This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. 6 .de rezolvări.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
2. Constituent Phrase 1. Complementary distribution . Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.3.5. The Distribution of an Element 18.104.22.168.Contents: 8 1. Auxiliary verbs 1. Insertion 1.
Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. very much. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sequences of the kind her mother very. They are just strings. Consequently. Semantic.2.1. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. her mother. that is sequences fragmented at random. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Syntactic. For instance. 1. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). loves.
(2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. must.) 10 . 1. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. be). an order given to an interlocutor). 1.3.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. should.e.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. etc. we are dealing with a directive (i.4. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. (Mi-a spus secretul.
These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. live. etc.5.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. an ‘empty’ there subject. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . 1. for instance. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. Consider. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.6. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.) 1.
using your own examples: insertion. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. as the star indicates. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. semantic. this would really hurt. If the given context is the one under (6).Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. whereas (7) is not. Munt. Pratice Define and illustrate. syntactic. How much. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. pragmatic. complementary distribution. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. he had not yet been able to estimate. 12 . auxiliary Activity 1 verb. distribution.
to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 .
affirmative sentences.22.214.171.124. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.5.3. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Key terms 2. Polarity Items 2.7. Negative vs. Instances of negation 2. Key terms . Full – local negation 2. Conclusion.8. Tests for negativity 2.2.
it asserts something. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Consequently. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. in that they do not state anything. in the sense that it states something. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.) is said to be an assertion.Positive vs. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. For instance. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Negative . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.) b. This example can be compared to: (2)a.2.Declarative vs.
/ If you like her.interrogative (e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. 16 . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.) .negative (e./ We didn’t come here just to talk.Nadina VIŞAN . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . They told her the ( e.) .g. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive sentence . comparison.non-assertion . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.g.other (if –clauses. / Come with me.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.positive and declarative secret. / She finally admitted.assertion .g. Did they tell her the secret? ) ./ Don’t do that. don’t bother her./ She can’t wait to read that book. listen to this.
) b. John is unhappy. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). In the case of the sentences under (4). (John e nefericit. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. word negation. I met a girl named Susan.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (Nu demult. Susan dislikes her friends.) b. since the negative word not is not present there. For example.3. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. Susan doesn’t like her friends.) 17 . John is not happy. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.
This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. just like in the case of word negation.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. where the word 18 . In other words.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. these sentences look negative. I was not a little worried. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. since the negative word not is present inside them. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.) b. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. but their meaning tells us a different story. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. He was not without intelligence.) c. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. In other words. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.
Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. without intelligence. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . semantic negation. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Translate the following sentences into English. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / Când a aflat vestea. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special.
Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. 2. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Era el destul de isteţ. ci doar indecişi. dar nu neobişnuit.4. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. affirmative sentences. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . dar nu în mod special. Negative vs.
Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) (9) I didn’t go there. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (see subsection 1. such as do insertion. For instance. etc. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).1. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (M-am dus acolo. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Nu m-am dus acolo.
since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / She does not hate animals. / Susan did not get married to Jim./ They didn’t leave. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / We don’t come here often. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. 22 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. incorrect. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei.
and neither do they like her. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan likes / dislikes her friends.Unit two Sentence negation 2. *not even the smart ones. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). Example (14) is syntactically negative. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which is ungrammatical. 3. 4. . *and neither do they like her.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. even the smart ones. * and they don’t like her either.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. not even the smart ones. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. and they don’t like her either.
Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag.5. / You have never met her. / No problems were caused after all. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / This boy is no good. / They caused us no problems. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. 2. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Few of them stayed behind. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / A few of them stayed behind. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. In conclusion. they go skiing in the mountains. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently.
A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-a venit John). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. I went nowhere. Susan could not go to the theatre. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (27) a . (26) I saw nobody. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni).
b. (N-am văzut nici un student. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. I never went to his place. no incorporation takes place.) b. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. I didn’t go anywhere. All that glitters is not gold. No day passed without me thinking of him. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. I didn’t see anybody.) b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. Not all that glitters is gold. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) (29) a. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t see any student. 26 . The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) c.Nadina VIŞAN b.
4. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / I showed him nothing.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / I didn’t see anybody. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. seldom. (Nu citesc romane. / I saw nobody.) They barely read any novels./ They didn’t come to meet her. rarely./ They never went there.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / None of them liked house music.V. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. nici măcar din alea scurte. . / Not a word fell from her lips.) We seldom watch T.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. scarcely. / No one ever listens to her. / Not one of them came to meet her. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. barely. not even short ones. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / He should not be released. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. etc.
/ I could hardly wait to hear the news. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) d.) b.) c. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Never have I met a more horrible person. / I scarcely ever see her. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor.) 28 them. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / Few people came to see her.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / I seldom look at her like that. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / Hardly anybody liked him. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. which triggers inversion): (35) a. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. .
/ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. never trust a man again.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never.) They don’t think that he likes them. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / She could rely on nobody but him. in the sense that the 29 . / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.
) b. choose. although not negative in meaning. suggest.6. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. appear. ought to. seem. believe. barely. / I expect he won’t come here again. look like. be likely. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. expect. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion.: think. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. want. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. / He reckoned he would not win her over. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. sound/feel like. be probable. etc. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. guess. advise. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. 2. etc. the negative meaning is less strong. / They believe she does not like them. imagine. intention. suppose. For example. In sentence (37). should be desirable. cannot appear in an affirmative context. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. be supposed to. we can very well say something like: (38) a.) 30 . etc.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. probability. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. intend. / I suppose she doesn’t care.
that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. b.*She lifted a finger to help me. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items.2. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. That is 31 . Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. are clearly not grammatical. *She likes our chairman at all. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. and sentences such as: (39) a. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.
). / Come on. / They say he once had someone very close. / I have already seen him. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.) Much vs. too. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. already (I haven’t seen him yet. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. a lot (I don’t like you much. you can still do something about it.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. too. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / She hardly ever comes here. / You needn’t send her anything.) Any more vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) Hardly ever vs. too (I don’t like it. / I can understand both of these 32 . somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / He arrived before 5. / Well. / I like you a lot. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.) At all vs. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. either.) Yet vs. / I eat caviar most of the times. / Well. some (I haven’t any money. / I still love you) Either vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) Until vs. etc. / Bob is still living at that address. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I have some money. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I somewhat like his proposal. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. still (I don’t love you any more. / Don’t worry. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I somehow like him. / I like it .
hear a peep. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. last a minute. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. move a muscle. / Ajută-mă./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. crack a smile. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. lay a finger on someone. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană).Unit two Sentence negation sentences. give a damn/darn. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. have a care/ friend in the world. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. touch a drop. nici unuia dintre noi. find a trace. say / breathe/ understand a word. leave a stone unturned. / You must be telling lies. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic./ I can understand all of these ten English words. flinch. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. turn a hair. have/be worth a red cent. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. Translate into English. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. see/ feel/ remember a thing. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. hurt a fly. know a single person. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. bat an eye(lid). mulţumesc. sleep a wink. de când cu 33 . lift/raise/ stir a finger. / You must pay that fine. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / Peter knows some English and so does John.
/ Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / No admittance. / No entry. / No hands wanted. / Nothing succeeds like success. n-a sunat încă. / Hotărât lucru. / No sooner said than done. B: Aşi. / He is no end of a fellow. încercând să prindă criminalul. As you have noticed from the exercises above. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. budge. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Not that I care. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / No man is wise all the time. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / No trouble at all. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Never is a long word. / I had no end of trouble. Translate into Romanian. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. he’s a pig. nu e vina mea. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . he left the room. but you really should do something about it. / He won’t make old bones. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu.
e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.Unit two Sentence negation rather)./ I saw no one. c) He is anxious to say something. say it.7. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. N-am văzut pe nimeni. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). b) I love asking some funny remarks. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. 2. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). as well: 35 . which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Normally.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. / I hate making any commitments.
nu poezia asta. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.) 2.8. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. 36 . mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. from a syntactic point of view.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. B: Not this poem. B: Nu. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. nu-mi place. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. however. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. nu îmi place poezia asta. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. Key terms. Conclusion. I don’t like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. The second negation is somehow independent. (Nu. I don’t.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .e. interrogation).
Key Terms.2.2. Optional Exercises .4.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.2 Wh.Questions 126.96.36.199 Alternative Questions 3.1.3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Direct vs.3.3.
This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. If we try to analyze the examples above.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. for a subsequent section.1. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.Unit three Questions 3. focusing on direct questions mainly. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .
Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. (2). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.g. pe mama. 48 . the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. (3) and (4). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions.
it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. because. Since the question is not direct any more. In the case of indirect questions. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. 49 . indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Likewise. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. in this case. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question.
Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. identify the incorrect sentences. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she was. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. sau mai bine zis. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. spune la un moment dat femeia. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. ce culoare are pielea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / I don’t know who she is. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / He asked me who she is. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată.
2.Unit three Questions 3. Let us provide 51 . those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. being typical of spoken language. In this case. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. as Quirk shows. the type of answer the respective question requires.
( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (which / you like best) ? 4. (how long / wait for me?) 10.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.2.1. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (who / talk to last night)? 5. 3.
they did. (Da). it has. instead of Negative Polarity ones. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (Da). are said to be positively – oriented. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 .
It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 4. ……. 2. A: You’ve been learning German for years. 6. 3. I’ve still got plenty of time.. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: She had her tenants evicted.. as in the example: 1.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . but I want to play basketball a little longer. .Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. because you always copy everything I do! 5. (speak yet) B: …….. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. …………………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. A: You look down. ……………………………. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.. ……………? (hear her) B: …. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 7. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ……….
which When. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a... On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. A: It’s past your bedtime. 9. I didn’t get home until late last night. . . A: There was a terrible car crash. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. what .2 Wh – questions Wh. You could have mentioned it earlier. .Unit three Questions B: …………………. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….. where. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . 8. ………………………………. how.2. 3. 10.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .
/ She lives in the suburbs. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / My new car cost 10. / There are six students in my class./ She dropped her glasses. / Kay’s gone out shopping. of course. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ We’ve lived here for ten years. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. trying to find places where I resided in life. Nearly two hundred years. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / David’s car was stolen. (Poppy Z.000dollars./ Sara owns two cars. / Shirley got married to Ben.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ I have French lessons twice a week. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. why ever. I cannot do that. / That’s my pen. what ever.
2.3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 . Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.
How far is it the cinema? 10. He used to work in a bank. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Who did left the gate open? 18. can you be? 58 . How far is it the cinema? 3. How long is she be spending in America? 8.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. shall we stay? 7. There was a fax for you this morning. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. didn’t use he? 11. Let’s stay for another few days. wasn’t it there? 17. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. didn’t use he? 4. shall we stay? 14. You can’t be serious.
n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. doesn’t he go? 23. Toate vechi. să-mi înfrâng frica. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. uneori disperat. deci. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. dacă prin absurd 59 . am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. That was Jeremy’s brother. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. ca şi cei ce au fost. deci. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30.Unit three Questions 19. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Ani întregi. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. isn’t it this? 25. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. wasn’t it he? 22. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Whose it is this book? 32. How long have you be lived in London? 26. will you not? 27. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. How long time does it take to get there? 28. That’s your car. despre o lume dură. John goes jogging every morning. Who did told you about the problem? 31. will you not? 21. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. neliniştea infantilă. plin de germeni virulenţi. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Pot reveni. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie.
inactivii. Şi. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. îi ştiu gustul. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. murdar. dar şi drumul. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. negru. laşii. străină priceperii lor. mă întreb. iar proştii. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. de atunci. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. picură apa roşietică. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. umed. ghiceam doar unde se află. naiv. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. neîntrerupt. indiferent de risc. “Spune! striga el. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. B. Riscul? Ratarea. puturos. lung. pe care oricum am simţit-o. pe sub bolţile din care.
3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. domnule profesor. da? (37) Let’s go there. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.3. will you? (38) She went to Prague. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. orbitor.Unit three Questions viaţă. golul alb. exclus. viaţa? Oare e drept. nu se poate.1. 3. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. la urma urmei. Tag Questions Tag questions. care i-a determinat alegerea. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. didn’t she? .
e. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. or falling. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. hasn’t she? (Aha.) A: Oh. In this way. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. it’s all spent. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. the tag is negative too). sarcasm. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. au fost cheltuiţi. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. aren’t they? 62 . the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. if the host sentence is negative. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. or “comment tags”. (Din păcate. The suggestion is that in this case. is it? (Deci. au fost cheltuiţi. the tag is affirmative too.
/ He simply hates empty words. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / He hates his wife. / I think you don’t like my music.…/ Let me know. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / I must go now. / You will pick me up at 7. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I am older than you. / Everyone felt happy about it. / Each of us is staying. / A few people like her. / The boy often watched his sister. / Tell me. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / She has a brother. / Few people like her. / Activity 12 He will be on time.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / You will pick me up. / I am dressed smartly enough. / I may see you tomorrow. / There is enough food for everyone. / That was your father. / She left an hour ago. / You have been invited. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / That’s your car over there. / They said he liked music. / He has to marry Susan. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I think you like my music. / You ought not to smoke. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / She used to talk a lot. / Surely you have enough money. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I don’t think you like my music. / Don’t leave without me. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. 63 . / The boy never watched his sister. / I may not see you tomorrow. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. after all. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer.
there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. using a question tag at the end. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. / He never used to study so hard…. or what? 3. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences.. He used to play squash. So you enjoyed my talk./ I’m right about this…. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. 5. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash.
1. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.3. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / Grants… 3. Recapitulatory echo questions .3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.1.questions which repeat part or all of the message.2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2.) B: Chinese? 65 . (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.
misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. (Închide lumina aia. consternation.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.phrase is fronted. If the wh. rather than the repetition.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.3.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . disbelief.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. of something just said.2.
dear.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. which letter do you 67 . I’ve lost the letter. (Vai. (Uită-te la asta. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. / He is interested in music. intonation is rising. / I think I’ve found a solution. with recapitulatory echo questions. am pierdut scrisoarea./ He is interested in blue movies.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (i. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. whereas with explicatory echo questions. rather than did you say.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / We are looking for a pixie./ We are looking for a purse.e.
4. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. she knows about it. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3.
să se încolăcească mai bine. stricata. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2.– Crezi tu. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. în general. aşa. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. acuma sporovăiala. şi care s-a aciuat. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . că iepuşoara asta de Vica. nu purta verighetă. cumnată Fenia. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şerpoaica. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. şi apoi Vica ce zice. Fenio. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. cu o casă de copii. oameni aşezaţi. lui Chizlinski. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. lui Stavre Păici. lui Luca Horobeţ.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. în satul nostru. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. după pofte. da. pe Condrat de Vica. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. ca să zic aşa. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră.
deci. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. sus. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. De asta erai. până la călcâie. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. roşu şi galben. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. L-a scos din geamie. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. dar cum se face că a 70 . Hogea. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. abia târându-şi picioarele. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. sau cum o chema.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha.
Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.
to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.
5.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.6.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.3.Contents: 74 4.1.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.2.Key Concepts .Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.4.Coordination and Subordination 4.
The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.1 Syndetic vs. Example (2). Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. cu repros. where there is no indication other than a comma. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.e. i. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.e.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. present) in the sentence. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. reproachfully. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. that elements are coordinated.Unit four Coordination 4. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. 75 . on the other hand. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.
namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. Conversely. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. you will die. From the previously mentioned examples. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. 76 . (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank.) (4) If you hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN 4. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.) Such examples. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. vei muri. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.
(John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. However. but presupposed.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. the second.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. respectively subordinated constituents. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. we need to specify that. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. from a logical & semantic point of view.
stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. He moved and made a slopping noise. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. with formal walks under rows of trees. but the 78 . He wrung the bottom of his trousers. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. took off his shoes and emptied them. His clothes hung to him. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. In the second. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. his shoes squished. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. John Steinbeck. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. In the first. Then he sat down. took off his coat and emptied them. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. adorned with cornices. Though the castle had vanished. the houses were beautiful and ancient. of cut gray stone. with enormous solidity. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. built. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description.
waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and as the way is with Irish mountains. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. over some of the roughest ground in the country.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. the higher he went the wetter it grew. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. left the house. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim.
Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. who was caught at a University Extension lecture.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. As one can easily notice. were to take down the name of every man. yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.K. (G. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. as shown in (9). this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives.3 Sentence vs. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. we should be seriously annoyed. however distinguished. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 3. Her pet kitten is black and white. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . plays football. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. our respective examinations. but not John. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. John is ready and Mary is ready. Our flag is red. Pratice Distinguish coordination. yellow and blue. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 6 John sang and Mary danced. / Joan plays many games. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. and I passed. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 9. 5.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 7. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. and even tennis. Activity 2 sentences: 1. / Peter. John and Mary are ready.Unit four Coordination example (7). 8. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. / Peter and John played football. 4. 2.
6. as can be seen in (10b). A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. 3. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. or deleted.Nadina VIŞAN b. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) b. Activity 4 2. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane 82 . * John loves cigars and Bill hates.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. John loves and Bill hates cigars. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. John writes poetry and Bill prose. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. 5.) c. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.
) The common element. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 7. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.e. 83 . (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. these syntactical processes. can be reduced by substitution. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 9. So. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 10. i. Besides ellipsis. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. the so-called Principle of Economy. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. than a longer repetitive one. 8.
4. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 4. Translate the following sentences. 2. George and Jane are separated. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. one or (the) other method. simple books and magazines for children 3. the old men and women 2. using reduced structures: 1. In certain cases. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. A citit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. some reason or another. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. George and Jane went back to their parents. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. 3.
sweet and sour. 2. I need another 100$ ………. even though they have their little …………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………..… 14.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. of your proposals later on? 3. A pendulum swings ………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 6. 13. 8. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. like: salt and pepper. After all their adventures. it’s a case of ………… 7. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 6. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 5. They get on quite well together. only for damage. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. 8. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 12. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 .You gain some things and you lose others.. 7.I searched ………... You can’t claim on insurance for ………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. . 15.. the amount I’ve already saved up. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. for my wallet. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Can we discuss the …………. Marks and Spencers. 16. 5. fish and chips. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 11. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. they reached home……….
) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. and 86 .) There are. etc. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. of course. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. In fact. as in: (17) a. more often than not. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. Nor sun. b. the expressive function of coordination is.4.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. 4. For instance. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.
I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. too): (20) a.g. both … and . 20 (b)). (I-am dat banii. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. where the subordinator is repeated. and cherished her.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. o respectau si o indrageau. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) b. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.) In certain cases. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) 87 . or .) c. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. etc). (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. sometimes but.
I admire and like her. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.) b. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. and hit my wife. I washed and ironed my pants.* I ironed and washed my pants. From this point of view. (O admir si imi place. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (Imi place si o admir. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. if we were to rewrite the example . I like and admire her. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and you’ll die.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. In this case.
Dr. he failed). you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.Unit four Coordination 1. Brown experiments with humans. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (If you do that. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) (While Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.
turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. as the name suggests it.) 101 . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.g. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. From the functional point of view. e. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.which are based on coordination .the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. 5.
(Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) 102 . they are still presupposed by the speaker. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. an adverbial item.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. for instance. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. We do not presuppose however something like. by an adjective + preposition. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. for example). (I-a dat cartea.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. For instance. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. in certain cases. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. we associate it with these objects. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) Whenever we think of this particular verb. In a way. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. such as proud of.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. sentences) required by the verb (or.
but its effect remains even after its wipeout. 103 . We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. A second observation.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information.) b. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. which is the adverbial willingly. i. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. related to example (4). Thus. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. The second example.e. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. to her) and one extra-item. an additional one. to add something. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. In other words.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. I am afraid that he won’t come. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition.
So. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. (Înainte să plece din cameră.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. etc. like.) (11) If you don’t marry me. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. I’ll die. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. a închis toate ferestrele. such as want. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) 104 . (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. am să mor. make. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.
[. The book that because they home. 2.g. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 3. this to whomever wants it.g. 5. e. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 6. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.She came to him of her own will. Whoever did that was a genius. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Susan disappeared without saying a word. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. she looked at me sadly.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. They came to e.g. After I told her the story. 4.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .
FOR.He took an intelligent interest in her. but he declined. 4. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 2. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. 5. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. though it was largely politeness. not object. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. was a novelty to Mitzi.) 106 . at our age. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 3. 6. WHETHER.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. As you can see. etc. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. which. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. You suggestion that we should.
) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. Who did it was John. where.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) b. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. (15) It is John who did it.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. who. (E de dorit să plece.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. how. 107 . etc.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. Where he went is London. when.) (16) a.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. which.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. why. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.
In conclusion. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In (18). consider the following table. for instance.) (18) She told me this before she left. Compare. before. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. As you will see.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. if. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause.1. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. Unlike complement clauses. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. etc. which sums up this classification. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. however. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. done from a structural point of view.
(…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. after.: e. Introduced know e. you understand. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. whether he will come when I feel like it. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will go there because I feel like it.g. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. at your young age. surely you cannot sincerely believe. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. etc. I will come back such as because. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. back.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. 109 . Dear Ludwig. for.g. as. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.
she stopped to speak to Monroe. Accidental Man) b)1. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. 2. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. a tightening in her breathing. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. Too. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. As she left the house. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. he said. Late that afternoon. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.The day Monroe had died was in May. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. But she thought that no one would call again.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door.
obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g.2.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. a correspondence can be traced. That he loved e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. However. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I told her everything after she arrived. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. că e. 111 . Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. As you have probably noticed already.g. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. interesting.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g.
. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. complements.2.1. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. whenever you identify a wh. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.complement. In the fourth place.e. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. We will come back to that in the next chapter.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. So.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). i. Secondly. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. (Cred că mă place. Thirdly.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. whereas wh complements are the 112 .
for no matter how she tried. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. I first thought to tell in 113 . their introductory elements (e. before. but no idea what to do with them. c) I am coming home one way or another. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Pratice Consider the following text. and I do not know how things might stand between us. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. outbuildings. She mistrusted her handwriting. a house. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. after. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. a barn.g. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. because. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres.
• English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function.e. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. and I have not the will or the energy. it would make you fear to do such again. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. because they modify. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.4. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). these clauses can be complements. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. According to a structural criterion. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.
care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. (…) “Mă. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. ce o fi având.e. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. interested in. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. O zbughi înapoi. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. însă. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. etc.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. be very careful to use this term correctly. 115 . Nevasta secera în tăcere. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. îşi spuseseră că Anton. answering the question to whom? So. Alţii. după ce că are grâu puţin. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Pratice Translate the following. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. think of. look at.
fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. izolate de sat. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. Toată lumea înţelesese că. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. cât de bolnavă era. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. timp de un ceas. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Nici acum. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 .Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. de fapt. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. întâi. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime.
pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . În realitate. acum sunt desluşiţi. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. de pildă. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Pace nu era. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. la nişte prieteni comuni. aşa de oţetit.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. deşi cam târziu. la Odobeşti. stricau totul. Iată. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. amânase scrisul. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Era bine de ştiut. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. din cauza lui G… Anişoara.
Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. întâia noapte de război) 118 .
. of which. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc). 119 . subject relative clauses.g. whose. etc. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.
5.1. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.2. The Co-reference Condition 6.3. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.7.6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.4. Key Concepts .6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.
(2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.2. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. 121 .) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The Co-reference Condition .a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).1.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.Unit six Relative clauses 6. 6.
122 . we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. By combining these two clauses.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. John loves that woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.
This way. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The common element woman is present. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. John offered flowers to that woman. 123 . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti .
2. I love my husband very much. John told his friend a story about the king. Any of the students would answer to questions. They met those students. frequently used in written language. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. therefore in spoken English. I had a book. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. None of the students agreed with them. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. He’s the author who received the prize. The king was just passing by. 5. I went to London. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. This is my husband. The students like their teacher. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO 5. 10. I introduced him to Jim. WHICH 4. He told Jim everything about his plans. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. He liked that book. WHERE 3. The students like their teacher. 9. WHO 124 . All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. I lost the book’s cover. I bought Jim a book. 8. by leaving behind a trace. 7. Susan wants to meet Jane.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 3. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. She came to London. too. 4. 6.
These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. relative clauses are divided into 1. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. (Cine strică plateşte. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.e. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. . independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. i. TO 11. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOM 10. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. WHICH 8. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 2.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHOSE 7.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. most of them were from England. WHOM 6.
Unlike their sisters. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. is no longer overtly expressed. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.e. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Cel care strică plăteşte. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. in a manner of speaking. it is covert. unlike in the case of (14). we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) So.
is my favourite god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Mercur. 127 .Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Du-te unde pofteşti. They only provide supplementary information about it. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who incidentally is the god of commerce. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (22) Mercury. care este zeul negoţului. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. este zeul meu favorit. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. they define it). non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. who is the god of commerce.
She. is a great playwright.e. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. this type of relative clauses. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. 2.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 9. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 6. 8. Independent I don’t know what you want. who came to see me. i. They are what 128 . I have met him where I least expected. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. on whom nobody could depend. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. is a genius. 7. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car.This is the village where I spent my youth. restrictive relative clauses. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 10. who is a genius. Shakespeare. 5. then it is an attribute. As we were saying. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. On the day on which this occurred I was away.
the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. etc. .) 2. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. care a murit acum câţiva ani. 6. who died a few years ago. a. composed The (Freddie Mercury. When the antecedent has no determiner. etc.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. however sad this may be.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.
căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. dried-up old maid. 2. 130 . paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. (Eu. iritabilă şi uscată.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 5. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat.) Pratice Translate the following. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. Dintre toate personajele prezente. who am your son. 7. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. 3. ill-tempered. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. care nu sunt o femeie. 4. bătrînă morocănoasă. care-ţi sunt fiu.) (28) They come to me. but a peevish. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. numai eu nu. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. (Ei apeleaza la mine. can see your shortcomings only too well. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. who neither work nor am anxious. ci o fată a woman. Mie.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. poftiţi în faţă. 6.
Unit six Relative clauses 6. (32) service finished late. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. were now in his possession. heard. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. than whom few more can be more crashing. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. . In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. părăsi camera. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. erau acum în posesia lui.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.
The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.) d. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. as can be seen in (36d). relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. but it is typical of the formal.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . 6. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The genitive form with which is still in use.) b. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.1. literary style: (37) a.) c. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.5. too. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.) b.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.
(Iris Murdoch.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .Unit six Relative clauses form of which. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.
This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. of which. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. by the way. … Italy. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. He is not the man which he used to be.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.) b. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. ships (that can be personified) a.) b.) • states. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. but to a type or a function: a. (45) (46) .Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. animals.
Poland is the place in which Christine was born.) 6. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Nu ştiam ce vor.Unit six Relative clauses b. where. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) 135 (47) .2 Relative Adverbs: when.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. It is poor what gets the punches.) b) dialectal (49) a.5. etc. while. how. Poland is the place where Christine was born. time. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) b. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. reason. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. pe care o privea direct. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. why. whom it concerned most closely. France.
(Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. They returned to the land whence they had come. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.3.) 136 . (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) 6. He went where he had been before.) c.) e. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. A system where by a new discovery will arise. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) b.) b. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b. The place whither he goes is unknown. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.They left when they decided it was proper to. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.5.) When they introduce free relative clauses.
) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.
(Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. much. every.4. not any. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. any. but • in standard language a.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. .5. Honest man as he was. 138 (64) his shoes. but they are used very infrequently: as.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.
And always on the buttered side. It’s the dry weather does it. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. This is the same one that/as you had before. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) • in dialect a.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. ăl de fusese in China…) b. There’s not many as’ll say that. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. Uncle George.) c. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.) c. .) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.
(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 . (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.
What I’m saying is. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. Where he was from. we all have to come to some terms. 6. makes me a wart and a wen. That which shows God out of me. 3. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 5. fortifies me. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. It seemed a thing 141 .” 4.) c. What Inman remembered was this passage.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The man John spoke to is a genius. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.) b. The man who John spoke to is a genius.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. b. 7.3): (72) a. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.5. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 2.
that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. though. Oh. who had not witnessed many dawns. 8. 11. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. (…) Partly. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 12. 13. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 142 . Whatever his fate was.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. The rudeness of eating. which is a lot. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. he had left Ruby high and dry. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 10. Ruby said. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 9. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. of living. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good.
nu prea sarac. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. poate. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. plutonier. cumnatul unui portughez. un var primar. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. mort de tanar. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara.al lui. pe linie paterna. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. Cumnatul meu avea. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carei strabunic. vasnic. una din nepoatele unui inginer. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. (Iris Murdoch. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. pirpiriu. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. divortata. fiu natural al unui morar.
regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. b. She was a woman. Teatru) 6. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.6. c. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. 144 . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. The opposite phenomenon. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. By extension. This is the book. insurat de trei ori la rand. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. I lost the cover of the book. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.2. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .
Unit six Relative clauses b. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 7. no easy answers to which could be offered. 4. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 6. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. he requested that the public be excluded. acting again as a genuine pied piper. The problem of safe transportation. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 8. has been troubling them forever. The difference between (76) and (77). We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 5. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. In the interest of public decency. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 9. 3.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 2. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory.
Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 4. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. This story. was now complete. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 5. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Activity 9 were now all gone.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. 10. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. Irene. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).His father’s friends. 2. has been deleted. no matter which. 3. They do not function as attributes. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 146 . Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. His friends. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 6. as the case is). he rarely saw now. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.
Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. închipuirea. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. himeric. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 4. 7. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Toate sfârşeau. sunt vrednic de invidiat. 5. Nelu. 6. De douazeci de ani. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 3. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. pentru dumneata bunăoară. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Pentru alţii. 2.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă.
– De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 .Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. cu surle şi cu tobe. 12. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 10. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 8. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. a făcut el. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. nici în searbăda mea versiune. 9. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului.
fie la teatru. Dacă mă lovea. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. roiuri de fetiţe. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. trăia larg de tot. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. 18. care era foarte “mondenă”. 14. apărură. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. până mai adineauri. fie pe stradă. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. 20. În spatele lor. din direcţia căreia apoi. despre care. 16. deşi atât de aproape. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. de unde venea şi Marta. 15. toată lumea întreba cine e. zise ea cu ochii mari. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 149 . Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. dinspre Maria Rosetti. 17.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. pe strada Icoanei. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. Avea acum un fel de vertij. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. din care cauză pe Dora. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă.
(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. 23. până în şosea. Pare-se că snobii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. de sus de unde eram. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. de mine. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. pe care eu nu-l aveam. Pentru mine însă. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care ea îi admira acum. aveau un stil al lor. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 24. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. 22. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. după ce maşina a fost reparată. când au urcat râpa iar.
by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 .
1. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 188.8.131.52.7.2.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.5.Extraposition 7.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.1.3. Key Concepts . ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.6.1.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.Clause Shift 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.Topicalization 7. That Deletion 7.
(3) Tell me if you need anything. Apart from those introduced by that. In other words.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. 153 .1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. 7.1.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. the clause is extraposed. placed in a marginal position. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. but also of infinitival ones.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.
but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.
The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 8. 14. 13. It is no use trying to convince her. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 3. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 15. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 10. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 6. 5. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 4. 2. 11. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 7. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 3. 9. 7. 4. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 11. 9.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It appears that no one voted for him. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 10. 2. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It is nice to meet you. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 8. 6.
That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. după porţi. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 3. 4. atât 156 . 6.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. I guess it that he will come back. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. They never expected it that he would come back.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. I don’t expect it that he will come back. în gropi. 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. zice Lionel. în canal. unde se nimerea.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 4. 5. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 18. 5. sub poduri. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 3. 3. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. mă ascundeam în grabă.
vor căuta să o zdruncine. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. 157 . Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. 7.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. 6. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi.” 4. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. fără îndoială. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. (Nu întotdeauna. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. excelentă. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. 5. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. fără să cârteşti. Spunând cele ce-am spus. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări.
1.1. this asymmetry is undone. in the case of topicalization. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.2. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Pratice Read the following.) While in the case of extraposition. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. subject clauses are the frequent situation.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.
This was another era. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 5. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. 7. 4. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. mere chance would decide. 6. She had always been the slave of chance. 8. was inconceivable. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 3. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . even today. whether it would finally carry her off. 2. he felt no spring of interest in her.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. He was utterly gone. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. He did not blame Gracie. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. but not now. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm.
A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.1. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.3. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) 160 . Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.
Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. we obtain. the verb to drive).e. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. 161 . From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.
*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. who had just returned from Africa. 6. 5.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 162 ./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 4. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 8.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 7. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 3. 2. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. prime-minister.
2.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.Unit seven That complements 7. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.
These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. He announced that they were engaged. They believe that the man is guilty.) b. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. deny.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. He announced their engagement. predict.Nadina VIŞAN 7. etc.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.2. (Cred că omul este vinovat. state.1.: (25) a.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. afirm. They promised him that he would received a new house. prefer.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. communicate. suggest. judge. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. estimate. etc. promise.) a. consider.) 164 . (Şi-a anunţat logodna. They believe the man is guilty. explain. desire.) b. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. (I-au promis o casă nouă. deem.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) language. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.e.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. ibid.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) I like him in that he is smart. they lose their meaning.) 172 . the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. In older stages of English. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. for example. on condition that. hope =>purpose. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.
His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) When the structure contains the word such.) b. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. să o vadă trecând. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He gave an answer such.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. That can be deleted.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) (66) 173 a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. He gave such an answer as had expected. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. . (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.
) 174 . 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. (Iris Murdoch. He gave an answer such that I had expected. (Iris Murdoch.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.) b. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. ibid. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.We discovered that our map has disappeared.
) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. He said he had borrowed her money. for instance. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) c.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. He got word they were coming. 175 .Unit seven That complements 7. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. (A prins de veste că ei vin.3 ‘That Deletion 7. say.3. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. tell). He showed he was able to do it.) b. that he uses a relaxed tone. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.1. (69) a.
Nadina VIŞAN 7. for better or worse. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. ibid. for better or worse.2. because that has been deleted. (Îmi place că e aici. bune. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. they were chained to each other forever. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.3.3. rele. 7. (Iris Murdoch.) (De asemenea. *I like it he was here. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.3.) b. I like it that he was here.
8) I reminded them that they had to leave. simultaneity. that they were not too late to leave. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.) 177 .) b)He told me that she was there. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. he said. 7) They maintain. (“Este acolo”. spuse el. you want me to believe. which is ungrammatical in English. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 7. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.
până pleacă ea. (A spus că.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. spuse el. He told me that she had been there. He said he would leave her.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. In the example below. (“Era acolo”. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. he said. o să vină el.) b. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. vine el. (Pâna să plece.) Future Perfect -----. I will leave her. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că o să o părăsească. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. “She was here”. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (Am să o părăsesc. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.) b.) b. The Present complement).
With such factive verbs as realize. etc. whisper. report.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause.) 179 . (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. hope. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. wish. believe. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. dream. realize it). (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. say. insist. notice. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) b. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. be aware.) On the other hand. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. forget. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. show. mention. discover. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. regret. think. be amazed/concerned.etc. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.
in tender deference to each other.) b. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. She believed that the earth is round.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. we notice that general truths. 180 . (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Iris Murdoch. Consider also: (85) a.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) b. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. cu un respect tandru reciproc. feign habits which are not their own. He knew that she thought all men were fools. She realized that all men are fools.
Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Peter said that John would leave at 5. 181 . Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. 3.) In (88).) b.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) b. such as a. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. There are however cases. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. Peter said that John will leave at 5. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.Unit seven That complements 2.
e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. But 182 .) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. for instance. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. c) John said that Harry is leaving. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. f) John said that Harry would leave. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. The time is 3 o’clock. John said that Harry will leave. Imagine. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. g) John thought that Harry ran.
quail. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. slyness in a fight. Translate the following. 183 . which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She admired their keenness of wit. b. Cooper’s hawk. redtailed hawk. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. jaybird. whistling swan. c.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. geese both grey and white. lark. lack of pridefulness. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. bluebird. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Crows will relish what presents itself. kingfisher. a. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. nighthawk. love of practical jokes.
war hero though he was. the young officer.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. He died erect. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. […] During the latter stages of the tale. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. But as the battle raged around them. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. He had fought hard through the war. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Now here he stood jailed. he claimed. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. And they might just hang him. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . in the very act of expiring.
That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). from the very frequent subject. which they share with wh-complements. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). or else. object ones up to the attributive function. on other occasions it has to stay there. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). 185 .5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. On certain occasions that can be deleted.Unit seven That complements 7.
Unul din ei. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. 2. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. 3. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Fiind 186 . Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. neconvenabil şi primejdios.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Mama. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. 4. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. peste puţin. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. cel mai mare. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei.
9. venind de la avocat. un vis de acesta 187 . s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. cel puţin pentru un timp. Nu ţi-a trecut. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Se mira. luminos şi apropiat şi când. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. dacă va mai veni. ea. 5. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. va pleca din oraş la vie. care îl pândise. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. 8. de ce constata în sine. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. aşa. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. 7. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. fericit. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. 6.
lucrul era înfăptuit. 11. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Acesta. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Astfel de va fi. 12. şi mândria că a biruit.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. fireşte. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. liniştit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. încă o dată. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. dar şi teama că. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte.
Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. spre Jurubiţa. după cum. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. să le lămurească pe toate. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. ci numai aşa. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Pe toate.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. fără o vorbă scrisă. 14. mai puternic decât oricând.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.9.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.5.6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.8.1.A Classification of Infinitives 8.Key Concepts .The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 126.96.36.199.3.2.
(E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. From this perspective. It is important for you to know what you need. (2) a. Consider the following: • like that complements. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (3) a. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.1.) b.) b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) • like that complements. It is important that you should know what you need. To love her is something really wonderful.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). That you love her is something wonderful. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). 193 . There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).
* She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. 194 . 2. etc. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. moduri nepersonale) By convention. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.) b. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. the Participle) (i. gerundial clauses. participial clauses. as opposed to the finite ones. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.e. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Gerund. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. the Conditional. d. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. is the fact that they do not have temporal features.
) c. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. namely no ending. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) 195 . The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.
8.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 5. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . the criterion of form. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 8. 9. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 2. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 3.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 10. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. (7) They saw her leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 7. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.2. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 4. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 6.
(A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. 2. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (10) 197 . / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. hear. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.
) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. However. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. Pratice Translate the following. 198 (11) the universe.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. . uncharacteristic for literary English. 3. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.
we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. 199 . By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. Further on.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. or the control constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. In other words. as I have already mentioned. to use the appropriate technical term.
(Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.) b. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) 200 .) In this situation.) Object: (18) a. şi creştineşte să ierţi. namely the agent of the event. It is important for him not to err. PRO to err is human. the logical subject. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. I hoped for him to be there in time. So far. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E important ca el să nu greşească. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to forgive divine.
not to the infinitive. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. him is not the agent of the infinitive. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. but the patient of the verb persuade. Semantically. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) b. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. He stepped aside for her to enter. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. him is related to the main clause verb.
Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ I allowed them to come. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ She wanted him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ I would love them to come. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ She promised him to leave. \ 202 . Likewise. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ He persuaded her to come. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They tempted him to leave. \ They convinced her to come back. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. I hate animals to be tortured.
) In examples (25) and (26). • Last but not least.) He seems to be a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. So. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. \ They really asked her to come back.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. 203 . \ They did not wish her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.
appear. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above.). / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. etc. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. that is not required by certain verbs. which are said to be free. hate. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. to meet her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. 204 . seem. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. To sum up the discussion. with special semantic and syntactic properties.
decline. want. prefer. try./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. seek (= try). manage. need. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. deign. hope. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. expect. refuse. Compare: (31) a. / E greu să îl suporţi. deserve. afford. venture. contrive.) 205 friend. care to. condescend. omit.) b) verbs such as abide. etc.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. dislike. bear. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. . etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. agree to.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. scorn. fail. scheme. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. desire.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. propose. hate.3 The Distribution of PRO . presume. mean.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. aspire to. etc. arrange. wish. endeavour. intend. like. 8.
) b.) 206 . etc. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. stand. however. suggest. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. I hate that you should say a thing like this. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. ask.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. bear. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. unlikely.) b. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. conclude. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) b. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. verbs of liking and disliking. possible. claim. threaten. endeavour.) 8. desirable. forget.etc. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. I would like for him to become president of the country. For all of them to have been killed is. be important.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.Nadina VIŞAN b.
5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) 207 .Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.) 8. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) 2. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) b. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.
) b. I decided for John to represent us.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Direct Objects (39) a. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) 4.) 208 knowledge. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. but the meaning remains. Like in the case of that complements. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. .) b. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 5. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. the preposition is deleted.
(Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. He is a bastard to work for.) c. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. The stew is delicious to eat. etc.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. curious about.) b. She is pretty to look at. You’re an idiot to go there. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) e.) d. 6. This paint is like concrete to work with. delicious.: (42) a.
să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. final or introductory infinitive In this case./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Pe şleau.) I’ve never met him. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . să nu piardă trenul. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / Ehei.) Oh. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. you’re a bad driver. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. to tell you the truth. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. drept să spun. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. conduci prost. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch.
(I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. b. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. press. influence. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. encourage. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. According to this. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. promise. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. inform. swear. 8. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife.: (51) a.) . direct. induce. nu mai vreau să te vad. etc. oblige. urge.) b.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. inspire. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. (49) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.etc. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. need. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. enable.
order. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. depend on.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. name. etc. look to. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. vote.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. command.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. choose. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest./ And now he 212 . (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. permit. count on. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. nominate.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. elect. prevail on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.etc. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. etc. allow.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.
) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. An Accidental Man) 8. (57) He is to come any day now. etc. (56) She grew to like him in the end.: (55) She appears to like him. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. seem.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. (Iris Murdoch. happen.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.e. be about to.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.etc. grow. etc. 213 (58) (59) . i. come. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (O să întârzii/ leşin. this construction is lexically governed. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).verbs: appear. be going to. (Se pare că îi place de el.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.
) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.etc. that of intention. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. etc. perceive. . observe. be rumoured. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be claimed. (L-au auzit insultând-o. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. hear. be considered.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.) 8. feel. etc. overhear. be reported. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. be thought. be alleged.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.: (62) They heard him insult her. watch. In (57).
etc. cause.) • with a full infinitive: get. discover. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. remember. believe. prove. deem. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. recollect. occasion. find. consider.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. judge.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. understand. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. However. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. imagine. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. know. picture. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. (Cred că este un geniu.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. presume. figure.) 215 (67) . let I’ll have you learn this in no time. have. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.
he hated anyone to comment 216 . etc.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. desire. permit. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. want. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. suffer. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. if he himself was out of spirits. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. they had depressed and fuddled him.etc. who wasn’t used to men with moods.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. prefer. love.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. Harold.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. choose. wish. expect.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. command. mean. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. order.
but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. A little crossly.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. though he tended to look down on those below it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. He suspected hostility at once. he didn’t envy those above it. to make sure we attended strictly to business. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.P. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . so that we might get to the future and have done. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. (L. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Both seemed to him a little unreal. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own.
This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.Nadina VIŞAN 8. The last criterion. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. From this perspective. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. 218 . we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.
de bună seamă. e important ce întrebări pui. E posibil. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. lovit şi umilit. mai bine219 . un bărbat şi o femeie. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. de asemenea. să-l capete. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. Şi tu să fii. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. dar să nu-ţi spună. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. fireşte. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. bunăoară. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. e) Când doi oameni. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. într-o zi. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece.
. aşa cum îi apăruse el. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. 220 . avusese dreptate. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. mai bine de două decenii. încă.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt.Şt. în parte. sau. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. De era vară. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Să spui de pildă. d-a lungul gâtului. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. în ploaie. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. ca să nu şi-o amintească. în parte. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să nu vrea să se şteargă. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. (B. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. pe care deja o uitase. mai pline de înţeles.Delavrancea. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi.Nadina VIŞAN zis.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea.Şt. că eşti tânăr. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. în jos. un picior. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Însă Paul Achim trăise. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.
fie ea şi grăbită. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. (Al. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. biata Muti. prin faţă e coborârea. de fapt.. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. un miros îngrozitor. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. deşi. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. orice bucureştean ştie. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. şi prin faţă. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea... Mă laud singură. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. şi nu un amant. Într-un cuvânt. orice-ar fi.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. nici ca să 221 . ei.. sunt aici cu tot ce am. o mizerie.
în realitate. parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns.
A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Participial Constructions 9.5 Key Concepts .3.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 188.8.131.52.3.The Gerund 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 184.108.40.206.The Verbal Noun 9.1.2.The Participle Contents: 224 220.127.116.11.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1.
(Susan doarme.1. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.) 225 . Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Due to this situation. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1.
) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.e. (A venit Susan) b. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. Susan has been killed. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. the past participle can appear after a noun. blood-shot and painted. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.) More infrequently. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. In (2) the forms come. 226 . (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. been and killed are past participle forms. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. it functions attributively. were closing. i. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). too: (6) Her eye-lids.) As you can see in this second case. Susan has come.
Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. leul poate să atace. I will arrive there on time.) d. o să ajung la timp. Oh. If provoked. When singing. o să ajung la timp. mother permitting. God willing. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.) b. începură să cânte. she ran away. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (Sosind aici.) 227 . Weather permitting.) b. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. they started singing. he will eventually marry her. (Ştiind cine era el.) c. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) c. ea o luă la fugă. a lion can attack. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I will arrive there on time. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. Knowing who the guy was. Arriving here. people should pay attention to high notes.
He was found stealing. hear. I found him stealing.) b. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-au descoperit că fură. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. They found him killed by a bullet. watch. behold. (L-am descoperit furând. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) b. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. (Am simţit-o tremurând.) ii. notice. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. smell. which stands for an adverbial clause. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) 228 . respectively. He was found killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.
(Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.) b. a.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. hear. etc. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. leave.) • Causative verbs: get.: a. find. I heard it said that men are a bore.) c. set. feel.) b. make a. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. He’ll soon get things going. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . (A fost văzut plângând. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. have.) • Causative verbs: get . etc. etc. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. send. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. start. know. I must get my hair cut.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. have. recollect.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. etc. confess.: When she heard his words. keep.) b. she knew herself dismissed.
/ Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. Men like shopping made easy. He wanted his car fixed immediately.) b. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 .” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • verbs of permission./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. / Nu după multă vreme. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. lovit şi plin de sânge./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. command I ordered my bill made out.
you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. Unlike the gerund. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. 231 . The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.2. with its lips drawn back.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / In any case.e. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. sitting taut between her father and her sister. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / My Lord. / Dinny. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.1.
am plecat. I was astonished at what I saw. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .She didn’t want to hear the story again.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. she enjoyed her trip to Spain.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. She had heard it all before.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 3.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. I left. the rain will stop. 6. I turned on the light. The tree had fallen across the road. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 4. 7. People were sleeping in the next room. 5. I have looked through the fashion magazine. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. using either a present participle. se va opri şi ploaia. It had been uprooted by the gale. (Văzând acestea. am plecat. I left. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 2. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. (Desi nu ştia limba.
2. one of the eggs broke. empty. I let the dog out of the room. shaven. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. many. 12.Running into the room. mown. bald. He sat down to his own dinner. drunken. 11. hearted (twice). Knowing me to be the fool of the family. dark. covered. He fed the dog. 7. eyed (3 times). 6. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. 5. 8. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. lion. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. stony. Leaving the cinema. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. cornered. lighted. Dropped by parachute. wooden. roast. a rug caught her foot and she fell. haired (twice). Passing under a ladder. a pot of paint fell on my head. 10. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. red (twice). Read the sentences and try to correct them. quick. eagle. minded (3 times). 3. skinned. my hands often get very cold. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 8. open. Tied to the post.shoulder. Getting out of bed. sharp. 233 . 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. open. his horse fell at the last jump. handed. 4. They found the treasure. b) Headed (5 times). fishy. coloured. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. They began quarreling about how to divide it. stricken. three. Reading in bed. I slammed the door of my room. a scorpion bit him. 9. Barking furiously. broad. Riding in the first race. narrow. Climbing down the tree. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 10. cloth. 9. straight.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Mother punished me for my mistake.
________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. rotten. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (take) 2. man. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. ill-gotten. shorn. (hunt). _______ my arm. stream. bounden. image. graven. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. ________ hiding in a barn. I stared at the canvas for ages. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. In the following pairs of sentences. were taken to hospital. (grow) 4. deer. eyes. lamb. is expected to be a great hit. lead.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. head. wealth. Translate into English: 1. meat. 7. The escaped prisoner. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Swiss watches. _______ for a bargain. / Many old people . plank. The film. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. _______ by S. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. the same verb is missing twice. was today taken back to prison._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / Three people. _______ for their elegance and precision. candle. hidden. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 .Spielberg. are sold throughout the world. b) grass.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. (produce) 3.I fell on the ice. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. duty. are in grave danger of extinction. (find) 6. Whales. (injure)./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. meaning. shrunken. (admire) 5.
ca şi cum. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. Şi. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. 2. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. care le rânduia. când strânsă. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. întinse. deodată sufocat. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. le fierbea. păsări tăiate. le cocea. nesigur şi moale. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. trezit. 3. Şi sufletul său. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. O umbreluţă. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. când deschisă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. După câtva timp. şi moi. legume date prin mai multe ape. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. precum şi foile de plăcintă. 4. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul.
function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.Nadina VIŞAN 9. According to this criterion.2. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. 236 . Likewise. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. (Dacă vezi. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.1.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. crezi. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.2. The Gerund 9.
Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. In that. Him winning and you losing was surprising.) 9. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. His winning and your losing were both surprising. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) b. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.2. That he won and you lost was surprising.2. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.) b. Consider the following table. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. gerunds differ from participles.
(Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. It was illegal to grow a beard.) 2. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds.) b. Consider (32). gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.) Unlike participles. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. as being verbal 238 . *It was illegal growing a beard. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.
) b. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.3. Participles vs.) 3. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Just like in the case of noun phrases.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b.) 9. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. It’s no good talking to her. as offered in the table below: 239 .2. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.
passive ones She was crying. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. babies suck their thumb. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles may function adverbials: house. (prepositional object clause) 5. 2. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. 3. + noun] 1. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. (adverbial of time) 4. forms: continuous . perfect. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home.
/ Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie.
11. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. shooting gallery / shooting star. 15. 6. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 8. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 12. He was spotted talking to her. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 13. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 12. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 4. 7. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 5. 9. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 14. Gambling is his favourite pastime. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 242 . I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. eating habits/ eating people. 10. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 2. crying game / crying woman. 3. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.
(Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .e. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. but the presence of a direct object (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e. a The absence of an of phrase.e.Unit nine Ing complements 9.3. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.) The absence of a determiner like the.
we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. Thus. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. In the second situation. How can we tell? In the first case. George’s shooting the attacker. if we were to go back to our incomplete table.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article.
/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. Jim left quietly. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. 245 . + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. very large. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / His coming there puzzled her.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her.
It has been noticed that. ING Forms and Infinitives. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. the meaning is different. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). However.4. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. for example.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. With the infinitive. For instance. Look. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. whenever we meet an –ing form.
anterior to the verb in the main clause. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) After looking at this example. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen.) The first example. and the most well-known one.) . This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.g. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. containing an infinitive. (S-a oprit din mâncat. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. future-oriented value of the infinitive). suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. On the other hand. having left) is infrequently used in English. the infinitive is future-oriented.
(Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. i.) As you can see.) . This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. recollect. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. which means that they are similar in meaning. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.
(Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) . the petrol tank is not filled yet.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. dar asta este. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. In the second example.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. the action is not completed. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. but that’s it.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.
(Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.human] objects. want With [+ human] objects. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) wedding. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. mean has the sense signify. e) need. The house needs to be repaired.) 250 .) With [. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.) b.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. the event has not happened yet. (Casa trebuie reparată. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. The house needs repairing. In the second example. (Casa trebuie reparată.
we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. I did ask Mr. it’s overrated. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ ‘Tell me.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. gerund or infinitive. but they went by too quickly. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. my Lord. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. however appearances were against us.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . whereas in the second case. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. Lady Corven. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. my Lord. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Croom (try) (follow) one.’ ‘In any case. (take) down her answer.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.
’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. I must go back now. Then.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ said Clare. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ 252 . ‘I do hate (ask) for things. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note. suddenly. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I just used the word and they fell. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ said Clare. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. and went out (post) it himself. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. licked the envelope with passion.
There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Pratice In the following texts. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Participles mainly function as adverbials. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. the 253 .5. Last but not least. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits.
(James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. The two sides were moving apart. slowly rising in a swirling motion. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The sight of the two children. hoping he would see somebody up there. it 254 . the enormous split in the earth. She started coughing. their edges crashing inwards. but then he saw it billowing up from below. then the noise and the cracking stone. He looked up towards the daylight. according to the books he read.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. down. moving up towards his chest. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. covering the girl’s head. someone looking for survivors. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. At first. down into God knows where. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. Then he saw movement at his feet. It was like a mist. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being.
slanted on to her cheek.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. Having a French governess. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. 255 . Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. and sunlight. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. brightening to winter brilliance. for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. my dear.
Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. În urma slugii. 2. ucenicul său necredincios. and then went riding with her in the rain. mama mea. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 .Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. închizând ochii. totul se animă deodată. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. cei doi Mamona. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Ridicându-se. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Vaucher şi cu mine. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. într-o joi. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând.
iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. aplecându-se puţin. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. pe mama mea părând absentă. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. o sărută pe frunte. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. dar ştiutoare. pe Vaucher. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. afară ploua în continuare. totul mi se părea cunoscut. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Şi deodată. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. privit. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. la mine. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. se duse lânga mama şi. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. auzit şi zadarnic. 3.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. după cum îi spusese mama. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. Neclintiţi. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. am ştiut şi cine. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri.
şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu soba. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu stiva de lemne. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. dar. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. camionul a plecat.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Au coborât din camion încet. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. 5.
259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. because of pity. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 3. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. this would really hurt. 12. and meet it right here at home. was unclear to Mitzi. whereas if she went away she would get none. You have been much in my thoughts. Having regard to the date of drafting. 4. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. and this particularly of late. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. I am sorry not to have seen you. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 11. 10. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. and that 263 . 7. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. without profound questioning. 13. 9. 2. since I have decided. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. How much. 6. in some way. he had not yet been able to estimate. 5. apart from his distress for parents. he had been advised. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. to retire early from my employment. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. How this time was to come.
/ In the end. 264 . but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. one of the eggs broke. 17. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. / Before you go on changing the subject. looking forward had not yet taken place. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. he did not come to see her. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. even for months. I was made say Grace before every dinner. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. please consider his proposition. 14. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. for attending his sister’s wedding. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 19. / Whenever I visited my aunt. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends.
quite unexpectedly. Essentially. and it was bound. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. Instead of which she had married. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. to end in some awful tragedy. it was said. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . She felt herself much older by nature and experience. without discovery. Vulgar men did. centered in London and themselves. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. She felt as when. 265 . said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. At country houses she had met them of course. rather than the hefty type. Tony was a child. Though much in request before her marriage. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. of all people.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. Clarissa used to think. (and there he was. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. a little girl. her recklessness. an open-air person. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. she said. her old friend Hugh. They rushed into shops. They hated trying on. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. cotton mills at Manchester. of the quick and wiry.
dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. si in plus. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.Rindurile dvs. era un bun sfatuitor. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. (John Galsworthy . numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. De uitat. viguros si vesel in felul lui.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. aveam tot mai 266 . dar vizitele acestui om din topor. short of the contacts of love. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. the more she would be torturing him. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. astfel. Bolnava nu se simtea. to keep abreast of the current. nu puteam sa le uit. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Reading many novels. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Cind l-a chemat. nu a facut-o pentru asta. ii faceau bine. indeed. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground.Over the River) 2. cre s-au nascut lent. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. with all its impatience of restraint. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. but lying in her bath. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. she was uneasy. The closer she allowed him to come to her.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. she professed.
vaazut cindva. (St. pe scaunul lui tare. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. cit mai au de trait.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. nu pricep nimic. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Banulescu – ibid. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. poate fi compensata. Banulescu – ibid. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. fa-o. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. latimea si ascutisul labei. lungimea picioarelor. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.) 6. (St. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Banulescu – ibid. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Daca tu. ca si tine. (St.) 5. o data sau de doua ori. Milionarule. se stie. Banulescu – ibid.) 267 . are nevoie. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Ce a iesit. 4. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 7. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. (St. mi-am zis. Personal.
Who told me. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Who. when I was even younger than you. 2. Who was may father. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who came home from the war. for being a renegade. Cambridge. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. a wounded soldier. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. (.. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.P. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Arthur Atkinson M. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Ernest Richard Atkinson.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. my grandfather. A story-book romance. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes.. And had a brother killed in the same battle.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. to Emmanuel College. Could he be blamed. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. delivered from the holocaust. Translate them. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.
Fabianism. 4. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). a moody man. deep-set. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. to whom. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. and because – but this is mere speculation. How 269 . But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. Rachel Williams. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. daughter of an ill-paid journalist.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. he had already engaged himself? 3. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles.
Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. cu taina aceasta. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. satul. Ion. Cum a trăit el. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. 270 . How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Ion. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. la şcoală. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. om mare. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum a ajuns el. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum au tăcut ei.
271 . când voi fi singur.pune totul in discuţie. greşeli dintr-astea. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. din franţuzeşte. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. împotriva tuturor. cu sau fără voie. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. de mama lor. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. singurul lui stăpân. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Când actriţa.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească.
Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. privindu-mă în ochi. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. pe jumătate prezent. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Am început. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. 6. de pildă. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. provocându-le. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. sau ridicole. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. uneori şi astăzi chiar. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. ci un sistem de acomodare. 3. 4. parcă începusem s-o uit. 272 . continuând. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. traversând. nevasta-mea. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Într-o vreme. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. A devenit palid.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. tânăr şi frumos şi el. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Tot aşa. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. 5. dam buzna peste automobile.
căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. iar. să merg întins. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. 11. orice s-ar întâmpla. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Aş vrea să mă las jos. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. şi să nu ameţesc. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. Dacă nemţii înaintau. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. fireşte. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. fără să mă opresc o clipă. că nu m-am gândit la asta. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. 8. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. şi dacă merg întins. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. E o problemă. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Am început. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. De altminteri. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. 9. ca un acrobat.
Greu era din partea asta. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. In curind. Adica tot trecutul.. parca i-ar fi fost frica. nu mai semana. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Ii venea greu.Ma. 13. Uite. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. trebuia sa le spuna. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. de la obiecte de pret. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. 14. Acum isi ferea privirea. dar nu se mai putea. se uita in jos.. la amintiri. de uimire. La un moment dat. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Ilie nu-l asculta. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . de la proces. Auzindu-l. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 15. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. cu mirare. 16. la fata locului. eu am venit sa va intreb. 17. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. de la lucruri personale. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. 274 . dar nu-i spuse si de ce. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. nu mai pricepu nimic. la carti. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie.
raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. There was even 275 . which was part of his rich outfit. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. asa cum facuse pina acum. i se paru ca aici e ceva.Ce sa fac. Nu era nevoie. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Zimbea siret. apoi se uitau la Ilie. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. 19. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». 20. vorbe asa si-asa. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . fara sa-si dea seama de ce. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Aici era ceva. . i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. cum zicea Anghel.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. dar. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. se indeparta nepasator.
resuming her walk. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. asked for Mrs. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. to move fast. conversationally. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. going astray. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. 3. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. 5. to admit that she was a proud. He felt then. for the instant.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. rude woman. But Daisy. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. the young lady.Nadina VIŞAN relief. gave an exclamation. on this occasion. a simplification. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. He walked a long time. at least. paying no attention. She was one 276 . 4. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. to take his way home on foot. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy.Miller at her hotel.
and wondering what the deuce he meant. often. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. in radiant loveliness. make a point.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. 6. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. as text book. on the other hand. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. Advising with me. making Paul stop and look at her. uncomfortably. smiling and chattering. as it were. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. indeed. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. She appeared. as to projected changes. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. Her daughter. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. 8. He left me musing. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. of studying European society. in their own phrase. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. 7. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks.Walker. while residing abroad. She rustled forward. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence.
inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. H. H. and acute too.’ 278 . it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. while Paul. 11. 9. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. which was deliberate. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. could see he was remarkable. H. or at any rate not heeding.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. though E. was only half satisfied with this. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. wondered what they were talking about. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. and. and perceived that it must be something important. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. with his humorous density. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. 10. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. The agent became a very familiar type to H. was immensely struck with him. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. not seeing.
Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. had the power to chain his sympathy. which was very copious. 14. that the haunting wonder which now. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. But she gave him no chance. as he looked back. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. the affair having been quite a cause celebre.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. 15. appeared to fill his whole childhood. not glancing at him for a moment. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. 13. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. H. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who.
18. The whole establishment. disheveled and distracted. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. 17. as a general thing. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. 16. that she must be on the contrary. At the theatre. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. proudly. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. dragging herself on her knees. H. and to H. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. and there were others. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. It was very possible she was capricious. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. where the Pearl of Paraguay. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. yet 280 . ironically reserved. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory.
and lurking within this nebulous design.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 3. 20. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. young men were invited. had blown a certain chill. on which the damp breath of the streets. 281 . *Old. No one ever listens to her. with the poor./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. didn’t mind. H. 2. would always be more or less irritating. It came over H. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 19. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. Their mistakes and illusions.
her arms held out. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. I saw her as a vision. striding like a Spartan maid. 9. 282 . I blundered by. I was definitely going to be sick. 5. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. 12. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 8. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. c) When I saw her sitting there. I walked fast. Either John or he * have got to give in. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. walking quickly. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. Rachel. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 10. her shining blue feet twinkling. 6.Nadina VIŞAN 4. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 11. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. slipped on some steps. “Oh./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 7. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure.
One or more solutions can be valid: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2.
could cook my meals. but that we saw and pitied. 5. 2. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 4. which was really alarming. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. if they were poor. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. The old women spoke no English. And then I ventured to add that.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 3. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . where my servant. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room.
etc. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house. had not been able to estimate. etc. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. How much. to settle.g. he. was informed. was anxious. Constituents: how much. he had not yet been able to estimate. this. was anxious = was + anxious.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. etc. this would really hurt.g. to pay their annual visit. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. distress. Munt. Constituents: Margaret. before they left town. apart form his distress for parents. at noon. would really hurt. apart from his distress for parents. on Saturday. his.apart from his distress = apart from. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Constituents: He. 285 .
positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – non-assertive./ She finally admitted. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – comparison.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. Second clause is an imperative.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .. The sentence is however 286 .semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – first clause is non-assertive. interrogative. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. second clause is non-assertive. negative. – non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. which is not assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.. listen to this. don’t bother her.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. which context is non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. interrogative. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – assertive/ Don’t do that. / If you like her.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. interrogative.. and is non-assertive. it is assertive. negative/ Come with me. negative/ If you like jazz.
/ Not long ago./ He was exceptionally cunning. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / She does not hate animals./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. the two brothers dared to protest. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. but not more than she does others.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / She does like John. / They didn’t leave./ When he learned the news. – someone did that. not even when it’s quiet around. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. – they told the truth to somebody else. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all.but to someone else. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. but it wasn’t them. – someone hates animals. – I like somebody else. / You have never met 287 . only irresolute./ They weren’t really confused./ He was smart enough./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. –double negation cancellation. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but nothing out of the ordinary./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / I don’t like her very much./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. not even this thing. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. he was hardly pleased./ Hardly interested in the conference. but it isn’t Susan. everybody used to travel by coach.
*did he?/ They caused us no problems. – I cannot look him in the eye. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – negative insertion. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips..negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. did they? / No problems were caused after all.. not even in my dreams. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. they go skiing in the mountains. were they? / This boy is no good. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. / This is hardly the 288 . / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye... / Should they not have told her the truth. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.Nadina VIŞAN her..negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. not even when you were very young..
/ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Never before did anything like that happen in our street.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / I seldom look at her like that. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Almost nobody liked him. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. never trust a man again. – I almost never look at those paintings. when we started our holiday. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police../ We seldom receive such generous praise. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.Never shall I trust a man again. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Not many people came to see her... – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. but she also lent him a car./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – I don’t often look at her like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – I never see her. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / Few people came to see her. / Hardly anybody liked him. Activity 8 I shall never. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.
– It isn’t likely that he will help her./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / Come on. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / Don’t worry. – They don’t believe she likes them./ I expect he won’t come here again. – 290 . / They say he once had someone very close. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Only on this man could she rely. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / We will see them again somewhere sometime./ I somewhat like his proposal. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / She could rely on nobody but him. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. you can’t do anything about it any more. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ Well. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. –At no time did we leave the office. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – Come on. you can still do something about it. / They believe she does not like them../ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.
too. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – Well her husband has always been a good person./ Bob is still living at that address. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. –Alice still lives here. – She almost always comes here./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – You should send her something. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. 291 ./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – You can’t be telling lies. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences.. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ Peter knows some English and so does John./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. / Well./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. / You needn’t send her anything. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / You must pay that fine./ I can understand all of these ten English words. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here. either. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / You must be telling lies. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.
/ You look so tired today./ Zis si facut./ Norocul la noroc trage. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. It’s no wonder. / He can’t have done a thing like that. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ You took his leaving you very hard. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ They say this Ph. / Nu chema necazul asuprati.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. He didn’t move a muscle.D. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. / Don’t go on believing him. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ I don’t know a thing about her. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. e un magar. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. to any of us./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Nobody told us a thing. Oh./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ 292 ./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. ever since I got this ulcer./ E un baiat de zahar./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. I haven’t done anything. / Jim is so brave./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. not yet./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ He was a tough man. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ N-are nici cap nici coada. has never studied anywhere./ He’s a happy man./ Have they rung the bell? No. He isn’t that smart./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. / Please. I haven’t seen her in years./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ Nimic de facut./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. give me a hand.
parasi camera. I hadn’t really expected miracles./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. that I was a decent man. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.’/ Deloc descurajat. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. slowly.’ ‘Nici o problema. 293 . did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. no story. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. nothing. for I thought this threatening. no memory. with the same needs they had./ Nu-i nici un deranj. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. thrown out. without too much determination. feebly. I had never had the opportunity to prove./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. one way or another./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. We had nothing in common.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable .
Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. Your judgement is false. it’s not words. the only 294 . good. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. I’d be so happy if it were so. your story. You really made me mad. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. he immediately answered me patronizingly. • It was my turn to say something. not as we would like it to be or some other way. on the front seat. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch.. he was sitting beside me. that’s what the world is about. to say the least. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. clear or confusing. We have to judge it as it is. Radu had calmed down. It’s not made up of theories and the like. but facts. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. Not for a moment had I thought that. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. Unfortunately. by coming here to the monastery. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. things you do any moment. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. I admit. I was sleepy and tired. let alone irritable. bad. or if you understood what I meant.
This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. or you are lying hidden. we are leaving. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. and if you like. • So. as Baciu would have us be. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. did you ever step up front. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. no matter how huge they are. precious words. me. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. Anyway. But I was just wondering. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. behind these big. to fight. too? A gun is power. Look. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. 295 . a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. keep your conscience clean: you have one. I won’t interfere. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. soon we’ll be in town. you do as you think fit. fear might be hiding. or call the respect of others. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. clears your way. although it was a difficult thing to do. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. and an inability to act. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. you can go to Ursu’s. just to please myself. me. either. it solves troubles. But what about you and Melania. it’s yours. it’s your problem. keep it squeaky clean.
because before is a positive polarity item 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. has yet arrived -correct 2. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. -correct 3. . but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. as soon as he delivered it. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . But it was not because I had no answer to give. the sentence is incorrect 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. firmly determined not to answer immediately. but they gradually got used to it. correlatives are mixed 2.. has not arrived yet – double negation. – incorrect.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Negative incorporation 296 .incorrect.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . or some other woman. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. will he?. .. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.correct 3.Negative attraction b) 1. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. The villagers were not very religious.
Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. (ibid. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. yet. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. not happy at all (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. His spirit was too tired. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. her lack of motion would have to do (API). ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei.) Însă era cam târziu. much less ((NPI) for her.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. prea răscolit. either (NPI). too troubled. b) But it was rather (API) late. (ibid. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Avea sufletul prea obosit. nu era 297 . Ştia că are dreptate. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. she couldn’t marry him. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Nu putea să se mişte. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. Her stillness.
se îndreptă spre paravan. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. his heart was beating fast. The Satanic Verses. he made his way to the screen. (ibid. if anything (NPI). Ba dimpotrivă. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. e) At length. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. şi destul de hotărât. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. 298 .) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. inima îi batea năvalnic. and not a little unsteadily. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (Salman Rushdie. (ibid.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. she looked younger than ever (NPI). d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. (ibid.
i) What did C. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. and probably an administrative headache as well. The point was. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Ce-i pasă lui C. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. 299 . as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. care if the school were willing to treat him. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el.) C. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. the gift was useless. but his father would have none of it (NPI). (ibid. h) C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Home receded from the prodigal son. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut.
as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. .indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. do you really think that this vixen. to make them lust after her. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. Vica. you are in enough trouble as it is. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. they were. Stavre Paici. She has an eye for gentle men. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. “Now. keep Condrat away from her. 2. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. now she was chatty. Luca Horobet. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Chizlinski. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. all godfearing husbands and fathers. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. yes. and then what do you 308 . Fenia. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. the bitch. she likes to entrance them.
too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. ankle-long flowered calico. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. with a railway station and a mosque.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . He got him out of his mosque. You said: “Doesn’t this guy.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. what’s her name. G. 4. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. have a girlfriend. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. her hair pinned with blue combs. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. It even takes him a while to go to the window. a seventy-eight year old lad. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. The mullah. the minister of Tartars and Turks. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. dragging his feet listlessly. 3.
But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.
phrasal coordination (in this case.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation 10. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Her pet kitten is black and white. our respective examinations.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination 7. John and Mary are the newly married couple. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . John is ready and Mary is ready. John and Mary are ready. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. and I passed.) 9. yellow and blue. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.. Our flag is red.. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.
her idea and John’s. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. but not John. 6. but John does not play football. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. Activity 5 This book and the other.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). We can and will demand payment. 9. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. her son and others. your proposal and his.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. many guest or few. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. plays football. and even tennis. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. 8. Activity 4 1. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane.) Joan plays many games. your work and mine. 3. 5. 2. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. that method and those. 10. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. much satisfaction or little 312 .
Activity 8 1. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. magazines are only for children. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. 7. Pros and cons 4. Bread and butter 16. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 4. To and fro 15. Law and order 8. I like the sentences below or those on the next page.) 6. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He snapped at him and slapped him. The facts and figures 3. Touch and go 10. but not simple. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. High and low 2. Over and above 13. 8. Ups and downs 6. Spick and span 9. Safe and sound 313 . (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. 5. Life and soul 5. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Swings and roundabouts 7. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. I have always fought and will fight for progress. 3. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Few and far between 14. He read. Wear and tear 12. Thick and thin 11. etc.
– asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 314 . 7. My son and daughter are twins. – symmetric 2. exclusive 15. 10. 2. 4. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 8. 5. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 3. 4. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Symmetric 21. – symmetric 10. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Either the child or the parents are to blame. exclusive 17. 2. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 9.. Symmetric 13. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Asymmetric 19. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. inclusive 16. 7. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. – symmetric. – symmetric. My son and heir is safe. 9. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Asymmetric 20. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 10. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. b.symmetric 11. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. cause-effect Activity 10 1. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric 18.There is a table and some chairs in the room. Not John but his two sons are to blame. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – symmetric. 3. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 6. 5. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 1. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. 6. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year.
I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 3. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. ‘Madam. 8.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. By hook or by crook. 15. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 6. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. He’s neither fish. Not only should you rest 315 . or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. it was too small. There are doctors and doctors. Her husband is long dead and buried. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 7. 2. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 11. No drinking and driving. nor fowl. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 12. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. clothes and all. (2) 1. 5. 2. 14. They came to me. 9. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Should he pour water in the basin. He went to bed. Jim thought it over for a while. for better or worse. thanks for asking. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 3. Brother or no brother. 4. We’ll stick together. I’ll still finish this paper. 10. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements.
but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. an important man. What do you know? The moment Mrs. she started doing a great job. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. and she listens to him. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. So she’ll listen to him. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. You know. but he’d come out a cripple. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. but she blinks in approval. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. and then. what’s its name. 2. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. From time to time she will launch a helping question. so he’d gone down and died in no time. They hadn’t kept him there too long. he starts lecturing her about life and things. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. she knows for sure. Whatever she tried her hand at. This. 316 . Her first husband had been a professor. stop dead in his tracks.’ (3) 1. he’d leap high. their common ground. it would work out fine.Nadina VIŞAN assured. as she always does. tense like a bow. both dead and buried. just like when he was thirty. And. tense with concentration. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. so he could leap in pursuit. at equal intervals. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Mrs. without mentioning financial matters.
to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.subordinate. – she. – she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . at me Activity 2: 1. cannot tell. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate. came. functioning as a modifier 3.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . – Susan. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . you.subordinate.subordinate. told. is aware. – obligatory elements: she. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – obligatory elements: I. functioning as an object (direct). she looked at me sadly. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . whomever wanted to listen.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as an adjunct 2. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. looked. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – she. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . about her problems at home After I told her the story. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.
functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5. remove our home yet again . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that we should.complement b) 1.subordinate. that you are choosing exile .subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. at our age.subordinate.
that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. a barn. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. direct object. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. a house. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. outbuildings. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement.complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement.
adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. But other people. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ and done – wh complement. Activity 5 1. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me .A few days before the war. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. without straightening her back.wh complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. subject/ to do such again – complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. (…) He dashed back. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. sickle in hand. (…) ‘Well. staring at each other. direct object/ to sit there – complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. When Anton put the sickle down. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning.
while on other occasions he would show caution. For no bold man really falters. that was for sure. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. Only he had Ana to think of. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. while they spoke from miles away.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. 3. he will turn back and no longer be daring. rather than a real threat. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. 321 . as if they were at his beck and call. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. you need courage even for this small thing. Why! He was not of two minds. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. but he doesn’t spurn either. Ana could not stand a trip now. 2. or if he does. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. or other more hidden means. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. First. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. Not even at this point. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. but also his sharp nose.
in Odobesti. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. and twice we were requested to get out. So. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. But it was not ok. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. We were going to drive to a vineyard. 322 . to see some mutual friends. In fact. although he could have said so earlier. they would ruin the arrangement. And here’s how this first day looked. by the cars of some of us. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. are we getting off again? What is wrong. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. it was the women. without really knowing why. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. under the silliest of pretexts. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. Twice did we get in the car. 4. he had postponed writing back. come on. and on Monday followed another feast). and when things didn’t go as planned.
8. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 5. 5.She came to London where I went too. where I least expected 323 . who was just passing by. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. I bought Jim a book that he liked.restrictive 4. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 7. any of whom would answer to questions. on which this occurred . John told his friend a story about the king. which was a pity. He told her the secret. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . This is my husband whom I love very much.restrictive 2. 8. 10. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 10. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 3. why they all left .restrictive 7. 11. all of whom would answer to his questions. You couldn’t join the party. 6. 3. 2. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE .restrictive 6. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. The students like their teacher. 6. when we first met . like their teacher. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. The students. which was silly of him. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. Activity 2 1. where I spent my youth .free 8. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 4. 4. 9. 7. Activity 3 1. most of whom were from England.
which . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. Where . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object.Nadina VIŞAN . when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.restrictive 10. the prince chose Cinderella. 3. 5. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . When . What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.free Activity 4 1. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who think so highly of yourselves. 6. Of all the persons there. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. What I’m saying – subject. 4. You. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. Where . what their parents made them. where we talk money – predicative. Activity 5 1.adjunct 5. who cannot say a word. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. What – direct object 2. was very displeased with the situation. when . come up front. What Inman remembered – subject. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.free 9.adjunct 11. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Where he was from – adjunct.subject 9.adjunct 10. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . 7. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. where – predicative 7. Why .When Ada remarked – adjunct. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. 2. Which – subject 4. however sad .adjunct 3. Who .subject 8. I. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.adjunct 6.
which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what little she knew – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which requires an accusative form. how . what . – which is ungrammatical due to the [.attribute 12.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. whatever – predicative 13.
whose great-grandfather. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. a sergeant. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. due to its invariable character. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. a rather tiny looking man. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. in his turn. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. having changed quite a number of jobs. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. got married and had a daughter. but whose second cousin. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin.
the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. were now all gone. . – no pied piping 5. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – no pied piping 327 . whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no 4.yes 7.obligatory 3. with deletion of the noun friends]. . – yes.obligatory 4. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. In the interest of public decency.no 5.His father’s friends. . – obligatory pied piping 2. This story. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. he rarely saw now. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. was now complete. . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.yes 10. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. His friends.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The problem of safe transportation.yes 3. . . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. has been troubling them forever. . Irene. no easy answers to which could be offered. – no 9. – yes 2. – yes 6. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.yes Activity 9 1. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.
7. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 8. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. Everything was ending. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 3. for instance. 2. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. or as of a vast arena. I did so.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 6. 4. For twenty years. Nelu.and he couldn’t thank me enough. I am to be envied. Only an ugly endless dream remained. For all the four children. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . where two teams battled every day… 5. the third born son. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. yours. 328 . The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. irrespective of age and nature. In other people’s opinion. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.
staring aimlessly. from MR street. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 10. barely glittering in the distance. where from Marta was coming too. the tram was rattling along. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. You are newly arrived here. on Icoanei street. 16. which was why he saw Dora very far away. she said. 14. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 17. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 12. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 13. All that you have read is rubbish. 15. 11. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. leaving streets and houses behind. although she was standing quite close to him. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. He was suffering from dizziness. If any of your qualities were to persuade them.R. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 329 . since I don’t really know which my true life is. Let me tell you my last conclusion. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. Behind them. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9.
others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots.Nadina VIŞAN 18. I could see my woman falling away from me. 20. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. who only lived once in this world. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. But for me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. in her pursuits. 21. 23. or the clash of stars above. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. day by day. While we were poor. who prompted everyone on the street. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. She was a woman of means. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. which I did not posses. after the car was fixed. So. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 22. 330 . so optimistic and composed? 19. likes and dislikes. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. had a huge house in Bucharest. or the many Egyptian dynasties. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. 24. If he had hit me. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. But. From the vantage point I was in. While some trees are still green. had a personal style in clothes. I don’t know what might have happened.
direct object 3. object 6. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. 8. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. – unextraposed. 6.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. object 5. subject 7.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – questionable. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – the same as 3.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. subject 4. 331 . He will answer for it that his son is innocent.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. subject 8. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. subject 2. – extraposed. – extraposed. 3. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. – impossible 7. subject 9. It appears that no one voted for him. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. direct object 10. for pragmatic reasons 5. 2. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.
idiomatic formula 16. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible 3. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.grammatical. 10. same as 12. – impossible 11.. – impossible. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – correct 2. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. I guess it that he will come back. – the same as 12. I don’t expect it that he will come back. It is nice to meet you. – impossible.grammatical. although a bit intricate 2. same as 12. – incorrect. . . – grammatical. – grammatical.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible. same as 12. It is no use trying to convince her. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 15. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 9. tense influences the 332 . – impossible.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. .incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. but pragmatically impossible 4.correct 4. – grammatical. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. 14. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. a bit too intricate 5. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – same as 12. Activity 3: 1. 18. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 17. They never expected it that he would come back.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. 3. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. under bridges. thus. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 2. 333 . It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. though. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. behind gates. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 5. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . in the pits on the road.’ 4. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. in the ditch. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. (Not always. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). I hurriedly hid wherever I could. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.incorrect. – correct 6.’ Lionel says. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.
Activity 7 1. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. since the 334 . without trying to protest too much. 2. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 7. who had just returned from Africa. It is less ambiguous than the first. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. By saying this. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. prime-minister. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 8. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 4. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 3. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. – the first sentence is the better of the two. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. because it is less ambiguous. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. who had just returned from Africa.Nadina VIŞAN 6. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. – the second sentence is questionable.
/ I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. The second and third sentences are grammatical.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 5. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. extraposition is obligatory here. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. – both sentences are grammatical. 8./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 6. 335 . 7. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. so there is no need for extraposition.
ibid. – relative 5.relative Activity 9 1. . for better or worse. – direct object.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. The idea that he had had earned him good money. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) complement that clauses. . The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. required by deverbal noun 336 . (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – complement 2. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. coordinated. – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. . – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.prepositional object. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.We discovered that our map has disappeared. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – subject. . (Iris Murdoch.complement 4. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. ibid. – complement 5.adverbial of sequence/result. – prepositional object. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. they were chained to each other forever. – relative 3. – complement that clause. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.
– the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. that deletion is obligatory. – that is obligatory. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. f) John said that Harry would leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – that is obligatory. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. you want me to believe. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke.
in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – both sentences are grammatical. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – grammatical sentences. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b. c. / b) John said that his car is out of gas.
She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. – generalization on habits of birds. lark. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. prepeliţe. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. geese both grey and white. cenuşii şi albe. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. ciocârlii şi şoimi. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. hawk. present perfect instead of past perfect. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. While the first is possible because of the generalization. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. present instead of simple past. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. quail.
slyness in a fight. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Crows will relish what presents itself. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lack of pridefulness. lipsa de vanitate. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. The generic present is used in this case. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. love of practical jokes. She admired their keenness of wit. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects.
îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He had fought hard through the war. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. tânărul ofiţer. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. He died erect. tragică şi eroică.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. But as the battle raged around them. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. se ridicase în picioare. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Murise în picioare. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. he claimed. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. the young officer. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. El căzuse pe spate. […] During the latter stages of the tale. in the very act of expiring. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire.
He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. A short while later. 342 . And they might just hang him. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. the oldest. One of them. Now here he stood jailed. How can I explain? I just felt shy. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. When the boys saw that mother had left. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. în închisoare. to finish my drawing. When he saw me. deşi era erou de război.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. But when he reached me. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. mother went home and I was left alone. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Luptase din răsputeri în război. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). Acum stătea aici. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. war hero though he was. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. 2. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. I realized I could not tell him the big news. – similar situation to the one under (c). jumped off the bench and ran towards me. he closed the album. They all had their hands in their pockets. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. they gathered around my desk. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. around seventeen or eighteen years old. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Activity 13 1. susţinea el.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. as if he had been drunk. 6. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. All his senses were now keen. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. or if she would do so again. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. brightly and closely. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. for her vineyard. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. 4.’ 5. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .’ Mr. or fear his rage. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all.
that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 8. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great.Nadina VIŞAN to him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. 10. 11. thinking of him. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. The last time when we met here you scared me. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. And if things were so. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 9. 7. it meant that he would approve of him from then on.
Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. where he would run to confess everything. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. towards Jurubita. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. more urgently than ever. namely the impatience of this young man. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. 13. We either sell them or we don’t.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. 12. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. without putting anything in a note. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. which secretly drove him. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 14.
grammatical. . or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4..simple infinitive. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He had Mary clean her room. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. – perfect infinitive. / they saw her leave. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. grammatical 3. 9. grammatical 7. 346 . / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. – simple infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . . It is vital for our factory to be reopened. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – infinitive continuous. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 6. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. grammatical 5. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 10. grammatical 2. – simple infinitive. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school.
/ In order to fully understand what that book is about. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: He persuaded her. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. you need to try harder. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *They did not wish her. / He is believed to have known her 347 . \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ I allowed [them to come. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Test: *She wanted him. – Test: They tempted him. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Test: *I allowed them. – Test: They convinced her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: *I would love them. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / I want to never see you again. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / It is not too late for him to learn. – Test: They asked her. Test: *They would have hated her. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ I would love [ them to come. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ They would have hated [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive.
to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb 348 . . / I have a word to tell you.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. I don’t need you or your services. not to miss the train. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / He is hard to stand. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. Activity 6 Oh. / He is easy to talk to. . . / He is young enough to start again. / He is easy to live with. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / Oh. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / To make a long story short. . / I want you to leave my house. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.
Harold. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Predicative 4 . Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. he didn’t envy those above it. 1] A little crossly. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. they had depressed and fuddled him. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. 349 . Subject. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.to. 1 – PRO-to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. so that we might get to the future and have done. 1 – PRO. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Accusative + Infinitive. Both seemed to him a little unreal. He suspected hostility at once. Subject. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. If he himself was out of spirits.
but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. But when we need to comfort others.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. c) Unlike plane trips. 1 – PRO-to. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. One day. more meaningful. excitedly. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. And you might also be hit and humiliated. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. 350 . slowly. PRO controlled by ‘she’. or better said. f) The passing time is important. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. e) When two persons. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. man and woman. PRO controlled by ‘she’. direct object 3 – PRO –to. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. more believable than evidence itself. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. true. we seem to forget about our own pain. cautiously. PRO controlled by ‘him’. PRO controlled by ‘me’. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. object 2 – PRO –to.
351 . which he had already forgotten. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Stroescu. That is it. in the street. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. And I would care for this man so deeply. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. Moroi says heavily. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. h) I want us to go. my wish being only to please and serve. He had not been able to leave Dr. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. all down our neck. S. as he had appeared to him in the rain. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Mrs. for instance. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. while swearing to change my way of life. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. tickled by the trickles of sweat. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. I am indeed praising my own merits. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. If it was summer. that you are young. or. k) With this considerable dowry. even when this love is hurried. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. or their talk that night. not even those parts where he had been half-right. to live only with your coughing.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. And to actually start to believe you are so. not to want to wipe it off. I am looking for a husband to love and obey.
haphazardly. 352 . met by squalor and terrible smells.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. no matter what. ready to submit to any demand. poor Muti. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. she was suddenly so shocked. every Bucharester knows it. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for that’s the door people get off by. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. here I am with all of my own. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. Well. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. If you will have what I can give you. or to speak so fast.
/ They found it thrown in a corner. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. badly beaten and bloodied. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse../ She sent him shopping. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. – Attributive past participle. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. with its lips drawn back./ Don’t keep him waiting.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. 353 ./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ He went to have a tooth pulled. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.
feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I slammed the door of my room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 5. 10.Running into the room. Attributive present participle. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 4. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Turning on the light. – Attributive present participle. Accusative + present participle / In any case. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Finding the treasure. 7. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 2. they began quarreling about how to divide it. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Having been punished by mother for my mistake. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 6. 8. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Sleeping in the next room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I was astonished at what I saw. – As she was running into the room. 9. having been uprooted by the gale. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. The tree had fallen across the road. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. he sat down to his own dinner. Having fed the dog. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Having looked through the fashion magazine. a rug caught her foot and she fell. sitting taut between her father and her sister. having heard it all before./ Running into the room. Activity 4 1.
my hands often get very cold. 12. broad-shouldered. a scorpion bit him. bald-headed. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. 2. the sea was tossing the post up and down. / Getting out of bed. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. narrow-minded. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 7. 10. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. wooden-headed. open-minded. fishy-eyed. his horse fell at the last jump. a pot of paint fell on my head. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was riding in the first race. I let it out of the room. – As he left the cinema. – As he was tied to the post. three-coloured. 9. he was bit by a scorpion. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Leaving the cinema. one of the eggs broke. 355 . a scorpion bit him. I often get very cold hands. 11. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. – As the dog was barking furiously. 8. I let the dog out of the room. – As he was getting out of bed. / Climbing down the tree. empty-headed. Dropped by parachute. – As he was climbing down the tree. red-handed. my hands often get very cold. Riding in the first race. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. an idea suddenly occurred to me. one of the eggs broke. Barking furiously. he broke one of the eggs. sharp-eyed/minded. a pot of paint fell on my head. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Tied to the post. Getting out of bed. Passing under a ladder. 5. the sea was tossing it up and down. 6. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Climbing down the tree. 4. stony-hearted./ Reading in bed. – When I read in bed. Activity 5 Fair-haired. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 3. cloth-covered.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. lion-hearted. many-coloured. his horse fell at the last jump. – As I was passing under a ladder. Reading in bed.
is expected to be a great hit. bounden duty. admired for their elegance and precision. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. The escaped prisoner. injured when their car crashed on the M1. hunting for a bargain. were taken to hospital. roast meat. (find) 6. / Many old people. straight-shouldered. Activity 7 1. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. Activity 8 1. open-hearted.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed.Spielberg. / Three people. (injure). Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. produced by S. (take) 2./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. hidden meaning. drunken man. eagle-eyed. 356 . Whales. (grow) 4. ill-gotten wealth. rotten plank. found hiding in a barn. mown grass. (hunt). are sold throughout the world.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. 7. I stared at the canvas for ages. stricken deer. lighted candle. (admire) 5. was today taken back to prison.I fell on the ice. shorn lamb. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. are in grave danger of extinction. sunken eyes. injuring my arm. The film. (produce) 3. graven image. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. shrunken stream. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. shaven head. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. dark-skinned. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. / Swiss watches.
bake them. A parasol. 3. thrown in the pots. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. yet left them room to sway free. 4. streaked with yellow veins of fat. 357 . was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. he started peering anxiously around as if. He felt close to his father. Although the moment was deeply disturbed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. now taken down. and moreover. he were struggling for breath. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. and the puffed pastry beds. sprinkled with sticky flour. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. then put up. flat and soft. its scales scraped off by the knife. 2. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. seeking some promised land. suddenly suffocated. And his soul. hovering uncertain and soft. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. So. boil them. in charge of his house and lands. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. After a while. the fish. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the carved chicken. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. the twice rinsed vegetables.
– Accusative + participle 3./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. he left the store without buying a thing. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. – participle (attribute) 2. Activity 10 1. – gerund (subject) 4. / I am sorry for being so late. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. . / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture.gerund 5. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. Gambling is his favourite pastime.
participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12.participle vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.possessive ING (direct object) 9. . – Nominative + participle 13. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (attribute. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 8. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. preceded by preposition). – gerund (half or full. He was spotted talking to her. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. She’s looking forward to having lots of children.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me.
so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.’ 360 .’ ‘Tell me. – verbal noun (has adjective). ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. – verbal noun (has determiner. – gerund or verbal noun. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. Croom to try to follow one. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. take down her answer. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – gerund (full. hold up his pen and speak. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. adjective. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. Lady Corven. I did ask Mr.. however appearances were against us.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on..’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. my Lord. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. adjective.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. but they went by too quickly.verbal noun (has determiner.
’ said Clare. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.’ 361 . ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly. I spend all my time hunting a job. my Lord. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. Then.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. I just used the word and they fell. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. licked the envelope with passion. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. he addressed the note. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ said Clare. it’s overrated. and went out to post it himself. ‘I do hate asking for things. I must go back now.
…while their edges were crashing inwards). gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. attribute). The sight of the two children. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. The two sides were moving apart. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. direct object) towards him. slightly 362 . … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. It was like a mist. direct object). direct object) from below. village which is burning). functions as direct object) and then the ground. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. (participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. First the crack snaking (half gerund. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. down into God knows where. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. attribute. elliptical here. down. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. the very earth opening up (half gerund. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. attribute) in a swirling motion. attribute. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. someone looking for survivors (participle.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. slowly rising (participle. hoping (participle. attribute). then the noise and the cracking stone. following the verb ‘remember’. adverbial of time. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. attribute. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. the enormous split in the earth. attribute. The collapsing shops (participle. At first. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. after verb of perception.
preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. adverbial of reason). m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. early. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.). cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. etc. moving up (participle.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. prepositional object. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. covering (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. has ‘of’ phrase).e. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. you. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. i. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. according to the books he read. one. direct object). adverbial of manner) the girl’s head.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.
Having a French governess (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of reason). attribute) stopped dead. Standing up. preceded by preposition. She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and not only in my imagination or theirs. and sunlight. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. attribute) to winter brilliance. and everything got suddenly animated. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. So. adverbial of manner). whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. slanted on to her cheek. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. brightening (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. we were all gathered in that room. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. for Dornford was busy on an important case. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. the two Mamonas. Vaucher and I. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. which beckoned to 364 . and then went riding (participle. reluctant or not. attribute) a sudden whoop. And. a door was opened and as a servant entered. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. examining (participle. mother. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks.
for anyway. and ended his life in the year 1821. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. I knew who it would be. bending a little. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. to me. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. 4. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. let alone greet us or say something. her back towards us. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. about concentrating all our resources. And then. without taking his sack off his shoulders. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. sitting in his puddle. Vaucher might have known that too. closing my eyes. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. So when Old Mamona came in. to Vaucher. he found us sitting each in his place. Entering our house on a Thursday. And. his disloyal apprentice. he went to mother and. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. He cast us a swift glance. about sparing no effort. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . Not so unimaginable though. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. as mother had ordered him. he looked like someone who did. and smelling so hard of rain. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. kissed her forehead. each carrying a wooden box. who knows. 2. too. and to Young Mamona. in the year 1812. 3. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. killed by Young Mamona.
Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. But. of taking notes and rewriting them. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. wood pile. 5. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. barrack. stove. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. each pausing before jumping down. long board table. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. And all around them was the great field 366 . everything seemed familiar. They got off the truck slowly. as an afterthought. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. futile. already seen and heard. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. And suddenly. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and.
The next thing was to go to the well. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. 367 .
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
University of Chicago Press. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. vol. TUB Curme. G. Cambridge University Press. Gallimard. Bybee. 1996. The Evolution of Grammar. Cornilescu. I. eds. Benveniste. Accuracy and Fluency. 1994. . A. Bybee. English Grammar. 2003. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. 1966. Laurie.. Emile. . Chicago. 1976. The Transformational Syntax of English. Mimo and Marc Moens. 1982.. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. 51-103. 1976. Al. Burnes and Noble. CUP. Aspect. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. .. TUB Cornilescu. Institutul European Cornilescu. Iclezan Dimitriu. Cornilescu.References Bauer.II. 1. Bucuresti.. 1983. Joan. 369 . English Syntax. Caenepeel. A. Complementation in English. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. 1989. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. Problemes de linguistique generale. 1964. A. . 1994. English Word-Formation. Bernard. Mouton de Gruyter. Comrie. Joan and Osten Dahl.
Longman. M.K. 1993. 1959.A. Alexandru. I. . 1982. Progress to Proficiency. An Advanced English Practice Course.S. Hornby. Hassan. Outlooks and Insights. Halliday. Graver. 1931. 1987. Gramatica limbii române. Alexandru Niculescu. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. et al. 370 . . 1987. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Hewing. Bucureşti. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. Iordan. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Otto. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu.1993. London. Gunter Narr Verlag.Day. Advanced Grammar in Use. Graur. Aspects of English Morphology. Cohesion in English. Peter. . Tubingen. 1982: 42-70. Longman. Richard. 1967. London. In Vincent and Harris.. A.A. 2000. vol. Bucureşti. Jespersen. R.S.. Longman. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane.. London and Copenhagen. 1961. 1963. eds. Advanced Grammar Practice. Gramatica Academiei. P. 1999. Martin. London. Harris. New York. Dutescu-Coliban. CUP. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Denison. 1968. 1976. St Martin’s Press. Fenn. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. Taina. Eschholz. 1968. Bucureşti. English Historical Syntax. Longman. & Alfred Rosa (eds). M. Longmans. Jones. 1968. Hornby. J. CUP. Leo. Part IV. & R.
volume 68.. Jim. Quirk. eds. L. Kennedy. Focus on Proficiency. Transactions of the Philological Society. McCarthy. E. Hans and Christian Rohrer.. J. A Grammar of Contemporary English. 1990. 1964. Seminar Press. Leech. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. . Groningen. London. M. Part II. English Syntax. Literature. From Discourse to Logic. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Poutsma. An Introduction to Fiction. in Fodor. 2002. A Grammar of Late Modern English. Kruisinga. 323-352 O’Connell. X. 1983.. vol. Parrott. Wolfgang. H.J. Tense in Texts. M. vol. CUP. 1926. Number 3. 1973.. Serban. Negation in English. 1970. OUP. Sue. Language. Klima. Hans and Uwe Reyle. 1987. 1992. 2000.Kamp. R. G. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Bauerle et al. 89:2 (2000).. A Modern English Grammar. 1991. 1993.Katz. Miller. and Svartvik. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. CUP. I. (advanced). Poetry and Drama. An Outline of English Lexicology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Greenbaum. Schibsbye. Klein. A Handbook of Present-day English. S. D. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Kamp.. Dordrecht. and J. E. Scott. 1982. K. J. & Felicity O’Dell... TUB. Groningen Lipka. 2000. Nelson. 1931. Foresman and Company.
Smith. In M.. Modes of Discourse. Stefanescu. Structures linguistiques et interpretations.. R.. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. 372 . A Handbook of English Grammar. 1999.. 2003. Zandvoort. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London. 347-385. 1992. N. Visan. de Swart. 2001. TUB.) L’emprise du sens. Carlota. 2003. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Co. 1990. 1978. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov.. Henriette. N. Lectures in English Morphology. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Vet. Vişan. Berlin. 1998. A.W. 1957 and 1962. Editura Credis. Sentence Processes. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Mouton de Gruyter. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. Co.. e.Schwegler. 2003. editia 1. Plenat (ed. a. Vet. New York. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. Rodopi. Conference on British and American Studies. I. Le passe simple. Amsterdam.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.