NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. 6 . materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări. titularizare şi grad.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

Constituent Phrase 1. Auxiliary verbs 1.2.1. Complementary distribution .6.4. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.3.5.Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1. Insertion 1.

For instance. Semantic. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.1. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . loves. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. They are just strings.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. her mother. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Consequently. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. 1. Syntactic. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. very much. sequences of the kind her mother very. that is sequences fragmented at random.2. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.

The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. we are dealing with a directive (i. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.4.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. etc.3.) 10 . should.e. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. an order given to an interlocutor). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). be). semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. (Mi-a spus secretul. 1. must. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. 1.

It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. Consider. for instance. an ‘empty’ there subject. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.5. live. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.) 1.6. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. etc. 1. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.

He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. distribution. using your own examples: insertion. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. he had not yet been able to estimate. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. complementary distribution. syntactic. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. pragmatic. If the given context is the one under (6). whereas (7) is not. Pratice Define and illustrate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. this would really hurt. How much. as the star indicates. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. 12 . semantic. Munt.

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).

Tests for negativity 2.7.1. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Instances of negation 2. Key terms . Full – local negation 2. Negative vs. Conclusion.6. affirmative sentences. Polarity Items 2.8.2. Key terms 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.3.2.5.4.

in the sense that it states something. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .2. in that they do not state anything. it asserts something. For instance. This example can be compared to: (2)a.Positive vs. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Declarative vs.) is said to be an assertion. Negative . a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Consequently.

comparison.interrogative (e. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.assertion .negative (e./ If you like her./ She can’t wait to read that book.positive and declarative secret.g. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive sentence ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. don’t bother her. Did they tell her the secret? ) . listen to this./ Don’t do that.g. 16 .g. / Come with me. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.) . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . / She finally admitted. They told her the ( e.) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.non-assertion .Nadina VIŞAN .other (if –clauses.

In the case of the sentences under (4). (John nu e fericit) (4) a. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.3. I met a girl named Susan. since the negative word not is not present there. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure.) 17 . Susan doesn’t like her friends.) b. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). word negation.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. For example. (Nu demult. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is not happy. John is unhappy. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (John e nefericit.

we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) c.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. where the word 18 . We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. just like in the case of word negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. more precisely the phrase it is part of.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. I was not a little worried. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. these sentences look negative. but their meaning tells us a different story.) b. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. In other words. In other words. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. He was not without intelligence. since the negative word not is present inside them. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.

/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. / Când a aflat vestea.e. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Translate the following sentences into English. without intelligence. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation.

cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. ci doar indecişi. affirmative sentences. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. dar nu în mod special. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. 2. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . dar nu neobişnuit. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. Negative vs. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Nu erau nelămuriţi.4. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept.

(see subsection 1. For instance. etc. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.1.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.) (9) I didn’t go there. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (M-am dus acolo.). in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. such as do insertion. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (Nu m-am dus acolo.

doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / We don’t come here often. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. 22 . / Susan did not get married to Jim. / She does not hate animals.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / I don’t like her very much./ They didn’t leave. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. incorrect. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.

. * and they don’t like her either. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. 3. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. which does not happen in the case of (18). Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. 4. *and neither do they like her. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. and they don’t like her either. *not even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative. not even the smart ones. which is ungrammatical. even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends.

The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / This boy is no good. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / A few of them stayed behind. / They caused us no problems. / No problems were caused after all. they go skiing in the mountains. / You have never met her. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. 2. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Few of them stayed behind. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / Not always a witty interlocutor.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view.5. In conclusion. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.

This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (27) a . (26) I saw nobody. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. I went nowhere. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-a venit John). (N-am văzut pe nimeni).

Nadina VIŞAN b. / I didn’t ever go to his place. no incorporation takes place. 26 . I didn’t go anywhere. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. All that glitters is not gold. I didn’t see any student. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. b. (N-am văzut nici un student.) b.) c.) b. Not all that glitters is gold. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. No day passed without me thinking of him. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I never went to his place.) (29) a. I didn’t see anybody.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.

/ I saw nobody. / Not a word fell from her lips. / None of them liked house music. / I didn’t see anybody.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. and we don’t go to the theatre either./ They didn’t come to meet her. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / He should not be released. / I showed him nothing. not even short ones.) They barely read any novels. scarcely. barely.V. nici măcar din alea scurte. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. seldom. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / Not many women are famous opera composers.) We seldom watch T. . because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. rarely./ They never went there. (Nu citesc romane. / No one ever listens to her. etc. / Not one of them came to meet her. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.4. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.

) b. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. Not for the world would I do such a thing. Never have I met a more horrible person. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) 28 them. / Few people came to see her. .) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) c. / Hardly anybody liked him. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.) d. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I seldom look at her like that. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / I scarcely ever see her.

As you can see from the translation of these examples. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. never trust a man again. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / She could rely on nobody but him.) They don’t think that he likes them. in the sense that the 29 . / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.

etc. barely. / I suppose she doesn’t care. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. seem.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. advise. expect.6. be likely. / They believe she does not like them. In sentence (37). should be desirable. appear. be probable.) 30 .: think. guess. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. etc. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. although not negative in meaning. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. the negative meaning is less strong. etc. probability. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. 2. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. imagine.) b. we can very well say something like: (38) a. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. intend. be supposed to. cannot appear in an affirmative context. want. sound/feel like. intention. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. believe. suppose.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. ought to. choose. For example. suggest. / I expect he won’t come here again. / He reckoned he would not win her over. look like.

The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. b.2. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. *She likes our chairman at all.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical. and sentences such as: (39) a. That is 31 .*She lifted a finger to help me. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.

/ I like you a lot. / I have already seen him. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / They say he once had someone very close. either.) Until vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet.) Yet vs.) At all vs. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I have some money.) Much vs. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / I somehow like him. too (I don’t like it. too. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I can understand both of these 32 . / Come on. / Bob is still living at that address. / I like it . somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.). too. / I still love you) Either vs. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. you can still do something about it. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here.) Hardly ever vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / You needn’t send her anything. / Don’t worry. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I somewhat like his proposal. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. some (I haven’t any money. etc.) Any more vs. still (I don’t love you any more. / Well. / Well.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / He arrived before 5. / I eat caviar most of the times.

/ Peter knows some English and so does John. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). see/ feel/ remember a thing. lay a finger on someone. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. nici unuia dintre noi. Ion nu e prea deştept. have/be worth a red cent. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Ajută-mă. know a single person. hear a peep. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. crack a smile. leave a stone unturned. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. sleep a wink. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. have a care/ friend in the world. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. turn a hair. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. find a trace. move a muscle. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. flinch. / You must be telling lies. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. last a minute. bat an eye(lid). Translate into English. mulţumesc./ I can understand all of these ten English words. de când cu 33 . / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. give a damn/darn. / You must pay that fine. touch a drop./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. hurt a fly. say / breathe/ understand a word. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic.

/ Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / No trouble at all. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No man is wise all the time. / He is no end of a fellow. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. he left the room. / No hands wanted. but you really should do something about it. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. he’s a pig. / Hotărât lucru. / No entry. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Not that I care. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. nu e vina mea. Translate into Romanian. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No admittance. / He won’t make old bones. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. As you have noticed from the exercises above. B: Aşi. n-a sunat încă. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / No sooner said than done. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. budge. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Nothing succeeds like success. / I had no end of trouble. / Never is a long word.

/ I saw no one. say it. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / I hate making any commitments. N-am văzut pe nimeni. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. Normally. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). / He is reluctant to ever say anything. c) He is anxious to say something. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone.7. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). as well: 35 .Unit two Sentence negation rather). 2. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.

(The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.8. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. B: Not this poem. I don’t. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No.) 2. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. 36 . Conclusion. nu îmi place poezia asta. The second negation is somehow independent. from a syntactic point of view. however. nu poezia asta. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. B: Nu. I don’t like this poem. (Nu. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. Key terms. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. nu-mi place.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
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Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 . interrogation).

2 Wh.3. Key Terms.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3.1.Questions 3.2.2 Echo Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3. Optional Exercises .3.2. Direct vs.2. Minor Types of Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.3.2.4. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.

This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. for a subsequent section. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. If we try to analyze the examples above.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.1.Unit three Questions 3.

paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. 48 . However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. (2). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. pe mama. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (3) and (4). the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). Pratice Translate the following questions in English.g.

It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Likewise. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). because. in this case. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. In the case of indirect questions.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. 49 . Since the question is not direct any more.

Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / I don’t know whom she fancies. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / He asked me who she is. ce culoare are pielea. spune la un moment dat femeia. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. c) Ştii ce. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. sau mai bine zis. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / I don’t know who she is. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. identify the incorrect sentences. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / He asked me who she was.

In this case.2. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. as Quirk shows.Unit three Questions 3.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 . the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. being typical of spoken language.

1. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (which / you like best) ? 4. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (how long / wait for me?) 10. 3. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .

except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . they did. (Da). that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (Da). A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. instead of Negative Polarity ones. it has. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. are said to be positively – oriented.

but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’ve been learning German for years. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. 3. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. because you always copy everything I do! 5. as in the example: 1. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 7. 4.. 6. …….? (a mean thing to do) 54 . ……………………………. …………………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. . A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: You look down.... …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. 2. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.. A: Your mother is shouting for you. (speak yet) B: ……. I’ve still got plenty of time. ……………? (hear her) B: ….

………………………………. 9. . 10. . I didn’t get home until late last night.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. You could have mentioned it earlier. A: It’s past your bedtime.2. 8. where.Unit three Questions B: …………………. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . She’s got a reputation for being heartless. what . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. 3. A: There was a terrible car crash.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. how. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. . why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a..2 Wh – questions Wh.. which When.

what ever. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ She dropped her glasses. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. (Poppy Z. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . Nearly two hundred years. / My new car cost 10./ I have French lessons twice a week. I cannot do that. / Shirley got married to Ben. / Kay’s gone out shopping. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / She lives in the suburbs./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city.000dollars. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ Sara owns two cars. why ever. / There are six students in my class. / I went to Hawaii on holiday.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / David’s car was stolen. of course. trying to find places where I resided in life. / That’s my pen.

Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.2.) 57 .Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.

Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. He used to work in a bank. didn’t use he? 4. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. He used to work in a bank. There was a fax for you this morning. Let’s stay for another few days.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. Who did left the gate open? 18. You can’t be serious. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. How long is she be spending in America? 15. How far is it the cinema? 3. Let’s stay for another few days. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 14. shall we stay? 7. didn’t use he? 11. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. wasn’t it there? 17. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12.

Who did told you about the problem? 31. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. That’s your car. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. să-mi înfrâng frica. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. doesn’t he go? 23. dacă prin absurd 59 .Unit three Questions 19. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. uneori disperat. will you not? 21. deci. Pot reveni. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. ca şi cei ce au fost. neliniştea infantilă. plin de germeni virulenţi. How long time does it take to get there? 28. deci. How long have you be lived in London? 26. John goes jogging every morning. wasn’t it he? 22. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. That was Jeremy’s brother. Ani întregi. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Whose it is this book? 32. will you not? 27. Toate vechi. isn’t it this? 25. despre o lume dură. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Don’t forget to take some spare socks.

mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. pe sub bolţile din care. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. “Spune! striga el. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Şi. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. inactivii. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. negru. lung. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. mă întreb. puturos. iar proştii. neîntrerupt. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Riscul? Ratarea. naiv. îi ştiu gustul. B. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. umed. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. picură apa roşietică. străină priceperii lor. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. indiferent de risc. murdar. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. de atunci. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. dar şi drumul. ghiceam doar unde se află. laşii.

3. will you? (38) She went to Prague. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. golul alb. exclus. orbitor. când nu-i pot face nici un bine.3.Unit three Questions viaţă. 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. nu se poate. la urma urmei. care i-a determinat alegerea. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Tag Questions Tag questions. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. domnule profesor. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. didn’t she? . viaţa? Oare e drept. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.1. da? (37) Let’s go there. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.

if the host sentence is negative.) A: Oh. or “comment tags”. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. sarcasm. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. hasn’t she? (Aha. the tag is negative too). hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. aren’t they? 62 .e. it’s all spent. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. (Din păcate. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. au fost cheltuiţi. In this way. the tag is affirmative too. is it? (Deci.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. The suggestion is that in this case. or falling.

/ I don’t think you like my music. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / I am older than you. after all. / You have been invited. / Surely you have enough money. / Few people like her.…/ Let me know. / The boy often watched his sister. / You will pick me up at 7. / He simply hates empty words. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / I must go now. / They said he liked music. / There is enough food for everyone. / Each of us is staying. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Everyone felt happy about it. / You ought not to smoke. / He hates his wife. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Don’t leave without me. / There are a lot of cars on that street. …/ Ann can’t speak French. 63 . / She used to talk a lot. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That’s your car over there. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Let’s eat dinner now. / She left an hour ago. / You will pick me up. / She has a brother.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / A few people like her. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I may see you tomorrow. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / The boy never watched his sister. / Tell me. / I think you like my music. / That was your father. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / He has to marry Susan. / I think you don’t like my music. / I may not see you tomorrow.

did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. So you enjoyed my talk. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. or what? 3. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. 5. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash./ I’m right about this…. / He never used to study so hard….

as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: Chinese? 65 .1.2.3. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.3.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. Recapitulatory echo questions .1. / Grants… 3. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.questions which repeat part or all of the message.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.

) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. rather than the repetition.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. of something just said. disbelief. (Închide lumina aia. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. If the wh.3.2.phrase is fronted. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. consternation.

/ He is interested in blue movies. I’ve lost the letter. dear. / I think I’ve found a solution./ We are looking for a purse. / He is interested in music. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. (i.e. rather than did you say. with recapitulatory echo questions. intonation is rising. am pierdut scrisoarea. (Uită-te la asta. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. which letter do you 67 . intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Vai.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. whereas with explicatory echo questions. / We are looking for a pixie.

Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.Nadina VIŞAN 3. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.4. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.

cumnată Fenia.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. lui Chizlinski. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. Fenio. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. lui Stavre Păici. da. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . în satul nostru. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. stricata. nu purta verighetă. şi apoi Vica ce zice. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. acuma sporovăiala. ca să zic aşa. să se încolăcească mai bine. oameni aşezaţi. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. şi care s-a aciuat. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. lui Luca Horobeţ. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. că tot trebuie să plece pe front.– Crezi tu. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. pe Condrat de Vica. Are gust de oameni blânzi. după pofte. şerpoaica. aşa. în general. cu o casă de copii.

Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Hogea. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. L-a scos din geamie. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. deci. până la călcâie. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. roşu şi galben. De asta erai. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. sau cum o chema. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. sus. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. dar cum se face că a 70 . când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. abia târându-şi picioarele. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea.

Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

3.1.4.5.2.Coordination and Subordination 4.6.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Key Concepts .Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.

Unit four Coordination 4. where there is no indication other than a comma. present) in the sentence. that elements are coordinated.e. reproachfully.1 Syndetic vs. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. 75 . Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.e. cu repros. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. on the other hand. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. i. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.

coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Conversely. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.) Such examples. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. vei muri.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. 76 . We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. From the previously mentioned examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. you will die.Nadina VIŞAN 4.) (4) If you hit my wife.

Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. from a logical & semantic point of view. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. However. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. we need to specify that. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. but presupposed. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. respectively subordinated constituents. the second. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.

a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. the houses were beautiful and ancient. built. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the second. took off his coat and emptied them. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. Then he sat down. John Steinbeck. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. with formal walks under rows of trees. of cut gray stone. but the 78 . took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. In the first. He moved and made a slopping noise. took off his shoes and emptied them. with enormous solidity. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. his shoes squished. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. Though the castle had vanished. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. His clothes hung to him. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. adorned with cornices.

and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. over some of the roughest ground in the country. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. and as the way is with Irish mountains. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. the higher he went the wetter it grew. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Cecil Woocham – Smith. left the house. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town.

(9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.3 Sentence vs. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .K. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. we should be seriously annoyed. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. As one can easily notice.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. however distinguished.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. yesterday and the day before yesterday. as shown in (9). Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. were to take down the name of every man. (G. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.

3. Activity 2 sentences: 1. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Her pet kitten is black and white. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Pratice Distinguish coordination. / Joan plays many games. 8. 4. yellow and blue. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 10. John is ready and Mary is ready. but not John. plays football. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. Our flag is red. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. / Peter. and I passed. John and Mary are the newly married couple. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. 5. 7. / Bob and George are admired by their students. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 6 John sang and Mary danced. / Peter and John played football. and even tennis. 2.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic.Unit four Coordination example (7). 9. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. John and Mary are ready. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. our respective examinations.

(John scrie poezii si Bill proza. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. John writes poetry and Bill prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. 5. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. as can be seen in (10b). b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 3. Activity 4 2. or deleted. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. Jane 82 . Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out.) c. 6. John loves and Bill hates cigars. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.

Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.e. 8. 10. the so-called Principle of Economy. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. can be reduced by substitution. 83 . We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. i. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.) The common element. So. the predication buy a pair of shoes. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. these syntactical processes. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. Besides ellipsis. 7. than a longer repetitive one. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 9.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.

George and Jane are separated. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Translate the following sentences. 4. George and Jane went back to their parents. simple books and magazines for children 3. In certain cases. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. A citit. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. some reason or another. one or (the) other method.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. using reduced structures: 1. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 2. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 3. the old men and women 2. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. 4. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 .

12. of your proposals later on? 3. the amount I’ve already saved up. only for damage.. 7.. A pendulum swings ………. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. Can we discuss the ………….I searched ………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 6. 8. for my wallet. 5. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. like: salt and pepper. they reached home……….You gain some things and you lose others. 11. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 16. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. it’s a case of ………… 7.… 14. 5. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 2. 15. sweet and sour. They get on quite well together. 13.. fish and chips. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . I need another 100$ ……….. 6. . I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. After all their adventures. Marks and Spencers. even though they have their little …………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 8. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.

*Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. of course. In fact. the expressive function of coordination is. For instance. etc. as in: (17) a. more often than not. and 86 . which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.4. 4.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. b. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.) There are. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. Nor sun.

He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. both … and . (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. 20 (b)). etc). o respectau si o indrageau. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. where the subordinator is repeated.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) b. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.g. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) 87 . (I-am dat banii. sometimes but.) c. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. and cherished her. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) In certain cases. too): (20) a. or . (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.

I admire and like her.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (Imi place si o admir. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. I washed and ironed my pants. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. In this case. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . and hit my wife. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (O admir si imi place. From this point of view.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.* I ironed and washed my pants. if we were to rewrite the example . the order of these conjuncts is fixed. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. and you’ll die. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. I like and admire her.) b.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.

(First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Brown experiments with humans. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. he failed).) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (If you do that. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.Unit four Coordination 1.) (While Dr.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. 97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.

This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.g. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . e.which are based on coordination .) 101 . From the functional point of view.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. as the name suggests it.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. 5. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.

(I-a dat cartea. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. In a way.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. they are still presupposed by the speaker. in certain cases. we associate it with these objects.) 102 . by an adjective + preposition. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. We do not presuppose however something like. for instance. For instance. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. for example). an adverbial item.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. sentences) required by the verb (or.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. such as proud of. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.

The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. to her) and one extra-item. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.) b. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. Thus.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. I am afraid that he won’t come. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. which is the adverbial willingly. to add something.e. A second observation. The second example. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. In other words. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. related to example (4). The term comes from the verb to adjoin. i. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. an additional one. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. 103 . under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’.

like. So.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. a închis toate ferestrele. (Înainte să plece din cameră. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. am să mor.) (11) If you don’t marry me. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. I’ll die. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) 104 . So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. etc. make. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. such as want. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.

g. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.g. The book that because they home. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. [.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. e. After I told her the story. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Whoever did that was a genius. Susan disappeared without saying a word. They came to e.g. 2. 6. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.She came to him of her own will. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. she looked at me sadly. this to whomever wants it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. 5. 4. 3.

You suggestion that we should. stating their function: Activity 2 1. WHETHER. was a novelty to Mitzi. 6. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. As you can see.) 106 . 2.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. which. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless.He took an intelligent interest in her.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. but he declined. 3. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. etc. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 5. FOR. not object. 4. at our age. though it was largely politeness.

(Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. Who did it was John.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. Where he went is London. which. who. (15) It is John who did it. etc.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (E de dorit să plece. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) (16) a. (Am vrut să plec imediat. why. 107 . how. where.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) b. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. when.

and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .) (18) She told me this before she left. etc. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. Unlike complement clauses. As you will see. In (18). In conclusion. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. for instance. however. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. done from a structural point of view. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. if.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. before. which sums up this classification. Compare. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.1. consider the following table.

for.g. at your young age. whether he will come when I feel like it. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. as. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. etc. 109 . To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. surely you cannot sincerely believe. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.g. you understand. after. Dear Ludwig. I will go there because I feel like it. I will come back such as because.g. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. Introduced know e. back. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.: e. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.

Late that afternoon. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. she stopped to speak to Monroe. But she thought that no one would call again. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. As she left the house.The day Monroe had died was in May. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. a tightening in her breathing. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. Accidental Man) b)1. he said. Too. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . 2.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.

That he loved e.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I told her everything after she arrived.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. As you have probably noticed already.2. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. interesting.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. However. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. a correspondence can be traced. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.g. că e.g. 111 .g.

) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. whenever you identify a wh.e. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. So. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. complements. Thirdly. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). In the fourth place. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.2. i.complement. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. (Cred că mă place. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. We will come back to that in the next chapter.. Secondly. whereas wh complements are the 112 . you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.1.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.

a barn.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. for no matter how she tried. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. outbuildings. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. a house. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but no idea what to do with them. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Pratice Consider the following text. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. I first thought to tell in 113 . None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. because. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. before. c) I am coming home one way or another. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. their introductory elements (e. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. after.g. She mistrusted her handwriting.

4. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . these clauses can be complements. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. because they modify. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.e. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). it would make you fear to do such again. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. and I have not the will or the energy. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. According to a structural criterion.

Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. (…) “Mă.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. O zbughi înapoi. 115 . după ce că are grâu puţin.g. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. însă.e. Pratice Translate the following. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. ce o fi având. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Nevasta secera în tăcere. answering the question to whom? So. interested in. look at. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. etc. think of. be very careful to use this term correctly. Alţii. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ.

nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Toată lumea înţelesese că. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. de fapt. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. Nici acum. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. întâi. timp de un ceas. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. izolate de sat. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. cât de bolnavă era. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el.

Iată. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. stricau totul. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Pace nu era. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Era bine de ştiut. de pildă. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. deşi cam târziu.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. În realitate. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. acum sunt desluşiţi. la Odobeşti. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. amânase scrisul. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. aşa de oţetit. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. la nişte prieteni comuni.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. întâia noapte de război) 118 . nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. frate.

whose. etc).g.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. etc. subject relative clauses. 119 . of which. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.

2.1.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.7.4. Key Concepts . Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.6. The Co-reference Condition 6.5. Relative Clause Introducers 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.3.

2. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.Unit six Relative clauses 6. 121 .1. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. 6. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). The Co-reference Condition . relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.

By combining these two clauses.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. John loves that woman.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. 122 . The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.

123 . But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The common element woman is present. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. John offered flowers to that woman.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. This way. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate.

too. WHICH 4. I introduced him to Jim. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. He’s the author who received the prize. 10. WHERE 3. I lost the book’s cover. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. 4. The students like their teacher. 8. I had a book. 2. 7. They met those students. None of the students agreed with them. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. The king was just passing by. I went to London. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. I love my husband very much. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. He liked that book. 5. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. by leaving behind a trace. frequently used in written language. The students like their teacher. therefore in spoken English. She came to London. This is my husband. WHO 5. He told Jim everything about his plans. 3. I bought Jim a book. 9. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. John told his friend a story about the king.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 6. Susan wants to meet Jane. Any of the students would answer to questions. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHO 124 .

e. relative clauses are divided into 1. most of them were from England. TO 11. WHICH 8. . WHOM 6. (Cine strică plateşte. i. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. WHOM 10. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOSE 7. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. 2.

(Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. it is covert.e.) So. these relatives cannot function as attributes. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. in a manner of speaking. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. unlike in the case of (14). (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. Unlike their sisters.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. is no longer overtly expressed. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Predicative This was what she intended. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.

non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. care este zeul negoţului. who incidentally is the god of commerce. 127 . is my favourite god.) (Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. they define it). who is the god of commerce. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.) (22) Mercury. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (Mercur. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. They can be thus divided into: 1. este zeul meu favorit.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Du-te unde pofteşti.

can only function as attributes (or modifiers). is a great playwright. 8. 7. on whom nobody could depend. was the one we all welcomed and admired. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. They are what 128 . He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function.This is the village where I spent my youth. 9. 2. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. 10. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. restrictive relative clauses. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 5.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. is a genius. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. As we were saying. who came to see me. who is a genius. this type of relative clauses. I have met him where I least expected. Shakespeare. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. i.e. 6. She. On the day on which this occurred I was away. then it is an attribute. Independent I don’t know what you want.

a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. etc. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. When the antecedent has no determiner. who died a few years ago. care a murit acum câţiva ani. 6.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.) 2. . it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. composed The (Freddie Mercury.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. a. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. however sad this may be. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.

ci o fată a woman. 2. ill-tempered. care nu sunt o femeie. 5.) (28) They come to me. poftiţi în faţă. can see your shortcomings only too well. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. (Ei apeleaza la mine. but a peevish. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. care-ţi sunt fiu. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. iritabilă şi uscată. 130 . Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Dintre toate personajele prezente. 3. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. who am your son. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. (Eu. dried-up old maid. bătrînă morocănoasă.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 6. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. who neither work nor am anxious. Mie.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic).) Pratice Translate the following. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 7. numai eu nu. 4.

heard. (32) service finished late. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. were now in his possession. . ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. erau acum în posesia lui. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. than whom few more can be more crashing.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. părăsi camera.

The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. as can be seen in (36d). literary style: (37) a. too.) b. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) d. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. 6.5. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.1.) c. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The genitive form with which is still in use.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. but it is typical of the formal. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.

An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. (Iris Murdoch. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.

(Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) • states.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.) b. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. but to a type or a function: a. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. … Italy. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. ships (that can be personified) a. animals. (45) (46) . of which.) b. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. He is not the man which he used to be.

) 6.5. Poland is the place where Christine was born.) b) dialectal (49) a. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. whom it concerned most closely. time. where.Unit six Relative clauses b. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. how. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. reason. pe care o privea direct.) b. France. etc. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. why. It is poor what gets the punches. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. etc.2 Relative Adverbs: when. while. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. (Nu ştiam ce vor. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b.) 135 (47) .) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.

Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b.) b. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) e.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.5. He went where he had been before. This is the place wherefrom they came. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) c. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) 136 .) 6. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. The place whither he goes is unknown.They left when they decided it was proper to. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) When they introduce free relative clauses.3. A system where by a new discovery will arise.

never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. Moreover.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.

. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. not any. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. Honest man as he was. any.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. but they are used very infrequently: as.5. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.) b. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every.4. but • in standard language a. much. 138 (64) his shoes. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.

(Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. And always on the buttered side. This is the same one that/as you had before.) • in dialect a. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. ăl de fusese in China…) b. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. him as was in China … (Uncle George. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. There is no one of us but wishes to help you.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. .) c. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. There’s not many as’ll say that. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. Uncle George. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. It’s the dry weather does it.

) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.

b. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 5.5. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. What Inman remembered was this passage. 7. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. The man who John spoke to is a genius. fortifies me. 3. The man John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) c. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. That which shows God out of me. What I’m saying is. 6.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. we all have to come to some terms.) b. It seemed a thing 141 . (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. This is where we talk money. makes me a wart and a wen.” 4. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. The man that John spoke to is a genius.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. Where he was from.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 2.3): (72) a. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.

11. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. Oh. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Ruby said. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 13. 9. 8. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 142 . g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. (…) Partly. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. of living. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. he had left Ruby high and dry. which is a lot. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. who had not witnessed many dawns. 10. The rudeness of eating. 12. though.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Whatever his fate was.

nu prea sarac. (Iris Murdoch. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. un var primar. fiu natural al unui morar. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. cumnatul unui portughez. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. plutonier. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. poate. al carei strabunic. mort de tanar. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . Cumnatul meu avea. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. pirpiriu. pe linie paterna. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa.al lui. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. vasnic. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. divortata. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru.

144 .2. She was a woman. b. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. I lost the cover of the book. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. Everybody listened to that woman. c. By extension. The opposite phenomenon. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. Teatru) 6. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence.6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.

7. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.Unit six Relative clauses b. 4.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. no easy answers to which could be offered. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 6. The difference between (76) and (77). This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 9. 5. 3. 2. In the interest of public decency. 8. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The problem of safe transportation. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. has been troubling them forever.

no matter which. They do not function as attributes. 10. 4. as the case is). including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). whose interest he most sincerely shared. 6. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 2. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 146 . the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.His father’s friends. This story. Activity 9 were now all gone.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. was now complete. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. has been deleted. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Irene. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. 3.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 5. he rarely saw now. His friends. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.

6. himeric. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . De douazeci de ani. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Toate sfârşeau. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 7. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 2. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. 3. sunt vrednic de invidiat. 4. 5. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Nelu. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. închipuirea. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Pentru alţii. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping.

9. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 12. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. a făcut el. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. 8. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. cu surle şi cu tobe. 10. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă.

14. din direcţia căreia apoi.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. pe strada Icoanei. până mai adineauri. trăia larg de tot. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. din care cauză pe Dora. Dacă mă lovea. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. zise ea cu ochii mari. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 16. 15. apărură. 149 . de unde venea şi Marta. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 18. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 17. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. 20. despre care. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. care era foarte “mondenă”. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. fie pe stradă. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. fie la teatru. dinspre Maria Rosetti. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. În spatele lor. roiuri de fetiţe. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. toată lumea întreba cine e. deşi atât de aproape. Avea acum un fel de vertij. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă.

vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. Pare-se că snobii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. după ce maşina a fost reparată. de mine. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. întâia noapte de război) 150 . pe care ea îi admira acum. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. de sus de unde eram. pe care eu nu-l aveam. aveau un stil al lor. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. 23. 24. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. Pentru mine însă. 22. până în şosea. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. când au urcat râpa iar. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.

151 . by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.

4. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.Topicalization 7.1.2.4.6.3. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.5. That Complements as Subjects 7.2.5.1. That Deletion 7.2.1. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.3.2.7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.2.1.1.2. Key Concepts .2.3.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.Clause Shift 7.Extraposition 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.1.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.3.1.

) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. Apart from those introduced by that.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. 153 . In other words. but also of infinitival ones.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). (3) Tell me if you need anything. placed in a marginal position.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.1.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. 7. the clause is extraposed.

(A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.

6.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 2. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 11. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 4. 13. 9. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 10. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 5. 8. 14. It is nice to meet you. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It appears that no one voted for him. 3. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 10. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is no use trying to convince her. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 7. 8. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 9.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 4. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 11. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 15. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. They considered it very silly of her to 155 .The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 7. 2. 6. 3.

Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 18. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. I don’t expect it that he will come back. atât 156 . mă ascundeam în grabă. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 4. 5. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. în canal. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 2. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. They never expected it that he would come back. I guess it that he will come back. 2. 3. 3. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. unde se nimerea. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 6. 5. zice Lionel.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 2. 4. după porţi. în gropi.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. sub poduri. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.

cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. 7. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). fără îndoială. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 5. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. excelentă. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 6. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Mi s-a părut chiar că. vor căuta să o zdruncine. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. 157 . precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti.” 4. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. fără să cârteşti. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. (Nu întotdeauna.

Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. 1.) While in the case of extraposition.2. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. this asymmetry is undone. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.1. Consequently. subject clauses are the frequent situation.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Pratice Read the following. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. in the case of topicalization.

whether it would finally carry her off. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 5. mere chance would decide. He was utterly gone. 4. 3. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. but not now. 8. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. even today. She had always been the slave of chance. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 2. was inconceivable. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 6. 7. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. This was another era. he felt no spring of interest in her. He did not blame Gracie.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument.

Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.3.1. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) 160 . The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.

because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.e. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. 161 . by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. we obtain. the verb to drive).

prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. 2. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 3. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. who had just returned from Africa. 5. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 8.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 7. 162 .? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. who had just returned from Africa. 4.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 6.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.

2.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.Unit seven That complements 7. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.

desire.) 164 .) a.: (25) a.) b. promise. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.1.) b. estimate. consider. They believe that the man is guilty. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. deny. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. deem.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. judge. explain. (I-au promis o casă nouă. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. state.Nadina VIŞAN 7. He announced that they were engaged. suggest.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. He announced their engagement. predict. afirm. etc.2. prefer.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. etc. They believe the man is guilty. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat. communicate.

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. ibid. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. on condition that.) 172 . prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. for example. In older stages of English.) I like him in that he is smart. they lose their meaning. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. hope =>purpose.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.e. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.) language.

) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) (66) 173 a. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. .) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. That can be deleted. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) b. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) b. să o vadă trecând. He gave such an answer as had expected. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) When the structure contains the word such.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He gave an answer such. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.

ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. for better or worse.We discovered that our map has disappeared. they were chained to each other forever. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) b. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (Iris Murdoch. ibid.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.) 174 . 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.

) c.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. He said he had borrowed her money. say. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.3 ‘That Deletion 7. 175 . (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. that he uses a relaxed tone.1. tell). When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. He got word they were coming.Unit seven That complements 7.3. (69) a.) b. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. for instance. He showed he was able to do it. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.

‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. they were chained to each other forever.Nadina VIŞAN 7.3. because that has been deleted.3. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.2. bune. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. rele.3. 7. ibid.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. (Îmi place că e aici. *I like it he was here. (Iris Murdoch. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. for better or worse.) b. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . for better or worse. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. I like it that he was here.) (De asemenea.

he said. you want me to believe.) 177 . 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. simultaneity. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 7. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. (“Este acolo”. 7) They maintain.) b)He told me that she was there. which is ungrammatical in English. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. spuse el. that they were not too late to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.4. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.

“She was here”. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. he said. (A spus că o să o părăsească. He said he would leave her. In the example below.) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. spuse el.) Future Perfect -----. până pleacă ea. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. He told me that she had been there. (“Era acolo”. vine el. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (A spus că. I will leave her. (Pâna să plece. o să vină el.) b.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (Am să o părăsesc.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. The Present complement). 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) b.

be amazed/concerned. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. wish.) b. regret. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. insist. notice. With such factive verbs as realize. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. whisper. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.etc.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. report. hope. believe. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. realize it). dream. show. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) 179 . mention. be aware. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. say. discover. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. forget.) On the other hand. etc. think.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.

Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) b. Consider also: (85) a. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. in tender deference to each other. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. feign habits which are not their own. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. 180 . expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. He knew that she thought all men were fools. we notice that general truths. She realized that all men are fools. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. She still believed that the earth was flat. She believed that the earth is round.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) b. (Iris Murdoch. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.

Unit seven That complements 2. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.) b. such as a. Peter said that John will leave at 5.) b.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. There are however cases. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. 3. 181 .) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.) In (88).

g) John thought that Harry ran. Imagine. for instance.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. The time is 3 o’clock.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. But 182 . John said that Harry will leave. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. f) John said that Harry would leave.

b. a. kingfisher. redtailed hawk. quail. Crows will relish what presents itself. nighthawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. slyness in a fight. as evidenced by its drear plumage. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Cooper’s hawk. whistling swan. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. jaybird. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. geese both grey and white. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. bluebird. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. She admired their keenness of wit. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. love of practical jokes. lack of pridefulness. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. 183 . lark. c.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Translate the following.

It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. he claimed. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. But as the battle raged around them. And they might just hang him. in the very act of expiring. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. the young officer. war hero though he was. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. He had fought hard through the war. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Now here he stood jailed. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 .

object ones up to the attributive function. from the very frequent subject.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. or else. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. 185 . That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. which they share with wh-complements. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). on other occasions it has to stay there.Unit seven That complements 7. On certain occasions that can be deleted. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.

Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Mama. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Fiind 186 . Unul din ei. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. 2. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. 4. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. neconvenabil şi primejdios. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. peste puţin. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. 3. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. cel mai mare. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei.

5. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. cel puţin pentru un timp. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. 8. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. de ce constata în sine. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. 6. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Se mira. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Nu ţi-a trecut. 9. va pleca din oraş la vie. luminos şi apropiat şi când. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. dacă va mai veni. fericit. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 7. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. ea. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. aşa. care îl pândise. venind de la avocat. un vis de acesta 187 . căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent.

nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 .Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. încă o dată. Acesta. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. lucrul era înfăptuit. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. şi mândria că a biruit. Astfel de va fi. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. dar şi teama că. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. 12. fireşte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. liniştit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. 11. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe.

unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Pe toate. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. ci numai aşa.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. spre Jurubiţa. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să le lămurească pe toate. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . mai puternic decât oricând. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. 14. fără o vorbă scrisă. după cum.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.2.3.A Classification of Infinitives 8.8.1.5.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.9.7.8.4.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.6.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Key Concepts .The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.

) • like that complements. I told her to be more careful in the future.) b. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. That you love her is something wonderful. It is important that you should know what you need.1.) b. 193 . infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (3) a. To love her is something really wonderful. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (2) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important for you to know what you need. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. From this perspective. Consider the following: • like that complements. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).

* She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. gerundial clauses. participial clauses. the Participle) (i.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Gerund. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 194 . She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. For instance.) b. the Conditional. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. d. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. moduri nepersonale) By convention. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. 2. as opposed to the finite ones.e. etc. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea.

The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. namely no ending. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) c. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) 195 . If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.

Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. It is vital this factory to be reopened.2. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. 9. 7.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. the criterion of form.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 8. 2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. (7) They saw her leave. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 5.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 4. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 8. 3. 10. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 6. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.

/ I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. 2. hear. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. (10) 197 . / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice.

) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. 3. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. uncharacteristic for literary English. 198 (11) the universe. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. However. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. . the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.

we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. 199 . as I have already mentioned. or the control constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. to use the appropriate technical term. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. In other words. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. Further on. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO.

Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) 200 . gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to forgive divine. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. So far. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) b. PRO to err is human. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. I hoped for him to be there in time. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. şi creştineşte să ierţi.) Object: (18) a. namely the agent of the event.) In this situation. the logical subject. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. It is important for him not to err.) b.

but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. him is related to the main clause verb. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. He stepped aside for her to enter.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. In other words.) b. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. Semantically. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. not to the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). but the patient of the verb persuade. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.

\ She wanted him to leave. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ They convinced her to come back. Likewise. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ He persuaded her to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. \ I would love them to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ 202 .Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ She promised him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ They tempted him to leave. I hate animals to be tortured. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.

(Pare să fie un lingvist bun. 203 . and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.) He seems to be a good linguist.) In examples (25) and (26).Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. \ They did not wish her to come back.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. \ They really asked her to come back. So. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. • Last but not least. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.

/ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. 204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. seem. which are said to be free. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. hate. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. to meet her. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei.). that is not required by certain verbs. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. appear. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. etc. with special semantic and syntactic properties. To sum up the discussion. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6.

3 The Distribution of PRO . deign. hope. hate. care to. aspire to. propose. etc. try. agree to. scorn./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. wish. endeavour. presume. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. Compare: (31) a. .) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. etc. mean.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.) 205 friend. fail. venture. deserve. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.) b) verbs such as abide. intend.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. desire. need. contrive. like. refuse. etc. dislike. expect. / E greu să îl suporţi. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. bear. want.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. condescend. 8. manage. decline. omit. seek (= try). prefer. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. afford. scheme. arrange.

suggest. I would like for him to become president of the country. conclude. bear. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. be important. possible.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. verbs of liking and disliking.) b. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. stand. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b.) 8. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. desirable. etc. forget.) b.) 206 . (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. endeavour. claim. ask. threaten. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.etc. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. For all of them to have been killed is. however. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. unlikely.

(Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 8.) 2.) 207 .5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) b.

Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.) 4. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) b. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Like in the case of that complements. the preposition is deleted.) 5. . Direct Objects (39) a. I decided for John to represent us.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) 208 knowledge. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. but the meaning remains. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.

: (42) a.) e. She is pretty to look at.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) d. 6. etc. He is a bastard to work for. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) c. delicious. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. You’re an idiot to go there.) b. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. This paint is like concrete to work with. The stew is delicious to eat. curious about. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.

(introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. conduci prost. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.) I’ve never met him. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. you’re a bad driver. / Ehei. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / Pe şleau. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. to tell you the truth. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. să nu piardă trenul.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.) Oh. drept să spun.

Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. induce. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. promise. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. inform. inspire. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.) . / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. (49) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.etc. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. According to this. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. etc. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. swear. urge. oblige. b.: (51) a. press. influence.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. encourage. 8. nu mai vreau să te vad. direct.) b. enable. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. need. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.

/ I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. count on. depend on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint./ And now he 212 . (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. etc. order. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. name. command. prevail on.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. permit. elect.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. choose.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. look to.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. allow. etc. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.etc. vote. nominate.

(Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). (Iris Murdoch. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (O să întârzii/ leşin. etc. be going to.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.: (55) She appears to like him. (56) She grew to like him in the end.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.etc. An Accidental Man) 8. come. seem. (Se pare că îi place de el. 213 (58) (59) . it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. be about to. etc. i. (57) He is to come any day now. happen.e. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. grow.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.verbs: appear. this construction is lexically governed.

is well supported by the syntactical analysis. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.: (62) They heard him insult her. be considered. be alleged.etc. be rumoured. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. that of intention. (L-au auzit insultând-o. .8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be claimed. In (57). that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. etc.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. overhear. be thought. watch. etc.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be reported. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. observe.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.) 8.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. perceive. hear. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. feel. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).

(Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. imagine.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. consider. (Cred că este un geniu. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. picture. etc. believe. cause. presume. prove. figure.) • with a full infinitive: get. occasion. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. know. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. However. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. find. recollect.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money.) 215 (67) . (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. deem.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. have. judge. discover.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. remember. understand.

they had depressed and fuddled him. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. Harold. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. expect.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. wish. command. want. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. if he himself was out of spirits.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. he hated anyone to comment 216 .: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. desire. permit. choose. order. mean. love. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. who wasn’t used to men with moods. etc. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. prefer. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. suffer.etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.

And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. A little crossly. though he tended to look down on those below it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. (L. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . to make sure we attended strictly to business. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Both seemed to him a little unreal. he didn’t envy those above it. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. He suspected hostility at once. the herd instinct was very strong in him. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. so that we might get to the future and have done. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well.P. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.

9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. From this perspective. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. The last criterion.Nadina VIŞAN 8. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. 218 . is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.

e important ce întrebări pui. dar să nu-ţi spună. de bună seamă. un bărbat şi o femeie. E posibil. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. să-l capete. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. într-o zi.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. e) Când doi oameni. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. lovit şi umilit. de asemenea. fireşte. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. Şi tu să fii. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. bunăoară. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. mai bine219 . (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure.

220 . care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. încă. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.Şt. . sau. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi.Delavrancea. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. pe care deja o uitase. aşa cum îi apăruse el. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. (B. în ploaie. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.Şt. că eşti tânăr. Să spui de pildă. d-a lungul gâtului. mai pline de înţeles. un picior. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. mai bine de două decenii. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. în parte. De era vară. în jos. avusese dreptate. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. în parte. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. să nu vrea să se şteargă.Nadina VIŞAN zis. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală.

ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. deşi. biata Muti. ei. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă.. un miros îngrozitor. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). şi nu un amant. fie ea şi grăbită. de fapt. orice bucureştean ştie. nici ca să 221 . i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. Într-un cuvânt. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. orice-ar fi. prin faţă e coborârea. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. o mizerie. Mă laud singură.. (Al. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. şi prin faţă. sunt aici cu tot ce am. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea.

niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare. în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede.

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.

2.2.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1.The Gerund 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.3.9.The Verbal Noun 9.1.4.5 Key Concepts .2.1.1.2.1.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.Participial Constructions 9.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.3.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.

Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Let us start with the Participle: 9. (Susan doarme.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.1. Due to this situation. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.) 225 .

This situation is also characteristic for past participles. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. i. blood-shot and painted. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. 226 . This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.e. In (2) the forms come. (A venit Susan) b. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track).) As you can see in this second case. the past participle can appear after a noun. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle.) More infrequently. it functions attributively. Susan has been killed. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. Susan has come. too: (6) Her eye-lids. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. were closing. been and killed are past participle forms. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.

) c. o să ajung la timp. leul poate să atace.) 227 . (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. When singing. începură să cânte.) b. a lion can attack. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. Knowing who the guy was.) c. (Sosind aici.) b.) d. he will eventually marry her. Weather permitting. they started singing. she ran away. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. Arriving here. I will arrive there on time.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. o să ajung la timp.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. If provoked. (Ştiind cine era el. mother permitting. I will arrive there on time. ea o luă la fugă. people should pay attention to high notes. God willing. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Oh.

notice. I found him stealing. smell.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) b. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (Am simţit-o tremurând. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. He was found killed by a bullet.) b. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. behold. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) ii.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. respectively. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au descoperit că fură. (L-am descoperit furând. hear. watch. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.) 228 . He was found stealing.

know. a. recollect. make a.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.) • Causative verbs: get . He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. hear. find. confess. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. etc. I heard it said that men are a bore.) b. etc. start. etc. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. etc. have. feel.: a.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. send. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. set.: When she heard his words. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) b. keep.) • Causative verbs: get. recollect. He’ll soon get things going. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (A fost văzut plângând. have. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.) c. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. I must get my hair cut.) b. she knew herself dismissed.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . leave. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.

lovit şi plin de sânge. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. / Nu după multă vreme. Men like shopping made easy./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.) b./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. command I ordered my bill made out.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. He wanted his car fixed immediately. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) • verbs of permission.

/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / In any case. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.e. / My Lord. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. Unlike the gerund. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / Dinny. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. 231 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. sitting taut between her father and her sister.1. with its lips drawn back.

It had been uprooted by the gale. (Desi nu ştia limba. 6.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. 3.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I turned on the light. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 7. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. am plecat. the rain will stop. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I left. 2. I have looked through the fashion magazine. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I left. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I was astonished at what I saw. se va opri şi ploaia. She had heard it all before. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .She didn’t want to hear the story again.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. (Văzând acestea. 4. People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I knew that the murderer was still at large.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 5. The tree had fallen across the road. using either a present participle. am plecat.

9.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Dropped by parachute. broad. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. bald. Reading in bed. haired (twice). Passing under a ladder. 9. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. a rug caught her foot and she fell. quick. my hands often get very cold. Tied to the post. a scorpion bit him. 8. b) Headed (5 times). coloured. drunken.shoulder. 10. 12. minded (3 times). sharp. stony. Leaving the cinema. shaven. Barking furiously. 8. red (twice). open. 233 . 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. fishy. I slammed the door of my room. stricken. many. lion. one of the eggs broke. covered. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. dark. mown. a pot of paint fell on my head. eyed (3 times).Running into the room. 6. his horse fell at the last jump. narrow. straight. empty. 10. wooden. Getting out of bed. Climbing down the tree. Mother punished me for my mistake. I let the dog out of the room. They began quarreling about how to divide it. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Read the sentences and try to correct them. skinned. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. He sat down to his own dinner. roast. hearted (twice). 2. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. He fed the dog. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. three. 3. handed. 7. cornered. 4. 11. eagle. They found the treasure. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Riding in the first race. lighted. 5. cloth. an idea suddenly occurred to me. open.

graven. 7. is expected to be a great hit. _______ for their elegance and precision. / Many old people . eyes. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. candle./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. were taken to hospital. In the following pairs of sentences. b) grass. are in grave danger of extinction. / Three people. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . Translate into English: 1. (grow) 4. _______ by S. bounden.Spielberg. shorn. meaning.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. (take) 2. The film. the same verb is missing twice. deer.I fell on the ice. Whales. ill-gotten. shrunken. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (admire) 5. are sold throughout the world. (injure). once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. duty. image. lead. head. ________ hiding in a barn._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. hidden. The escaped prisoner. _______ my arm. / Swiss watches. (hunt). I stared at the canvas for ages. rotten. _______ for a bargain. man. (produce) 3. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. meat. stream. (find) 6. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. plank. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. wealth. was today taken back to prison. lamb.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned.

sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. deodată sufocat. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. păsări tăiate. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Şi sufletul său. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. când strânsă. le fierbea. nesigur şi moale. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. După câtva timp. legume date prin mai multe ape. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. 4. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. ca şi cum. 3. când deschisă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. le cocea. O umbreluţă. şi moi. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. care le rânduia. Şi. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. 2. precum şi foile de plăcintă. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. trezit. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. întinse. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa.

2. 236 . According to this criterion.2.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.Nadina VIŞAN 9. crezi.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. Likewise. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. The Gerund 9.1. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. (Dacă vezi.

That he won and you lost was surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. Him winning and you losing was surprising. In that. gerunds differ from participles.) b. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) 9. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Consider the following table. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.2. His winning and your losing were both surprising. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.2. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.

*It was illegal growing a beard.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.) Unlike participles. It was illegal to grow a beard. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. as being verbal 238 .) 2. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul.) b. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. Consider (32). gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.

It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) 9.) b.3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.) b. Just like in the case of noun phrases. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) 3. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.2. Participles vs. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. It’s no good talking to her.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. as offered in the table below: 239 .

(adverbial of time) 4. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may function adverbials: house. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. perfect.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. 2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. passive ones She was crying. forms: continuous . + noun] 1. babies suck their thumb. 3.

/ John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare.

14. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. Gambling is his favourite pastime. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. crying game / crying woman. 7. 5. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 15. 4. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 3. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 12. 13. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 8. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. shooting gallery / shooting star. 2. He was spotted talking to her. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 242 . 10. 9. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. swimming duck / swimming trunks. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 12. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 11. 6. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. eating habits/ eating people. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1.

e.) The absence of a determiner like the.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. a The absence of an of phrase.Unit nine Ing complements 9. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.3. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . but the presence of a direct object (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.

How can we tell? In the first case. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. George’s shooting the attacker.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. In the second situation. Thus. These are features that normally characterize any noun. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .

Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Jim left quietly. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / His coming there puzzled her. very large. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. 245 . / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.

For instance. However. for example.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. the meaning is different. ING Forms and Infinitives. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.Nadina VIŞAN 9. It has been noticed that.4. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. Look. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. whenever we meet an –ing form. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. With the infinitive. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).

posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. On the other hand. (S-a oprit din mâncat. containing an infinitive. the infinitive is future-oriented. future-oriented value of the infinitive). is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.) After looking at this example. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.) . the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. having left) is infrequently used in English.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. anterior to the verb in the main clause. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) The first example.g. and the most well-known one. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.

verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. which means that they are similar in meaning. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) .e. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.e. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) As you can see.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. i. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. recollect. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.

) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. dar asta este.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) . (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. but that’s it. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. In the second example. the action is not completed.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.

they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. In the second example. (Casa trebuie reparată. mean has the sense signify. The house needs to be repaired. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. the event has not happened yet. e) need. want With [+ human] objects. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) wedding.human] objects. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) b.) 250 . The house needs repairing. (Casa trebuie reparată.) With [.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.

gerund or infinitive. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.’ ‘In any case. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ ‘Tell me.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. my Lord. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. (take) down her answer. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. however appearances were against us. but they went by too quickly. Lady Corven. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. I did ask Mr. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. whereas in the second case. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. (hold) up his pen and (speak). it’s overrated. Croom (try) (follow) one. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.

’ said Clare. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. suddenly. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. and went out (post) it himself.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.’ said Clare. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. I must go back now. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. licked the envelope with passion. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.’ 252 . he addressed the note. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. Then. I just used the word and they fell.

Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Last but not least. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Participles mainly function as adverbials. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Pratice In the following texts. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. the 253 . The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which.5. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.

It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. Then he saw movement at his feet. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. according to the books he read. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. It was like a mist. hoping he would see somebody up there. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. The two sides were moving apart. slowly rising in a swirling motion. At first. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. then the noise and the cracking stone. covering the girl’s head. down into God knows where.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. He looked up towards the daylight. moving up towards his chest. their edges crashing inwards. down. it 254 . The sight of the two children. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. someone looking for survivors. but then he saw it billowing up from below. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. the enormous split in the earth. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. She started coughing.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. my dear. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. 255 .’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. for Dornford was busy on an important case.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. She finished what jobs there were. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. brightening to winter brilliance. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. slanted on to her cheek. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and sunlight. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. Having a French governess.

frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. cei doi Mamona. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. În urma slugii. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Vaucher şi cu mine. închizând ochii.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. mama mea. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. totul se animă deodată. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. and then went riding with her in the rain. Ridicându-se. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. 2. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. ucenicul său necredincios. într-o joi. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812.

vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. o sărută pe frunte. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. după cum îi spusese mama. Şi deodată. Neclintiţi. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. 3. auzit şi zadarnic. afară ploua în continuare. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. aplecându-se puţin. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. dar ştiutoare. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. am ştiut şi cine. la mine. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. se duse lânga mama şi. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. pe Vaucher. totul mi se părea cunoscut. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. privit. aşezată cu spatele la noi. pe mama mea părând absentă.

ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. dar. Au coborât din camion încet. camionul a plecat. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu soba. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu stiva de lemne. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. 5. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă.

Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

9. Having regard to the date of drafting. 13. 5. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. he had not yet been able to estimate.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 7. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. and that 263 . he had been advised. 4. because of pity. and this particularly of late. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. this would really hurt. was unclear to Mitzi. 12. 11. to retire early from my employment. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. whereas if she went away she would get none. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 3. How much. without profound questioning. How this time was to come. 6. apart from his distress for parents. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. You have been much in my thoughts. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 2. since I have decided. and meet it right here at home. in some way. 10. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. I am sorry not to have seen you.

14.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. 19. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 17. he did not come to see her. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. one of the eggs broke. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / Before you go on changing the subject. / Whenever I visited my aunt. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. please consider his proposition. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. looking forward had not yet taken place. I was made say Grace before every dinner. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 264 . Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / In the end. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. even for months. for attending his sister’s wedding.

To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. rather than the hefty type. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. They hated trying on. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. to end in some awful tragedy. (and there he was. At country houses she had met them of course. and it was bound. a little girl. she said. Tony was a child. Essentially. cotton mills at Manchester. of the quick and wiry. Instead of which she had married. quite unexpectedly. of all people. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . her old friend Hugh. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. centered in London and themselves. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. 265 . They rushed into shops. Clarissa used to think. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. She felt as when. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. an open-air person. without discovery. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. her recklessness. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. it was said. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. Though much in request before her marriage. Vulgar men did.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1.

The closer she allowed him to come to her. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. (John Galsworthy . Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. era un bun sfatuitor.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. nu a facut-o pentru asta. to keep abreast of the current. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.Rindurile dvs. she professed. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. with all its impatience of restraint. short of the contacts of love. Reading many novels. she was uneasy. nu puteam sa le uit. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. indeed. cre s-au nascut lent. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.Over the River) 2. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. but lying in her bath. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. the more she would be torturing him. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Bolnava nu se simtea. Cind l-a chemat. viguros si vesel in felul lui. ii faceau bine. aveam tot mai 266 . ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. astfel.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. si in plus. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. De uitat.

(St. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. latimea si ascutisul labei. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. poate fi compensata. fa-o. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.) 7. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Milionarule. nu pricep nimic. Banulescu – ibid. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. (St. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani.) 267 . Daca tu. 4.) 5. cit mai au de trait. o data sau de doua ori. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. vaazut cindva. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. se stie. Banulescu – ibid. (St. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. (St. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. ca si tine.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. are nevoie. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Banulescu – ibid. mi-am zis. Banulescu – ibid.) 6. lungimea picioarelor. Ce a iesit. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. pe scaunul lui tare. Personal.

delivered from the holocaust. Translate them. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Cambridge. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Who. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. my grandfather. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. (. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Who came home from the war. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. 2. a wounded soldier. Who was may father.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative..) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Who told me. Arthur Atkinson M. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . for being a renegade.P. to Emmanuel College. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.. A story-book romance. when I was even younger than you. Could he be blamed. Ernest Richard Atkinson.

he had already engaged himself? 3. Rachel Williams. a moody man.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. Fabianism. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). to whom. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. and because – but this is mere speculation. 4. deep-set. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. How 269 . He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. daughter of an ill-paid journalist.

Cum a ajuns el. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. om mare. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum a trăit el. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Ion. satul. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum au tăcut ei. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. cu taina aceasta. 270 . nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Ion. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. la şcoală. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit.

paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Când actriţa. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. când voi fi singur. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. de mama lor.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. greşeli dintr-astea. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. împotriva tuturor. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. 271 . Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. din franţuzeşte. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cu sau fără voie. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”.pune totul in discuţie. L-au derivat cei din teatru. singurul lui stăpân.

Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 6. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. A devenit palid. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. 5. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. pe jumătate prezent. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. fostă prietenă din copilărie. ci un sistem de acomodare. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. de pildă. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Într-o vreme. traversând. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Tot aşa. 3. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. provocându-le. tânăr şi frumos şi el. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. privindu-mă în ochi. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. sau ridicole. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. continuând. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Am început. nevasta-mea. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. 4. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. parcă începusem s-o uit. dam buzna peste automobile. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. 272 .

Aş vrea să mă las jos. Dacă nemţii înaintau. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. 11. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. De altminteri. 8. iar. fireşte. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. fără să mă opresc o clipă. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. şi dacă merg întins. ca un acrobat. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. orice s-ar întâmpla. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. că nu m-am gândit la asta. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. 9. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. Am început. şi să nu ameţesc. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. E o problemă. să merg întins. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung.

Greu era din partea asta. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. dar nu se mai putea. parca ar fi vorbit in vis.Ma. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. 274 . se uita in jos. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Ilie nu-l asculta. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. 16.. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. 13.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. la fata locului. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Adica tot trecutul. Uite. de la obiecte de pret. 15. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. nu trebuie sa va suparati. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. de la lucruri personale. Acum isi ferea privirea. eu am venit sa va intreb. 14. La un moment dat. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. nu mai semana. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 17. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. de uimire. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. In curind. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Auzindu-l. la amintiri. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . trebuia sa le spuna. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. de la proces. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Ii venea greu.. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. nu mai pricepu nimic. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. la carti. cu mirare.

asa cum facuse pina acum. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. dar. which was part of his rich outfit. Nu era nevoie. Aici era ceva. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically.Ce sa fac. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. vorbe asa si-asa. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. 19. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. 20. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. i se paru ca aici e ceva. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. cum zicea Anghel. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». apoi se uitau la Ilie. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». . There was even 275 . Zimbea siret. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. se indeparta nepasator. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta.Unit ten Revision exercises 18.

conversationally. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. at least. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. asked for Mrs. resuming her walk. to admit that she was a proud. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. gave an exclamation. rude woman. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. to move fast. He walked a long time. 4. to take his way home on foot. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety.Nadina VIŞAN relief.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. going astray. He felt then. for the instant. But Daisy. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. 3. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he.Miller at her hotel. a simplification. on this occasion. She was one 276 . paying no attention. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. 5. the young lady.

7. making Paul stop and look at her. of studying European society. 8. as to projected changes.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. He left me musing. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. 6. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. as text book. She appeared. smiling and chattering. Her daughter. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. make a point. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. often. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . on the other hand. uncomfortably. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. Advising with me. as it were. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. She rustled forward. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. in radiant loveliness. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. in their own phrase. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. while residing abroad. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs.Walker. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. indeed. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. and wondering what the deuce he meant. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease.

It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. 9. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. wondered what they were talking about. and acute too. H. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. 10. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. or at any rate not heeding. and perceived that it must be something important. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. with his humorous density. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. though E. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister.’ 278 . could see he was remarkable. was immensely struck with him. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. which was deliberate. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. not seeing. 11. while Paul. and. was only half satisfied with this. H. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent.

The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. as he looked back.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. H. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. had the power to chain his sympathy. But she gave him no chance. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. 15. 13. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 14. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. appeared to fill his whole childhood. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. which was very copious. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. that the haunting wonder which now. not glancing at him for a moment. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure.

H. as a general thing. 16. that she must be on the contrary. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. and there were others. disheveled and distracted. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. proudly. dragging herself on her knees. It was very possible she was capricious. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 17. At the theatre. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. ironically reserved. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. where the Pearl of Paraguay. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. and to H. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. The whole establishment. yet 280 . There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. 18. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked.

3. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. *Old. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. on which the damp breath of the streets. young men were invited. No one ever listens to her. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. H. didn’t mind. with the poor. 281 . would always be more or less irritating. 19. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. and lurking within this nebulous design. Their mistakes and illusions./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. had blown a certain chill. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 2.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 20. It came over H. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem.

I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale.Nadina VIŞAN 4. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. 5. 7. I saw her as a vision. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. her arms held out. her shining blue feet twinkling. Rachel. 12. walking quickly. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. I blundered by. 282 . slipped on some steps. 9. 8. Either John or he * have got to give in. 10./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 11. 6. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. striding like a Spartan maid. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. c) When I saw her sitting there. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I was definitely going to be sick. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. “Oh. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. I walked fast.

Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.

Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 2. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. The old women spoke no English. where my servant. if they were poor. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 3. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . which was really alarming. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. And then I ventured to add that. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. but that we saw and pitied. 4. 5. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. could cook my meals.

Constituents: how much. he. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. etc. How much. was informed. Munt. on a house. was anxious = was + anxious. before they left town. apart form his distress for parents. this. would really hurt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. 285 .Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. at noon. Constituents: He. had not been able to estimate. etc. was anxious. etc. to settle. to pay their annual visit. on Saturday. apart from his distress for parents. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e.g. his. Constituents: Margaret.apart from his distress = apart from. distress. he had not yet been able to estimate.g.

and is non-assertive. – first clause is non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. interrogative.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. negative. negative/ Come with me. – comparison. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.. it is assertive./ She finally admitted. which is not assertive. Second clause is an imperative. don’t bother her.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. interrogative. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that... didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. interrogative. second clause is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. which context is non-assertive. – non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. The sentence is however 286 . listen to this. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. negative/ If you like jazz. / If you like her. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.

Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. he was hardly pleased. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ Susan did not get married to Jim . Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / He wasn’t unusually bright. but nothing out of the ordinary. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. – I like somebody else. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. –double negation cancellation. / She does like John. – they told the truth to somebody else. / They didn’t leave. / You have never met 287 . but not more than she does others. the two brothers dared to protest./ They weren’t really confused. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. only irresolute./ Not long ago. – someone did that./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / She does not hate animals. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. but it isn’t Susan./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. not even this thing./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ When he learned the news./ He was exceptionally cunning. but it wasn’t them./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. – someone hates animals. not even when it’s quiet around./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ Hardly interested in the conference. everybody used to travel by coach.but to someone else./ He was smart enough.

negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. / This is hardly the 288 . – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. were they? / This boy is no good. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. I could hardly wait to hear the news. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.... – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. not even in my dreams. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Should they not have told her the truth...negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.Nadina VIŞAN her. not even when you were very young.. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. they go skiing in the mountains.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.

– Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – I never see her.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – I don’t often look at her like that.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat.Never shall I trust a man again. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / I seldom look at her like that./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – You haven’t eaten a thing./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – I almost never look at those paintings. never trust a man again. / I hardly ever look at those paintings./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Not many people came to see her. Activity 8 I shall never. / Few people came to see her./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes.. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.. but she also lent him a car. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Almost nobody liked him.. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. when we started our holiday. / I didn’t leave the 289 .

– It isn’t likely that he will help her. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). –At no time did we leave the office.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent.. / They say he once had someone very close. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime./ I expect he won’t come here again. – Come on. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – On no account must you touch this machinery. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Only on this man could she rely./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim./ Well. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. you can’t do anything about it any more. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / He reckoned he would not win her over. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / She could rely on nobody but him. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. – They don’t believe she likes them. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ I somewhat like his proposal. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – 290 . – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / Don’t worry. you can still do something about it. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / They believe she does not like them.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / Come on.

/ Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – She almost always comes here. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / You must pay that fine. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Bob is still living at that address. –Alice still lives here. either./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. too. / Well. – Well her husband has always been a good person.. / You needn’t send her anything. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – You can’t be telling lies. – You should send her something. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. 291 . – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / She hardly ever comes here.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / You must be telling lies. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has.

/ He was a tough man. I haven’t done anything./ You look so tired today. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. ever since I got this ulcer. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ Nu spune nu niciodata. He didn’t move a muscle./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ You took his leaving you very hard.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. to any of us./ Nimic de facut./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc.D./ E un baiat de zahar./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / Don’t go on believing him./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. give me a hand. / Please./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Zis si facut./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. not yet./ They say this Ph./ Nobody told us a thing. I haven’t seen her in years. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. It’s no wonder./ He’s a happy man. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. e un magar. / He can’t have done a thing like that. has never studied anywhere./ Have they rung the bell? No./ Norocul la noroc trage./ I don’t know why she’s crying. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. He isn’t that smart. Oh. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. / Jim is so brave./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ I don’t know a thing about her. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ 292 .

for I thought this threatening. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . no story. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. without too much determination. I hadn’t really expected miracles. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.’ ‘Nici o problema./ Nu-i nici un deranj. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. no memory. thrown out. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. I had never had the opportunity to prove. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . parasi camera. feebly. that I was a decent man./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. nothing. with the same needs they had.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. We had nothing in common. slowly. 293 .’/ Deloc descurajat. one way or another. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.

it’s not words. You really made me mad. Radu had calmed down. I’d be so happy if it were so. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. your story. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. that’s what the world is about. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. I admit. We have to judge it as it is. It’s not made up of theories and the like. he was sitting beside me. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. things you do any moment. to say the least. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. Your judgement is false. or if you understood what I meant. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. not as we would like it to be or some other way. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. by coming here to the monastery. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. • It was my turn to say something. let alone irritable. I was sleepy and tired. the only 294 . watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. Not for a moment had I thought that. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people.. on the front seat. Unfortunately. clear or confusing. good. bad. but facts.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement.

as Baciu would have us be. either. did you ever step up front. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. and an inability to act. to fight. it’s yours. clears your way. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. keep it squeaky clean. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. we are leaving. keep your conscience clean: you have one. I won’t interfere. Anyway. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. you do as you think fit. and if you like. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. it’s your problem. 295 . I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. • So. you can go to Ursu’s. too? A gun is power. or call the respect of others. But what about you and Melania. Look. although it was a difficult thing to do. just to please myself. me. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. fear might be hiding. soon we’ll be in town. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. or you are lying hidden. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. no matter how huge they are. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. precious words. me. it solves troubles. behind these big. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. But I was just wondering. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this.

Negative incorporation 296 . Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. -correct 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. firmly determined not to answer immediately. correlatives are mixed 2. But it was not because I had no answer to give. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. or some other woman. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . but they gradually got used to it.. . • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. has not arrived yet – double negation.Negative attraction b) 1.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. because before is a positive polarity item 2. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. the sentence is incorrect 3. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. as soon as he delivered it. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. – incorrect. will he?.. has yet arrived -correct 2.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. The villagers were not very religious.correct 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.incorrect.

Ştia că are dreptate. b) But it was rather (API) late. either (NPI). she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). His spirit was too tired. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. too troubled. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Avea sufletul prea obosit. Her stillness. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca.) Însă era cam târziu. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. (ibid.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. No one should know to what torture she was subjected.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. she couldn’t marry him. nu era 297 . prea răscolit. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. much less ((NPI) for her. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Nu putea să se mişte. (ibid. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. yet. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. not happy at all (NPI). astfel că nici nu se mişcă. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).

there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). (ibid.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. inima îi batea năvalnic. (ibid. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Ba dimpotrivă. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. se îndreptă spre paravan. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. his heart was beating fast. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. The Satanic Verses. if anything (NPI). e) At length. 298 . Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (Salman Rushdie. he made his way to the screen. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. şi destul de hotărât. she looked younger than ever (NPI). and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. and not a little unsteadily. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit.

) C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. (ibid. Ce-i pasă lui C. the gift was useless.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Home receded from the prodigal son. and probably an administrative headache as well. care if the school were willing to treat him. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. The point was. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. h) C. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. i) What did C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. 299 . but his father would have none of it (NPI). Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea.

QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question.indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. . correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. 300 . correct. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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to make them lust after her. do you really think that this vixen. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. She has an eye for gentle men. 2. the bitch. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. she likes to entrance them. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. they were. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. all godfearing husbands and fathers. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Vica. Luca Horobet. Chizlinski. Fenia. Stavre Paici. you are in enough trouble as it is. Fenia. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. yes. and then what do you 308 . now she was chatty. “Now. she didn’t wear a ring. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. keep Condrat away from her.

Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. 3. have a girlfriend. dragging his feet listlessly. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. a seventy-eight year old lad. The mullah. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. He got him out of his mosque. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 .”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. 4. ankle-long flowered calico. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. what’s her name. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. It even takes him a while to go to the window. the minister of Tartars and Turks. G. her hair pinned with blue combs. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. with a railway station and a mosque.

and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic.

– sentence coordination 2.phrasal coordination (in this case. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8.. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.) 9.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Our flag is red. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. our respective examinations. – sentence coordination 7. and I passed. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . Her pet kitten is black and white. John and Mary are ready.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. yellow and blue. John is ready and Mary is ready. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.

– ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 10. 6. but John does not play football. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. plays football. that method and those. but not John. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. your proposal and his. her idea and John’s. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 8. much satisfaction or little 312 . Activity 4 1. 5. 7. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 2. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). Activity 5 This book and the other. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. her son and others. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. many guest or few. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. We can and will demand payment. your work and mine. 9. 3. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. and even tennis.) Joan plays many games.

Few and far between 14. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. magazines are only for children. etc. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. 8. High and low 2. Spick and span 9. 7. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Activity 8 1. The facts and figures 3. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Thick and thin 11. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Swings and roundabouts 7. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. He snapped at him and slapped him. (I have always fought for progress and always will. 5. To and fro 15. Bread and butter 16. Safe and sound 313 . Wear and tear 12.) 6. Touch and go 10. 3. Pros and cons 4. He read. Life and soul 5. I have always fought and will fight for progress. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. but not simple. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Over and above 13. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. 4. Ups and downs 6. Law and order 8. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2.

314 . My son and daughter are twins. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – similar situation 9. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Asymmetric 20. inclusive 16. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. exclusive 17. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 5. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 8. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – symmetric. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 1.symmetric 11.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 3. Symmetric 21. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. Asymmetric 19. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 9. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – symmetric 2. Cathy and David have arrived. Symmetric 13. 6. 2. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. My son and heir is safe. 7. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 9. 2. – symmetric. 10. 4. 10. 5. 7. – symmetric. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire.. Either the child or the parents are to blame. exclusive 15. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. b. 6. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 4. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 3. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year.

it was too small. 6. I’ll still finish this paper. 5. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. They came to me. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. thanks for asking. 3. Brother or no brother. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 4. Her husband is long dead and buried. 14. 12. He went to bed. 2. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. Should he pour water in the basin. 3. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. nor fowl. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 7. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. Not only should you rest 315 . 2. No drinking and driving. 11. Jim thought it over for a while.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. clothes and all. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 15. for better or worse. We’ll stick together. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. There are doctors and doctors. (2) 1. 10. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. By hook or by crook. 9. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 8. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. ‘Madam. He’s neither fish.

she knows for sure. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Mrs.’ (3) 1. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. but he’d come out a cripple. so he’d gone down and died in no time. as she always does.Nadina VIŞAN assured. but she blinks in approval. both dead and buried. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. tense like a bow. so he could leap in pursuit. From time to time she will launch a helping question. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. and she listens to him. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. stop dead in his tracks. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. just like when he was thirty. Her first husband had been a professor. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. This. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Whatever she tried her hand at. They hadn’t kept him there too long. You know. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. what’s its name. at equal intervals. And. So she’ll listen to him. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. What do you know? The moment Mrs. tense with concentration. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. he starts lecturing her about life and things. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. their common ground. and then. without mentioning financial matters. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. she started doing a great job. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. it would work out fine. he’d leap high. 2. an important man. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. 316 .

– she. she looked at me sadly. functioning as a modifier 3.subordinate.subordinate. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. looked.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . told. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. whomever wanted to listen. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. – Susan. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . about her problems at home After I told her the story. you. – obligatory elements: she. – she.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . at me Activity 2: 1. is aware. – she. came. – obligatory elements: I. cannot tell.

Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. remove our home yet again . that we should.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. that you are choosing exile . since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate.complement b) 1. at our age.

adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (time)/ 319 .complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. outbuildings. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. a barn. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. a house. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . direct object/ and seen – wh complement.

that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement.A few days before the war. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. sickle in hand. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.wh complement. (…) He dashed back. When Anton put the sickle down. Activity 5 1. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. But other people. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. without straightening her back. staring at each other. subject/ to do such again – complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. direct object. (…) ‘Well. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her.

Key To Chapter Five Practice already. while on other occasions he would show caution. you need courage even for this small thing. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. rather than a real threat. First. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. which he doesn’t rely on completely. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Ana could not stand a trip now. or other more hidden means. Why! He was not of two minds. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. but also his sharp nose. 321 . or if he does. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. For no bold man really falters. that was for sure. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. but he doesn’t spurn either. Only he had Ana to think of. while they spoke from miles away. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. 3. he will turn back and no longer be daring. 2. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. as if they were at his beck and call. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. Not even at this point.

it was the women. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. under the silliest of pretexts. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. But it was not ok. And here’s how this first day looked. and on Monday followed another feast). Twice did we get in the car. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and when things didn’t go as planned. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. So. although he could have said so earlier. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. come on. are we getting off again? What is wrong. 322 . In fact. 4. he had postponed writing back. to see some mutual friends. in Odobesti. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. by the cars of some of us. and twice we were requested to get out. We were going to drive to a vineyard.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. without really knowing why. they would ruin the arrangement. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment.

which was a pity. when we first met . who was just passing by. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 4. any of whom would answer to questions. most of whom were from England. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 4. 9. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. This is my husband whom I love very much. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. like their teacher. 7. on which this occurred . The students. The students like their teacher. where I least expected 323 . 2.free 8. why they all left . what you want – free/ where you can park your car . You couldn’t join the party. 8.restrictive 4. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 10. 11. These are people who we cannot tell much about.She came to London where I went too. which was silly of him. 10. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. all of whom would answer to his questions. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 6. 3. Activity 3 1. 6. where I spent my youth .restrictive 6.restrictive 2. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 5. He told her the secret.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 8. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 5. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. Activity 2 1.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.restrictive 7. John told his friend a story about the king. 7.

Who . What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. Of all the persons there.free 9. 7. which . 4. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. what their parents made them.Nadina VIŞAN . about why man was born to die – prepositional object.subject 8. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. He who doesn’t work will never succeed.free Activity 4 1. Activity 5 1. What I’m saying – subject. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. Why .adjunct 5. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. What – direct object 2. where we talk money – predicative. Where . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. What Inman remembered – subject. when .adjunct 11. I. 5. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . come up front. who think so highly of yourselves. Where . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.adjunct 10. Where he was from – adjunct. Which – subject 4.restrictive 10. the prince chose Cinderella. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. 3. however sad . 2.adjunct 6. who cannot say a word. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.subject 9. 6. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. You. where – predicative 7. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. was very displeased with the situation.adjunct 3. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. When .When Ada remarked – adjunct.

that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].Key To Chapter Six Practice object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. which is ungrammatical due to the[. whatever – predicative 13. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. which requires an accusative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.attribute 12. what little she knew – direct object.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. what . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. how .

whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who. having changed quite a number of jobs. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . in his turn. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. but whose second cousin. due to its invariable character. whose great-grandfather. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. a rather tiny looking man. got married and had a daughter. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a sergeant.

he requested that the public be excluded. . . . – yes 2.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. with deletion of the noun friends]. . – no pied piping 327 . – yes. His friends. – obligatory pied piping 2. has been troubling them forever. . She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. whose interest he most sincerely shared. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.yes 10.yes 3. – yes 6. – no 9. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. was now complete. Irene. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.yes Activity 9 1.obligatory 3.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. were now all gone.yes 7. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. The problem of safe transportation.obligatory 4. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.no 5. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. This story. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. no easy answers to which could be offered. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – no pied piping 5. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. he rarely saw now. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. In the interest of public decency. – no 4.His father’s friends. . .

thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 328 . He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 2. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. for instance. I did so. Nelu. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. For all the four children. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 7. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. yours. For twenty years. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . I am to be envied. 8. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. where two teams battled every day… 5. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. In other people’s opinion. Only an ugly endless dream remained. irrespective of age and nature. the third born son. 6. Everything was ending. or as of a vast arena. 3.and he couldn’t thank me enough. 4.

17. What you’re saying sounds very nice. which was why he saw Dora very far away. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 16. the tram was rattling along. 13. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. she said. He was suffering from dizziness. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 329 . although she was standing quite close to him. staring aimlessly. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. All that you have read is rubbish. from MR street. 12. since I don’t really know which my true life is. leaving streets and houses behind. You are newly arrived here. on Icoanei street. where from Marta was coming too. 15. 10. barely glittering in the distance. 14. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. Let me tell you my last conclusion. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. If any of your qualities were to persuade them.R. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. 11. Behind them.

20. While some trees are still green. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. day by day. But. So. or the clash of stars above. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. From the vantage point I was in. But for me. had a huge house in Bucharest. who prompted everyone on the street. after the car was fixed. in her pursuits. had a personal style in clothes. 21. 330 . I don’t know what might have happened. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 23. She was a woman of means. which I did not posses. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. If he had hit me. 24. I could see my woman falling away from me. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. who only lived once in this world. 22. or the many Egyptian dynasties. likes and dislikes. While we were poor. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. so optimistic and composed? 19.

– the same as 3. – extraposed. subject 7. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. direct object 10.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. subject 8. – extraposed. – impossible 7. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. object 5. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . 8.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 3. subject 4. direct object 3. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 331 . It will be soon announced when you can leave. subject 9. subject 2. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. prepositional object 11. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. object 6. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. 2. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – questionable. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 6. – unextraposed. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It was suggested that they should meet the President. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed.

tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. It is no use trying to convince her.grammatical. 14. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It is nice to meet you. 17.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Activity 3: 1. same as 12. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. but pragmatically impossible 3. – the same as 12. – incorrect. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – correct 2.incorrect. I guess it that he will come back. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.grammatical. – grammatical. same as 12. . tense influences the 332 . 15.. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – grammatical.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. although a bit intricate 2. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.correct 4. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. 9. – impossible 11. – impossible.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 18. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – same as 12. – impossible. – grammatical. idiomatic formula 16. but pragmatically impossible 4.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. . . same as 12. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 10. – impossible. I don’t expect it that he will come back. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. They never expected it that he would come back. a bit too intricate 5. – impossible. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.

She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. though. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.incorrect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. in the ditch. 5. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. thus. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. 333 .’ Lionel says.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. in the pits on the road. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ 4. (Not always. under bridges. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. – correct 6. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. behind gates. 3. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 2. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.

Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. 2. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser.Nadina VIŞAN 6. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 7. – the second sentence is questionable. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. – the first sentence is the better of the two. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Activity 7 1. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. 8. By saying this.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. It is less ambiguous than the first. since the 334 . I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 3. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. prime-minister. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. because it is less ambiguous. 4. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. without trying to protest too much.

He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 335 . 5. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 7. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. so there is no need for extraposition. – both sentences are grammatical./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. The second and third sentences are grammatical. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 8. extraposition is obligatory here. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. 6. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete.

. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.relative Activity 9 1. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed.prepositional object. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. for better or worse. – complement 2. ibid. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.complement 4.We discovered that our map has disappeared. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. (Iris Murdoch. required by deverbal noun 336 . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. – subject.) adverbial of sequence/result. – complement that clause. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. (Iris Murdoch. . .) complement that clauses. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – complement 5. – relative 3. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – relative 5. . – prepositional object. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. coordinated. ibid. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – adverbial of sequence/result. they were chained to each other forever.

the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. you want me to believe. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. that they were not too late to leave. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. that deletion is obligatory.

I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – grammatical sentences. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. c. – both sentences are grammatical. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. b. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.

cenuşii şi albe. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. present perfect instead of past perfect. prepeliţe. ciocârlii şi şoimi. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. – generalization on habits of birds. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. While the first is possible because of the generalization. present instead of simple past. geese both grey and white. quail. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. hawk. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. lark. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky.

Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. slyness in a fight. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Crows will relish what presents itself. love of practical jokes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. She admired their keenness of wit. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. lack of pridefulness. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. lipsa de vanitate. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). The generic present is used in this case. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 .

Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . in the very act of expiring. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. But as the battle raged around them. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He died erect. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. the young officer. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. he claimed. Murise în picioare. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. […] During the latter stages of the tale. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. tânărul ofiţer. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. He had fought hard through the war. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. încercând să-i uşureze chinul.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. tragică şi eroică. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. se ridicase în picioare. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. El căzuse pe spate.

How can I explain? I just felt shy. Activity 13 1. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. I realized I could not tell him the big news. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. A short while later. around seventeen or eighteen years old. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. the oldest. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. And they might just hang him. to finish my drawing. he closed the album. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Acum stătea aici. Now here he stood jailed. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. His sparse hair was full of dandruff.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). They all had their hands in their pockets. One of them. deşi era erou de război. susţinea el. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. 342 . nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. – similar situation to the one under (c). mother went home and I was left alone. When the boys saw that mother had left. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. war hero though he was. When he saw me. în închisoare. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. they gathered around my desk. 2. Luptase din răsputeri în război. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But when he reached me.

‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. for her vineyard. or fear his rage.’ Mr. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. 6. as if he had been drunk. 4. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him.’ 5. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. brightly and closely. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. or if she would do so again. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. All his senses were now keen. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .

claiming you had no ambition for the future. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. And if things were so. 9. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. 10. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 11. The last time when we met here you scared me. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. 8. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal.Nadina VIŞAN to him. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. thinking of him. 7. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy.

Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. We either sell them or we don’t. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. where he would run to confess everything. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. 14. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. more urgently than ever. namely the impatience of this young man. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. without putting anything in a note. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 13. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. which secretly drove him. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. 12. towards Jurubita. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while.

Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. 9. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. – simple infinitive. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. – perfect infinitive. grammatical 5. . 346 . grammatical 6. grammatical 10. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / they saw her leave. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 7. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.simple infinitive. / He had Mary clean her room. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. . / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – simple infinitive.. – infinitive continuous. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 3.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 2. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – simple infinitive.

– Test: He persuaded her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *They did not wish her. / I want to never see you again. Test: *They would have hated her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: *I would love them. – Test: They asked her. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood.] – Accusative + Infinitive. you need to try harder. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ I allowed [them to come.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. – Test: They convinced her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: She promised him. Test: * I would like people.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them. – Test: They tempted him. / It is not too late for him to learn. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / He is believed to have known her 347 . \ They did not wish [her to come back. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ I would love [ them to come. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ She wanted [him to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.

– obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He is easy to talk to.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / To make a long story short. / He is young enough to start again. Activity 6 Oh. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.Nadina VIŞAN for years. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / I have a word to tell you. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. not to miss the train. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / Oh. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. I don’t need you or your services. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / He is easy to live with. . . / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. . / He is hard to stand.

1] A little crossly. they had depressed and fuddled him. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. 349 . Both seemed to him a little unreal. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Predicative 4 . [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Subject. the herd instinct was very strong in him. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. he didn’t envy those above it. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. 1 – PRO.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2].Accusative + Infinitive. so that we might get to the future and have done. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. He suspected hostility at once.to. Subject. Harold. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. If he himself was out of spirits. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to.

but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. c) Unlike plane trips. true. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. object 2 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. or better said. 1 – PRO-to. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. cautiously. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. excitedly. more believable than evidence itself. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘me’. e) When two persons. PRO controlled by ‘she’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. But when we need to comfort others. f) The passing time is important. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. One day. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. more meaningful. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. PRO controlled by ‘him’. direct object 3 – PRO –to. slowly. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. And you might also be hit and humiliated. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. we seem to forget about our own pain. 350 . man and woman.

I am indeed praising my own merits. for instance. that you are young. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. He had not been able to leave Dr. That is it. or their talk that night. while swearing to change my way of life. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. tickled by the trickles of sweat. If it was summer. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. as he had appeared to him in the rain. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. in the street. k) With this considerable dowry. Stroescu. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. or. And to actually start to believe you are so. 351 . in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. all down our neck. not even those parts where he had been half-right. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. even when this love is hurried. to live only with your coughing. h) I want us to go. my wish being only to please and serve. Mrs. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. not to want to wipe it off. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. Moroi says heavily. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. And I would care for this man so deeply. S. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. which he had already forgotten.

every Bucharester knows it. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. ready to submit to any demand. for that’s the door people get off by. met by squalor and terrible smells. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. If you will have what I can give you. haphazardly. 352 . as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. here I am with all of my own. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. no matter what. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). she was suddenly so shocked.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. or to speak so fast. poor Muti. Well. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before.

/ The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / They found it thrown in a corner.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. 353 ./ Don’t keep him waiting. with its lips drawn back./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. badly beaten and bloodied.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ She sent him shopping.. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. – Attributive past participle. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.

– Nominative + present participle / Dinny. 3. 6. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 2. having heard it all before. Attributive present participle. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Finding the treasure. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Sleeping in the next room. having been uprooted by the gale. Turning on the light. – As she was running into the room. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. he sat down to his own dinner. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 9. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having looked through the fashion magazine.She didn’t want to hear the story again. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 5. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Having fed the dog. Activity 4 1. I was astonished at what I saw. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Having been punished by mother for my mistake.Running into the room. I slammed the door of my room. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. they began quarreling about how to divide it. The tree had fallen across the road. 8. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 10. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 7. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 4. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. – Attributive present participle./ Running into the room.

– As I was passing under a ladder. Climbing down the tree. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Dropped by parachute. a scorpion bit him. – When I read in bed. cloth-covered. sharp-eyed/minded. empty-headed. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Barking furiously. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 8. his horse fell at the last jump. – As the dog was barking furiously. 6. 3. his horse fell at the last jump. 4./ Reading in bed. – As he was tied to the post. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. three-coloured. 10. 12. – As he was climbing down the tree. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the sea was tossing it up and down. / Climbing down the tree. fishy-eyed. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. / Getting out of bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. one of the eggs broke. Getting out of bed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. wooden-headed. many-coloured. – As he was riding in the first race. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 2. Tied to the post. 9. broad-shouldered. a scorpion bit him. red-handed. 355 . Reading in bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. he broke one of the eggs. 5. Leaving the cinema. I often get very cold hands. 7. a pot of paint fell on my head. Riding in the first race. stony-hearted. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. I let the dog out of the room. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was getting out of bed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. my hands often get very cold. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. Passing under a ladder. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. an idea suddenly occurred to me. lion-hearted. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. narrow-minded. – As he left the cinema. 11. he was bit by a scorpion. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. I let it out of the room. one of the eggs broke. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. bald-headed. my hands often get very cold. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. open-minded.

finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. shaven head.Spielberg. injuring my arm. 7. sunken eyes. lighted candle. Whales. are in grave danger of extinction. 356 . produced by S. Activity 7 1. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. The film. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. shrunken stream. bounden duty. eagle-eyed. mown grass./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. straight-shouldered. were taken to hospital. was today taken back to prison. admired for their elegance and precision. / Swiss watches. are sold throughout the world. I stared at the canvas for ages. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (injure). found hiding in a barn. ill-gotten wealth. shorn lamb. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. open-hearted. injured when their car crashed on the M1. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (grow) 4. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. / Many old people. graven image. dark-skinned.I fell on the ice.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. (produce) 3. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. hunting for a bargain. (find) 6. (take) 2. roast meat. hidden meaning. Activity 8 1. / Three people. drunken man. rotten plank. is expected to be a great hit. (admire) 5. stricken deer. (hunt). The escaped prisoner. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets.

in charge of his house and lands. 4. and moreover. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. So. hovering uncertain and soft. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the fish. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. then put up. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the twice rinsed vegetables. bake them. boil them. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. 2. 3. its scales scraped off by the knife. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. the carved chicken. sprinkled with sticky flour. and the puffed pastry beds. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. now taken down. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. yet left them room to sway free. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. After a while. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. streaked with yellow veins of fat. suddenly suffocated. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. He felt close to his father. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. seeking some promised land. he were struggling for breath. And his soul. flat and soft. 357 . thrown in the pots. he started peering anxiously around as if. A parasol.

/ She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / I told him not to bother putting things back. – Accusative + participle 3./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. – gerund (subject) 4. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / I am sorry for being so late. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. Activity 10 1. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / After annoying the shop-assistant. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. he left the store without buying a thing. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. . Gambling is his favourite pastime.gerund 5. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . – participle (attribute) 2. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. It was worth trying to continue the efforts.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash.

possessive ING (predicative) 7. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. – gerund (half or full. He was spotted talking to her. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (attribute. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. 8. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. preceded by preposition). – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – gerund (prepositional object) 10.possessive ING (direct object) 9.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. . He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.

– gerund or verbal noun. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. adjective. take down her answer. however appearances were against us. hold up his pen and speak. but they went by too quickly. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.verbal noun (has determiner.’ ‘Tell me.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.’ 360 . And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. my Lord. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. adjective. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. Croom to try to follow one... so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. I did ask Mr.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. – verbal noun (has determiner. – gerund (full. – verbal noun (has adjective). Lady Corven.

’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.’ said Clare. suddenly. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. Then. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. it’s overrated. licked the envelope with passion.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. my Lord. I just used the word and they fell. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ said Clare. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. and went out to post it himself. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. I spend all my time hunting a job.’ 361 . ‘I do hate asking for things. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. I must go back now. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.

(participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. elliptical here. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. direct object) from below. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. someone looking for survivors (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. attribute. gerund. down. following the verb ‘remember’. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. The two sides were moving apart. slowly rising (participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. the very earth opening up (half gerund. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. It was like a mist. hoping (participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. down into God knows where. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. the enormous split in the earth. direct object) towards him. Has a complex subject) in the hole. attribute). direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. The sight of the two children. First the crack snaking (half gerund. slightly 362 . attribute. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. direct object). adverbial of time. attribute). The collapsing shops (participle. At first. attribute. village which is burning). …while their edges were crashing inwards). after verb of perception. attribute. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle.

). adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. adverbial of reason). you. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. has ‘of’ phrase). has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. my dear.e. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. early. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. covering (participle. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. i.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. etc. moving up (participle. according to the books he read. prepositional object. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. direct object). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. one. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count.

attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. we were all gathered in that room. reluctant or not. attribute) stopped dead. attribute) a sudden whoop. mother. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. And. for Dornford was busy on an important case. Standing up. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. examining (participle. and sunlight. Vaucher and I. adverbial of manner). preceded by preposition. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. preceded by preposition. brightening (participle. and then went riding (participle. slanted on to her cheek. adverbial of reason). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. She finished what jobs there were. Having a French governess (participle. So. a door was opened and as a servant entered. and everything got suddenly animated. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. and not only in my imagination or theirs. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. attribute) to winter brilliance. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. the two Mamonas. Young Mamona left the room without a word. which beckoned to 364 . they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle.

it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . 3. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. without taking his sack off his shoulders. about concentrating all our resources. too. as mother had ordered him. each carrying a wooden box. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. and smelling so hard of rain. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. killed by Young Mamona. 2. closing my eyes. I knew who it would be. And. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. for anyway. about sparing no effort. in the year 1812. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. he went to mother and. So when Old Mamona came in. her back towards us. he looked like someone who did. He cast us a swift glance. Vaucher might have known that too. let alone greet us or say something. his disloyal apprentice. who knows. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. to Vaucher. he found us sitting each in his place. 4. to me. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. And then. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. and ended his life in the year 1821. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. Entering our house on a Thursday. sitting in his puddle. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. kissed her forehead. bending a little. Not so unimaginable though. and to Young Mamona.

stove. They got off the truck slowly. But. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. And suddenly. of taking notes and rewriting them. each pausing before jumping down. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. long board table. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. already seen and heard. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. wood pile. as an afterthought. everything seemed familiar. barrack. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. futile. And all around them was the great field 366 . 5. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it.

The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The next thing was to go to the well. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 .

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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