265 . centered in London and themselves. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. They rushed into shops. she said. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. (and there he was. She felt as when. without discovery. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Though much in request before her marriage. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. Essentially. of all people.
dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. with all its impatience of restraint. she was uneasy.Rindurile dvs. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. aveam tot mai 266 . nu a facut-o pentru asta. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. si in plus. astfel. The closer she allowed him to come to her. cre s-au nascut lent. nu puteam sa le uit. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. ii faceau bine. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. she professed. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. short of the contacts of love. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea.Over the River) 2. Reading many novels. era un bun sfatuitor. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. but lying in her bath. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Bolnava nu se simtea. De uitat.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. (John Galsworthy . Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. the more she would be torturing him. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Cind l-a chemat. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. to keep abreast of the current. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. viguros si vesel in felul lui. indeed.
Milionarule. (St. Personal. (St.) 7. latimea si ascutisul labei.) 6. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Banulescu – ibid. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. nu pricep nimic. Banulescu – ibid. ca si tine. Banulescu – ibid. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. vaazut cindva. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.) 5. se stie. Daca tu. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. (St.) 267 .Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. (St. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. mi-am zis. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. poate fi compensata. fa-o. Ce a iesit. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. are nevoie. o data sau de doua ori. 4. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. pe scaunul lui tare. lungimea picioarelor. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Banulescu – ibid. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. cit mai au de trait.
And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who. delivered from the holocaust. Who came home from the war.. (. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Who told me. Who was may father. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. A story-book romance. my grandfather. Could he be blamed.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. 2. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. to Emmanuel College. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Cambridge. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who when asked about his memories of the War.P.. a wounded soldier. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Translate them. when I was even younger than you. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. for being a renegade. Arthur Atkinson M.
But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. deep-set. Fabianism. Rachel Williams. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. he had already engaged himself? 3. How 269 . that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. 4. and because – but this is mere speculation. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. to whom. a moody man. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed).Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims.
fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. satul. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum a trăit el. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a ajuns el. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Ion. om mare. 270 . ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. la şcoală. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. cu taina aceasta. Ion. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. trebuie să te vrea şi ele.
pune totul in discuţie. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cu sau fără voie. împotriva tuturor. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. L-au derivat cei din teatru. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Când actriţa. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. de mama lor. 271 . cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . singurul lui stăpân. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. din franţuzeşte. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. greşeli dintr-astea. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. când voi fi singur. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel.
Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. 5. traversând. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. sau ridicole. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. continuând. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Într-o vreme. parcă începusem s-o uit. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. provocându-le. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. ci un sistem de acomodare. A devenit palid. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Am început. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. nevasta-mea. uneori şi astăzi chiar. privindu-mă în ochi. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. 3. e îndrăgostită de un actor. tânăr şi frumos şi el. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. 272 . Tot aşa. pe jumătate prezent. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. 6. fostă prietenă din copilărie. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. de pildă. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. dam buzna peste automobile. 4. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru.
şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. orice s-ar întâmpla. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. fireşte. 8. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. iar. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. că nu m-am gândit la asta. şi să nu ameţesc. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. să merg întins. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. 9. ca un acrobat. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. De altminteri. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 .Unit ten Revision exercises 7. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. Aş vrea să mă las jos. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Am început. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. 11. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. şi dacă merg întins. Dacă nemţii înaintau. fără să mă opresc o clipă. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. E o problemă. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face.
Ma. de la proces. de uimire. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. dar nu se mai putea.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. 13. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. 15. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel.. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie.. In curind. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. parca i-ar fi fost frica. la carti. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Greu era din partea asta. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. nu mai pricepu nimic. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. 274 . Ii venea greu. nu mai semana. Ilie nu-l asculta. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. la fata locului. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. de la lucruri personale. eu am venit sa va intreb. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Adica tot trecutul. se uita in jos. trebuia sa le spuna. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Acum isi ferea privirea. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. 17. de la obiecte de pret. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Auzindu-l. la amintiri. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. cu mirare. La un moment dat. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. 16. Uite. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. 14.
dar. which was part of his rich outfit. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. i se paru ca aici e ceva. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». 20. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. apoi se uitau la Ilie. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. vorbe asa si-asa. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Aici era ceva.Ce sa fac.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. 19. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. cum zicea Anghel. Zimbea siret. Ilie nu intelesese nimic.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. se indeparta nepasator. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Nu era nevoie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. There was even 275 . . asa cum facuse pina acum. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti.
5. for the instant. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. He walked a long time. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. 4. rude woman. conversationally. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. He felt then. the young lady. to move fast. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. at least. to take his way home on foot. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. 3. going astray. to admit that she was a proud. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. gave an exclamation.Miller at her hotel. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. paying no attention. But Daisy. a simplification. resuming her walk. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. She was one 276 . on this occasion. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety.Nadina VIŞAN relief. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. asked for Mrs.
and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. as it were. as to projected changes. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. She rustled forward. uncomfortably. 7. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. Her daughter. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . but strangely cold and shy and sombre. making Paul stop and look at her. in radiant loveliness. 8. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. smiling and chattering. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. He left me musing. often.Walker.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. as text book. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. make a point. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. of studying European society. and wondering what the deuce he meant. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. in their own phrase. while residing abroad. Advising with me. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. indeed. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. on the other hand. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. She appeared. 6.
’ 278 . or at any rate not heeding. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. and acute too. 11. 9. though E. H. 10. The agent became a very familiar type to H. wondered what they were talking about. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. H. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. could see he was remarkable. which was deliberate. was only half satisfied with this. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. while Paul. not seeing. and. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. H. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. with his humorous density. and perceived that it must be something important. was immensely struck with him.
the affair having been quite a cause celebre. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. which was very copious. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. 13. appeared to fill his whole childhood. H. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . 14. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. that the haunting wonder which now. not glancing at him for a moment. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. as he looked back. But she gave him no chance. had the power to chain his sympathy. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. 15. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air.
proudly. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. and there were others. that she must be on the contrary. where the Pearl of Paraguay. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. dragging herself on her knees. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was very possible she was capricious. disheveled and distracted. ironically reserved. yet 280 . so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 17. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. 16. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. The whole establishment. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. H. and to H. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. as a general thing. 18. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. At the theatre.
didn’t mind. 20. It came over H. 19. No one ever listens to her. would always be more or less irritating. had blown a certain chill. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. H. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 3.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 2. 281 . their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. young men were invited. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. on which the damp breath of the streets. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. Their mistakes and illusions. with the poor. *Old. and lurking within this nebulous design.
c) When I saw her sitting there. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. “Oh. Either John or he * have got to give in. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 6. 12. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 7. her shining blue feet twinkling. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. her arms held out. 5. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. Rachel.Nadina VIŞAN 4. striding like a Spartan maid. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 10. 8. I walked fast. slipped on some steps. 11. I was definitely going to be sick. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. I saw her as a vision. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 9. 282 . He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. walking quickly. I blundered by. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have.
Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.
could cook my meals. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . 2. if they were poor. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 5. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. where my servant. but that we saw and pitied. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 4. which was really alarming. And then I ventured to add that. The old women spoke no English. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. 3. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world.
apart from his distress for parents. his. etc. he. Munt. this would really hurt.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. he had not yet been able to estimate. Constituents: He.g. apart form his distress for parents. was anxious = was + anxious. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: Margaret. to settle. was anxious. would really hurt. etc. at noon.apart from his distress = apart from. this. on Saturday. on a house. had not been able to estimate. before they left town.g. How much. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. etc. was informed. distress. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. 285 . to pay their annual visit. Constituents: how much.
Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE ./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). – first clause is non-assertive. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. don’t bother her.. The sentence is however 286 . / If you like her. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. and is non-assertive. – non-assertive./ She finally admitted.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. interrogative. negative/ If you like jazz. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. interrogative. it is assertive. Second clause is an imperative. – comparison. interrogative. negative. negative/ Come with me. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. listen to this. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – first clause is an ifclause.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – assertive/ Don’t do that. second clause is non-assertive. which is not assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. which context is non-assertive.. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot..
– I like somebody else. the two brothers dared to protest./ Hardly interested in the conference. but it isn’t Susan. only irresolute. – someone hates animals. everybody used to travel by coach./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. –double negation cancellation. but nothing out of the ordinary./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. not even when it’s quiet around. but not more than she does others./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / They didn’t leave. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / She does not hate animals. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. not even this thing./ They weren’t really confused./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ He was smart enough. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ Not long ago. – they told the truth to somebody else.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / She does like John./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all.but to someone else. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / You have never met 287 ./ He was exceptionally cunning. he was hardly pleased. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / I don’t like her very much. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ When he learned the news. but it wasn’t them. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. – someone did that./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection.
. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. they go skiing in the mountains. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Should they not have told her the truth..negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even when you were very young.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. I could hardly wait to hear the news..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her...negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – I cannot look him in the eye. / This is hardly the 288 . * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. were they? / This boy is no good.Nadina VIŞAN her. not even in my dreams.. – negative insertion..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her..
– Almost nobody liked him. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. but she also lent him a car. – I almost never look at those paintings. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – I don’t often look at her like that. / Hardly anybody liked him. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. when we started our holiday.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Few people came to see her. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.Never shall I trust a man again./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Not many people came to see her.. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – I never see her.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. never trust a man again. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / I seldom look at her like that./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before./ We seldom receive such generous praise. Activity 8 I shall never./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.
– 290 . – They don’t believe she likes them./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. you can still do something about it. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ I somewhat like his proposal. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / He reckoned he would not win her over. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. you can’t do anything about it any more./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / Don’t worry. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I expect he won’t come here again. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – Only on this man could she rely. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.I don’t like his proposal at all. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ Well. / They say he once had someone very close. / They believe she does not like them. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – Nowhere could the keys be found.. – They say he never had anyone very close. / Come on. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / She could rely on nobody but him. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – Come on. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent)./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. –At no time did we leave the office. – It isn’t likely that he will help her.
/ Well. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. / You must be telling lies./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. –Alice still lives here./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here./ Peter knows some English and so does John./ Bob is still living at that address.. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. 291 ./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – You can’t be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – She almost always comes here. – You should send her something. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. too. either. / You must pay that fine. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / You needn’t send her anything.
/ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ You look so tired today./ Nimic de facut./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. / Jim is so brave./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ Am avut un car de necazuri. e un magar. / Please./ Have they rung the bell? No./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ You took his leaving you very hard. It’s no wonder./ E un baiat de zahar. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. not yet./ He was a tough man./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. ever since I got this ulcer. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. He didn’t move a muscle. I haven’t done anything./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Nobody told us a thing. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I haven’t seen her in years./ I don’t know a thing about her. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. has never studied anywhere. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ 292 . / Don’t go on believing him. to any of us. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. Oh. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. give me a hand./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Zis si facut. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart.D. He isn’t that smart. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ He’s a happy man. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ They say this Ph./ I don’t know why she’s crying. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ N-are nici cap nici coada.
Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. with the same needs they had. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . I had never had the opportunity to prove. no story. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. I hadn’t really expected miracles. thrown out.’/ Deloc descurajat. slowly. feebly. that I was a decent man. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . without too much determination./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. parasi camera. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. 293 . for I thought this threatening./ Nu-i nici un deranj.’ ‘Nici o problema. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. nothing. We had nothing in common. one way or another. no memory. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.
In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. he immediately answered me patronizingly. We have to judge it as it is. or if you understood what I meant. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement.. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. but facts. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. You really made me mad. bad. I admit. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. I was sleepy and tired. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. things you do any moment. Radu had calmed down. on the front seat. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. It’s not made up of theories and the like. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. he was sitting beside me. it’s not words. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. I’d be so happy if it were so. to say the least. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. Not for a moment had I thought that. Your judgement is false. Unfortunately. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. • It was my turn to say something. your story. by coming here to the monastery. good. clear or confusing. the only 294 . that’s what the world is about. not as we would like it to be or some other way. let alone irritable.
makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. me. I won’t interfere. precious words. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. you can go to Ursu’s. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. as Baciu would have us be. did you ever step up front. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. it’s your problem. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. or call the respect of others. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. keep it squeaky clean. Look. or you are lying hidden. soon we’ll be in town. Anyway. 295 . it solves troubles. to fight. you do as you think fit. and if you like. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. although it was a difficult thing to do. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. fear might be hiding. either. just to please myself. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. But what about you and Melania. and an inability to act. clears your way. no matter how huge they are. we are leaving. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. keep your conscience clean: you have one. it’s yours. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. behind these big. But I was just wondering. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. too? A gun is power. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. • So. me. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure.
has yet arrived -correct 2. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. -correct 3. But it was not because I had no answer to give. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife..correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .incorrect. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. . – incorrect.. as soon as he delivered it. or some other woman.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. The villagers were not very religious. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . will he?. .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. firmly determined not to answer immediately.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Negative incorporation 296 . • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. correlatives are mixed 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. the sentence is incorrect 3. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. has not arrived yet – double negation. but they gradually got used to it. because before is a positive polarity item 2. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Negative attraction b) 1.
either (NPI). Ştia că are dreptate. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Her stillness. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. prea răscolit. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. much less ((NPI) for her. too troubled. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. she couldn’t marry him. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. (ibid. (ibid. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. b) But it was rather (API) late. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. His spirit was too tired. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Avea sufletul prea obosit. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. not happy at all (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. nu era 297 . One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. yet. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Nu putea să se mişte. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea.
se îndreptă spre paravan. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). (ibid. şi destul de hotărât. and not a little unsteadily. The Satanic Verses. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. she looked younger than ever (NPI). cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. his heart was beating fast. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. 298 . Ba dimpotrivă. (Salman Rushdie. e) At length. he made his way to the screen.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. if anything (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. (ibid. (ibid. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. inima îi batea năvalnic.
că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. The point was. (ibid. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. but his father would have none of it (NPI). Home receded from the prodigal son. care if the school were willing to treat him. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. 299 . sau orice vizite ar fi făcut.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. i) What did C. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Ce-i pasă lui C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.) C. and probably an administrative headache as well. the gift was useless. h) C. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer.
correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination.indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. . 300 . correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
now she was chatty. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. all godfearing husbands and fathers. Luca Horobet. do you really think that this vixen. Fenia. yes. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. she likes to entrance them. you are in enough trouble as it is. Stavre Paici. Fenia. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. 2. Chizlinski. Vica. keep Condrat away from her. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. they were. she didn’t wear a ring. “Now. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. She has an eye for gentle men. the bitch. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. to make them lust after her. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. and then what do you 308 .
The mullah. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. 3.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. dragging his feet listlessly. It even takes him a while to go to the window. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. her hair pinned with blue combs. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. the minister of Tartars and Turks. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. ankle-long flowered calico. a seventy-eight year old lad. G. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. 4. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . He got him out of his mosque. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. have a girlfriend. with a railway station and a mosque. what’s her name. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city.
But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.
– sentence coordination 2.. – sentence coordination 7. yellow and blue. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. our respective examinations. Our flag is red.phrasal coordination (in this case. John and Mary are the newly married couple.. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John is ready and Mary is ready. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.) 9.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. and I passed. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – similar situation 10. Her pet kitten is black and white. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are ready.
Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Activity 4 1. many guest or few. 9. her idea and John’s. her son and others. plays football. much satisfaction or little 312 . Activity 5 This book and the other.) Joan plays many games. and even tennis. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 6. that method and those. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 8. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 2. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. your proposal and his. We can and will demand payment. 7. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 10. 5. 3. but not John. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. your work and mine. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. but John does not play football.
Spick and span 9. Bread and butter 16. High and low 2. magazines are only for children. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Wear and tear 12. Over and above 13. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. (I have always fought for progress and always will. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. He snapped at him and slapped him. Touch and go 10. 7. 5. Few and far between 14. 4. Life and soul 5. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. but not simple. The facts and figures 3. Pros and cons 4.) 6. Ups and downs 6. He read. Activity 8 1. Safe and sound 313 . Thick and thin 11. 3.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. To and fro 15. Swings and roundabouts 7. 8. Law and order 8. etc.
exclusive 17. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric 18. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 2. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6.symmetric 11. 3. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. Asymmetric 20. 314 .. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 9. 4. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Symmetric 13. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 4. My son and heir is safe. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 10. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. My son and daughter are twins. – symmetric. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – symmetric. 8. 5.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 7. exclusive 15. Cathy and David have arrived. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Symmetric 21. – symmetric 2. 5. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 6. 1. cause-effect Activity 10 1. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 9. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 2. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. b. inclusive 16. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. – symmetric. 3. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 7. 6. 10. – symmetric 10. – similar situation 9. Asymmetric 19.
so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. ‘Madam. 2. No drinking and driving. 3. Brother or no brother. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 11. 4. 15. Her husband is long dead and buried. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 7. 8. 5. it was too small. Jim thought it over for a while. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 10. Should he pour water in the basin. (2) 1. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. He’s neither fish. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. They came to me. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. for better or worse. clothes and all. 12. 2. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 3. 14. There are doctors and doctors. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. He went to bed. I’ll still finish this paper. 6. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. We’ll stick together. By hook or by crook. nor fowl. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. Not only should you rest 315 . 9. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. thanks for asking.
and then. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. both dead and buried. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. as she always does. And. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. she knows for sure. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. their common ground. he starts lecturing her about life and things. From time to time she will launch a helping question. tense with concentration. 316 . is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life.Nadina VIŞAN assured. she started doing a great job. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. it would work out fine. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. Mrs. but he’d come out a cripple. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. he’d leap high. They hadn’t kept him there too long. You know. Whatever she tried her hand at. without mentioning financial matters. so he could leap in pursuit. but she blinks in approval. what’s its name. This. at equal intervals. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. just like when he was thirty.’ (3) 1. tense like a bow. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. What do you know? The moment Mrs. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Her first husband had been a professor. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. 2. an important man. so he’d gone down and died in no time. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. stop dead in his tracks. So she’ll listen to him. and she listens to him.
about her problems at home After I told her the story. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.subordinate.subordinate.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . looked. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. you. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct 2. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. cannot tell. she looked at me sadly. – she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . is aware.subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as a modifier 3. came. – she. – Susan. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . told.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – she.
complement b) 1.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . remove our home yet again .Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. that we should. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that you are choosing exile . functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . at our age.subordinate.subordinate.
adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. a house. direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . a barn. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. outbuildings. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement.complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement.
staring at each other. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime.wh complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . When Anton put the sickle down. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. sickle in hand. that kept her constantly tense and grim. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ and done – wh complement. without straightening her back. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ to sit there – complement. But other people. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object. (…) ‘Well. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. Activity 5 1.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. subject/ to do such again – complement.
Why! He was not of two minds. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. he will turn back and no longer be daring. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. rather than a real threat. 3.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. or if he does. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. as if they were at his beck and call. Only he had Ana to think of. but also his sharp nose. First. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Ana could not stand a trip now. you need courage even for this small thing. which he doesn’t rely on completely. 321 . although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. while they spoke from miles away. Not even at this point. 2. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. but he doesn’t spurn either. that was for sure. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. or other more hidden means. while on other occasions he would show caution. For no bold man really falters. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him.
in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. 4. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. We were going to drive to a vineyard. they would ruin the arrangement. And here’s how this first day looked. and on Monday followed another feast). come on. he had postponed writing back. So. to see some mutual friends. although he could have said so earlier. Twice did we get in the car. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. it was the women. under the silliest of pretexts. In fact. by the cars of some of us. are we getting off again? What is wrong. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. and when things didn’t go as planned. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. and twice we were requested to get out. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. without really knowing why. in Odobesti. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. But it was not ok. 322 . let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out.
The students. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. These are people who we cannot tell much about. You couldn’t join the party. why they all left . who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 10. 8.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . what you want – free/ where you can park your car . This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 3. 4. 7.restrictive 4. 10. most of whom were from England. Activity 3 1. The students like their teacher. He told her the secret. John told his friend a story about the king. 5. where I spent my youth .She came to London where I went too. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 6. on which this occurred . To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 3. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. when we first met . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.restrictive 6. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 11. which was silly of him. This is my husband whom I love very much. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. where I least expected 323 .restrictive 7. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 5. like their teacher. 6. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.free 8. He is the author who they gave a prize to.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 7. which was a pity.restrictive 2. who was just passing by. Activity 2 1. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 9. 8. any of whom would answer to questions. 2. 4. all of whom would answer to his questions.
about why man was born to die – prepositional object.restrictive 10.adjunct 10. where we talk money – predicative. where – predicative 7.free 9. What I’m saying – subject. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. 6. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. 4. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Where . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. however sad . When . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. You.adjunct 6. Who . This isn’t the Bucharest I know. 3. What Inman remembered – subject. Where he was from – adjunct.When Ada remarked – adjunct. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . who think so highly of yourselves.adjunct 3. the prince chose Cinderella. was very displeased with the situation. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. I. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. Of all the persons there.Nadina VIŞAN . What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. which . Of all the persons there you had to choose me.subject 9. who cannot say a word.adjunct 11. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 .subject 8. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. Where .adjunct 5. 2. 5. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. 7. What – direct object 2. Why . come up front. what their parents made them. when . What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Activity 5 1. Which – subject 4. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.free Activity 4 1.
the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what .whom is ungrammatical due to the [.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. whatever – predicative 13.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. what little she knew – direct object. which requires an accusative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. how .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. which is ungrammatical due to the[. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].
was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a sergeant. having changed quite a number of jobs. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. due to its invariable character. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. whose great-grandfather. but whose second cousin. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. got married and had a daughter. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. in his turn. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. a rather tiny looking man.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman.
The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. .yes 3. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. has been troubling them forever. – no 4. he rarely saw now. . . . the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. – no pied piping 327 . – yes. His friends. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. . was now complete. The problem of safe transportation. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.obligatory 4.yes 10. were now all gone. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. . . with deletion of the noun friends]. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. This story.yes Activity 9 1. – yes 6.no 5. whose interest he most sincerely shared.yes 7. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – yes 2. he requested that the public be excluded.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. Irene. no easy answers to which could be offered. – no 9. In the interest of public decency. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.obligatory 3. – no pied piping 5. – obligatory pied piping 2. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.His father’s friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.
2. I did so. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. I am to be envied. For all the four children. In other people’s opinion. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. or as of a vast arena. 3. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . 8.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 7. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. Everything was ending. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. 6. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. irrespective of age and nature. Only an ugly endless dream remained. where two teams battled every day… 5. Nelu. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. yours. For twenty years. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town.and he couldn’t thank me enough. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. for instance. 328 . 4. the third born son. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly.
10. staring aimlessly. 17. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. where from Marta was coming too. leaving streets and houses behind. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. from MR street. He was suffering from dizziness. barely glittering in the distance. 329 . which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. although she was standing quite close to him. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. since I don’t really know which my true life is.R. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 12. 15. she said. 16. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. on Icoanei street. Let me tell you my last conclusion. which was why he saw Dora very far away. All that you have read is rubbish. You are newly arrived here. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 13. Behind them. 11. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. What you’re saying sounds very nice.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 14. the tram was rattling along.
can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 330 . or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. in her pursuits. 23. so optimistic and composed? 19. or the clash of stars above. But for me. So. I don’t know what might have happened. She was a woman of means. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. If he had hit me. had a huge house in Bucharest. after the car was fixed. likes and dislikes. I could see my woman falling away from me. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. 21.Nadina VIŞAN 18. who prompted everyone on the street. While some trees are still green. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. which I did not posses. or the many Egyptian dynasties. While we were poor. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. But. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 22. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. day by day. 24. 20. had a personal style in clothes. who only lived once in this world. From the vantage point I was in. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not.
– extraposed.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. 8. for pragmatic reasons 5. 2. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . You may depend on it that I will pick you up. subject 8. – questionable. 331 . I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. subject 9. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 4. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – extraposed. – unextraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It appears that no one voted for him. subject 7. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. direct object 3. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. prepositional object 11. – impossible 7. direct object 10. It was suggested that they should meet the President. object 5. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. object 6. 6. subject 2. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 3. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – the same as 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.
– impossible. 9.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 18. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 15. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. It is no use trying to convince her. . 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. They never expected it that he would come back. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner.. It is nice to meet you. same as 12. – impossible 11. . 14. – grammatical. – impossible. a bit too intricate 5. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – the same as 12. . Activity 3: 1. – incorrect. although a bit intricate 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.incorrect. same as 12. I guess it that he will come back. but pragmatically impossible 4.grammatical. – grammatical. – correct 2. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – impossible. idiomatic formula 16.correct 4. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. I don’t expect it that he will come back. same as 12. 17. – same as 12. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.grammatical. tense influences the 332 . It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. 10. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – grammatical. – impossible.
She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. (Not always. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.’ 4. in the ditch. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. 3. 5. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.’ Lionel says. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. – correct 6. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). under bridges. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. 333 . behind gates. thus. in the pits on the road. though. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. 2. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check.incorrect. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.
? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. 8. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. By saying this. 2. 7. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.Nadina VIŞAN 6. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. It is less ambiguous than the first. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence is questionable. who had just returned from Africa. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. without trying to protest too much. 3. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 4. since the 334 . – the first sentence is the better of the two. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. because it is less ambiguous. Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser.
8. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. extraposition is obligatory here. The second and third sentences are grammatical. so there is no need for extraposition. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 5. 6. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. – both sentences are grammatical. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 335 ./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 7. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. (Iris Murdoch. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – complement that clause. coordinated.) complement that clauses. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. .adverbial of sequence/result. – complement 5.prepositional object. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.relative Activity 9 1. . – subject. they were chained to each other forever. – direct object. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. for better or worse. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.) adverbial of sequence/result. – adverbial of sequence/result. . – relative 5.complement 4.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. ibid. required by deverbal noun 336 . The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. . – prepositional object. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – complement 2. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – relative 3. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.
– that is obligatory. that deletion is obligatory. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. that they were not too late to leave. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. you want me to believe. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. h) John thought that Harry had run.
a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – grammatical sentences. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. c. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – both sentences are grammatical. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. b. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil.
finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. cenuşii şi albe. hawk. geese both grey and white. present instead of simple past. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. prepeliţe. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. – generalization on habits of birds. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. lark. While the first is possible because of the generalization. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. present perfect instead of past perfect. quail.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. ciocârlii şi şoimi.
love of practical jokes. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Noble beyond all her powers of expression. slyness in a fight. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lipsa de vanitate. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. She admired their keenness of wit. Crows will relish what presents itself. lack of pridefulness. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. The generic present is used in this case. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă.
din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. He died erect. But as the battle raged around them. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. se ridicase în picioare. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. tânărul ofiţer. the young officer. He had fought hard through the war. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . he claimed. Murise în picioare. tragică şi eroică. El căzuse pe spate. in the very act of expiring. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze.
A short while later. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Now here he stood jailed. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. 2. When the boys saw that mother had left. Activity 13 1. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. 342 . had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. around seventeen or eighteen years old. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. the oldest. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. he closed the album. And they might just hang him. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. But when he reached me. One of them. Acum stătea aici. Luptase din răsputeri în război. They all had their hands in their pockets.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. they gathered around my desk. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. When he saw me. I realized I could not tell him the big news. în închisoare. susţinea el. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. – similar situation to the one under (c). How can I explain? I just felt shy. to finish my drawing. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). mother went home and I was left alone. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. deşi era erou de război. war hero though he was.
All his senses were now keen. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. as if he had been drunk. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. or fear his rage. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. 4. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good.’ 5. or if she would do so again. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. for her vineyard. 6. brightly and closely. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand.’ Mr. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature.
Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. 11. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 8. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. thinking of him. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned.Nadina VIŞAN to him. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 10. The last time when we met here you scared me. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 7. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 9. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. And if things were so. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.
He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. 13. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. We either sell them or we don’t. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. 12.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. which secretly drove him. 14. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. namely the impatience of this young man. without putting anything in a note. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . towards Jurubita. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. more urgently than ever. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. where he would run to confess everything.
/ They hear him sing two patriotic songs.simple infinitive. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 10. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 3. grammatical 7. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – infinitive continuous.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – simple infinitive. – perfect infinitive. – simple infinitive. grammatical 2. – simple infinitive. 9. . grammatical 6. . the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. / they saw her leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical 5. 346 . – infinitive continuous. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar.
– Test: He persuaded her. Test: *She wanted him. \ I allowed [them to come. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Test: *I would love them. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. – Test: They convinced her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / I want to never see you again.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It is not too late for him to learn. \ They did not wish [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. Test: * I would like people.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They tempted him. \ I would love [ them to come. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. \ She promised him PRO to leave. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. you need to try harder. – Test: They asked her.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. Test: *I allowed them. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide.
obligatory subject control verb 348 . I don’t need you or your services. / He is hard to stand.Nadina VIŞAN for years. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / Oh. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / I have a word to tell you.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / To make a long story short. . not to miss the train. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / He is easy to live with. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. Activity 6 Oh. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He is young enough to start again. . to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / He is easy to talk to. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I have never known how to behave in her presence.
thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. he didn’t envy those above it. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 1 – PRO. 1 – PRO-to. He suspected hostility at once. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Predicative 4 . extraposed 2 – PRO-to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. If he himself was out of spirits. they had depressed and fuddled him. 1] A little crossly. Subject. who wasn’t used to men with moods. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. 349 .Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Harold. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Direct object 3 – PRO –to.to. Subject. so that we might get to the future and have done.Accusative + Infinitive.
as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. c) Unlike plane trips. PRO controlled by ‘she’. PRO controlled by ‘she’. cautiously. f) The passing time is important. object 2 – PRO –to. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. 1 – PRO-to. more believable than evidence itself. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. PRO controlled by ‘me’. true. 350 . sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. slowly. e) When two persons. PRO controlled by ‘him’. But when we need to comfort others. or better said. excitedly. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. One day. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. direct object 3 – PRO –to. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. more meaningful. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. man and woman. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. we seem to forget about our own pain. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. And you might also be hit and humiliated.
But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. k) With this considerable dowry. Mrs. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. He had not been able to leave Dr. or their talk that night. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. as he had appeared to him in the rain. Moroi says heavily. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. in the street. that you are young. while swearing to change my way of life. I am indeed praising my own merits. That is it. all down our neck. not to want to wipe it off. even when this love is hurried. my wish being only to please and serve. And to actually start to believe you are so. which he had already forgotten. And I would care for this man so deeply. S.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. not even those parts where he had been half-right. 351 . It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. tickled by the trickles of sweat. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. h) I want us to go. Stroescu. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. to live only with your coughing. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. If it was summer. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. for instance. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. or.
If you will have what I can give you. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. met by squalor and terrible smells. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. ready to submit to any demand. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. here I am with all of my own. haphazardly. 352 . poor Muti. or to speak so fast. no matter what. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. every Bucharester knows it. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. for that’s the door people get off by. Well. she was suddenly so shocked. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers).
/ Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. – Attributive past participle.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ Don’t keep him waiting. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. / They found it thrown in a corner./ She sent him shopping../ He went to have a tooth pulled. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. with its lips drawn back. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. 353 . / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. badly beaten and bloodied.
Activity 4 1. – Attributive present participle. Sleeping in the next room. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 3.She didn’t want to hear the story again. a rug caught her foot and she fell. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I was astonished at what I saw. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . I was extremely reluctant to open the door. The tree had fallen across the road. – As she was running into the room. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord./ Running into the room.Running into the room. 8. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having looked through the fashion magazine. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 10. 6. 4. 7. Attributive present participle. 2. 5. Turning on the light. having heard it all before. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. having been uprooted by the gale. 9. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. he sat down to his own dinner. Finding the treasure. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. they began quarreling about how to divide it. I slammed the door of my room. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. sitting taut between her father and her sister. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Having fed the dog. she caught her foot in a rug and fell.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.
– As he left the cinema. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family./ Reading in bed. Reading in bed. a scorpion bit him. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. I let it out of the room. 11. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Passing under a ladder. 10. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Tied to the post. Riding in the first race. 2. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. – As he was riding in the first race. sharp-eyed/minded. 9. 12. open-minded. cloth-covered. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. the sea was tossing it up and down. Getting out of bed. narrow-minded. 3. a scorpion bit him. – As he was climbing down the tree. 355 . lion-hearted. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 6. empty-headed. he broke one of the eggs. – As the dog was barking furiously. 5. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. a pot of paint fell on my head. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Barking furiously. wooden-headed. my hands often get very cold. bald-headed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. – As I was passing under a ladder. his horse fell at the last jump. 4. 8. he was bit by a scorpion. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was tied to the post. broad-shouldered. my hands often get very cold. Leaving the cinema. – When I read in bed. one of the eggs broke. / Getting out of bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. an idea suddenly occurred to me. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. many-coloured. the sea was tossing the post up and down. stony-hearted. I often get very cold hands. 7. one of the eggs broke. / Climbing down the tree. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. fishy-eyed. Climbing down the tree. Dropped by parachute. his horse fell at the last jump. three-coloured. red-handed. – As he was getting out of bed. I let the dog out of the room. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family.
(other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. bounden duty. found hiding in a barn. are sold throughout the world. rotten plank. injured when their car crashed on the M1. was today taken back to prison. hunting for a bargain. / Many old people. Activity 7 1. (take) 2. is expected to be a great hit.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (hunt). 7. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. The escaped prisoner. The film. hidden meaning. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Whales. (admire) 5. (produce) 3. eagle-eyed. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. produced by S. (grow) 4. lighted candle. / Swiss watches.Spielberg.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. were taken to hospital. Activity 8 1. stricken deer./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. roast meat. graven image. straight-shouldered. (injure). sunken eyes. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. are in grave danger of extinction. ill-gotten wealth.I fell on the ice. admired for their elegance and precision. shorn lamb. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. 356 . / Three people. shaven head. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. drunken man. I stared at the canvas for ages. open-hearted. (find) 6. injuring my arm. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. mown grass. shrunken stream. dark-skinned.
Although the moment was deeply disturbed. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. suddenly suffocated. After a while. thrown in the pots. the carved chicken. 357 . a strange thrill shot through Bubi. boil them. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. And his soul. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. He felt close to his father. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. and moreover. So. in charge of his house and lands. and the puffed pastry beds. seeking some promised land. 3. flat and soft. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. now taken down. its scales scraped off by the knife. he were struggling for breath. then put up. 2. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. hovering uncertain and soft. streaked with yellow veins of fat. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. bake them. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. 4. the twice rinsed vegetables. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. sprinkled with sticky flour. A parasol. yet left them room to sway free. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. the fish. he started peering anxiously around as if.
What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 .gerund 5. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. – gerund (subject) 4. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. he left the store without buying a thing. – Accusative + participle 3. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. – participle (attribute) 2. / I am sorry for being so late. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. ./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. Activity 10 1. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / After annoying the shop-assistant.
participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – Nominative + participle 13. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object) 359 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 8. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He was spotted talking to her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute. preceded by preposition). – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – gerund (half or full. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6.possessive ING (direct object) 9. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. . – gerund (prepositional object) 10. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. possessive ING (predicative) 7. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs.
Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – verbal noun (has determiner.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. however appearances were against us.’ 360 . – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.verbal noun (has determiner. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. take down her answer. my Lord. Croom to try to follow one. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – gerund or verbal noun. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself..’ ‘Tell me. adjective.. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. but they went by too quickly. hold up his pen and speak. – verbal noun (has adjective). Lady Corven. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. I did ask Mr. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. adjective. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – gerund (full.
There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I must go back now. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ said Clare. ‘I do hate asking for things. my Lord. I spend all my time hunting a job. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. and went out to post it himself. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ said Clare.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. licked the envelope with passion. Then. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.’ 361 . It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. it’s overrated. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. suddenly. I just used the word and they fell.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.
the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute). Then he saw movement at his feet. The sight of the two children. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object). functions as direct object) and then the ground. …while their edges were crashing inwards). gerund. It was like a mist. At first. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. down into God knows where. slightly 362 . attribute. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. following the verb ‘remember’. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. direct object) towards him. Has a complex subject) in the hole. down. attribute. attribute) in a swirling motion. village which is burning). hoping (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. adverbial of time. elliptical here. the enormous split in the earth. after verb of perception. The two sides were moving apart. slowly rising (participle. attribute). direct object) from below. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. someone looking for survivors (participle. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. First the crack snaking (half gerund. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. covering (participle. early. according to the books he read. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too.e. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. my dear. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. one. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. has ‘of’ phrase). moving up (participle. you. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. i. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. etc. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. adverbial of reason).’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . prepositional object. direct object). the chief occupation of the people of these islands. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.). cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.
adverbial of manner). for Dornford was busy on an important case.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. mother. examining (participle. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. we were all gathered in that room. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) to winter brilliance. adverbial of manner). So. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. adverbial of reason). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and everything got suddenly animated. attribute) stopped dead. attribute) a sudden whoop. Having a French governess (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. preceded by preposition. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. reluctant or not. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. the two Mamonas. and sunlight. preceded by preposition. and then went riding (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. slanted on to her cheek. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. brightening (participle. Standing up. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. and not only in my imagination or theirs. She finished what jobs there were. And. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. which beckoned to 364 . Young Mamona left the room without a word. a door was opened and as a servant entered. Vaucher and I.
2. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. He cast us a swift glance. about concentrating all our resources. and to Young Mamona. Entering our house on a Thursday. and ended his life in the year 1821. he found us sitting each in his place. 4. And then. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. for anyway. Vaucher might have known that too. to me. who knows. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. And. sitting in his puddle. to Vaucher. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. I knew who it would be. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. about sparing no effort. bending a little. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. closing my eyes. too. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. kissed her forehead. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. Not so unimaginable though. his disloyal apprentice. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. in the year 1812. killed by Young Mamona. and smelling so hard of rain. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. 3. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . her back towards us.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. he looked like someone who did. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. he went to mother and. each carrying a wooden box. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. without taking his sack off his shoulders. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . as mother had ordered him. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. let alone greet us or say something. So when Old Mamona came in.
And suddenly. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. of taking notes and rewriting them. already seen and heard. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. as an afterthought. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. 5. stove. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. long board table. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. each pausing before jumping down. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. They got off the truck slowly. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. barrack. wood pile. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. everything seemed familiar. But. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. And all around them was the great field 366 . After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. futile. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it.
The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The next thing was to go to the well. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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