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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. 6 .de rezolvări. titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Contents: 8 1. Constituent Phrase 1.2.1. Insertion 1.4. Auxiliary verbs 1. The Distribution of an Element 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Complementary distribution .6.3.5.
Consequently. that is sequences fragmented at random. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. her mother. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. 1. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. They are just strings. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). very much. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. sequences of the kind her mother very. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. loves.2. For instance. Syntactic.1.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Semantic.
3. an order given to an interlocutor). An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.4. (Mi-a spus secretul.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) 10 . etc. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. 1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. must. we are dealing with a directive (i. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. should.e. 1. be).
) 1. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. etc.6.5. for instance.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. an ‘empty’ there subject. Consider. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. live. 1. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .
He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Munt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Pratice Define and illustrate. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. If the given context is the one under (6). distribution.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. semantic. pragmatic. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. syntactic. using your own examples: insertion. complementary distribution. whereas (7) is not. 12 . as the star indicates. he had not yet been able to estimate. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. How much. this would really hurt.
To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.
6. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.3. Tests for negativity 2. Full – local negation 2. Polarity Items 2.2. Key terms 2.1.4. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.7.8. Conclusion. Negative vs.5. Key terms . Instances of negation 2.2. affirmative sentences.
it asserts something. in the sense that it states something. This example can be compared to: (2)a. Consequently. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Negative .) is said to be an assertion. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .Positive vs.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.2. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. For instance. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. in that they do not state anything. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.Declarative vs.) b.
interrogative (e.negative (e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much./ We didn’t come here just to talk.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret./ Don’t do that. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.g.) ./ If you like her. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.other (if –clauses. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz./ She can’t wait to read that book.assertion . listen to this.) . comparison.positive and declarative secret. don’t bother her.g. They told her the ( e.positive sentence . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / Come with me. / She finally admitted.g.non-assertion . Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. Did they tell her the secret? ) . 16 .Nadina VIŞAN .
In the case of the sentences under (4).) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. word negation. Susan doesn’t like her friends. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) b. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. I met a girl named Susan. For example. (John e nefericit.) b. since the negative word not is not present there. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. John is not happy.3.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. John is unhappy. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. (Nu demult.) 17 .
more precisely the phrase it is part of. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. I was not a little worried. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. where the word 18 . He was not without intelligence.) c.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. but their meaning tells us a different story. these sentences look negative. In other words. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. In other words. just like in the case of word negation. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.) b. She was not an unattractive woman. since the negative word not is present inside them. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.
paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. semantic negation. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.e. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Când a aflat vestea. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. without intelligence. Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.
This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . dar nu neobişnuit. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. ci doar indecişi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. Negative vs.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher.4. 2. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. affirmative sentences. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. dar nu în mod special. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.
) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (see subsection 1. (Nu m-am dus acolo. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. such as do insertion. (M-am dus acolo. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).1. etc. For instance.).
/ She does not hate animals. / Susan did not get married to Jim. 22 . Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. incorrect. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / I don’t like her very much. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends./ They didn’t leave. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / We don’t come here often. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim.
Unit two Sentence negation 2.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. * and they don’t like her either. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. not even the smart ones. even the smart ones. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. and neither do they like her. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. and they don’t like her either. . Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which does not happen in the case of (18). Example (14) is syntactically negative. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. *and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. which is ungrammatical. 3. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. *not even the smart ones. 4. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.
In conclusion. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. 2. / No problems were caused after all. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view.5. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they go skiing in the mountains. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / A few of them stayed behind. / They caused us no problems. / Few of them stayed behind. / You have never met her. By applying these tests to the sentence in question.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / This boy is no good. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.
a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (27) a . (N-a venit John). b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (26) I saw nobody. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). I went nowhere. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . Susan could not go to the theatre.
Not all that glitters is gold. no incorporation takes place.) (29) a.) b. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t see anybody. I never went to his place. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. I didn’t see any student. b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. No day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut nici un student. 26 . I didn’t go anywhere.) c. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) b. All that glitters is not gold. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN b.
/ I showed him nothing. / Not a word fell from her lips./ They didn’t come to meet her. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. seldom. / No one ever listens to her./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not many women are famous opera composers.) We seldom watch T. / I saw nobody. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. nici măcar din alea scurte.V.) They barely read any novels. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / I didn’t see anybody. etc. / He should not be released. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / Not one of them came to meet her. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. ./ They never went there. rarely. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. scarcely. not even short ones.4. barely. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. (Nu citesc romane. / None of them liked house music.
Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / Hardly anybody liked him. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I scarcely ever see her.) c. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) b. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei.) 28 them. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. Never have I met a more horrible person. / Few people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. .) d. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / I seldom look at her like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor.
/ The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / I didn’t leave the office at any time.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. never trust a man again. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / She could rely on nobody but him. in the sense that the 29 . / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.) They don’t think that he likes them. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.
She doesn’t like our chairman at all. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. probability. / I expect he won’t come here again. sound/feel like. advise. / They believe she does not like them.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. imagine. be supposed to. should be desirable. / I suppose she doesn’t care. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. etc. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. want. intention. although not negative in meaning. etc. suggest. believe. look like. cannot appear in an affirmative context. the negative meaning is less strong. we can very well say something like: (38) a. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute.) b. be likely. 2. be probable. barely. In sentence (37). Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. choose. guess. etc. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / He reckoned he would not win her over. suppose. For example. expect. intend.6.: think. seem. ought to.) 30 . She didn’t lift a finger to help me. appear.
Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. are clearly not grammatical. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă.*She lifted a finger to help me. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. and sentences such as: (39) a. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. b. That is 31 . *She likes our chairman at all. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context.2. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.
/ He arrived before 5. / I like it . still (I don’t love you any more. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / I somehow like him. either. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / They say he once had someone very close. / Don’t worry. you can still do something about it.) Any more vs. / Come on.) Until vs. etc. / Well. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / Bob is still living at that address. / I have some money.). / I like you a lot. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Well. / I still love you) Either vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I can understand both of these 32 . too (I don’t like it. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / She hardly ever comes here. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) Much vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) At all vs.) Yet vs.) Hardly ever vs. some (I haven’t any money. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I eat caviar most of the times. too. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / You needn’t send her anything. / I somewhat like his proposal. / I have already seen him. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. too.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.
give a damn/darn. move a muscle. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Peter knows some English and so does John. see/ feel/ remember a thing. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). find a trace. crack a smile. say / breathe/ understand a word. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. lay a finger on someone. touch a drop. / Ajută-mă. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / You must be telling lies./ I can understand all of these ten English words. know a single person. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / You must pay that fine. mulţumesc. have a care/ friend in the world. Translate into English. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. leave a stone unturned. de când cu 33 . hurt a fly. bat an eye(lid). have/be worth a red cent. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. lift/raise/ stir a finger. Ion nu e prea deştept. hear a peep. flinch. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. nici unuia dintre noi. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. turn a hair. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. last a minute. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. sleep a wink.
nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / He is no end of a fellow. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No admittance. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . but you really should do something about it. / He won’t make old bones. / Never is a long word. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No sooner said than done. he left the room. / I had no end of trouble. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Hotărât lucru. / No trouble at all. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. încercând să prindă criminalul. nu e vina mea. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. he’s a pig. B: Aşi. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / No man is wise all the time. As you have noticed from the exercises above. n-a sunat încă. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Nothing succeeds like success. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No entry. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / Not that I care. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / No hands wanted. budge. Translate into Romanian. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor.
Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. 2. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. / I hate making any commitments. c) He is anxious to say something.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. b) I love asking some funny remarks. which is not the case of the sentence under (45)./ I saw no one.Unit two Sentence negation rather). Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. as well: 35 . and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.7. N-am văzut pe nimeni. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. say it. Normally.
it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. B: Not this poem. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. (Nu. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. I don’t like this poem. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. I don’t. nu îmi place poezia asta. Key terms.8. nu-mi place. The second negation is somehow independent. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. 36 . in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. from a syntactic point of view. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. however. B: Nu.) 2. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. nu poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. Conclusion. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .e.
2 Wh.1 Tag Questions 3.Questions 3. Optional Exercises . Key Terms.4.2. Direct vs.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.3.2 Echo Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 18.104.22.168. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2.
English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.1. If we try to analyze the examples above.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. for a subsequent section. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.Unit three Questions 3.
(3) and (4). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. (2). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. 48 . all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions.g. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). pe mama.
in this case. In the case of indirect questions. Since the question is not direct any more. because. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. 49 . the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the sequence of the tenses is violated.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Likewise. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.
b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. identify the incorrect sentences. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / He asked me who she is. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. spune la un moment dat femeia. / I don’t know whom she fancies. ce culoare are pielea. / He asked me who she was. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / I don’t know who she is. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. sau mai bine zis. c) Ştii ce. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită.
as Quirk shows. being typical of spoken language. the type of answer the respective question requires. In this case. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 .V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.2.Unit three Questions 3.
Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (how long / wait for me?) 10.1. 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (which / you like best) ? 4. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (what time / shops close today) ? 7.
are said to be positively – oriented. (Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. it has. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. they did.
…………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. because you always copy everything I do! 5. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….? (a mean thing to do) 54 . make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. as in the example: 1. …….. A: She had her tenants evicted. 6. ……………………………. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: You’ve been learning German for years. ……………? (hear her) B: …. 3. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. A: You look down. . but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. I’ve still got plenty of time.... (speak yet) B: ……. A: What a lovely hairdo! ………………….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 4. A: Your mother is shouting for you. …………………. 7. 2. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.
why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. 9. what .2 Wh – questions Wh. . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.. 8. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . A: It’s past your bedtime. . She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 10. where. ……………………………….. A: There was a terrible car crash. which When.. I didn’t get home until late last night. how.2.Unit three Questions B: …………………. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. . You could have mentioned it earlier. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 3.
places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. Nearly two hundred years. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / My new car cost 10. I cannot do that. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 ./ Sara owns two cars. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / David’s car was stolen. / Kay’s gone out shopping./ She dropped her glasses. trying to find places where I resided in life. / She lives in the suburbs./ We’ve lived here for ten years. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. what ever. / That’s my pen. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / There are six students in my class. of course. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair./ I have French lessons twice a week. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. (Poppy Z.000dollars. / Shirley got married to Ben. why ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie.
Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.3.2. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 .
wasn’t it there? 17. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How far is it the cinema? 3. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How far is it the cinema? 10. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How long is she be spending in America? 8. How long is she be spending in America? 15.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. He used to work in a bank. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. can you be? 58 . didn’t use he? 11. shall we stay? 14. You can’t be serious. Let’s stay for another few days. didn’t use he? 4. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. He used to work in a bank. Who did left the gate open? 18. There was a fax for you this morning. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. shall we stay? 7.
Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Pot reveni. isn’t it this? 25. That was Jeremy’s brother. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. plin de germeni virulenţi. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Who did told you about the problem? 31. doesn’t he go? 23. Toate vechi. John goes jogging every morning. wasn’t it he? 22. How long have you be lived in London? 26. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. will you not? 27. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. That’s your car. despre o lume dură. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. neliniştea infantilă. dacă prin absurd 59 . Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. să-mi înfrâng frica. Ani întregi. will you not? 21. deci. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Whose it is this book? 32.Unit three Questions 19. deci. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. ca şi cei ce au fost. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. uneori disperat. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following.
în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. negru. laşii. puturos. lung. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. neîntrerupt. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. indiferent de risc. iar proştii. dar şi drumul. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Şi. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. străină priceperii lor. Riscul? Ratarea. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. pe care oricum am simţit-o. de atunci. picură apa roşietică. murdar.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. mă întreb. B. “Spune! striga el. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. naiv. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. umed. inactivii. îi ştiu gustul. ghiceam doar unde se află. pe sub bolţile din care. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte.
care i-a determinat alegerea. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. orbitor.3. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. golul alb.Unit three Questions viaţă. didn’t she? . da? (37) Let’s go there. 3.1. Tag Questions Tag questions.3. viaţa? Oare e drept. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. nu se poate. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. exclus. la urma urmei. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. domnule profesor. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. will you? (38) She went to Prague. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.
Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host sentence is negative. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. In this way. is it? (Deci. (Din păcate. au fost cheltuiţi. the tag is affirmative too. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent.) A: Oh. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. hasn’t she? (Aha.e. the tag is negative too). or “comment tags”. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. or falling. aren’t they? 62 . constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. sarcasm. The suggestion is that in this case. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. it’s all spent.
/ The boy often watched his sister. / I may not see you tomorrow. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / He simply hates empty words. / I think you don’t like my music. / That was your father. / That’s your car over there. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I think you like my music. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / I don’t think you like my music. / She left an hour ago. / He hates his wife. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / You have been invited. / She has a brother. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / He has to marry Susan. / The boy never watched his sister. / Each of us is staying. / Tell me. / Surely you have enough money. / I must go now. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / A few people like her. / I am older than you. / I am dressed smartly enough. / You will pick me up. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Everyone felt happy about it. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room.…/ Let me know. / She used to talk a lot. / You ought not to smoke. / They said he liked music. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / Don’t leave without me. / There is enough food for everyone. / You will pick me up at 7. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / Activity 12 He will be on time. 63 . nu?) • with a falling intonation. after all. / Few people like her. / I may see you tomorrow.
/ They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one./ I’m right about this…. using a question tag at the end. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. or what? 3. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. So you enjoyed my talk. / He never used to study so hard…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. He used to play squash. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1.. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….
recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.3.2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.) B: Chinese? 65 . / Students… Student loans might replace grants.3.1. Recapitulatory echo questions . / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / Grants… 3. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.1.
2. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. consternation.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.2. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Închide lumina aia.3. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. If the wh.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. of something just said. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.phrase is fronted. rather than the repetition. disbelief.
which letter do you 67 . / We are looking for a pixie.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (Uită-te la asta. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this./ He is interested in blue movies. (Vai. / He is interested in music. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.e.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. with recapitulatory echo questions. (i. / I think I’ve found a solution.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. am pierdut scrisoarea./ We are looking for a purse. I’ve lost the letter. intonation is rising. whereas with explicatory echo questions. rather than did you say. dear.
does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. she knows about it.4. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.
(…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. acuma sporovăiala. şerpoaica. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . lui Luca Horobeţ. lui Chizlinski. oameni aşezaţi. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. lui Stavre Păici. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. da. nu purta verighetă. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. şi care s-a aciuat. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. ca să zic aşa. cu o casă de copii. stricata. Fenio.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. aşa. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. şi apoi Vica ce zice.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. cumnată Fenia. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. în satul nostru. să se încolăcească mai bine. pe Condrat de Vica. după pofte. în general.– Crezi tu. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. Are gust de oameni blânzi.
când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. deci. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. L-a scos din geamie. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. sau cum o chema. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Hogea. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. De asta erai. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. dar cum se face că a 70 . roşu şi galben. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. sus. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. până la călcâie. abia târându-şi picioarele. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii.
Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
5.4.Contents: 74 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.6.Key Concepts .2.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.1.
that elements are coordinated. Example (2). reproachfully. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.Unit four Coordination 4.1 Syndetic vs.e. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.e. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. i. present) in the sentence. cu repros. 75 .) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. on the other hand. where there is no indication other than a comma. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.
vei muri. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. From the previously mentioned examples. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. 76 . we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.) (4) If you hit my wife. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated.) Such examples.Nadina VIŞAN 4. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. Conversely. you will die.
The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. respectively subordinated constituents. However.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. but presupposed. the second. from a logical & semantic point of view. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. we need to specify that. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.
Though the castle had vanished. Then he sat down. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. with enormous solidity. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. John Steinbeck. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. of cut gray stone. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. but the 78 .Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. adorned with cornices. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. took off his shoes and emptied them. the houses were beautiful and ancient. built. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. His clothes hung to him. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. took off his coat and emptied them. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. In the second. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. He moved and made a slopping noise. In the first. with formal walks under rows of trees. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. his shoes squished.
Cecil Woocham – Smith. and as the way is with Irish mountains. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. left the house. the higher he went the wetter it grew. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. over some of the roughest ground in the country.
Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (G. as shown in (9). (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. we should be seriously annoyed. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. were to take down the name of every man. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. however distinguished. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.K. As one can easily notice. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .3 Sentence vs.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.
yellow and blue.Unit four Coordination example (7). John and Mary are the newly married couple. but not John.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 9. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 3. 2. 4. John and Mary are ready. / Peter and John played football. Her pet kitten is black and white. 6 John sang and Mary danced. and even tennis. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John is ready and Mary is ready. plays football. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . / Joan plays many games. 5. / Peter. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Our flag is red. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. Activity 2 sentences: 1. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and I passed. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. 8. 7. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 10. our respective examinations. / Bob and George are admired by their students.
John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend.Nadina VIŞAN b. 5. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a.) b. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John loves and Bill hates cigars.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Jane 82 . Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. John writes poetry and Bill prose. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. Activity 4 2. or deleted. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. as can be seen in (10b). Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. 3. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.) c. 6. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.
that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.) The common element. 8. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. 10. these syntactical processes. 83 . as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Besides ellipsis. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. So. than a longer repetitive one. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. the so-called Principle of Economy. 7. can be reduced by substitution.e. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 9. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. i.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.
Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. the old men and women 2. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. In certain cases. using reduced structures: 1. simple books and magazines for children 3.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. George and Jane are separated. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . George and Jane went back to their parents. 3. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. some reason or another. Translate the following sentences. 2. 4. A citit. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. 4. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. one or (the) other method.
Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. They get on quite well together. it’s a case of ………… 7. they reached home………. fish and chips.You gain some things and you lose others. 11. 15. 6. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 12. 5. Can we discuss the …………. 16. 2. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. the amount I’ve already saved up. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. A pendulum swings ………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 6. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time.. even though they have their little …………. only for damage. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. After all their adventures. for my wallet.I searched ………. 8.. of your proposals later on? 3. sweet and sour. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.. . You can’t claim on insurance for ……….. 7. like: salt and pepper. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . Marks and Spencers. 8.… 14. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.. 13. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together..Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. I need another 100$ ………. 5.
nor wind will strike to kiss thee. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. In fact. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. For instance. 4. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. and 86 . *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.4. Nor sun. of course.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. more often than not. as in: (17) a.) There are. etc. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. the expressive function of coordination is. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. b. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.
(I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. o respectau si o indrageau. and cherished her. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. 20 (b)). He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. sometimes but. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. both … and .) 87 . dar nu am fost multumit de asta.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.g. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. or .) In certain cases. too): (20) a.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. where the subordinator is repeated. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (I-am dat banii.) b. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) c. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. etc). I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.
I like and admire her. I admire and like her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b. and hit my wife. and you’ll die.) b.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. I washed and ironed my pants. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. From this point of view. if we were to rewrite the example . In this case. (O admir si imi place.* I ironed and washed my pants. (Imi place si o admir.
Unit four Coordination 1.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Dr. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (If you do that. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed).) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Brown experiments with humans.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) (While Dr. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. 97 .
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.
e.which are based on coordination .g. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. 5. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. From the functional point of view. as the name suggests it.) 101 . subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.
An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.) 102 . we associate it with these objects. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. in certain cases. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. they are still presupposed by the speaker. by an adjective + preposition. In a way.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (I-a dat cartea. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. such as proud of. for example). such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. an adverbial item. for instance. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. For instance. sentences) required by the verb (or.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. We do not presuppose however something like. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.
(Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The second example. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. 103 . I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. an additional one.e.) b. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. Thus. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. i. which is the adverbial willingly. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. related to example (4). That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. to her) and one extra-item. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. I am afraid that he won’t come. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. In other words. A second observation. to add something.
we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. make.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. am să mor. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. So. (Înainte să plece din cameră. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. etc.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) (11) If you don’t marry me.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. I’ll die. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. such as want. like.) 104 . If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.
I cannot tell you what I heard about you.g. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. After I told her the story.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. The book that because they home. Whoever did that was a genius. [. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart.She came to him of her own will. this to whomever wants it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. e. 6. 5. They came to e. 2.g. she looked at me sadly. 4. Susan disappeared without saying a word. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.g. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . 3.
(the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. etc. 2. not object. As you can see. 5. 6. which. 3. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. at our age.He took an intelligent interest in her. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. was a novelty to Mitzi. stating their function: Activity 2 1. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.) 106 . though it was largely politeness. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 4. WHETHER. FOR.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. but he declined. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. You suggestion that we should. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT.
where. when.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. why. (E de dorit să plece.) (16) a.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. who.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. Who did it was John. (Am vrut să plec imediat. how. (15) It is John who did it. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. Where he went is London.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. which. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. 107 . (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. etc.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.
Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. consider the following table. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. for instance. In conclusion. if. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . which sums up this classification.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause.1. In (18). etc. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. however. before. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. As you will see. Compare. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause.) (18) She told me this before she left. done from a structural point of view. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. Unlike complement clauses.
Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.g. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. surely you cannot sincerely believe. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I will go there because I feel like it.: e.g. after. whether he will come when I feel like it. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. for. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. 109 . Dear Ludwig. etc. you understand. at your young age. back. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. as.g. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. Introduced know e. I will come back such as because.
If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. As she left the house. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. he said. But she thought that no one would call again. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. Late that afternoon. 2.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Too. she stopped to speak to Monroe. a tightening in her breathing. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Accidental Man) b)1. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening.The day Monroe had died was in May. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.
111 .g. că e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. interesting. I told her everything after she arrived.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.2.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. a correspondence can be traced. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g. As you have probably noticed already. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. That he loved e.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. However. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.g.
none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. Secondly. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. In the fourth place.complement. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. i. Thirdly. So.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.. We will come back to that in the next chapter.1. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.e. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.2. complements. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. whereas wh complements are the 112 .Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). whenever you identify a wh. (Cred că mă place.
Adverbials can only be adjuncts. and I do not know how things might stand between us. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Pratice Consider the following text. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. a barn. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials.g. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. because. She mistrusted her handwriting. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. for no matter how she tried. but no idea what to do with them. after. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. I first thought to tell in 113 . but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. outbuildings. a house. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. before. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. their introductory elements (e. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. c) I am coming home one way or another.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out.
According to a structural criterion. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. and I have not the will or the energy. because they modify. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. it would make you fear to do such again. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers.4. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). these clauses can be complements. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 .e. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial).Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.
Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. însă. think of. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. Alţii. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. Nevasta secera în tăcere. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. după ce că are grâu puţin. (…) “Mă.e. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. îşi spuseseră că Anton. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. 115 . look at. etc.g. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. O zbughi înapoi. answering the question to whom? So. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Pratice Translate the following. interested in. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. be very careful to use this term correctly. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. ce o fi având. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ.
Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. întâi. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. timp de un ceas. de fapt. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. cât de bolnavă era. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. izolate de sat. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Nici acum. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Toată lumea înţelesese că. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime.
stricau totul. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. la Odobeşti. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. de pildă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. aşa de oţetit. deşi cam târziu. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. acum sunt desluşiţi. amânase scrisul. la nişte prieteni comuni.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. În realitate. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Iată. Pace nu era. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare.
Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război) 118 .Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar.
etc).SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. 119 . of which.g. etc.. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses. whose. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.
3.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 22.214.171.124.7.6. Key Concepts . Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.2. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.
b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).Unit six Relative clauses 6. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.1. 121 .2. The Co-reference Condition . It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. 6.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.
The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. By combining these two clauses. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. John loves that woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. 122 . reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.
The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. 123 . The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. John offered flowers to that woman. The common element woman is present. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti .
10. 8. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 2. too. 5. She came to London. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. I introduced him to Jim. They met those students. The students like their teacher. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. I lost the book’s cover. by leaving behind a trace. None of the students agreed with them. Susan wants to meet Jane. He liked that book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 4.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. WHO 124 . Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. This is my husband. I love my husband very much. The king was just passing by. John told his friend a story about the king. 7. 6. I had a book. WHERE 3. WHICH 4. therefore in spoken English. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I bought Jim a book. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. WHO 5. Any of the students would answer to questions. I went to London. He told Jim everything about his plans. The students like their teacher. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. 9. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 3. frequently used in written language. He’s the author who received the prize.
2. most of them were from England. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOM 10. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.e. . relative clauses are divided into 1. i.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHICH 8. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.Unit six Relative clauses 6. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOSE 7. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. TO 11. (Cine strică plateşte. WHOM 6. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.
these relatives cannot function as attributes.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. in a manner of speaking. is no longer overtly expressed. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Predicative This was what she intended. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted.) So.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.e.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. (Cel care strică plăteşte. it is covert. Unlike their sisters. unlike in the case of (14). only their antecedent is no longer expressed. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.
they offer crucial information about this antecedent. 127 .) (Mercury. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. este zeul meu favorit. They only provide supplementary information about it.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Du-te unde pofteşti. they define it). care este zeul negoţului. is my favourite god. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. who is the god of commerce. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.) (22) Mercury. They can be thus divided into: 1. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. (Mercur.
then it is an attribute. 2. is a genius. 8. 10. restrictive relative clauses. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. As we were saying. i. 6. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. They are what 128 . who came to see me. 7. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. 9.e. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 5. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Independent I don’t know what you want. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. I have met him where I least expected. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). was the one we all welcomed and admired. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. this type of relative clauses. is a great playwright. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. on whom nobody could depend. She. Shakespeare. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion.This is the village where I spent my youth. who is a genius.
care a murit acum câţiva ani.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. etc. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. composed The (Freddie Mercury. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. however sad this may be. 6. . a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. who died a few years ago.) 2.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. a. etc. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. When the antecedent has no determiner. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.
nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. ci o fată a woman. numai eu nu. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. iritabilă şi uscată. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. care-ţi sunt fiu. care nu sunt o femeie.) (28) They come to me.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. can see your shortcomings only too well. Mie. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. (Eu. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. dried-up old maid.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). but a peevish. îţi văd prea bine defectele. (Ei apeleaza la mine. ill-tempered. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. 5. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. who am your son. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. 4. 130 . who neither work nor am anxious. bătrînă morocănoasă. 3.) Pratice Translate the following. Dintre toate personajele prezente. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. poftiţi în faţă. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. 2. 6. 7.
5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. (32) service finished late. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. than whom few more can be more crashing. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. heard.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. erau acum în posesia lui. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. părăsi camera. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. .) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. were now in his possession.
too. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) b. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. as can be seen in (36d).1.) c.5.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) d. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. The genitive form with which is still in use. literary style: (37) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. but it is typical of the formal. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .
Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. (Iris Murdoch. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .
(Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (45) (46) . (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. by the way.) b. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) • states.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. of which. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) b. but to a type or a function: a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. … Italy. He is not the man which he used to be. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. ships (that can be personified) a. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. animals.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.
etc. whom it concerned most closely. how. Poland is the place where Christine was born. why. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. pe care o privea direct. time. etc. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) 135 (47) .) b. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) b) dialectal (49) a.) 6. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. where. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. while.5.Unit six Relative clauses b. It is poor what gets the punches. France. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. reason. (Nu ştiam ce vor.2 Relative Adverbs: when.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.
) e. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. He went where he had been before.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. This is the place wherefrom they came.) 136 . (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. The place whither he goes is unknown.) b.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) 6. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) c.) When they introduce free relative clauses. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. no antecedents are required: (52) a. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. A system where by a new discovery will arise. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.5.3. They returned to the land whence they had come.
] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.
era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. Honest man as he was. I’ll get you such things as you may want. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. but they are used very infrequently: as. not any. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. every. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) b. any.4.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. 138 (64) his shoes. .5.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. much. but • in standard language a. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.
şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. Uncle George. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. ăl de fusese in China…) b. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.) • in dialect a. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.) c. There’s not many as’ll say that.) c. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. It’s the dry weather does it. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There is no one of us but wishes to help you.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. . him as was in China … (Uncle George. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. This is the same one that/as you had before. And always on the buttered side. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.
This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).
6. It seemed a thing 141 .) b. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. This is where we talk money. Where he was from. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What I’m saying is. 2. The man who John spoke to is a genius. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. we all have to come to some terms. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.5. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1.3): (72) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.*The man John spoke to is an idiot.) c.” 4. makes me a wart and a wen. b. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. 5. The man John spoke to is a genius. 3. That which shows God out of me. fortifies me. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. What Inman remembered was this passage. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 7.
though. (…) Partly.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. The rudeness of eating. Oh. 13. 8. 9. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 142 . Whatever his fate was. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 12. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. which is a lot. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. who had not witnessed many dawns. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said. he had left Ruby high and dry. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 10. of living. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 11. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields.
care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. un var primar. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var.al lui. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. divortata. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. Cumnatul meu avea. cumnatul unui portughez. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. vasnic. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . This is the horse that kicked the policeman. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carei strabunic. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. pirpiriu. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. poate. (Iris Murdoch. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. fiu natural al unui morar. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. plutonier. pe linie paterna. mort de tanar. nu prea sarac.
c. This is the book. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. I lost the cover of the book. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. By extension. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. The opposite phenomenon. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.2. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. 144 . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.6.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. Everybody listened to that woman. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. b. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. She was a woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. Teatru) 6.
This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 3. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. no easy answers to which could be offered. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. 5. 9. The difference between (76) and (77). The problem of safe transportation. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 7. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 8. 2. he requested that the public be excluded. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . In the interest of public decency.Unit six Relative clauses b.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 4. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. has been troubling them forever. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 6. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.
They do not function as attributes. Activity 9 were now all gone. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. 3.His father’s friends. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 4. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. he rarely saw now. no matter which. His friends. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 5. Irene.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. was now complete. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 146 . 10. has been deleted. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. This story. 2. as the case is). The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 6. whose interest he most sincerely shared. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.
capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. închipuirea. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Toate sfârşeau. Nelu. De douazeci de ani. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. 3. 6. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Pentru alţii. 2. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 4. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. himeric. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 7. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. 5.
ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 8. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. a făcut el. 12. cu surle şi cu tobe. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. 9. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 10. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea.
Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 20. Avea acum un fel de vertij. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. despre care. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. trăia larg de tot. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. pe strada Icoanei. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. din care cauză pe Dora. fie la teatru. Dacă mă lovea. care era foarte “mondenă”. roiuri de fetiţe. 17. În spatele lor. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 18. de unde venea şi Marta. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. deşi atât de aproape. 16. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. 15. toată lumea întreba cine e. 149 . apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. fie pe stradă. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. 14. apărură. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. până mai adineauri.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. din direcţia căreia apoi. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. dinspre Maria Rosetti. zise ea cu ochii mari. cu sclipiri abia vizibile.
24. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. 22. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. după ce maşina a fost reparată. de mine.Nadina VIŞAN 21. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. pe care eu nu-l aveam. 23. pe care ea îi admira acum. de sus de unde eram. întâia noapte de război) 150 . Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. când au urcat râpa iar. Pentru mine însă. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Pare-se că snobii. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. aveau un stil al lor. până în şosea. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi.
by stating their syntactic function. 151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.6.1. That Deletion 7.2.3. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.Topicalization 7.2.3. That Complements as Direct Objects 126.96.36.199. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.3.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.Clause Shift 188.8.131.52. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.1.1.Extraposition 7. That Complements as Subjects 184.108.40.206. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 220.127.116.11. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2. Key Concepts .18.104.22.168.7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.
) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. In other words. (3) Tell me if you need anything. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. but also of infinitival ones. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1. placed in a marginal position.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. Apart from those introduced by that. 7. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. 153 . the clause is extraposed.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).
) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .
It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 8. 9. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . Magellan regrets it that the world is round. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 4. 10. It appears that no one voted for him. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 11. 15. 14. It is nice to meet you. 9. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It was suggested that they should meet the President.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 6. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 11. 13. 2. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. It is no use trying to convince her. 10. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 2. 7. 5. 3. 3. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 4. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 7. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 6. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 8.
zice Lionel.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. după porţi. 3. în canal.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. 3.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. în gropi. 18. 5. 3. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. I guess it that he will come back. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 4. 2. 4. 5. They never expected it that he would come back. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 2. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. atât 156 . 6. sub poduri. unde se nimerea. mă ascundeam în grabă. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.
cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 5. 157 . Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. 7. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. (Nu întotdeauna. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. fără să cârteşti. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. 6. fără îndoială. excelentă. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Spunând cele ce-am spus. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. când locuia în conacul din La Roque).Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos.” 4. vor căuta să o zdruncine. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce.
Nadina VIŞAN 7. in the case of topicalization. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Pratice Read the following. this asymmetry is undone.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. 1. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.2. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Consequently. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.1.) While in the case of extraposition. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.
His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. even today. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. She had always been the slave of chance. but not now. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 4. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. He was utterly gone. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He did not blame Gracie. was inconceivable. he felt no spring of interest in her. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . let it kill her if it would by a random stroke.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. 2. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. mere chance would decide. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. whether it would finally carry her off. 6. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 5. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 3. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 8. This was another era. 7. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday.
Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.) 160 . (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.3. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.1.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.
Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. 161 . the verb to drive). From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.e.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. we obtain.
/ ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. 2. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 162 . 5.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 7. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. /? He appointed Mr Hugh./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. prime-minister.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 6./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 3. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 8. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 4.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .Unit seven That complements 7.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.
judge. estimate. communicate. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. He announced that they were engaged. explain. etc.) b.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.Nadina VIŞAN 7. predict. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. They believe that the man is guilty.: (25) a. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat. prefer. suggest. consider.) a. state. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. They believe the man is guilty.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. promise. etc. deem.) b.1. desire. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. (I-au promis o casă nouă. deny. He announced their engagement.2. afirm.) 164 .
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
(this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. for example.) I like him in that he is smart. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.e.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. hope =>purpose.) 172 .) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. they lose their meaning. on condition that. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) language. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. ibid. In older stages of English.
(Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) b. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. that we wouldn’t doubt it. să o vadă trecând.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) When the structure contains the word such. That can be deleted. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. He gave an answer such. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) (66) 173 a. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. . as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) b. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. He gave such an answer as had expected. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.
6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) b. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.) 174 . for better or worse. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. ibid. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.We discovered that our map has disappeared. ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. He gave an answer such that I had expected.
He said he had borrowed her money. 175 . He got word they were coming. (69) a. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. for instance. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.3 ‘That Deletion 7. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. He showed he was able to do it. that he uses a relaxed tone.3.) b. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. tell). (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.Unit seven That complements 7.) c.1. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. say.
You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . rele.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. they were chained to each other forever. 7. for better or worse.3. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch. *I like it he was here. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. (Îmi place că e aici. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.Nadina VIŞAN 7.3.3. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. for better or worse. bune.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.) b. ibid. I like it that he was here.) (De asemenea. because that has been deleted.
Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. he said. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. you want me to believe. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 7. simultaneity. 7) They maintain. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.) 177 . that they were not too late to leave.) b)He told me that she was there. which is ungrammatical in English. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. (“Este acolo”.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. spuse el.
(Pâna să plece.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) b. (A spus că. He told me that she had been there. (Am să o părăsesc.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. până pleacă ea. (A spus că o să o părăsească.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. o să vină el. He said he would leave her. (“Era acolo”. vine el. he said. spuse el. I will leave her. “She was here”. In the example below. The Present complement).) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) Future Perfect -----. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.) b. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.
whisper. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) 179 . With such factive verbs as realize. be aware. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. believe. hope. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. discover. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. regret. wish. show. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.etc. forget. realize it). say. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. mention.) b. report. be amazed/concerned.) On the other hand.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. etc.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. think. notice. insist. dream.
Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. in tender deference to each other. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) b. we notice that general truths. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. Consider also: (85) a. She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Iris Murdoch. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. She believed that the earth is round. She realized that all men are fools.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.) b. He knew that she thought all men were fools. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. feign habits which are not their own. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. 180 .) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.
Unit seven That complements 2. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. There are however cases. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) b. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3.) In (88). such as a. 181 . the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional.) b. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.
Imagine. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. for instance. The time is 3 o’clock. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. g) John thought that Harry ran. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. But 182 . b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. d) John said that Harry was leaving.
Crows will relish what presents itself. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Translate the following. geese both grey and white. c. as evidenced by its drear plumage. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. love of practical jokes. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. lack of pridefulness. Cooper’s hawk. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. slyness in a fight. jaybird. She admired their keenness of wit. redtailed hawk. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. 183 . a. bluebird. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. nighthawk. b. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. kingfisher.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. whistling swan. quail.
and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. […] During the latter stages of the tale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. war hero though he was. the young officer. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. in the very act of expiring. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. And they might just hang him. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He had fought hard through the war. But as the battle raged around them. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. He died erect. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Now here he stood jailed. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. he claimed.
topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. 185 .Unit seven That complements 7. on other occasions it has to stay there. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. which they share with wh-complements. from the very frequent subject.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. object ones up to the attributive function. On certain occasions that can be deleted. or else. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). adjective or by a de-verbal noun.
4. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Fiind 186 . cel mai mare. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 2. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. 3. Mama. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Unul din ei. neconvenabil şi primejdios. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. peste puţin. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare.
Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Nu ţi-a trecut. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. de ce constata în sine. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. 8. venind de la avocat. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. va pleca din oraş la vie. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. dacă va mai veni. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 6. 7. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. cel puţin pentru un timp. aşa. ea. 9. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. fericit. 5. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. luminos şi apropiat şi când. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. un vis de acesta 187 . trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. care îl pândise. Se mira. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios.
ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. încă o dată. 11. Astfel de va fi. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. liniştit. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. 12. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. şi mândria că a biruit. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Acesta. dar şi teama că. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. lucrul era înfăptuit. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. fireşte. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere.
Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. mai puternic decât oricând. spre Jurubiţa. după cum. 14. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. fără o vorbă scrisă. Pe toate. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. să le lămurească pe toate. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. ci numai aşa. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 .
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
Key Concepts .A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.7.8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 22.214.171.124.4.2.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.9.8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.5.
It is important that you should know what you need. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) b. To love her is something really wonderful. (2) a. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. I told her to be more careful in the future.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. 193 . Consider the following: • like that complements. It is important for you to know what you need.) • like that complements. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).1. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (3) a. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). From this perspective. That you love her is something wonderful. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. b. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).) b.
the Conditional. etc. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. For instance. the Participle) (i. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. participial clauses. gerundial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. as opposed to the finite ones.) b.e. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 2.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. the Gerund. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. 194 . English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. d.
To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. namely no ending. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) 195 . (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) c. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time.) b. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.
She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.2. 5. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 9. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 10. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 6. (7) They saw her leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 7. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. 3. the criterion of form. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 2. 4. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 8. It is vital this factory to be reopened.
/ A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. hear. (10) 197 . / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. 2. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.
. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. Pratice Translate the following. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. uncharacteristic for literary English.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. However./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. 198 (11) the universe. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 3. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.
199 . we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. Further on. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. to use the appropriate technical term. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.Unit eight Infinitive complements because.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. In other words. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. or the control constructions. as I have already mentioned. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.
(E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. It is important for him not to err.) In this situation. namely the agent of the event. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. PRO to err is human. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. PRO to forgive divine. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. the logical subject. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. şi creştineşte să ierţi. I hoped for him to be there in time. So far. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction.) b.) 200 . (E omeneşte să greşeşti.) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să nu greşească. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.
He stepped aside for her to enter.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically. not to the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. him is related to the main clause verb. In other words. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) b.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . but the patient of the verb persuade. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.
\ He persuaded her to come. \ I allowed them to come. \ She promised him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ I would love them to come. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. I hate animals to be tortured. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. Likewise. \ She wanted him to leave. \ 202 . from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ They convinced her to come back. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ They tempted him to leave. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him.
the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. \ They really asked her to come back. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. • Last but not least. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They did not wish her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26). this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. So.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. 203 . Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.) He seems to be a good linguist. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.
/ N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. Pratice Translate the following sentences. appear. To sum up the discussion. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. to meet her. hate. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her.). which are said to be free. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. with special semantic and syntactic properties.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. 204 ./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. seem. that is not required by certain verbs. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. etc. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi.
intend. etc.) b) verbs such as abide. fail./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. prefer. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. aspire to. endeavour. expect. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. arrange. try. 8.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) 205 friend. like. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. contrive. bear. hate. omit.3 The Distribution of PRO .) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. wish. mean. condescend. decline. desire. / E greu să îl suporţi. dislike. propose. need. deign. presume. manage.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. etc. want. venture. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. . etc. hope. care to. seek (= try). scheme. agree to. deserve. refuse.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. afford. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. scorn. Compare: (31) a.
unlikely. conclude. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.etc. For all of them to have been killed is. endeavour. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. forget. verbs of liking and disliking.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. possible. threaten.) b. suggest. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) 206 . The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. bear. claim.) 8. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. be important. however. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) b. etc. ask.) b. stand. I would like for him to become president of the country.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. desirable. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.
) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) 207 . The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) b.) 2.) 8. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.
(Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) b. . (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. but the meaning remains. the preposition is deleted.) 208 knowledge.Nadina VIŞAN 3. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 5. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b. Like in the case of that complements. I decided for John to represent us. Direct Objects (39) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 4.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.
) c. curious about. etc.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. delicious. 6. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. This paint is like concrete to work with. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.: (42) a.) b. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. She is pretty to look at. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. You’re an idiot to go there.) d.) e. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. The stew is delicious to eat. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. He is a bastard to work for.) c) adverbial of result 209 .
/ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. to tell you the truth. final or introductory infinitive In this case. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. conduci prost. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.) Oh. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / Ehei. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. să nu piardă trenul.) I’ve never met him.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. drept să spun. you’re a bad driver. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Pe şleau.
Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. inspire.) b. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. swear. oblige. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.: (51) a. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.etc. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. nu mai vreau să te vad. According to this. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. inform. enable. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. need. urge. (49) a. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. induce.) . / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. b. etc. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. 8. influence. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. press. encourage. direct.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. promise.
allow. elect. count on. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. order. etc. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. depend on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. permit. name.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. vote. etc. command.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. look to. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. / I do not intend to tell him that myself./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. nominate./ And now he 212 .Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. prevail on.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. choose. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.etc. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.
(57) He is to come any day now. seem. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (Iris Murdoch. grow.etc.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. i.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. etc.: (55) She appears to like him. etc. (O să întârzii/ leşin. 213 (58) (59) . be about to.verbs: appear. this construction is lexically governed. (Se pare că îi place de el. come. An Accidental Man) 8. happen.e.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). be going to.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.
d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. be reported. be considered. perceive. etc.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. overhear. . be rumoured. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. be thought.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. that of intention. observe. watch.etc.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be claimed.) 8. etc.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. In (57). hence there is no control situation whatsoever. be alleged. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). feel.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.: (62) They heard him insult her. hear. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.
know. remember. recollect. presume. figure. etc. have. occasion.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. consider. find. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. However. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. understand. cause. prove. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.) • with a full infinitive: get.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. judge. believe. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. discover. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money.) 215 (67) . (Cred că este un geniu. deem. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. imagine. picture. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.
(I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. if he himself was out of spirits. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.etc. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. Harold. love. they had depressed and fuddled him. he hated anyone to comment 216 . command. expect. prefer.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. etc.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. who wasn’t used to men with moods. permit. order.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. want. suffer. mean. wish.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. choose. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. desire. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.
would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. He suspected hostility at once. so that we might get to the future and have done. to make sure we attended strictly to business. though he tended to look down on those below it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . A little crossly. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. (L. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. Both seemed to him a little unreal. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. the herd instinct was very strong in him. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.P. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. he didn’t envy those above it.
Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. From this perspective. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. The last criterion. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.Nadina VIŞAN 8. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. 218 .9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not.
mai bine219 . dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. e important ce întrebări pui. lovit şi umilit. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. de bună seamă. bunăoară. E posibil. dar să nu-ţi spună. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. Şi tu să fii. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. fireşte. de asemenea. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. un bărbat şi o femeie. să-l capete. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. într-o zi. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. e) Când doi oameni. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece.
(B. ca să nu şi-o amintească. . Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. mai bine de două decenii. Însă Paul Achim trăise.Şt. d-a lungul gâtului. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.Şt. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. că eşti tânăr. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să nu vrea să se şteargă. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. încă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare.Nadina VIŞAN zis. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. aşa cum îi apăruse el. în parte. în parte. pe care deja o uitase.Delavrancea. în jos. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. mai pline de înţeles. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. un picior. Să spui de pildă. De era vară. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. 220 . în ploaie. avusese dreptate. sau. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale.
Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. şi nu un amant. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia.. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. (Al. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. prin faţă e coborârea. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ei. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. Într-un cuvânt.. fie ea şi grăbită. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. sunt aici cu tot ce am. Mă laud singură. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. de fapt.. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. deşi. un miros îngrozitor. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). şi prin faţă.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. orice bucureştean ştie. nici ca să 221 . deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. biata Muti. orice-ar fi. o mizerie.
Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. în realitate. niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.
participles.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.
2.5 Key Concepts .1.The Gerund 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Verbal Noun 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.Participial Constructions 9.2.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 184.108.40.206.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.
1. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. (Susan doarme. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Due to this situation. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.) 225 .1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.
) More infrequently. 226 .) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. (A venit Susan) b. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) As you can see in this second case.e. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. been and killed are past participle forms. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. the past participle can appear after a noun. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. too: (6) Her eye-lids. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). it functions attributively. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. were closing. i. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. In (2) the forms come. Susan has been killed. blood-shot and painted.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. Susan has come.
they started singing.) 227 . (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. începură să cânte. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) b. o să ajung la timp.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. I will arrive there on time. When singing. God willing. she ran away. mother permitting. he will eventually marry her. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) c.) b. Oh. ea o luă la fugă. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) d. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. If provoked.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. leul poate să atace. (Ştiind cine era el. a lion can attack. Weather permitting. people should pay attention to high notes. o să ajung la timp. (Sosind aici. Arriving here.) c.
(Am simţit-o tremurând. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au descoperit că fură. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. He was found killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. hear. which stands for an adverbial clause. smell. He was found stealing.) b. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. watch. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. I found him stealing. behold. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-am descoperit furând.) 228 .) b.) ii. notice. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. respectively. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.
(Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.) • Causative verbs: get. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . feel. know. etc.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. make a. I heard it said that men are a bore.) b. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.: When she heard his words. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. etc. send.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. set.) • Causative verbs: get .: a. hear. I must get my hair cut. etc. keep. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. a. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. leave. (A fost văzut plângând.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. etc. recollect.) b. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. find.) b.) c. confess. she knew herself dismissed. recollect. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. He’ll soon get things going. have. have. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.) • mental perception verbs: remember. start.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.
) b./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.) • verbs of permission. command I ordered my bill made out. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. Men like shopping made easy. / Nu după multă vreme./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat./ L-a trimis la cumpărături.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. He wanted his car fixed immediately. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. lovit şi plin de sânge. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 .” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.
heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / Dinny.1. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial.2. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. 231 .Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. / My Lord. Unlike the gerund. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. with its lips drawn back. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / In any case. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.e. sitting taut between her father and her sister.
They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . the rain will stop. I turned on the light. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I left. I was astonished at what I saw. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 5. (Văzând acestea.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 6. am plecat. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. 3. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. She had heard it all before. I knew that the murderer was still at large. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 7. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. using either a present participle. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. The tree had fallen across the road. 4.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. se va opri şi ploaia.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. I left. (Desi nu ştia limba. 2. am plecat.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. It had been uprooted by the gale. People were sleeping in the next room. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania.
a scorpion bit him. broad. shaven. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. many. Dropped by parachute. hearted (twice). He sat down to his own dinner. 2. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Tied to the post. 8. coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. lion. his horse fell at the last jump. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 7. mown. He fed the dog.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. dark. open. Leaving the cinema. cloth. one of the eggs broke. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 10. Reading in bed. 10. 11. open. Mother punished me for my mistake. stony. skinned. 9. minded (3 times). Passing under a ladder. Getting out of bed. 3. Read the sentences and try to correct them. a rug caught her foot and she fell. They found the treasure. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. eyed (3 times). eagle. 12. straight. 8. three. drunken. sharp. I slammed the door of my room. covered. my hands often get very cold. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. stricken. lighted.shoulder. Riding in the first race. quick. red (twice).Running into the room. narrow. 6. 9. bald. Barking furiously. haired (twice). Climbing down the tree. fishy. cornered. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. b) Headed (5 times). handed. 233 . They began quarreling about how to divide it. wooden. roast. 5. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 4. a pot of paint fell on my head. empty. I let the dog out of the room.
(produce) 3. graven. head. plank. (grow) 4. _______ my arm. the same verb is missing twice. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. lead. _______ by S. bounden. In the following pairs of sentences. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. meaning. was today taken back to prison. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. candle. / Three people. man. ________ hiding in a barn. stream. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. are in grave danger of extinction. shrunken._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. is expected to be a great hit. (hunt). were taken to hospital. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. eyes. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. deer. b) grass. (injure). 7. ill-gotten. The escaped prisoner. Translate into English: 1. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . (admire) 5. _______ for their elegance and precision. rotten.Spielberg. (find) 6.I fell on the ice. hidden. duty. wealth. Whales. image. / Swiss watches. meat. lamb. shorn. _______ for a bargain. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (take) 2. I stared at the canvas for ages. are sold throughout the world. The film.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. / Many old people ./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast.
destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. ca şi cum. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. 3. păsări tăiate. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. când strânsă. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. 4. nesigur şi moale. 2. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. precum şi foile de plăcintă. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. deodată sufocat. Şi sufletul său. întinse. care le rânduia. O umbreluţă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. După câtva timp. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. le cocea. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. le fierbea. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . şi moi. Şi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. trezit. legume date prin mai multe ape. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. când deschisă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri.
If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. (Dacă vezi.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. crezi. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. Likewise. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. The Gerund 9. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. According to this criterion. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.2.1.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.2. 236 .Nadina VIŞAN 9.
whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Him winning and you losing was surprising.) 9. In that. Consider the following table. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.2.) b. That he won and you lost was surprising. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. gerunds differ from participles. His winning and your losing were both surprising. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.
Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. Consider (32). It was illegal to grow a beard. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.) Unlike participles. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. as being verbal 238 . This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) b. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.) 2. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. *It was illegal growing a beard.
) 3. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.2. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.) b.3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. as offered in the table below: 239 . it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Participles vs.) b. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) 9. It’s no good talking to her. Just like in the case of noun phrases.
Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. perfect. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. forms: continuous . babies suck their thumb. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. 3.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . passive ones She was crying. 2. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. + noun] 1. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her.
/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial.
12. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 242 . It was worth trying to continue the efforts.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 11. swimming duck / swimming trunks. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. Gambling is his favourite pastime. He was spotted talking to her. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 15. 10. 9. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. crying game / crying woman. eating habits/ eating people. 13. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 6. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 3. shooting gallery / shooting star. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 4. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 2. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 14. 7. 12. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 5. 8. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong.
a The absence of an of phrase.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .) The absence of a determiner like the. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e. but the presence of a direct object (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.Unit nine Ing complements 9.
This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. Thus.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. George’s shooting the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. These are features that normally characterize any noun. In the second situation. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . if we were to go back to our incomplete table.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.
very large./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. Jim left quietly. / His coming there puzzled her. 245 . the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town.
(A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). for example. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. Look. However. whenever we meet an –ing form. With the infinitive.4. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. It has been noticed that.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . the meaning is different. ING Forms and Infinitives.Nadina VIŞAN 9. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. For instance.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.
is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. having left) is infrequently used in English. containing an infinitive. and the most well-known one. future-oriented value of the infinitive). prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.) The first example. anterior to the verb in the main clause.) .) After looking at this example. (S-a oprit din mâncat.g. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. On the other hand. the infinitive is future-oriented. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.
the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. recollect.) . both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) As you can see.e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. i.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). which means that they are similar in meaning. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.
d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. In the second example.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) .) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. but that’s it.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. the action is not completed. the petrol tank is not filled yet. dar asta este.
) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. e) need.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. mean has the sense signify. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. The house needs to be repaired. the event has not happened yet.human] objects.) b. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Casa trebuie reparată.) With [. The house needs repairing. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. want With [+ human] objects. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Casa trebuie reparată.) wedding. In the second example. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) 250 .
So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . whereas in the second case. Lady Corven. (take) down her answer. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. my Lord.’ ‘Tell me. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. (hold) up his pen and (speak). Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. gerund or infinitive. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. but they went by too quickly. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. my Lord. however appearances were against us. I did ask Mr. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. Croom (try) (follow) one. it’s overrated.’ ‘In any case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.
It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. suddenly.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. I must go back now.’ said Clare. and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. licked the envelope with passion. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). he addressed the note. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ 252 .Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. Then. I just used the word and they fell. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.
5. Last but not least. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Pratice In the following texts. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.Unit nine Ing complements 9. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. the 253 . Participles mainly function as adverbials.
the chief occupation of the people of these islands. moving up towards his chest. He looked up towards the daylight. She started coughing. slowly rising in a swirling motion. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. It was like a mist. hoping he would see somebody up there. down into God knows where. their edges crashing inwards. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. but then he saw it billowing up from below. The two sides were moving apart. down. then the noise and the cracking stone. The sight of the two children. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. At first. it 254 . Then he saw movement at his feet. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. covering the girl’s head. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. the enormous split in the earth. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. according to the books he read. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. someone looking for survivors.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. She finished what jobs there were. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. slanted on to her cheek. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. brightening to winter brilliance.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. 255 . my dear. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. and sunlight. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. Having a French governess. for Dornford was busy on an important case.
veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. 2. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. totul se animă deodată. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. ucenicul său necredincios. într-o joi. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. and then went riding with her in the rain. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. cei doi Mamona. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Ridicându-se. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Vaucher şi cu mine. În urma slugii. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. mama mea. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. închizând ochii. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit.
Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. aplecându-se puţin. 3. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. dar ştiutoare. o sărută pe frunte. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. totul mi se părea cunoscut. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. aşezată cu spatele la noi. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. pe mama mea părând absentă. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. la mine. se duse lânga mama şi. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. după cum îi spusese mama. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. privit. afară ploua în continuare. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Şi deodată. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. am ştiut şi cine. auzit şi zadarnic. Neclintiţi. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. pe Vaucher. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm.
camionul a plecat. dar. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Au coborât din camion încet. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. cu tot cu baraca. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu soba. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. şi cu stiva de lemne. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. 5. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. să se apropie de aşezările din jur.
Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 2. 9. Having regard to the date of drafting. in some way. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. How this time was to come.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. whereas if she went away she would get none. I am sorry not to have seen you. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. was unclear to Mitzi. and this particularly of late. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 7. 11. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. to retire early from my employment. without profound questioning. 5. 10. because of pity. 13. 4. and meet it right here at home. 3. How much. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. this would really hurt. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. since I have decided. You have been much in my thoughts. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. apart from his distress for parents. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 12. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. he had not yet been able to estimate. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. he had been advised. and that 263 . 6.
/ The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. looking forward had not yet taken place. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 19. / In the end. please consider his proposition. 264 . for attending his sister’s wedding. / Before you go on changing the subject. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. he did not come to see her. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / Whenever I visited my aunt. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 14. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. one of the eggs broke. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. even for months. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. 17.
At country houses she had met them of course. Instead of which she had married. Clarissa used to think. Tony was a child. Essentially. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. of the quick and wiry. she said. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. rather than the hefty type. a little girl. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. her recklessness. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. quite unexpectedly. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. it was said. without discovery. and it was bound. centered in London and themselves. (and there he was. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. 265 . They hated trying on. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. They rushed into shops. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. her old friend Hugh. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. cotton mills at Manchester. an open-air person. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . She felt herself much older by nature and experience. of all people. Vulgar men did. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Though much in request before her marriage. to end in some awful tragedy. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. She felt as when. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping.
dar vizitele acestui om din topor. astfel.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. De uitat. to keep abreast of the current. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. she was uneasy. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. The closer she allowed him to come to her. indeed. nu puteam sa le uit. ii faceau bine. si in plus. cre s-au nascut lent. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. era un bun sfatuitor. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. with all its impatience of restraint. short of the contacts of love. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. aveam tot mai 266 . (John Galsworthy . sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. but lying in her bath.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea.Rindurile dvs. nu a facut-o pentru asta. the more she would be torturing him.Over the River) 2. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Bolnava nu se simtea. Reading many novels. she professed. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Cind l-a chemat. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.
Milionarule.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.) 5. (St.) 6. latimea si ascutisul labei. Banulescu – ibid. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. nu pricep nimic. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. 4. Banulescu – ibid. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. pe scaunul lui tare. o data sau de doua ori. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 7. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. vaazut cindva.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. (St. are nevoie. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. (St.) 267 . poate fi compensata. lungimea picioarelor. Ce a iesit. Banulescu – ibid. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Personal. Banulescu – ibid. (St. cit mai au de trait. ca si tine. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. mi-am zis. Daca tu. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. se stie. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. fa-o. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.
Who when asked about his memories of the War. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . delivered from the holocaust.. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. when I was even younger than you. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Could he be blamed. A story-book romance. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Who. (. my grandfather. Who was may father. Arthur Atkinson M. to Emmanuel College.P. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. a wounded soldier. Cambridge. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts.. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Translate them. Who came home from the war. Ernest Richard Atkinson. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. And had a brother killed in the same battle. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. for being a renegade. Who told me. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. 2.
that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. deep-set. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. he had already engaged himself? 3. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). daughter of an ill-paid journalist. Rachel Williams. to whom. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. and because – but this is mere speculation. Fabianism. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. a moody man. 4. How 269 . and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London.
Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. la şcoală. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. cu taina aceasta. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum a ajuns el. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. 270 . ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum a trăit el. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. om mare.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum au tăcut ei. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Ion. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. satul. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Ion.
Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. cu sau fără voie. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Când actriţa. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. din franţuzeşte.pune totul in discuţie. împotriva tuturor. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. 271 . paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. când voi fi singur. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. singurul lui stăpân. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. greşeli dintr-astea. de mama lor.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui.
4. Tot aşa. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. dam buzna peste automobile. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. traversând. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. provocându-le. privindu-mă în ochi. Am început. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. 5. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. e îndrăgostită de un actor. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. Într-o vreme. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. ci un sistem de acomodare. pe jumătate prezent. fostă prietenă din copilărie. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. nevasta-mea. 272 . Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. sau ridicole. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. A devenit palid. 3. continuând. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. 6. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. de pildă. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. parcă începusem s-o uit.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat.
Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. şi să nu ameţesc. Am început. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. Dacă nemţii înaintau. şi dacă merg întins. De altminteri. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. ca un acrobat. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. 11. că nu m-am gândit la asta. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. să merg întins.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. Aş vrea să mă las jos. fără să mă opresc o clipă. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. 8. 9. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . mă puteau prinde fără luptă. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. E o problemă. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. iar. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. fireşte. orice s-ar întâmpla.
Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. cu mirare. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. In curind. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. de la lucruri personale. Auzindu-l. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Ii venea greu. de uimire. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Acum isi ferea privirea. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Ilie nu-l asculta. se uita in jos. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. de la obiecte de pret. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. nu mai semana. 13. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. 274 . spuse el cu un glas ciudat.Ma. la carti. 16. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel.. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie.. eu am venit sa va intreb. dar nu se mai putea. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Uite. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. la amintiri. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. nu mai pricepu nimic. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. de la proces. la fata locului. 17. 15. Adica tot trecutul. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. 14. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. La un moment dat. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Greu era din partea asta. trebuia sa le spuna. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila.
vorbe asa si-asa. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. i se paru ca aici e ceva. There was even 275 . bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. se indeparta nepasator. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. 19.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. dar.Ce sa fac. apoi se uitau la Ilie. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Zimbea siret. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. cum zicea Anghel. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. . Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. which was part of his rich outfit. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Nu era nevoie. Aici era ceva.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. asa cum facuse pina acum. 20.
gave an exclamation. He walked a long time. conversationally. 4. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. at least.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. He felt then. She was one 276 . who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. paying no attention. going astray. on this occasion. 5. for the instant. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. the young lady. a simplification. asked for Mrs.Nadina VIŞAN relief. to take his way home on foot. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. resuming her walk. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. to admit that she was a proud. rude woman. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done.Miller at her hotel. 3. to move fast. But Daisy. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2.
make a point. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. smiling and chattering. uncomfortably. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. while residing abroad. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. and wondering what the deuce he meant. Advising with me. indeed. 7. as text book. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. in radiant loveliness. She appeared. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. He left me musing. She rustled forward. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative.Walker. Her daughter. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. on the other hand. as to projected changes. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. 6. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. in their own phrase. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. making Paul stop and look at her. often. as it were. of studying European society. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. 8.
wondered what they were talking about. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. which was deliberate. while Paul. H. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. 9. H.’ 278 . 11. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. though E. 10. was immensely struck with him. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. was only half satisfied with this. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. The agent became a very familiar type to H. and perceived that it must be something important. or at any rate not heeding. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. and. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. not seeing. and acute too.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. could see he was remarkable. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. with his humorous density. H.
Unit ten Revision exercises 12. H. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. that the haunting wonder which now. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. 13. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. But she gave him no chance. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. 15. 14. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. not glancing at him for a moment. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. had the power to chain his sympathy. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . as he looked back. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. which was very copious. appeared to fill his whole childhood. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away.
that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. The whole establishment. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. and to H. where the Pearl of Paraguay. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. 16. that she must be on the contrary. It was very possible she was capricious. yet 280 . had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. disheveled and distracted. dragging herself on her knees. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. proudly. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. 18. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. H. At the theatre. as a general thing. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. ironically reserved. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. 17. and there were others. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar.
2. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. on which the damp breath of the streets. would always be more or less irritating. Their mistakes and illusions. 3. It came over H. 281 . 19. had blown a certain chill. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. H. 20. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. and lurking within this nebulous design. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. *Old. No one ever listens to her. didn’t mind. young men were invited.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. with the poor. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1.
/ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. her arms held out. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Either John or he * have got to give in. slipped on some steps. 8. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf.Nadina VIŞAN 4. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Rachel. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 10. 282 . *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. I walked fast. 5. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 9. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. 7. striding like a Spartan maid. walking quickly. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. 11. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. I blundered by. 6. 12. her shining blue feet twinkling. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. c) When I saw her sitting there. “Oh. I saw her as a vision. I was definitely going to be sick.
Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9.
analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. if they were poor. could cook my meals.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. And then I ventured to add that. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 4. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 5. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. which was really alarming. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. where my servant. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. The old women spoke no English. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . 2. but that we saw and pitied. 3.
How much. would really hurt. this would really hurt. 285 . his. Munt. distress. apart form his distress for parents. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. etc. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e.g. etc. apart from his distress for parents. Constituents: how much.g. was anxious = was + anxious. had not been able to estimate.apart from his distress = apart from. to settle. he had not yet been able to estimate. Constituents: He. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. this. before they left town. was informed. etc. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Constituents: Margaret. was anxious. on Saturday. he. to pay their annual visit. at noon. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. on a house.
listen to this. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – non-assertive. – comparison. which is not assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / If you like her.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. The sentence is however 286 . – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. it is assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. interrogative.. and is non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – non-assertive.. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. second clause is non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. negative/ Come with me./ She finally admitted. interrogative. – first clause is non-assertive.. Second clause is an imperative.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. negative.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. negative/ If you like jazz. don’t bother her. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. which context is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. interrogative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.
/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ They weren’t really confused./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. only irresolute. he was hardly pleased. – they told the truth to somebody else. but nothing out of the ordinary./ Not long ago. but not more than she does others. not even when it’s quiet around./ He was smart enough. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He was exceptionally cunning. – someone did that./ Hardly interested in the conference. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but it isn’t Susan./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ Susan did not get married to Jim . but it wasn’t them. / She does not hate animals. / I don’t like her very much. / She does like John.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. not even this thing. everybody used to travel by coach./ When he learned the news./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / You have never met 287 .but to someone else. –double negation cancellation. – someone hates animals. – I like somebody else. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / He wasn’t unusually bright. the two brothers dared to protest. / They didn’t leave. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / Not really convinced by what the had heard.
negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.Nadina VIŞAN her. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.. they go skiing in the mountains.. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – negative insertion. I could hardly wait to hear the news... not even when you were very young.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. / This is hardly the 288 .. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. were they? / This boy is no good. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. / Should they not have told her the truth. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret..negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. not even in my dreams...
– I never see her. but she also lent him a car. – I don’t often look at her like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way../ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Hardly anybody liked him.. – Almost nobody liked him. / Few people came to see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Never shall I trust a man again./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. never trust a man again. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow./ We seldom receive such generous praise. Activity 8 I shall never. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – I almost never look at those paintings. / I didn’t leave the 289 . when we started our holiday. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / I seldom look at her like that.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – Not many people came to see her.
Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – It isn’t likely that he will help her./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / He reckoned he would not win her over. –At no time did we leave the office. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / Come on. / They say he once had someone very close. you can still do something about it. – 290 . – He didn’t reckon he would win her over./ I expect he won’t come here again. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / They believe she does not like them. / She could rely on nobody but him. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – Only on this man could she rely. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – On no account must you touch this machinery. you can’t do anything about it any more. – Come on./ Well. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time./ I somewhat like his proposal. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – They say he never had anyone very close.I don’t like his proposal at all. – They don’t believe she likes them. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / Don’t worry. / You must on no account touch this machinery.
– You can’t be telling lies. 291 ./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must be telling lies./ Peter knows some English and so does John.. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / You must pay that fine. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – You should send her something. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – She almost always comes here. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday./ Bob is still living at that address. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. too.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. / Well.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. either./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. –Alice still lives here. / She hardly ever comes here. / You needn’t send her anything. – Well her husband has always been a good person. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.
/ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. I haven’t done anything./ Zis si facut. / Please. ever since I got this ulcer.D. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Nobody told us a thing./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I haven’t seen her in years. has never studied anywhere./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ N-are nici cap nici coada. / He can’t have done a thing like that. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Am avut un car de necazuri. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Nu spune nu niciodata. to any of us. It’s no wonder. / Jim is so brave. e un magar./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Norocul la noroc trage. He isn’t that smart./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ E un baiat de zahar. He didn’t move a muscle. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. not yet. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ You look so tired today./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ He was a tough man. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. give me a hand./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ You took his leaving you very hard. Oh./ Nimic de facut./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Have they rung the bell? No./ He’s a happy man.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ 292 . / Nu chema necazul asuprati. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ I don’t know why she’s crying. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ They say this Ph. / Don’t go on believing him.
no memory. for I thought this threatening. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. thrown out.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . I hadn’t really expected miracles. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. one way or another. slowly. without too much determination. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. that I was a decent man. with the same needs they had.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. I had never had the opportunity to prove.’ ‘Nici o problema. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. feebly. We had nothing in common. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . parasi camera.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ Nu-i nici un deranj.’/ Deloc descurajat. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. no story. nothing./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. 293 .
things you do any moment. he was sitting beside me. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. let alone irritable. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. not as we would like it to be or some other way. Unfortunately. Not for a moment had I thought that. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. Your judgement is false. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. but facts.. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. You really made me mad. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. to say the least. bad. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. I was sleepy and tired. that’s what the world is about. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. We have to judge it as it is. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. on the front seat. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I admit. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. • It was my turn to say something. it’s not words. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. by coming here to the monastery. good. clear or confusing. It’s not made up of theories and the like. Radu had calmed down. your story. or if you understood what I meant. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. I’d be so happy if it were so. the only 294 .
hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. too? A gun is power. or you are lying hidden. keep your conscience clean: you have one. it’s your problem. to fight. it’s yours. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. But what about you and Melania. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. fear might be hiding. it solves troubles. I won’t interfere. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. Anyway. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. soon we’ll be in town. did you ever step up front. and an inability to act. or call the respect of others. precious words.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. behind these big. clears your way. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. either. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. no matter how huge they are. But I was just wondering. as Baciu would have us be. Look. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. and if you like. • So. although it was a difficult thing to do. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. you do as you think fit. me. keep it squeaky clean. just to please myself. me. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. 295 . makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. you can go to Ursu’s. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. we are leaving.
– incorrect. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. The villagers were not very religious.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . will he?. firmly determined not to answer immediately. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. has not arrived yet – double negation. -correct 3. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. as soon as he delivered it. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. .. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. But it was not because I had no answer to give.incorrect. or some other woman. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days ..Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. the sentence is incorrect 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Negative attraction b) 1. . The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. has yet arrived -correct 2.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.Negative incorporation 296 . but they gradually got used to it.correct 3. because before is a positive polarity item 2.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. correlatives are mixed 2.
ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). either (NPI). she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. (ibid. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Ştia că are dreptate. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. His spirit was too tired. prea răscolit. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. (ibid. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Nu putea să se mişte. b) But it was rather (API) late. nu era 297 . too troubled. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. not happy at all (NPI). Avea sufletul prea obosit. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. yet.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. she couldn’t marry him. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă.) Însă era cam târziu. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. much less ((NPI) for her. Her stillness.
ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. if anything (NPI). Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. she looked younger than ever (NPI). şi destul de hotărât. 298 . e) At length. (ibid. The Satanic Verses. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. (Salman Rushdie. inima îi batea năvalnic.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. his heart was beating fast. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. and not a little unsteadily. Ba dimpotrivă. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. he made his way to the screen. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid. se îndreptă spre paravan.
) C. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. (ibid. Ce-i pasă lui C.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. h) C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. and probably an administrative headache as well. i) What did C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Home receded from the prodigal son. but his father would have none of it (NPI). the school wasn’t budging (NPI). însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. care if the school were willing to treat him. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. The point was. the gift was useless. 299 . îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru.
correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question.indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. .
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
do you really think that this vixen. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. and then what do you 308 . but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. she didn’t wear a ring. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. She has an eye for gentle men. “Now. keep Condrat away from her. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Stavre Paici. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. she likes to entrance them. yes. Luca Horobet. now she was chatty. they were. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. the bitch.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. Fenia. Fenia. Chizlinski. all godfearing husbands and fathers. Vica. you are in enough trouble as it is. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. 2. to make them lust after her.
He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. the minister of Tartars and Turks. with a railway station and a mosque. 4. a seventy-eight year old lad.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. have a girlfriend. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. what’s her name. her hair pinned with blue combs. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. He got him out of his mosque. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. ankle-long flowered calico.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. G. It even takes him a while to go to the window. 3. The mullah. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. dragging his feet listlessly.
But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.
– sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – sentence coordination 2. John and Mary are ready. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . Our flag is red.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.. yellow and blue.phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.. our respective examinations. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.) 9. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – sentence coordination 7. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Her pet kitten is black and white.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. John is ready and Mary is ready. and I passed. – similar situation 10.
much satisfaction or little 312 . We can and will demand payment. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. her son and others. 8. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. her idea and John’s. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 6. 2. that method and those. many guest or few. Activity 4 1. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 9. 3. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. but John does not play football. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. your proposal and his. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels.) Joan plays many games. and even tennis. 10. 7. Activity 5 This book and the other. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. but not John.
Ups and downs 6. He snapped at him and slapped him. High and low 2.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. etc. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Bread and butter 16. 5. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Wear and tear 12. Spick and span 9. Thick and thin 11. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. To and fro 15. Touch and go 10. Activity 8 1. Few and far between 14. but not simple. Law and order 8. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Life and soul 5. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Swings and roundabouts 7. 7. 8. Over and above 13. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 3. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. The facts and figures 3. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary.) 6. He read. magazines are only for children. Safe and sound 313 . 4. Pros and cons 4. I have always fought and will fight for progress.
Symmetric 13. – symmetric. 5. Cathy and David have arrived. 10. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – symmetric. exclusive 15. 6.symmetric 11. 7. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 2. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Not John but his two sons are to blame. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. b. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 9. There are some chairs and a table in the room. inclusive 16. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 3. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Symmetric 21. – symmetric. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – symmetric 10. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 3. Asymmetric 20. – symmetric 2. 4. My son and daughter are twins. 8. 2. My son and heir is safe. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 314 . 6. 5. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 9.. Asymmetric 19. exclusive 17. 10. 8. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – asymmetric 18. – similar situation 9. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 1. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 7. – asymmetric: temporal sequence.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed.There is a table and some chairs in the room. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8.
Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. Jim thought it over for a while. There are doctors and doctors. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 15. 12. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. We’ll stick together. By hook or by crook. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 3. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. Should he pour water in the basin. 9. 6.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. it was too small. 14. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 7. 2. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Not only should you rest 315 . 8. ‘Madam. I’ll still finish this paper. nor fowl. 4. 10. 11. thanks for asking. (2) 1. Brother or no brother. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. for better or worse. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. No drinking and driving. clothes and all. 5.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. He’s neither fish. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 2. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. They came to me. He went to bed. Her husband is long dead and buried. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13.
and then. Mrs. their common ground. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. What do you know? The moment Mrs. just like when he was thirty. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. They hadn’t kept him there too long. This. and she listens to him. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. both dead and buried. 2. it would work out fine. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. so he could leap in pursuit. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands.Nadina VIŞAN assured. tense like a bow. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. Whatever she tried her hand at. So she’ll listen to him. at equal intervals. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. she started doing a great job. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. stop dead in his tracks. an important man. what’s its name. so he’d gone down and died in no time. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. From time to time she will launch a helping question. And. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. tense with concentration. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. Her first husband had been a professor. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. but she blinks in approval. as she always does. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. You know. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. he’d leap high. without mentioning financial matters. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. she knows for sure. 316 . he starts lecturing her about life and things. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs.’ (3) 1. but he’d come out a cripple.
at me Activity 2: 1. looked. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as a modifier 3. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . told. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – Susan. whomever wanted to listen. – she. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . she looked at me sadly. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as an object (direct). functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . – she.subordinate.subordinate. is aware. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. you. – she. – obligatory elements: I. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . cannot tell.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . coordinated with first subordinate 317 . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.subordinate.subordinate. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. came.subordinate.
functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that you are choosing exile .Nadina VIŞAN 4. at our age. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate.subordinate.subordinate. that we should. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .complement b) 1. since the main verb is think of something) 5. remove our home yet again .subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .
adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. outbuildings. direct object b) to dry it – complement. a barn.complement. a house. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (time)/ 319 .
this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. When Anton put the sickle down. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. that kept her constantly tense and grim. staring at each other. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. direct object/ to sit there – complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. Activity 5 1. (…) ‘Well. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long.A few days before the war. But other people. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. without straightening her back. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. subject/ to do such again – complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. sickle in hand.
which he doesn’t rely on completely. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. Only he had Ana to think of. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. while they spoke from miles away. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. 2. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. First. but he doesn’t spurn either. Not even at this point. you need courage even for this small thing. as if they were at his beck and call. 321 . that was for sure. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Ana could not stand a trip now. he will turn back and no longer be daring. while on other occasions he would show caution. rather than a real threat. For no bold man really falters. Why! He was not of two minds. or other more hidden means. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. or if he does. but also his sharp nose. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. 3.
and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. without really knowing why. to see some mutual friends. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. In fact. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. And here’s how this first day looked. and twice we were requested to get out. Twice did we get in the car. under the silliest of pretexts. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. 4. he had postponed writing back. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. they would ruin the arrangement.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. and when things didn’t go as planned. and on Monday followed another feast). who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. 322 . they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. by the cars of some of us. in Odobesti. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. So. it was the women. We were going to drive to a vineyard. although he could have said so earlier. come on. are we getting off again? What is wrong. But it was not ok.
restrictive 2. These are people who we cannot tell much about. all of whom would answer to his questions. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . where I spent my youth . 8. 10.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. The students like their teacher. You couldn’t join the party. 5. which was silly of him. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 4. 2. 6. where I least expected 323 . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.restrictive 4. most of whom were from England. He told her the secret. 7. who was just passing by. 5. He is the author who they gave a prize to.She came to London where I went too. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. This is my husband whom I love very much. They met those students none of whom agreed with them.restrictive 6.free 8. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. when we first met . A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.restrictive 7. 8. 6. 10. 11. John told his friend a story about the king. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 3. I bought Jim a book that he liked. which was a pity. 3. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. any of whom would answer to questions. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. like their teacher. The students.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 7. Activity 3 1. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. why they all left . This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 4. on which this occurred . 9. Activity 2 1.
When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. where we talk money – predicative. 6.adjunct 11. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. however sad . I. 4.adjunct 5. Who . Where . Where he was from – adjunct. who cannot say a word. You. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who think so highly of yourselves. What – direct object 2. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . 3. was very displeased with the situation. come up front. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.restrictive 10. where – predicative 7.Nadina VIŞAN . who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. the prince chose Cinderella.subject 8. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.subject 9. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. 7. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. Of all the persons there. Activity 5 1. Where . What Inman remembered – subject. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. when .adjunct 10.adjunct 3. what their parents made them. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative.free Activity 4 1. 2. What I’m saying – subject. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.free 9. When . Which – subject 4. Why . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. which . 5.When Ada remarked – adjunct.adjunct 6. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.
what .adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what little she knew – direct object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . which requires an accusative form. whatever – predicative 13.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. how .Key To Chapter Six Practice object. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.
but whose second cousin. in his turn. due to its invariable character.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a sergeant. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . having changed quite a number of jobs. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. got married and had a daughter. a rather tiny looking man. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. whose great-grandfather. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl.
yes 7. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. he rarely saw now. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. was now complete. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. – no pied piping 5. – obligatory pied piping 2. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.no 5. This story. – yes 2. has been troubling them forever. – no 4. . whose interest he most sincerely shared. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. . . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. In the interest of public decency.yes Activity 9 1. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. with deletion of the noun friends]. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. .Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. were now all gone. .yes 3. Irene. – no 9. – yes 6. he requested that the public be excluded. The problem of safe transportation.obligatory 4. – yes.yes 10. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. . His friends. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. . no easy answers to which could be offered. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.obligatory 3. – no pied piping 327 .His father’s friends.
Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. Only an ugly endless dream remained. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway.and he couldn’t thank me enough. I did so. Nelu. or as of a vast arena. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. for instance. the third born son. 328 . thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. irrespective of age and nature. 2. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. where two teams battled every day… 5. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. 7. Everything was ending. For twenty years. For all the four children. In other people’s opinion. yours. 4. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 6. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 3. I am to be envied. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . 8.
He was suffering from dizziness. 329 . 11.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 14.R. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. leaving streets and houses behind. Let me tell you my last conclusion. on Icoanei street. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. You are newly arrived here. 12. where from Marta was coming too. 10. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. barely glittering in the distance. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 15. which was why he saw Dora very far away. the tram was rattling along. staring aimlessly. from MR street. What you’re saying sounds very nice. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 13. although she was standing quite close to him. Behind them. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. she said. All that you have read is rubbish. 17. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. since I don’t really know which my true life is. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 16.
in her pursuits. From the vantage point I was in. I don’t know what might have happened. or the clash of stars above. She was a woman of means. day by day. had a huge house in Bucharest. I could see my woman falling away from me. If he had hit me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. or the many Egyptian dynasties. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. 21. But. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. So. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. 23. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 330 . which I did not posses. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. had a personal style in clothes. While some trees are still green. after the car was fixed. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. While we were poor.Nadina VIŞAN 18. likes and dislikes. But for me. who only lived once in this world. 20. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. so optimistic and composed? 19. 22. 24. who prompted everyone on the street.
331 . He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 6. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. 3. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. – impossible 7. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. object 5. It was suggested that they should meet the President. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. subject 8. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. subject 4. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – extraposed. – unextraposed. – extraposed. prepositional object 11. direct object 10. subject 9. subject 7. – the same as 3. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. object 6. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It will be soon announced when you can leave.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 8. 2. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. subject 2. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. for pragmatic reasons 5. – questionable. direct object 3. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.
They never expected it that he would come back.grammatical. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – correct 2. – incorrect. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – grammatical. Activity 3: 1. I guess it that he will come back. It is nice to meet you.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. . 18. 9. tense influences the 332 . – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. but pragmatically impossible 3.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.grammatical. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – same as 12. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. although a bit intricate 2. idiomatic formula 16. same as 12..That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. . 15. 14. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. . but pragmatically impossible 4. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – impossible. 10. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. – impossible 11. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 17. same as 12. – grammatical. same as 12. – impossible. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – impossible. – the same as 12. a bit too intricate 5. I don’t expect it that he will come back. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.correct 4.incorrect. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – grammatical.
I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 333 . in the ditch. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. – correct 6. 3. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ Lionel says. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. thus. 2. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.incorrect. though. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 5. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. under bridges. (Not always.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.’ 4. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. in the pits on the road. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. behind gates.
Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. 7. 4. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. since the 334 .? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.Nadina VIŞAN 6. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. Activity 7 1. By saying this. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. It is less ambiguous than the first. who had just returned from Africa. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 2. prime-minister. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. – the first sentence is the better of the two. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. 8. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. – the second sentence is questionable. 3. without trying to protest too much. who had just returned from Africa. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. who had just returned from Africa. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. because it is less ambiguous. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.
but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. so there is no need for extraposition. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 335 . 8. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. The second and third sentences are grammatical. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 7. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. extraposition is obligatory here. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 5. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – both sentences are grammatical. 6. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’.
extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – relative 3. – complement 5.prepositional object.adverbial of sequence/result. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed.) complement that clauses. coordinated. (Iris Murdoch. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. . – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. for better or worse. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.relative Activity 9 1. ibid. – complement 2.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – direct object. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – subject. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. ibid. . they were chained to each other forever.) adverbial of sequence/result.complement 4. . The idea that he had had earned him good money.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. . required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – complement that clause. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. required by deverbal noun 336 . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – relative 5. – prepositional object.
since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that is obligatory. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. that they were not too late to leave. that deletion is obligatory. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . you want me to believe. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – that is obligatory. f) John said that Harry would leave. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.
– both sentences are grammatical. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – grammatical sentences. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . b. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. a. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. c. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood.
While the first is possible because of the generalization. ciocârlii şi şoimi. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. geese both grey and white. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. quail. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. cenuşii şi albe. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. prepeliţe. present perfect instead of past perfect. hawk. lark. present instead of simple past. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. – generalization on habits of birds.
Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. She admired their keenness of wit. lack of pridefulness. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Crows will relish what presents itself. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. love of practical jokes. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. The generic present is used in this case. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. lipsa de vanitate. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. slyness in a fight. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.
– the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. He died erect. He had fought hard through the war. […] During the latter stages of the tale. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. the young officer. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Murise în picioare. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. tânărul ofiţer. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. El căzuse pe spate. he claimed. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. se ridicase în picioare. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. But as the battle raged around them. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. in the very act of expiring. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. tragică şi eroică.
– similar situation to the one under (c). But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Activity 13 1. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. A short while later. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. 2. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. the oldest. 342 . And they might just hang him. I realized I could not tell him the big news. When he saw me. around seventeen or eighteen years old. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. they gathered around my desk. Acum stătea aici.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. în închisoare. war hero though he was. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. susţinea el. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. deşi era erou de război. he closed the album. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Now here he stood jailed. to finish my drawing. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. But when he reached me. Luptase din răsputeri în război. mother went home and I was left alone. One of them. When the boys saw that mother had left. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. They all had their hands in their pockets. How can I explain? I just felt shy.
All his senses were now keen. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. or if she would do so again. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. or fear his rage. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all.’ 5. 6. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. brightly and closely.’ Mr. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. as if he had been drunk. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. 4. for her vineyard.
And if things were so. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. 11. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 7. 8. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. 9. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. 10. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. thinking of him. The last time when we met here you scared me. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. claiming you had no ambition for the future. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy.Nadina VIŞAN to him. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat.
Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. 13. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. where he would run to confess everything. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. without putting anything in a note. towards Jurubita. We either sell them or we don’t. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. namely the impatience of this young man. which secretly drove him. 12. more urgently than ever. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. 14.
INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. grammatical 5. 9.simple infinitive. / they saw her leave.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – perfect infinitive. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical. 346 . / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. grammatical 3. . / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 6. – infinitive continuous. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. grammatical 2. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – simple infinitive. grammatical 10.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – simple infinitive. / He had Mary clean her room. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – simple infinitive. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 7. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. . It is vital for our factory to be reopened.
/ I want to never see you again.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ They did not wish [her to come back.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / It is not too late for him to learn. – Test: They asked her. \ I allowed [them to come. – Test: They convinced her. – Test: They tempted him. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I would love [ them to come. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. you need to try harder. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / He is believed to have known her 347 . – Test: She promised him. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *I would love them. Test: *They would have hated her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. – Test: He persuaded her. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: * I would like people.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *She wanted him. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She promised him PRO to leave.
/ I have never known how to behave in her presence. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / He is easy to live with. . – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / He is easy to talk to. / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want to tell you what I think of you.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / I have a word to tell you.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. . not to miss the train. Activity 6 Oh. / Oh.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. . / To make a long story short. . / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / I want you to leave my house. / He is young enough to start again. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. I don’t need you or your services. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.
for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Harold. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. so that we might get to the future and have done. they had depressed and fuddled him. Subject. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. 1] A little crossly. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. he didn’t envy those above it. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Both seemed to him a little unreal. 1 – PRO. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Accusative + Infinitive. He suspected hostility at once. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Predicative 4 . he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.to. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Subject. 349 . If he himself was out of spirits. who wasn’t used to men with moods.
c) Unlike plane trips. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. slowly.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. object 2 – PRO –to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. 1 – PRO-to. or better said. we seem to forget about our own pain. But when we need to comfort others. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. f) The passing time is important. e) When two persons. true. And you might also be hit and humiliated. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. PRO controlled by ‘she’. PRO controlled by ‘him’. direct object 3 – PRO –to. more believable than evidence itself. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. PRO controlled by ‘me’. One day. 350 . more meaningful. excitedly. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. cautiously. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. PRO controlled by ‘she’. man and woman.
351 . I am indeed praising my own merits. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. or. for instance. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. all down our neck. If it was summer. which he had already forgotten. He had not been able to leave Dr. to live only with your coughing. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. S. h) I want us to go. k) With this considerable dowry. that you are young. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. And I would care for this man so deeply. Stroescu. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. my wish being only to please and serve. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. not even those parts where he had been half-right. or their talk that night. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. That is it. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. in the street. not to want to wipe it off. And to actually start to believe you are so. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Moroi says heavily. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. while swearing to change my way of life. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. Mrs. tickled by the trickles of sweat. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. as he had appeared to him in the rain. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. even when this love is hurried. for there is no shame in it when need drives you.
Well. 352 . here I am with all of my own. haphazardly. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. she was suddenly so shocked. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. every Bucharester knows it. If you will have what I can give you. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). met by squalor and terrible smells. for that’s the door people get off by. ready to submit to any demand. or to speak so fast. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. no matter what. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. poor Muti.
with its lips drawn back. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand../ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. – Attributive past participle./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ He went to have a tooth pulled. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ Don’t keep him waiting.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. 353 . if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / They found it thrown in a corner./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ She sent him shopping. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. badly beaten and bloodied.
Running into the room. 3. 8./ Running into the room. 6. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 7. Having looked through the fashion magazine. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. a rug caught her foot and she fell. The tree had fallen across the road. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. having heard it all before. – Attributive present participle. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I slammed the door of my room. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Finding the treasure.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Attributive present participle. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. I was extremely reluctant to open the door.She didn’t want to hear the story again. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. 2. Activity 4 1. 9. having been uprooted by the gale. I was astonished at what I saw. Having fed the dog. a rug caught her foot and she fell. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. 4. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Turning on the light. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 5. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. – As she was running into the room. he sat down to his own dinner. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. sitting taut between her father and her sister. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Sleeping in the next room. 10.
11. 9. bald-headed. fishy-eyed. Getting out of bed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. the sea was tossing it up and down. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 5. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. I let the dog out of the room. Barking furiously. narrow-minded. broad-shouldered. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. his horse fell at the last jump. Riding in the first race. 2. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. his horse fell at the last jump. 355 . the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. my hands often get very cold. my hands often get very cold. – As the dog was barking furiously. – As he was getting out of bed. Leaving the cinema. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. three-coloured. Climbing down the tree. – As he left the cinema. 3. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair./ Reading in bed. stony-hearted. sharp-eyed/minded. – As he was tied to the post. – As he was riding in the first race. wooden-headed. Dropped by parachute. Passing under a ladder. / Getting out of bed. 10. I let it out of the room. Activity 5 Fair-haired. many-coloured. Reading in bed. one of the eggs broke. cloth-covered.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. one of the eggs broke. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. 8. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 4. 6. – As I was passing under a ladder. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was climbing down the tree. / Climbing down the tree. an idea suddenly occurred to me. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. a scorpion bit him. a pot of paint fell on my head. open-minded. a scorpion bit him. – When I read in bed. 7. empty-headed. 12. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. an idea suddenly occurred to me. I often get very cold hands. he was bit by a scorpion. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he broke one of the eggs. red-handed. Tied to the post. lion-hearted. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship.
open-hearted. were taken to hospital. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. injured when their car crashed on the M1./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. straight-shouldered.Spielberg. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. are in grave danger of extinction. stricken deer. sunken eyes. was today taken back to prison. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. shrunken stream. is expected to be a great hit. (take) 2. ill-gotten wealth. Activity 7 1. (produce) 3. found hiding in a barn.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Activity 8 1. Whales. (injure). / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. admired for their elegance and precision. (find) 6. shaven head. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / Swiss watches. produced by S. shorn lamb.I fell on the ice. are sold throughout the world. 356 . / Many old people. bounden duty. (grow) 4. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. lighted candle. The film. injuring my arm. eagle-eyed. hunting for a bargain. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. dark-skinned. drunken man. (hunt). Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. 7. (admire) 5. The escaped prisoner. roast meat. mown grass. hidden meaning. graven image. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. rotten plank. I stared at the canvas for ages. / Three people.
the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. After a while. and moreover. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. now taken down.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. its scales scraped off by the knife. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. So. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. in charge of his house and lands. the fish. and the puffed pastry beds. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. the carved chicken. 2. boil them. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. streaked with yellow veins of fat. suddenly suffocated. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. And his soul. 4. A parasol. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. 357 . then put up. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. yet left them room to sway free. he were struggling for breath. flat and soft. hovering uncertain and soft. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. 3. He felt close to his father. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. sprinkled with sticky flour. bake them. the twice rinsed vegetables. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. thrown in the pots. he started peering anxiously around as if. seeking some promised land.
/ You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. – Accusative + participle 3. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / I told him not to bother putting things back./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / I am sorry for being so late. – gerund (subject) 4. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys.gerund 5. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. . he left the store without buying a thing./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / After annoying the shop-assistant. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. Activity 10 1. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I had to put off my leaving on holiday./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. – participle (attribute) 2. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places.
8. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – gerund (attribute. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12.participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. . The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. He was spotted talking to her. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10.possessive ING (direct object) 9. preceded by preposition). I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – Nominative + participle 13. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs.
– verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. however appearances were against us. adjective. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.. but they went by too quickly. – gerund (full.. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – verbal noun (has determiner.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – gerund or verbal noun. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. take down her answer. adjective. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – verbal noun (has adjective). my Lord.’ ‘Tell me. Lady Corven. hold up his pen and speak. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.verbal noun (has determiner. I did ask Mr. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.’ 360 . also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. Croom to try to follow one. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.
There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. it’s overrated. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. licked the envelope with passion. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. I must go back now. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. and went out to post it himself. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ 361 . But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. Then. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. I spend all my time hunting a job. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ said Clare. he addressed the note.’ said Clare. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. ‘I do hate asking for things.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I just used the word and they fell.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. suddenly. my Lord.
adverbial of time. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. At first. village which is burning). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. slightly 362 . someone looking for survivors (participle. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute. attribute.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. after verb of perception. The sight of the two children. First the crack snaking (half gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. slowly rising (participle. the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute). following the verb ‘remember’. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. He looked up towards the daylight. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. down. attribute) in a swirling motion. direct object) towards him. It was like a mist. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. (participle. hoping (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. direct object). gerund. The collapsing shops (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. then the noise and the cracking stone. attribute. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. The two sides were moving apart. direct object) from below. the enormous split in the earth. attribute). but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. …while their edges were crashing inwards). elliptical here. Then he saw movement at his feet. down into God knows where.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.e. according to the books he read. prepositional object. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. moving up (participle.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. etc. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. one. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. my dear. early. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. you. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. direct object). Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has ‘of’ phrase).).’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . subject of ‘being’) being (participle. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. adverbial of reason). covering (participle. i.
attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of manner). She finished what jobs there were. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. Having a French governess (participle. Standing up. attribute) to winter brilliance. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. the two Mamonas. and sunlight. And. and everything got suddenly animated. Young Mamona left the room without a word. Vaucher and I. So. which beckoned to 364 . making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. we were all gathered in that room. slanted on to her cheek. and not only in my imagination or theirs. preceded by preposition. brightening (participle.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. attribute) stopped dead. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). mother. and then went riding (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. reluctant or not. for Dornford was busy on an important case. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of reason). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. examining (participle.
but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. and to Young Mamona. Vaucher might have known that too. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. in the year 1812. 4. about sparing no effort. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. 3. killed by Young Mamona. Not so unimaginable though.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. Entering our house on a Thursday. as mother had ordered him. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. too. he looked like someone who did. I knew who it would be. He cast us a swift glance. 2. each carrying a wooden box. closing my eyes. let alone greet us or say something. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. without taking his sack off his shoulders. and smelling so hard of rain. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. her back towards us. So when Old Mamona came in. who knows. bending a little. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. to me. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. he found us sitting each in his place. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. And then. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. he went to mother and. and ended his life in the year 1821. for anyway. And. to Vaucher. sitting in his puddle. about concentrating all our resources. kissed her forehead. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. his disloyal apprentice. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own.
without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. of taking notes and rewriting them. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. barrack. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. And all around them was the great field 366 . futile. And suddenly. each pausing before jumping down. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. everything seemed familiar. 5. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. long board table. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. stove. already seen and heard. as an afterthought. But. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. They got off the truck slowly. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. wood pile.
The next thing was to go to the well. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. 367 . The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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