NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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de rezolvări. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

1.4.Contents: 8 1. Complementary distribution . Auxiliary verbs 1.6. The Distribution of an Element 1.2.3.5. Insertion 1. Constituent Phrase 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.

(Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Consequently.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. For instance. They are just strings. sequences of the kind her mother very. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. 1.2. that is sequences fragmented at random.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. her mother. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Semantic. Syntactic. very much.1. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. loves.

semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. 1. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. should. an order given to an interlocutor). 1. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) 10 .Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. must.4.e.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.3. be). etc. (Mi-a spus secretul. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. we are dealing with a directive (i.

5. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .6. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. Consider. an ‘empty’ there subject. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.) 1. 1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. live. etc. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. for instance. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret.

he had not yet been able to estimate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. distribution. using your own examples: insertion. Pratice Define and illustrate. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Munt. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. semantic. this would really hurt. How much. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. as the star indicates. pragmatic. If the given context is the one under (6). both (8) and (9) are correct structures. 12 . whereas (7) is not. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. syntactic. complementary distribution.

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 . To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.

Key terms . Full – local negation 2. affirmative sentences. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Negative vs.3. Instances of negation 2.5. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.2. Conclusion.8.6.2.7. Key terms 2.4. Tests for negativity 2. Polarity Items 2.1.

(I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a. it asserts something.Positive vs. Consequently. in the sense that it states something.Declarative vs. Negative . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. For instance. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .) is said to be an assertion. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .Unit two Sentence negation 2. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.2. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.) b. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. in that they do not state anything.

subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.positive sentence .non-assertion . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .g.other (if –clauses. Did they tell her the secret? ) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. 16 .g. / Come with me.) ./ Don’t do that. They told her the ( e.interrogative (e. listen to this./ We didn’t come here just to talk. comparison.assertion . don’t bother her./ She can’t wait to read that book.g./ If you like her. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive and declarative secret.negative (e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.Nadina VIŞAN .) . / She finally admitted.

) 17 . whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not.) b. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Nu demult. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. I met a girl named Susan. (John nu e fericit) (4) a.Unit two Sentence negation 2. John is not happy. (John e nefericit. Susan dislikes her friends. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. For example. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) b. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. In the case of the sentences under (4). John is unhappy. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. word negation. since the negative word not is not present there.3.

we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. but their meaning tells us a different story. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. In other words. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) b. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. She was not an unattractive woman. where the word 18 . namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. He was not without intelligence.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. In other words. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman.) c.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. just like in the case of word negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. these sentences look negative. I was not a little worried. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. since the negative word not is present inside them.

/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative).e./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. without intelligence./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / Când a aflat vestea. Translate the following sentences into English. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.

Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.4. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. Negative vs. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. affirmative sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era el destul de isteţ. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. dar nu în mod special. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. ci doar indecişi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . 2. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.

in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. such as do insertion.). (Nu m-am dus acolo. etc.) (9) I didn’t go there. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.1. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (M-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (see subsection 1. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. For instance.

doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends./ They didn’t leave. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan did not get married to Jim. 22 . The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. incorrect. / We don’t come here often. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan was not bitten by a dog.

not even the smart ones. 4. *and neither do they like her.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. *not even the smart ones. and neither do they like her. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. * and they don’t like her either. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. . Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. which does not happen in the case of (18). (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. 3. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. which is ungrammatical. and they don’t like her either. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Example (14) is syntactically negative. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.

/ No problems were caused after all. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / They caused us no problems. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. 2. / You have never met her. / Few of them stayed behind. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 .5. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / This boy is no good. they go skiing in the mountains. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / A few of them stayed behind. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. In conclusion.

Susan could not go to the theatre. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. I went nowhere. (N-a venit John). (26) I saw nobody. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (27) a .

) b. I didn’t see any student. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. I never went to his place. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. no incorporation takes place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. Not all that glitters is gold. b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.Nadina VIŞAN b. I didn’t see anybody.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All that glitters is not gold.) c. I didn’t go anywhere.) b. 26 .) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. (N-am văzut nici un student. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) (29) a. No day passed without me thinking of him.

.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.4. scarcely. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / He should not be released. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. not even short ones. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.) They barely read any novels./ They never went there./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not many women are famous opera composers. rarely. / I didn’t see anybody. / I saw nobody. etc. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. barely. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / Not a word fell from her lips.) We seldom watch T. / Not one of them came to meet her. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / No one ever listens to her. seldom. / None of them liked house music.V. / I showed him nothing.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. nici măcar din alea scurte./ They didn’t come to meet her. (Nu citesc romane.

/ I seldom look at her like that.) c. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor.) b. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. . negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) d. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I scarcely ever see her. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) 28 them. / Hardly anybody liked him. Not for the world would I do such a thing. Never have I met a more horrible person. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.

negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. never trust a man again.) They don’t think that he likes them.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. in the sense that the 29 . / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. As you can see from the translation of these examples./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / She could rely on nobody but him.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.

Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. / I expect he won’t come here again. expect. cannot appear in an affirmative context. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / He reckoned he would not win her over. believe. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. appear.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / They believe she does not like them. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. although not negative in meaning. etc. should be desirable. we can very well say something like: (38) a. be probable. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. be likely. probability. want. suppose. / I suppose she doesn’t care. barely. guess. suggest. intend. etc.: think. imagine. intention. ought to. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. choose.) 30 . sound/feel like. 2.6. the negative meaning is less strong.) b. look like. etc. seem. For example. advise. In sentence (37). be supposed to.

and sentences such as: (39) a. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.2.*She lifted a finger to help me. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). That is 31 . I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. b. *She likes our chairman at all. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.

/ I have already seen him. either. / You needn’t send her anything.) Until vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I eat caviar most of the times.) Any more vs. / I have some money. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I can understand both of these 32 . / He arrived before 5.) At all vs. / Bob is still living at that address. / I like you a lot. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I like it . /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.) Hardly ever vs. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. too (I don’t like it. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) Much vs. / Well. / I somewhat like his proposal. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Don’t worry. still (I don’t love you any more. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.) Yet vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. you can still do something about it.). we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / I still love you) Either vs. too. a lot (I don’t like you much. too. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. some (I haven’t any money.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / Well. / She hardly ever comes here. etc. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Come on. / They say he once had someone very close. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / I somehow like him. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.

say / breathe/ understand a word. turn a hair. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. last a minute. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. hear a peep. / You must pay that fine. hurt a fly. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / You must be telling lies. give a damn/darn. know a single person. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. move a muscle. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole./ I can understand all of these ten English words. have/be worth a red cent. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. leave a stone unturned. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. crack a smile. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Ajută-mă. have a care/ friend in the world. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. nici unuia dintre noi. flinch. bat an eye(lid). n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). find a trace. touch a drop. de când cu 33 . mulţumesc. sleep a wink. lift/raise/ stir a finger. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. Translate into English. see/ feel/ remember a thing. lay a finger on someone. Ion nu e prea deştept.

n-a sunat încă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / No sooner said than done. / Nothing succeeds like success.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No admittance. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Not that I care. B: Aşi. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / He is no end of a fellow. Translate into Romanian. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No trouble at all. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. încercând să prindă criminalul. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Hotărât lucru. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. but you really should do something about it. he’s a pig. / No hands wanted. / Never is a long word. / He won’t make old bones. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. he left the room. / No entry. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / I had no end of trouble. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / No man is wise all the time. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. budge. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. nu e vina mea.

/ I hate making any commitments. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. c) He is anxious to say something. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). b) I love asking some funny remarks. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. as well: 35 . Normally. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.Unit two Sentence negation rather). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. say it. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. which is not the case of the sentence under (45)./ I saw no one. 2. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API).) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. N-am văzut pe nimeni.7.

Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. I don’t. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. Conclusion. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. nu-mi place. 36 . nu poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. B: Nu. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. (Nu. from a syntactic point of view. Key terms. B: Not this poem. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.8.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. The second negation is somehow independent. nu îmi place poezia asta. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. however. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. I don’t like this poem.) 2. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
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Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
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Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e.

3.2 Echo Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.3.Questions 3.1. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3. Optional Exercises .2. Minor Types of Questions 3. Direct vs.3 Alternative Questions 3.2.2 Wh.2.4.3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3. Key Terms.

for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.Unit three Questions 3.1. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. If we try to analyze the examples above. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. focusing on direct questions mainly.

Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. 48 .g. (2). all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. (3) and (4). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. pe mama. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.

It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. Since the question is not direct any more. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). 49 . the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. because. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the sequence of the tenses is violated. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. in this case. In the case of indirect questions. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Likewise.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5).

cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / I don’t know who she is. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / He asked me who she was. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. c) Ştii ce. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. sau mai bine zis. / He asked me who she is. ce culoare are pielea. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / I don’t know whom she fancies. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. identify the incorrect sentences. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. spune la un moment dat femeia. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she.

V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. being typical of spoken language. as Quirk shows. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.2. In this case. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.Unit three Questions 3. the type of answer the respective question requires. Let us provide 51 . one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.

(when / the accident happen) ? 9. 3.2. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (which / you like best) ? 4. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.1. (who / talk to last night)? 5.

that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. it has. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da). are said to be positively – oriented. instead of Negative Polarity ones. (Da). they did. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes.

make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. I’ve still got plenty of time. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. 6.. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: She had her tenants evicted. . A: You’ve been learning German for years. 4. It was the kind of film that really depresses me..Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. 7. (speak yet) B: ……. ……………? (hear her) B: …. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. …………………. ……. as in the example: 1. 3. …………………………….. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. 2.. because you always copy everything I do! 5. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: You look down.? (a mean thing to do) 54 .

8. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.2 Wh – questions Wh. how. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. which When. 10.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.Unit three Questions B: …………………. where. 9. A: It’s past your bedtime.. ………………………………. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . I didn’t get home until late last night.2. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. ..? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . You could have mentioned it earlier. . 3. A: There was a terrible car crash. what . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………..

/ David’s car was stolen. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / There are six students in my class. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / My new car cost 10. / Shirley got married to Ben. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. I cannot do that. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / Kay’s gone out shopping./ I have French lessons twice a week./ We’ve lived here for ten years. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / That’s my pen. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. what ever. of course./ She dropped her glasses.000dollars./ Sara owns two cars. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. why ever. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. trying to find places where I resided in life. Nearly two hundred years.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / She lives in the suburbs. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. (Poppy Z. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city.

Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 .2. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.

What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. didn’t use he? 4. shall we stay? 7. There was a fax for you this morning. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. can you be? 58 . Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How far is it the cinema? 3. shall we stay? 14. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. didn’t use he? 11. Let’s stay for another few days.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. He used to work in a bank. Who did left the gate open? 18. He used to work in a bank. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Let’s stay for another few days. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. You can’t be serious. wasn’t it there? 17.

isn’t it this? 25. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. deci. Ani întregi. să-mi înfrâng frica. How long have you be lived in London? 26. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Whose it is this book? 32. will you not? 27. doesn’t he go? 23. wasn’t it he? 22. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. despre o lume dură. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. dacă prin absurd 59 . will you not? 21. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. John goes jogging every morning. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29.Unit three Questions 19. That was Jeremy’s brother. ca şi cei ce au fost. neliniştea infantilă. That’s your car. Toate vechi. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Pot reveni. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. deci. plin de germeni virulenţi. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. uneori disperat. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul.

mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. negru. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. inactivii. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. de atunci. indiferent de risc. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. lung. murdar. dar şi drumul. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. laşii. mă întreb. “Spune! striga el. puturos. pe sub bolţile din care. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. naiv. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . Riscul? Ratarea. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. picură apa roşietică. îi ştiu gustul. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. neîntrerupt. Şi. iar proştii. B. umed. străină priceperii lor. ghiceam doar unde se află. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj.

will you? (38) She went to Prague. domnule profesor. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. exclus.1. 3. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.3. la urma urmei. golul alb. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.3. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. didn’t she? . Tag Questions Tag questions. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. care i-a determinat alegerea.Unit three Questions viaţă. viaţa? Oare e drept. nu se poate. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. da? (37) Let’s go there. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. orbitor.

(Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. au fost cheltuiţi.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. au fost cheltuiţi.e. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. is it? (Deci. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. or falling. it’s all spent. aren’t they? 62 . the tag is negative too). the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. sarcasm. if the host sentence is negative. hasn’t she? (Aha. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.) A: Oh. the tag is affirmative too. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. The suggestion is that in this case. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. (Din păcate. In this way. or “comment tags”. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet.

/ I am older than you. / You ought not to smoke. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / She used to talk a lot. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / They said he liked music.…/ Let me know. / He simply hates empty words. / I may see you tomorrow. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You have been invited. / I think you like my music. / Let’s eat dinner now. / He hates his wife. / Activity 12 He will be on time. 63 . …/ Ann can’t speak French. / I am dressed smartly enough. / She left an hour ago. / You will pick me up. / That’s your car over there. / There is enough food for everyone. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / A few people like her. / That was your father. / Everyone felt happy about it. / She has a brother. / He has to marry Susan. / You will pick me up at 7. / Tell me.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Few people like her. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Surely you have enough money. / I don’t think you like my music. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. after all. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / I think you don’t like my music. / The boy never watched his sister. / I must go now. / The boy often watched his sister. / Don’t leave without me. / Each of us is staying.

there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. or what? 3.. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. So you enjoyed my talk. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / He never used to study so hard…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. using a question tag at the end. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one./ I’m right about this…. 5. He used to play squash.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….

Recapitulatory echo questions . / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.3. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.1.) B: Chinese? 65 .Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.3. / Grants… 3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.questions which repeat part or all of the message.1. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.

phrase is fronted. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. rather than the repetition. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. of something just said. consternation.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.2.3.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. (Închide lumina aia.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.2. disbelief.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. If the wh. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.

with recapitulatory echo questions. (Uită-te la asta. am pierdut scrisoarea. (i. dear. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. / We are looking for a pixie.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. which letter do you 67 . / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. I’ve lost the letter. whereas with explicatory echo questions.e./ We are looking for a purse./ He is interested in blue movies.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. / I think I’ve found a solution. rather than did you say. intonation is rising. / He is interested in music. (Vai.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.

Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.4. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3.

– Crezi tu. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şi apoi Vica ce zice. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. da. stricata. şerpoaica. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. în satul nostru. acuma sporovăiala. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. Fenio. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. Are gust de oameni blânzi. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. lui Chizlinski. lui Luca Horobeţ. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. nu purta verighetă. cumnată Fenia. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. aşa. pe Condrat de Vica. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. după pofte. lui Stavre Păici. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . oameni aşezaţi. cu o casă de copii.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. ca să zic aşa. şi care s-a aciuat. să se încolăcească mai bine. în general. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie.

De asta erai. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. abia târându-şi picioarele. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. L-a scos din geamie. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Hogea. dar cum se face că a 70 . deci. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. sau cum o chema.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. roşu şi galben. până la călcâie. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. sus. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere.

furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

6.3.Key Concepts .1.4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Contents: 74 4.2.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.5.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.

that elements are coordinated. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination.e.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. reproachfully. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.Unit four Coordination 4. Example (2). Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. 75 . i. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.1 Syndetic vs. on the other hand. where there is no indication other than a comma.e. present) in the sentence. cu repros. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.

namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. 76 . coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. you will die. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. From the previously mentioned examples.) (4) If you hit my wife.) Such examples. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. Conversely. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure.Nadina VIŞAN 4. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. vei muri.

(John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. we need to specify that. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . respectively subordinated constituents. However. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. from a logical & semantic point of view. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. but presupposed. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. the second.

How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. took off his coat and emptied them. took off his shoes and emptied them. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. His clothes hung to him. In the second.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. He moved and made a slopping noise. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. of cut gray stone. Then he sat down. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. built. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. his shoes squished. In the first. but the 78 . Though the castle had vanished. with enormous solidity. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. with formal walks under rows of trees. John Steinbeck. adorned with cornices. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. the houses were beautiful and ancient.

curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Cecil Woocham – Smith. over some of the roughest ground in the country. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. the higher he went the wetter it grew. left the house. and as the way is with Irish mountains.

were to take down the name of every man. yesterday and the day before yesterday. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.3 Sentence vs. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.K. however distinguished. As one can easily notice.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. we should be seriously annoyed. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (G. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. as shown in (9). A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.

our respective examinations. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 2.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. yellow and blue. but not John. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. and I passed. John is ready and Mary is ready. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. and even tennis. 5. 8. 4. / Bob and George are admired by their students. John and Mary are ready. 10. / Joan plays many games. / Peter. 3. 9. plays football. Activity 2 sentences: 1. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed.Unit four Coordination example (7). Her pet kitten is black and white.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Our flag is red. / Peter and John played football. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 7. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.

Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. 5. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. as can be seen in (10b). Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane 82 . Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune.Nadina VIŞAN b. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. or deleted. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. 3. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves and Bill hates cigars.) c. 6. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.) b. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. * John loves cigars and Bill hates.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Activity 4 2. John writes poetry and Bill prose.

that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 7.) The common element. i. 83 . 9. the predication buy a pair of shoes. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. these syntactical processes. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. the so-called Principle of Economy. than a longer repetitive one. 8. Besides ellipsis. 10.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.e. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. can be reduced by substitution. So. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. We can demand payment and we will demand payment.

2. George and Jane went back to their parents. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. some reason or another. one or (the) other method. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. simple books and magazines for children 3. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Translate the following sentences. the old men and women 2. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. In certain cases. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. 3. 4. using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane are separated. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. A citit. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare.

11. sweet and sour. 8. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. even though they have their little ………….I searched ……….. 15. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. Marks and Spencers.. . Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Can we discuss the …………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 2. 13. 12. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. A pendulum swings ………. After all their adventures. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 .You gain some things and you lose others. for my wallet. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. only for damage. fish and chips.. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 6. They get on quite well together. the amount I’ve already saved up.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 7. 6. I need another 100$ ………. 16. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 5. like: salt and pepper. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 5. 8. it’s a case of ………… 7. of your proposals later on? 3. they reached home……….… 14. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres..

) There are. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. as in: (17) a. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. b. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.4. 4. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. more often than not. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. In fact. etc.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. and 86 . which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. Nor sun. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. the expressive function of coordination is. For instance. of course. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators.

He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. o respectau si o indrageau. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. both … and .Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.g. too): (20) a. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) In certain cases. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.) c.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (I-am dat banii. and cherished her. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.) 87 . (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. 20 (b)). the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. where the subordinator is repeated. sometimes but. etc).) b. or . (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.

From this point of view. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.* I ironed and washed my pants. and hit my wife. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. if we were to rewrite the example .) b. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. I washed and ironed my pants. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. (O admir si imi place.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. In this case. I admire and like her. and you’ll die. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. (Imi place si o admir. I like and admire her.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.) b.

you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. he failed). (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Brown experiments with humans. (If you do that. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.) (While Dr.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.Unit four Coordination 1.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.

turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.g. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.) 101 . (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.which are based on coordination . the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. 5.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. e. as the name suggests it. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. From the functional point of view. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.

an adverbial item. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. by an adjective + preposition. We do not presuppose however something like. For instance. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. In a way. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. we associate it with these objects.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. (I-a dat cartea. sentences) required by the verb (or. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. in certain cases. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. for example).) 102 .Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. for instance.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. such as proud of.

I am afraid that he won’t come. to add something. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. Thus. to her) and one extra-item. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. i. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. The second example. which is the adverbial willingly. related to example (4).) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. 103 . The term comes from the verb to adjoin. an additional one. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid.) b. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information.e. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. In other words. A second observation.

am să mor.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. I’ll die. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. So. such as want.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. etc.) (11) If you don’t marry me.) 104 . before you decide on what label to stick on an object.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. like. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. a închis toate ferestrele. make. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. (Înainte să plece din cameră.

They came to e. Susan disappeared without saying a word.g. 2. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.g.g. 4. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 3.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. After I told her the story. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 5. Whoever did that was a genius. e. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. she looked at me sadly.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.She came to him of her own will. 6. [. The book that because they home. this to whomever wants it. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .

You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. You suggestion that we should. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. etc. As you can see. WHETHER.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. 3. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 6. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless.) 106 . at our age. though it was largely politeness.He took an intelligent interest in her. which. but he declined. not object. 5. was a novelty to Mitzi. FOR. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 2. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 4.

(Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. Who did it was John.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. where.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. which.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. etc.) b. Where he went is London. who. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (15) It is John who did it. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. 107 . (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. when.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (E de dorit să plece.) (16) a.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. why. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. how.

etc. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .) (18) She told me this before she left. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. consider the following table. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. if. done from a structural point of view. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. Unlike complement clauses. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. In (18). Compare. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. however. before. which sums up this classification.1. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. for instance. In conclusion. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. As you will see.

Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. Dear Ludwig.g. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. 109 . Introduced know e. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.g. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. you understand. as. back. at your young age. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I will go there because I feel like it. whether he will come when I feel like it. for. after. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.: e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.g. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I will come back such as because.

But she thought that no one would call again. she stopped to speak to Monroe. Late that afternoon. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 .The day Monroe had died was in May. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. As she left the house. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Too. Accidental Man) b)1. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. a tightening in her breathing. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. 2.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. he said. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep.

Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. că e.g.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. interesting.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.g.2. 111 . As you have probably noticed already. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. a correspondence can be traced. I told her everything after she arrived. That he loved e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. However.

) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. complements. whereas wh complements are the 112 .Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).1. So. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. whenever you identify a wh. We will come back to that in the next chapter. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.complement.. Thirdly. i. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. (Cred că mă place. Secondly. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.e. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. In the fourth place.2.

Pratice Consider the following text.g. for no matter how she tried. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. a house. their introductory elements (e. I first thought to tell in 113 . She mistrusted her handwriting. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. outbuildings. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. a barn. after. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. but no idea what to do with them.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. and I do not know how things might stand between us. before. because. c) I am coming home one way or another.

4. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. these clauses can be complements. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. it would make you fear to do such again.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. According to a structural criterion. and I have not the will or the energy. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial).e. because they modify.

indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. îşi spuseseră că Anton. look at. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. answering the question to whom? So. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. însă. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace.g. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Alţii. O zbughi înapoi. Nevasta secera în tăcere. ce o fi având. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Pratice Translate the following. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. think of. etc. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. be very careful to use this term correctly.e. 115 . care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. interested in. (…) “Mă. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. după ce că are grâu puţin.

sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. timp de un ceas. Nici acum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. de fapt. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. întâi. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. izolate de sat. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Toată lumea înţelesese că.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. cât de bolnavă era. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila.

cu automobilele unora dintre ei. amânase scrisul. la nişte prieteni comuni. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. deşi cam târziu. stricau totul. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. În realitate. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Pace nu era. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. acum sunt desluşiţi. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Era bine de ştiut. Iată. aşa de oţetit. de pildă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. la Odobeşti.

întâia noapte de război) 118 . Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. frate. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.

g. whose. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses. etc. 119 . etc).SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. of which. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.

6.4. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.5.7. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.2.6.1.3. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. The Co-reference Condition 6. Key Concepts . Relative Clause Introducers 6.

) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.Unit six Relative clauses 6. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. 6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The Co-reference Condition .2.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. 121 . relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.

(Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. 122 . Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. By combining these two clauses. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. John loves that woman.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.

John offered flowers to that woman. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. 123 . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The common element woman is present. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . This way.

frequently used in written language. WHO 124 . 10. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. I went to London. The king was just passing by. He told Jim everything about his plans.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. WHERE 3. 6. 3. 8. Any of the students would answer to questions. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I love my husband very much. He’s the author who received the prize. None of the students agreed with them. 9. I introduced him to Jim. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. The students like their teacher. John told his friend a story about the king. She came to London. 5. I bought Jim a book. I had a book. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. therefore in spoken English. by leaving behind a trace. The students like their teacher. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. They met those students. He liked that book. 4. 2. 7. WHICH 4. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. This is my husband. WHO 5. too. Susan wants to meet Jane. I lost the book’s cover. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one.

that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 10.e. WHOSE 7. . WHICH 8. most of them were from England.Unit six Relative clauses 6. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. i. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHOM 6. (Cine strică plateşte. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. 2. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. TO 11. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.

(Cel care strică plăteşte. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) So.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. unlike in the case of (14). in a manner of speaking. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. is no longer overtly expressed.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. Unlike their sisters.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.e. it is covert. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. these relatives cannot function as attributes.

they define it). este zeul meu favorit. They can be thus divided into: 1. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes.) (Mercury. who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Du-te unde pofteşti. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. is my favourite god. 127 . Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. care este zeul negoţului. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. They only provide supplementary information about it. who is the god of commerce. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Mercur.) (22) Mercury.

Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 10. She. restrictive relative clauses. 8. who came to see me. As we were saying. i. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. then it is an attribute. 5. On the day on which this occurred I was away. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. who is a genius. Independent I don’t know what you want. They are what 128 . a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Shakespeare. this type of relative clauses. 7. I have met him where I least expected. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. 2. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. 9. 6. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. is a genius. is a great playwright. was the one we all welcomed and admired.This is the village where I spent my youth. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man.e. on whom nobody could depend.

Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. When the antecedent has no determiner. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. care a murit acum câţiva ani.) 2.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. 6. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. however sad this may be.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. composed The (Freddie Mercury. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. etc.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. etc. who died a few years ago. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. . We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. a. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.

numai eu nu. (Ei apeleaza la mine.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who am your son. iritabilă şi uscată. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. dried-up old maid. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. 4. 6. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. can see your shortcomings only too well. bătrînă morocănoasă. (Eu. ill-tempered. 7. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. 3. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. who neither work nor am anxious. 2. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care nu sunt o femeie. 5. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte.) (28) They come to me. poftiţi în faţă. 130 . ci o fată a woman.) Pratice Translate the following. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care-ţi sunt fiu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Dintre toate personajele prezente. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Mie.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. but a peevish.

Unit six Relative clauses 6.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. .) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. heard. erau acum în posesia lui. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. (32) service finished late. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. than whom few more can be more crashing. were now in his possession. părăsi camera. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.

too. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. The genitive form with which is still in use. 6. literary style: (37) a. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. but it is typical of the formal.1. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) b. as can be seen in (36d).) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.5. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b.) d. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.) c. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.

(Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. (Iris Murdoch. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.

Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. of which. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. animals.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. but to a type or a function: a.) b. He is not the man which he used to be.) b. (45) (46) . … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. by the way. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. ships (that can be personified) a. … Italy.) • states. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.

time.) 135 (47) . did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. pe care o privea direct.5. whom it concerned most closely. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) 6. (Nu ştiam ce vor. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. while. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. It is poor what gets the punches. how.) b) dialectal (49) a.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. reason. where. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. Poland is the place where Christine was born. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. etc.) b.Unit six Relative clauses b. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. etc. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. France. why.2 Relative Adverbs: when. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.

) b.) 136 .3. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.5.) b.) 6. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. This is the place wherefrom they came. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.They left when they decided it was proper to.) b. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. He went where he had been before. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) e. The place whither he goes is unknown. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) c. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.

) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. Moreover.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).

(Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. any. but they are used very infrequently: as.) b. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.5. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car.4. .) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. but • in standard language a. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. Honest man as he was. much. 138 (64) his shoes. not any. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.

(Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. Uncle George.) • in dialect a. .Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. This is the same one that/as you had before. There’s not many as’ll say that. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.) c.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. him as was in China … (Uncle George. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. It’s the dry weather does it. And always on the buttered side. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.) c. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. ăl de fusese in China…) b.

It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) 140 .

* The man to that John spoke is an idiot. Where he was from. we all have to come to some terms. What I’m saying is. makes me a wart and a wen.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.) c. 7.) b. b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.3): (72) a. That which shows God out of me.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. 3. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. What Inman remembered was this passage.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. This is where we talk money. The man that John spoke to is a genius. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.” 4. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man who John spoke to is a genius.5. 5. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. fortifies me. The man John spoke to is a genius. It seemed a thing 141 . (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 6. 2.

(…) Partly. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 142 .Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. of living. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 13.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. 11. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 9. Oh. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 8. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 10. Ruby said. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. though. which is a lot. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. who had not witnessed many dawns. Whatever his fate was. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 12. he had left Ruby high and dry.

vasnic. un var primar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. Cumnatul meu avea. divortata. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . pirpiriu. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. nu prea sarac. al carei strabunic. (Iris Murdoch.al lui. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. pe linie paterna. plutonier. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. cumnatul unui portughez. mort de tanar. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. fiu natural al unui morar. poate.

) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. I lost the cover of the book. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. The opposite phenomenon. c. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. b. insurat de trei ori la rand. This is the book. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.6. Everybody listened to that woman. By extension.2. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. 144 . She was a woman. Teatru) 6. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi.

Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. acting again as a genuine pied piper. no easy answers to which could be offered. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. The difference between (76) and (77). 6. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. has been troubling them forever. The problem of safe transportation. 4. 9. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 3. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. 7. In the interest of public decency. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. he requested that the public be excluded.Unit six Relative clauses b. 2. 5. 8.

Irene. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. This story. has been deleted. he rarely saw now. 146 . including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 2. 10. 5. 4.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 3. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. as the case is). Activity 9 were now all gone. His friends. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 6.His father’s friends. They do not function as attributes. was now complete. no matter which.

unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. himeric. închipuirea. 4. 7. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. 2. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Pentru alţii. Toate sfârşeau. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 5. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Nelu. 6. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. De douazeci de ani. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. 3. sunt vrednic de invidiat.

când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. a făcut el. 9. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. nici în searbăda mea versiune. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. cu surle şi cu tobe. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 12. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 8.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. 10.

printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Dacă mă lovea. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. zise ea cu ochii mari. despre care. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. din direcţia căreia apoi. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. de unde venea şi Marta. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 16. toată lumea întreba cine e. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. roiuri de fetiţe. 149 . izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. 17. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. În spatele lor. apărură. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. fie la teatru. deşi atât de aproape. 18. până mai adineauri. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. pe strada Icoanei. din care cauză pe Dora. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. fie pe stradă. trăia larg de tot. Avea acum un fel de vertij. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. care era foarte “mondenă”. 15. 14. 20.

Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. când au urcat râpa iar. 22. Pare-se că snobii. pe care eu nu-l aveam. pe care ea îi admira acum. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Pentru mine însă. 23. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el.Nadina VIŞAN 21. de sus de unde eram. întâia noapte de război) 150 . după ce maşina a fost reparată. până în şosea. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. aveau un stil al lor. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. de mine. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. 24. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene.

151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

2.Topicalization 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.2.3.2.3.3. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.1.2.Extraposition 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.1.7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1.2.1.1.3.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.4.5. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. That Deletion 7.2.2.1.6.2.Clause Shift 7.4.3.2. Key Concepts .5.

In other words. the clause is extraposed.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. 153 .) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. but also of infinitival ones. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. placed in a marginal position.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. Apart from those introduced by that. 7.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.

(Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.

It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 9. It will be soon announced when you can leave. They considered it very silly of her to 155 .The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 11.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 5. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 10. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 6. 8. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 6. 3. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It is nice to meet you. 15. 3. 10. It appears that no one voted for him. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 2. 14. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 7. 13. 4. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 7. 4. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 9. 2. 11. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It is no use trying to convince her. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.

I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. They never expected it that he would come back. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 4. 4.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 5. 3. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. în canal. zice Lionel. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 2. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 3. 2.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. atât 156 . “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. sub poduri. 2. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 3. după porţi. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. mă ascundeam în grabă. în gropi. I guess it that he will come back. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 18. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 5. unde se nimerea. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 6.

(Nu întotdeauna. vor căuta să o zdruncine. fără să cârteşti. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. fără îndoială. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). 5. Mi s-a părut chiar că. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. 7. excelentă. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Spunând cele ce-am spus. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. 6.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea.” 4. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. 157 . Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist.

) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.1. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. this asymmetry is undone. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) While in the case of extraposition. in the case of topicalization. Pratice Read the following. 1. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. subject clauses are the frequent situation. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. Consequently.2.Nadina VIŞAN 7.

He was utterly gone. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. he felt no spring of interest in her. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. whether it would finally carry her off. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. even today.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. was inconceivable. mere chance would decide. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 5. 2. She had always been the slave of chance. but not now. 7. He did not blame Gracie. This was another era. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 3. 6. 4. 8.

Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.) 160 . (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.1. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.3. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.

) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. 161 . It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. we obtain. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. the verb to drive). From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.e.

/ Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 8. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 5.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 7. who had just returned from Africa. 6. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 2.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. prime-minister.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 3. 162 . /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 4. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.

(A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .Unit seven That complements 7. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.2. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.

(with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.Nadina VIŞAN 7. They promised him that he would received a new house.: (25) a. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. (I-au promis o casă nouă. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. prefer. He announced their engagement. communicate. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) b. They believe that the man is guilty. explain. etc.2.) a. suggest. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. promise. judge. (Cred că omul este vinovat. etc.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. deny.1. desire.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. estimate.) 164 . state. They believe the man is guilty. deem.) b. He announced that they were engaged. predict. consider.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. afirm.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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That complements

b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

171

(this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) 172 . they lose their meaning. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) language.e. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. for example. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. ibid. In older stages of English. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.) I like him in that he is smart.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. on condition that. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. hope =>purpose.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.

His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave an answer such. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. That can be deleted. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) (66) 173 a. să o vadă trecând.) b. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) b. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. . He gave such an answer as had expected.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) When the structure contains the word such.

6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. they were chained to each other forever. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. (Iris Murdoch. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.) b. for better or worse. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. (Iris Murdoch. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid.) 174 . He gave an answer such that I had expected. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.We discovered that our map has disappeared.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.

3 ‘That Deletion 7. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. He said he had borrowed her money. He showed he was able to do it. (A prins de veste că ei vin. tell). When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (69) a. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.3.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.) b. for instance.) c. He got word they were coming.Unit seven That complements 7.1. 175 . that he uses a relaxed tone. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. say. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.

ibid. (Îmi place că e aici. *I like it he was here. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.) b.3. they were chained to each other forever. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. for better or worse. bune. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. 7. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. for better or worse.2.3. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. rele. I like it that he was here. (Iris Murdoch. because that has been deleted.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. they were chained to each other forever.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) (De asemenea. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .

The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. simultaneity. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. spuse el. (“Este acolo”. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.) 177 . 7) They maintain. which is ungrammatical in English. that they were not too late to leave.) b)He told me that she was there.4. 7. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. you want me to believe. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. he said.

The Present complement). spuse el. He said he would leave her. In the example below. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că. o să vină el.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. He told me that she had been there. până pleacă ea. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) b.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. “She was here”. he said.) Future Perfect -----. I will leave her. (“Era acolo”. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. vine el. (Am să o părăsesc. (A spus că o să o părăsească. (Pâna să plece.) b.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.

Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. wish. think.) b. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. dream. With such factive verbs as realize. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. believe. be aware. regret. forget. insist. etc.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. realize it).etc.) On the other hand. report. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. notice. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. whisper. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. discover. hope. mention. say. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.) 179 . (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. show. be amazed/concerned.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.

She believed that the earth is round. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. Consider also: (85) a. feign habits which are not their own. 180 .) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. we notice that general truths. in tender deference to each other. She realized that all men are fools. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. cu un respect tandru reciproc. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) b.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. He knew that she thought all men were fools.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Iris Murdoch. She still believed that the earth was flat.

the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. 181 .Unit seven That complements 2.) b.) In (88). She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. There are however cases. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. Peter said that John would leave at 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. 3.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. such as a. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.

Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. Imagine. c) John said that Harry is leaving. g) John thought that Harry ran. The time is 3 o’clock. for instance. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. John said that Harry will leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. But 182 . f) John said that Harry would leave.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. h) John thought that Harry had run. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) John said that Harry was leaving. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.

finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. as evidenced by its drear plumage. whistling swan. c. kingfisher.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. nighthawk. b. bluebird. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. jaybird. She admired their keenness of wit. Translate the following. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. 183 . Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. quail. lark. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. lack of pridefulness. a. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Cooper’s hawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. geese both grey and white. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. redtailed hawk. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. Crows will relish what presents itself. slyness in a fight. love of practical jokes.

which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. […] During the latter stages of the tale. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. But as the battle raged around them. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He had fought hard through the war. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. the young officer. And they might just hang him. in the very act of expiring. Now here he stood jailed. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. war hero though he was. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. he claimed. He died erect.

which they share with wh-complements. or else. On certain occasions that can be deleted. object ones up to the attributive function. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). from the very frequent subject. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb.Unit seven That complements 7. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). on other occasions it has to stay there. 185 . topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function.

băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Fiind 186 . Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. 2. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. 3. 4. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. cel mai mare. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Unul din ei. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. neconvenabil şi primejdios. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. peste puţin. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Mama.

nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. dacă va mai veni. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. ea. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. luminos şi apropiat şi când. 7. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 8. fericit. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. venind de la avocat. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. 9. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. va pleca din oraş la vie. 5. cel puţin pentru un timp. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Se mira. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. care îl pândise. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. aşa. un vis de acesta 187 . Nu ţi-a trecut. de ce constata în sine. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 6.

Astfel de va fi. şi mândria că a biruit. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. dar şi teama că. liniştit. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . 11. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Acesta. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. lucrul era înfăptuit. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. încă o dată. 12. fireşte.

simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. să le lămurească pe toate. ci numai aşa. Pe toate. fără o vorbă scrisă. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. după cum. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. 14. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. mai puternic decât oricând. spre Jurubiţa. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

9.5.1.7.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.4.8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.3.A Classification of Infinitives 8.2.Key Concepts .6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.

(A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). I told her that she should be more careful in the future. That you love her is something wonderful. (3) a.1. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.) b. (2) a. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her to be more careful in the future. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). b. Consider the following: • like that complements. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. It is important that you should know what you need. From this perspective.) • like that complements. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. 193 . (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. To love her is something really wonderful. It is important for you to know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.

etc. 2. gerundial clauses. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. d. moduri nepersonale) By convention.e. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. 194 .) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. the Gerund. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. For instance. the Conditional. as opposed to the finite ones. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.) b. participial clauses. the Participle) (i.

(Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) c. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.) b. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 . (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. namely no ending.

) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 3. 8. 7.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. the criterion of form. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 4. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.2. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. 5. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 9. It is vital this factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. (7) They saw her leave. 10. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 8. 6.

(Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. hear. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (10) 197 . / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. 2.

uncharacteristic for literary English.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. 198 (11) the universe. 3. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. Pratice Translate the following. However.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. .Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.

By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. as I have already mentioned. Further on. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. or the control constructions. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. In other words. 199 . (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. to use the appropriate technical term.Unit eight Infinitive complements because.

gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. şi creştineşte să ierţi. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. PRO to forgive divine. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) b. PRO to err is human. the logical subject. namely the agent of the event. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) Object: (18) a.) 200 . What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. It is important for him not to err. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.) In this situation. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. I hoped for him to be there in time. So far.

him is related to the main clause verb. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. not to the infinitive. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . but the patient of the verb persuade. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. He stepped aside for her to enter. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. In other words. him is not the agent of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).) b.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.

from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ 202 . This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ They convinced her to come back.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. I hate animals to be tortured. \ I allowed them to come. \ They tempted him to leave. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ She wanted him to leave. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ I would love them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. \ She promised him to leave. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. Likewise. \ He persuaded her to come. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade.

there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They really asked her to come back. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. • Last but not least. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.) In examples (25) and (26). So.) He seems to be a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. 203 . \ They did not wish her to come back.

To sum up the discussion. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. 204 . /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. which are said to be free. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. hate. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. to meet her. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. with special semantic and syntactic properties. etc. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. that is not required by certain verbs. appear. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs.)./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. seem.

try.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. scorn.) 205 friend. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. scheme. intend. hate. seek (= try).TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. etc. venture. contrive. Compare: (31) a. afford. .: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. care to. arrange. fail. need. etc./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. dislike. decline. propose. mean. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. deign.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. agree to. desire.) b) verbs such as abide. expect.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. hope. presume. want.3 The Distribution of PRO . etc. deserve. refuse. wish. prefer. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. aspire to. manage. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. condescend. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. omit. bear. 8. endeavour. like. / E greu să îl suporţi.

(Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. For all of them to have been killed is. I would like for him to become president of the country. bear. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. etc. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) b. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. be important. stand. desirable. verbs of liking and disliking.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.etc. threaten.) 206 .) b. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. unlikely.) b. possible. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. endeavour. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. conclude.Nadina VIŞAN b. forget. ask. suggest. I hate that you should say a thing like this. however.) 8. claim.

) 8. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) 207 .Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) b. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 2. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.

. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. the preposition is deleted. Like in the case of that complements. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) 4. but the meaning remains. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) 5.) b. I decided for John to represent us. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) 208 knowledge. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Direct Objects (39) a. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.

) d. He is a bastard to work for. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) e. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. You’re an idiot to go there.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.: (42) a.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. The stew is delicious to eat. This paint is like concrete to work with. delicious. She is pretty to look at.) c.) b. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. 6. curious about. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. etc. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.

(final) (Nu-l cunosc. drept să spun./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. to tell you the truth. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. să nu piardă trenul.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Pe şleau. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Ehei. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.) I’ve never met him.) Oh. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost. you’re a bad driver.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 .

nu mai vreau să te vad. enable. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.: (51) a. b. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. press. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. need. influence. oblige. promise. encourage. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. inspire.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. direct. 8. According to this. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. urge.etc. induce. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.) .Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. inform. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. etc. (49) a. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) b. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. swear.

: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. count on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. look to. prevail on.etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. permit./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. nominate. command. name.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. choose. elect. etc. etc. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. allow. order.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on./ And now he 212 .) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. vote. depend on.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.

7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. this construction is lexically governed.e.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.: (55) She appears to like him.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.etc. (57) He is to come any day now. etc. i.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. be about to. (O să întârzii/ leşin. be going to. happen. grow. seem. come.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.verbs: appear. 213 (58) (59) . (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Iris Murdoch.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. etc. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. An Accidental Man) 8. (Se pare că îi place de el. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).

etc. etc. (L-au auzit insultând-o. overhear. perceive. be considered.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. feel.: (62) They heard him insult her. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. hear. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. watch.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. In (57). (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.) 8. be reported. be claimed.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be alleged.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. observe. be thought.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be rumoured.etc. .) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. that of intention.

understand.) • with a full infinitive: get. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. know. consider. presume. However. occasion. picture. believe. judge. (Cred că este un geniu. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. deem. remember. recollect. imagine.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.) 215 (67) . (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. find. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. etc. figure. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. have. cause. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. prove.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. discover.

choose. command. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. etc. if he himself was out of spirits. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. he hated anyone to comment 216 . order. who wasn’t used to men with moods. suffer. love.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. Harold.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. mean. permit.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. wish. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. they had depressed and fuddled him. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.etc. expect. desire. prefer. want.

A little crossly. he didn’t envy those above it. the herd instinct was very strong in him. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . though he tended to look down on those below it.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.P. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. so that we might get to the future and have done. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. Both seemed to him a little unreal. He suspected hostility at once. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. (L. to make sure we attended strictly to business.

The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions.Nadina VIŞAN 8. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. The last criterion.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. 218 . is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. From this perspective. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.

e) Când doi oameni. de bună seamă. un bărbat şi o femeie. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. de asemenea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. E posibil. Şi tu să fii. mai bine219 . ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. e important ce întrebări pui. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. într-o zi. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. lovit şi umilit. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. bunăoară. fireşte. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. să-l capete. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar să nu-ţi spună.

în ploaie.Şt. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. încă. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în parte. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. un picior. sau. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. să traiesc numai cu tusea. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. aşa cum îi apăruse el. mai bine de două decenii. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Să spui de pildă. în jos. 220 . în parte. d-a lungul gâtului.Şt. . Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. pe care deja o uitase. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. să nu vrea să se şteargă. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. mai pline de înţeles. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare.Nadina VIŞAN zis. avusese dreptate.Delavrancea. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. ca să nu şi-o amintească. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. De era vară. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. că eşti tânăr. (B. nici măcar în acele puncte unde.

prin faţă e coborârea. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. nici ca să 221 . gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. şi prin faţă. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. de fapt. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. sunt aici cu tot ce am. şi nu un amant.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. biata Muti. fie ea şi grăbită. orice bucureştean ştie.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta.. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. un miros îngrozitor. deşi. orice-ar fi. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă.. Într-un cuvânt. Mă laud singură. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. ei. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). o mizerie. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. (Al.

Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .

participles. verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.

1.1.The Gerund 9.Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.3.2.5 Key Concepts .1.2.1.2.3. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.2.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.4.1.The Verbal Noun 9.2.

The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.) 225 . (Susan doarme.1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1. Due to this situation.

the past participle can appear after a noun. Susan has been killed. i. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track).Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. blood-shot and painted. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (A venit Susan) b. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. 226 . (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.) More infrequently. Susan has come. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. been and killed are past participle forms.e.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. it functions attributively. were closing. too: (6) Her eye-lids.) As you can see in this second case. In (2) the forms come.

) c. o să ajung la timp. (Ştiind cine era el. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. God willing.) d. (Sosind aici. Knowing who the guy was.) c. ea o luă la fugă. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. I will arrive there on time. o să ajung la timp. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. Oh.) b.) 227 .) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. he will eventually marry her. mother permitting. they started singing. Weather permitting. leul poate să atace. When singing. she ran away. a lion can attack. începură să cânte.) b. If provoked. I will arrive there on time. people should pay attention to high notes. Arriving here.

He was found stealing. behold. watch.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) ii. (L-am descoperit furând. They found him killed by a bullet.) 228 . respectively. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (Am simţit-o tremurând. I found him stealing. which stands for an adverbial clause. smell. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (L-au descoperit că fură.) b. notice. He was found killed by a bullet. hear.

(O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. feel. make a.) • Causative verbs: get. I heard it said that men are a bore. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. set. a.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. etc. find. He’ll soon get things going. have. start. etc. keep. recollect.: a. I must get my hair cut. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) b.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) b. she knew herself dismissed. confess. etc. hear.) c.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. (A fost văzut plângând. have. send. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . recollect. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. etc. leave. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. know.) • Causative verbs: get .Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.) b.) • mental perception verbs: remember.: When she heard his words.

) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) • verbs of permission.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. Men like shopping made easy. / Nu după multă vreme./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. lovit şi plin de sânge./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.) b./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. command I ordered my bill made out. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.

Unlike the gerund. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.1. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).2. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / Dinny. sitting taut between her father and her sister.e. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / In any case. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 231 . you gave instructions to have your wife watched. with its lips drawn back. / My Lord.

5. The tree had fallen across the road. am plecat. She had heard it all before. (Văzând acestea. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.She didn’t want to hear the story again. se va opri şi ploaia.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I left. 4. (Desi nu ştia limba. I left. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 7.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. People were sleeping in the next room. I have looked through the fashion magazine. using either a present participle. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . 3. I turned on the light. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I was astonished at what I saw.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 2.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. It had been uprooted by the gale. the rain will stop. 6. am plecat. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I knew that the murderer was still at large.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing.

my hands often get very cold. cornered. 9. 2. stricken. dark. eyed (3 times). bald. Tied to the post. a pot of paint fell on my head. eagle. They began quarreling about how to divide it.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 3. I slammed the door of my room. Leaving the cinema. stony. open. hearted (twice). straight. lion. He sat down to his own dinner. 5. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 12. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Read the sentences and try to correct them. an idea suddenly occurred to me.shoulder. red (twice). Barking furiously. many. empty. mown. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. skinned. narrow. He fed the dog. wooden. haired (twice). lighted. shaven. 8. open. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. three. 11. 233 . minded (3 times). b) Headed (5 times). one of the eggs broke. roast. covered.Running into the room. a scorpion bit him. fishy. Mother punished me for my mistake. 10. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. broad. 6. Riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 9. Dropped by parachute. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. sharp. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 4. I let the dog out of the room. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. his horse fell at the last jump. drunken. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Getting out of bed. 10. handed. They found the treasure. Passing under a ladder. 8. coloured. Reading in bed. quick. cloth. 7.

hidden. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. the same verb is missing twice.Spielberg. Whales. _______ my arm. were taken to hospital. candle. / Many old people . (take) 2. plank. meat. _______ by S. shrunken. _______ for their elegance and precision. ________ hiding in a barn. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. was today taken back to prison. ill-gotten. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / Three people. graven. bounden. 7. shorn. duty. eyes. wealth._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (hunt). is expected to be a great hit.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. head. rotten. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (grow) 4./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (find) 6. are in grave danger of extinction.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Swiss watches. The escaped prisoner. b) grass. lamb. Translate into English: 1. man. In the following pairs of sentences. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (injure). The film. meaning. (produce) 3.I fell on the ice. _______ for a bargain. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. image. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. deer. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. are sold throughout the world. I stared at the canvas for ages. stream. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. lead. (admire) 5.

împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. care le rânduia. ca şi cum. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. şi moi. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. nesigur şi moale. când deschisă. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. le fierbea. 4. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. legume date prin mai multe ape. Şi. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. când strânsă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. deodată sufocat. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. le cocea. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. După câtva timp. trezit. întinse. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. Şi sufletul său. 2. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. păsări tăiate. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. O umbreluţă. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. precum şi foile de plăcintă. 3.

If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.1. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.Nadina VIŞAN 9. 236 . (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. The Gerund 9. (Dacă vezi.2.2. According to this criterion. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. Likewise.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. crezi.

Consider the following table. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. His winning and your losing were both surprising.2. gerunds differ from participles. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b. That he won and you lost was surprising. In that. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Him winning and you losing was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.2. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.) b.) 9.

A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) Unlike participles. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. Consider (32). Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) b.) 2. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. It was illegal to grow a beard. *It was illegal growing a beard. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. as being verbal 238 .

Unit nine Ing complements in nature. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Participles vs. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) b. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. It’s no good talking to her. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) b.3. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. as offered in the table below: 239 .) 3.) 9.2.

forms: continuous . as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. 2. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (adverbial of time) 4. + noun] 1. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. babies suck their thumb. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may function adverbials: house. (prepositional object clause) 5. 3. passive ones She was crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect.

/ În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult.

7. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 9. 12. 242 . He was spotted talking to her. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. shooting gallery / shooting star. 4. swimming duck / swimming trunks. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 8. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 14. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 3. eating habits/ eating people. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 11. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 10. 15. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 13. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. crying game / crying woman. 2. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 5. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 6. Gambling is his favourite pastime.

The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.e.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. but the presence of a direct object (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.3. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.) The absence of a determiner like the. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. a The absence of an of phrase. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.Unit nine Ing complements 9.

the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. George’s shooting the attacker. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. How can we tell? In the first case. In the second situation.

/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town./ His sudden coming puzzled her. very large. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. the sheriff. / His coming there puzzled her.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Jim left quietly./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. 245 . / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.

(A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. the meaning is different. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). for example. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. With the infinitive. For instance. Look. It has been noticed that. However. whenever we meet an –ing form.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place.Nadina VIŞAN 9.4. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. ING Forms and Infinitives.

) After looking at this example. On the other hand.) The first example. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. having left) is infrequently used in English. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. (S-a oprit din mâncat.g. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. the infinitive is future-oriented. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.) . This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. and the most well-known one. containing an infinitive. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. anterior to the verb in the main clause.

recollect. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. which means that they are similar in meaning.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.) . the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.e. i. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.) As you can see.

d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. dar asta este. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. In the second example. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. the action is not completed. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. but that’s it. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) .

e) need. The house needs to be repaired. The house needs repairing. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) With [. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.human] objects. want With [+ human] objects.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. the event has not happened yet.) wedding. In the second example. mean has the sense signify.) b. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Casa trebuie reparată.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) 250 .

’ ‘Tell me.’ ‘In any case. (take) down her answer. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Croom (try) (follow) one. but they went by too quickly. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. my Lord. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Lady Corven. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. however appearances were against us. (hold) up his pen and (speak). And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. it’s overrated. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. my Lord. I did ask Mr. gerund or infinitive. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. whereas in the second case.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.

’ 252 .Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. suddenly. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ said Clare. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. and went out (post) it himself. I must go back now. Then. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). he addressed the note.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. I just used the word and they fell. licked the envelope with passion. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.

Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles.5. the 253 . We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Pratice In the following texts. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Last but not least. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits.

the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. The sight of the two children. down. moving up towards his chest. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. then the noise and the cracking stone. slowly rising in a swirling motion. it 254 . but then he saw it billowing up from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. Then he saw movement at his feet. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. the enormous split in the earth. their edges crashing inwards.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. covering the girl’s head. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. She started coughing. down into God knows where. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. according to the books he read. someone looking for survivors. At first. hoping he would see somebody up there. The two sides were moving apart. It was like a mist. He looked up towards the daylight. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split.

and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. She finished what jobs there were. slanted on to her cheek. for Dornford was busy on an important case.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. my dear. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. brightening to winter brilliance. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. 255 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.

Ridicându-se. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. ucenicul său necredincios. În urma slugii. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher şi cu mine. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. and then went riding with her in the rain. într-o joi. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. închizând ochii. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. totul se animă deodată. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. mama mea. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . cei doi Mamona. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. 2. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821.

despre salvgardarea realizărilor. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. aşezată cu spatele la noi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. se duse lânga mama şi. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. după cum îi spusese mama. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. afară ploua în continuare. o sărută pe frunte. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. Neclintiţi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. totul mi se părea cunoscut. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. 3. la mine. pe mama mea părând absentă. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. privit. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. aplecându-se puţin. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Şi deodată. pe Vaucher. dar ştiutoare. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. am ştiut şi cine. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. auzit şi zadarnic.

Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. 5. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. Au coborât din camion încet. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. camionul a plecat. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. cu tot cu baraca. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi cu soba. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. dar. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu stiva de lemne. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama.

Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. 259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

9. Having regard to the date of drafting. was unclear to Mitzi. without profound questioning. How much. this would really hurt. and that 263 . 12. in some way. 13. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. to retire early from my employment. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 11. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 7. and this particularly of late. 3. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. I am sorry not to have seen you. How this time was to come. he had been advised. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 5. 4. whereas if she went away she would get none. apart from his distress for parents. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. You have been much in my thoughts. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 2. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. since I have decided. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. he had not yet been able to estimate. 10. 6. and meet it right here at home.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. because of pity. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present.

she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 264 . like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. even for months. this always makes us feel embarrassed. for attending his sister’s wedding. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / Before you go on changing the subject. he did not come to see her. 19. 17. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. looking forward had not yet taken place. please consider his proposition. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / In the end. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. one of the eggs broke. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 14. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / Whenever I visited my aunt.

a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. Vulgar men did. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. and it was bound. Though much in request before her marriage. a little girl. Essentially. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. she said. quite unexpectedly. They rushed into shops. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. her recklessness. it was said. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. to end in some awful tragedy. without discovery. At country houses she had met them of course. her old friend Hugh. centered in London and themselves.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. of all people. Clarissa used to think. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. 265 . She felt as when. of the quick and wiry. Instead of which she had married. an open-air person. They hated trying on. Tony was a child. (and there he was. rather than the hefty type. cotton mills at Manchester. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes.

Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. De uitat. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp.Over the River) 2. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. (John Galsworthy . Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. she professed. but lying in her bath. Cind l-a chemat. Reading many novels. nu a facut-o pentru asta. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. aveam tot mai 266 . Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. with all its impatience of restraint.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit.Rindurile dvs. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. The closer she allowed him to come to her.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. cre s-au nascut lent. she was uneasy. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. si in plus. nu puteam sa le uit. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. ii faceau bine. indeed. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Bolnava nu se simtea. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. to keep abreast of the current. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. short of the contacts of love. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. era un bun sfatuitor. the more she would be torturing him. viguros si vesel in felul lui. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. astfel.

) 7. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. latimea si ascutisul labei. (St. lungimea picioarelor. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. cit mai au de trait. (St.) 5. o data sau de doua ori. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Banulescu – ibid. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. poate fi compensata. Banulescu – ibid.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii.) 6. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. vaazut cindva.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Daca tu. 4. se stie. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. fa-o. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Banulescu – ibid. (St. nu pricep nimic. (St.) 267 . ca si tine. pe scaunul lui tare. are nevoie. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. mi-am zis. Personal. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Milionarule. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Ce a iesit. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Banulescu – ibid.

P. Who. Could he be blamed.. Who told me. to Emmanuel College. for being a renegade. Arthur Atkinson M. Who was may father. And had a brother killed in the same battle. when I was even younger than you. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. A story-book romance. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Translate them. a wounded soldier. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Cambridge. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Ernest Richard Atkinson.. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. delivered from the holocaust.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. (. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. 2. Who came home from the war. my grandfather.

glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. he had already engaged himself? 3. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. Rachel Williams. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. 4. for flirting with ideas (European socialism.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. to whom. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. How 269 . and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. deep-set. Fabianism. a moody man. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). and because – but this is mere speculation.

as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a trăit el. Ion. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion. om mare. Cum a ajuns el. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum au tăcut ei. satul. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. 270 . How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. la şcoală. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. cu taina aceasta. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul.

cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. cu sau fără voie. singurul lui stăpân. când voi fi singur. Când actriţa. 271 . împotriva tuturor. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă.pune totul in discuţie. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. din franţuzeşte. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. de mama lor. greşeli dintr-astea. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui.

tânăr şi frumos şi el. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. traversând. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. uneori şi astăzi chiar. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Am început. de pildă. nevasta-mea. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. pe jumătate prezent. parcă începusem s-o uit. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. dam buzna peste automobile. 5. A devenit palid. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Într-o vreme. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. 6. fostă prietenă din copilărie. e îndrăgostită de un actor. privindu-mă în ochi. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. sau ridicole. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. provocându-le. 4. 3. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. continuând. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. 272 . îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. ci un sistem de acomodare. Tot aşa.

căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 11. orice s-ar întâmpla. iar. E o problemă. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. şi să nu ameţesc. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. Dacă nemţii înaintau. 8. fireşte. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. 9. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. să merg întins. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. Am început. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De altminteri. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. fără să mă opresc o clipă. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Aş vrea să mă las jos. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . ca un acrobat. că nu m-am gândit la asta. şi dacă merg întins. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu.

parca i-ar fi fost frica. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. la carti. La un moment dat. Ii venea greu. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. trebuia sa le spuna. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. 274 . dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Ilie nu-l asculta. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Greu era din partea asta. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Auzindu-l. 17. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git.. 16. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . 14. de la proces. eu am venit sa va intreb. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. nu mai pricepu nimic. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani.. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Acum isi ferea privirea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. de uimire. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Uite. In curind.Ma. se uita in jos. cu mirare. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. de la obiecte de pret. de la lucruri personale. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 15. la fata locului. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. 13. Adica tot trecutul. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. nu trebuie sa va suparati. la amintiri. dar nu se mai putea. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. nu mai semana.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire.

Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. vorbe asa si-asa. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Zimbea siret. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. cum zicea Anghel. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ».Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. 19. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. i se paru ca aici e ceva. which was part of his rich outfit. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. se indeparta nepasator. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Aici era ceva. There was even 275 . apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou.Ce sa fac. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Nu era nevoie. asa cum facuse pina acum. . nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. 20. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. dar. apoi se uitau la Ilie. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ».

conversationally. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. to take his way home on foot. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. going astray. 4. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt.Nadina VIŞAN relief. at least. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. resuming her walk. 3. rude woman. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. for the instant. the young lady. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. But Daisy.Miller at her hotel. to admit that she was a proud. He felt then. He walked a long time. 5. a simplification. on this occasion. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. gave an exclamation. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. to move fast. asked for Mrs. paying no attention. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. She was one 276 .

but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. She appeared. of studying European society. making Paul stop and look at her. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. as to projected changes. on the other hand. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . often. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. 7. Her daughter. as it were. in their own phrase. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. He left me musing. 6. while residing abroad.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. as text book. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. 8. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her.Walker. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and wondering what the deuce he meant. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. make a point. uncomfortably. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. in radiant loveliness. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. smiling and chattering. Advising with me. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. indeed. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. She rustled forward.

H. and perceived that it must be something important.’ 278 . was only half satisfied with this. and acute too. not seeing. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. H. and. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. 9.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. though E. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. 11. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. while Paul. 10. wondered what they were talking about. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. which was deliberate. could see he was remarkable. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. was immensely struck with him. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. The agent became a very familiar type to H. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. or at any rate not heeding. with his humorous density.

that the haunting wonder which now. as he looked back. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. not glancing at him for a moment. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. which was very copious. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. had the power to chain his sympathy. H. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. appeared to fill his whole childhood. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. 15. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. But she gave him no chance. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 13. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . 14. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be.

from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. proudly. 18. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. The whole establishment. where the Pearl of Paraguay. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. dragging herself on her knees. and to H. It was very possible she was capricious. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. and there were others.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. H. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. that she must be on the contrary. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. yet 280 . as a general thing. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. At the theatre. disheveled and distracted. 17. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. ironically reserved. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. 16.

with the poor./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. had blown a certain chill. 20. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. It came over H. 281 . He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. would always be more or less irritating. on which the damp breath of the streets. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. H. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. young men were invited. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. Their mistakes and illusions. No one ever listens to her. 2. 3. didn’t mind. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. *Old. and lurking within this nebulous design. 19. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage.

Nadina VIŞAN 4. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. “Oh. striding like a Spartan maid. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. her shining blue feet twinkling. 11. 7. I was definitely going to be sick. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 9. 12. Rachel. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. slipped on some steps. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I saw her as a vision. 8. Either John or he * have got to give in. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. walking quickly. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 282 . her arms held out. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 6. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 5. 10. c) When I saw her sitting there. I walked fast. I blundered by./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget.

In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer.

I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. which was really alarming. 5. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . but that we saw and pitied. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. where my servant. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. The old women spoke no English. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. if they were poor. could cook my meals. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. 2. 4. And then I ventured to add that. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. 3. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world.

285 . his. Constituents: how much. distress. before they left town. etc. Munt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. was anxious. was anxious = was + anxious. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. on Saturday. this would really hurt.g.g. etc. he had not yet been able to estimate. was informed. had not been able to estimate. How much. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. to pay their annual visit.apart from his distress = apart from. etc. apart from his distress for parents.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. apart form his distress for parents. to settle. Constituents: He. Constituents: Margaret. would really hurt. on a house. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. this. he. at noon.

interrogative. negative/ Come with me. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. don’t bother her. second clause is non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – comparison.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. and is non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. interrogative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. The sentence is however 286 .. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to)./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – first clause is non-assertive. / If you like her. negative/ If you like jazz. which is not assertive. Second clause is an imperative. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive./ She finally admitted..semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – non-assertive.. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. interrogative. negative. – assertive/ Don’t do that. listen to this. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. it is assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – first clause is an ifclause.

but it isn’t Susan. only irresolute. / They didn’t leave./ Susan did not get married to Jim . he was hardly pleased. / You have never met 287 . / He wasn’t unusually bright. –double negation cancellation. – I like somebody else. – someone hates animals. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ They weren’t really confused. not even when it’s quiet around. / I don’t like her very much.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. – they told the truth to somebody else. / She does like John./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. – someone did that. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ He was smart enough./ Hardly interested in the conference./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. the two brothers dared to protest./ He was exceptionally cunning. / She does not hate animals. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. everybody used to travel by coach./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. not even this thing.but to someone else./ Not long ago./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. but not more than she does others. but it wasn’t them. but nothing out of the ordinary. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ When he learned the news.

.. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. / Should they not have told her the truth. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Jim felt rather at a loss for words..Nadina VIŞAN her.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even in my dreams.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her... were they? / This boy is no good..negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. I could hardly wait to hear the news. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. not even when you were very young. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.. / This is hardly the 288 . – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released..negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – I cannot look him in the eye. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.

/ Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.Never shall I trust a man again. – I never see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / Hardly anybody liked him.. but she also lent him a car. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / You’ve eaten hardly anything./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. never trust a man again.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / Few people came to see her. – I almost never look at those paintings. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Almost nobody liked him. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Not many people came to see her.Never before did anything like that happen in our street./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. Activity 8 I shall never. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / I seldom look at her like that./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – You haven’t eaten a thing. when we started our holiday. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.

does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – Come on. – They say he never had anyone very close. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / Come on. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ Well.. – On no account must you touch this machinery. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / She could rely on nobody but him./ I expect he won’t come here again. you can’t do anything about it any more. you can still do something about it.I don’t like his proposal at all. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim./ I somewhat like his proposal. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / Don’t worry. / They say he once had someone very close. – Only on this man could she rely. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – 290 . / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – They don’t believe she likes them. / They believe she does not like them. –At no time did we leave the office. / We will see them again somewhere sometime./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / He reckoned he would not win her over.

– Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / She hardly ever comes here. – She almost always comes here. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself./ Bob is still living at that address. / You must be telling lies. – You should send her something. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – You can’t be telling lies.. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. / Well./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / You needn’t send her anything./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. too./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. –Alice still lives here. either. – Well her husband has always been a good person. 291 . / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ I can understand all of these ten English words. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must pay that fine.

/ Don’t go on believing him. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. has never studied anywhere./ They say this Ph. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. It’s no wonder. / Please./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. e un magar. Oh./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. give me a hand./ I don’t know a thing about her. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Nobody told us a thing. not yet. He didn’t move a muscle. / Jim is so brave./ Have they rung the bell? No. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ E un baiat de zahar. ever since I got this ulcer./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. to any of us./ 292 . I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. I haven’t seen her in years. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ You took his leaving you very hard. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Zis si facut./ Am avut un car de necazuri. I haven’t done anything. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ You look so tired today. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not.D. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ He was a tough man./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Nimic de facut. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ He’s a happy man./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. He isn’t that smart.

• Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance.’ ‘Nici o problema. nothing./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. no memory. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . one way or another.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . We had nothing in common. feebly. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. slowly./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. with the same needs they had. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. 293 . but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. no story. I had never had the opportunity to prove. I hadn’t really expected miracles. parasi camera. for I thought this threatening. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . thrown out./ Nu-i nici un deranj. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.’/ Deloc descurajat. without too much determination. that I was a decent man.

by coming here to the monastery. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. on the front seat. Radu had calmed down. We have to judge it as it is. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. he was sitting beside me. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. good. or if you understood what I meant. Not for a moment had I thought that. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. You really made me mad. bad. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. Your judgement is false. the only 294 . things you do any moment. let alone irritable.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. to say the least. It’s not made up of theories and the like. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. • It was my turn to say something. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. clear or confusing. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. Unfortunately. it’s not words. not as we would like it to be or some other way. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. I’d be so happy if it were so. I admit. he immediately answered me patronizingly. but facts. your story. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. I was sleepy and tired.. that’s what the world is about.

295 . me. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. Anyway. soon we’ll be in town. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. keep it squeaky clean. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. it’s your problem. But I was just wondering. behind these big. fear might be hiding. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. keep your conscience clean: you have one. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. you can go to Ursu’s. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. it solves troubles. just to please myself. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. as Baciu would have us be. clears your way. too? A gun is power. or call the respect of others. But what about you and Melania. precious words. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. it’s yours. I won’t interfere. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. and if you like. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. no matter how huge they are.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. Look. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. did you ever step up front. you do as you think fit. me. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. to fight. and an inability to act. although it was a difficult thing to do. • So. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. we are leaving. or you are lying hidden. either. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject.

correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. but they gradually got used to it.. correlatives are mixed 2.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. But it was not because I had no answer to give. firmly determined not to answer immediately. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Negative incorporation 296 . as soon as he delivered it. . She admires neither Susan nor Jane. .correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . The villagers were not very religious. has not arrived yet – double negation.Negative attraction b) 1.incorrect. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. -correct 3. because before is a positive polarity item 2. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.correct 3. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. has yet arrived -correct 2. will he?. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. – incorrect. or some other woman.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. the sentence is incorrect 3. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.

Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă.) Însă era cam târziu. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. not happy at all (NPI). prea răscolit.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). (ibid. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. nu era 297 . too troubled.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. much less ((NPI) for her. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. yet. she couldn’t marry him. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Nu putea să se mişte. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. b) But it was rather (API) late. either (NPI). slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. His spirit was too tired. Ştia că are dreptate. her lack of motion would have to do (API). astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Her stillness. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Avea sufletul prea obosit. (ibid.

Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. Ba dimpotrivă. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. (ibid. se îndreptă spre paravan. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). e) At length. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. she looked younger than ever (NPI). if anything (NPI). (ibid. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. The Satanic Verses. (Salman Rushdie. (ibid. 298 . f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. şi destul de hotărât. arăta mai tânără ca oricând.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. inima îi batea năvalnic. he made his way to the screen. and not a little unsteadily. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. his heart was beating fast.

Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.) C. and probably an administrative headache as well. Ce-i pasă lui C. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. The point was. i) What did C. the gift was useless. Home receded from the prodigal son. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). care if the school were willing to treat him. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. but his father would have none of it (NPI). (ibid. h) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. 299 . It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut.

correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. – indirect question. . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct. 300 .QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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she didn’t wear a ring. Fenia. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. all godfearing husbands and fathers. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. now she was chatty. 2. “Now. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Stavre Paici. I didn’t know where she was leading me to.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. do you really think that this vixen. keep Condrat away from her. Fenia. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. she likes to entrance them. Chizlinski. you are in enough trouble as it is. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Luca Horobet. the bitch. yes. they were. Vica. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. She has an eye for gentle men. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. and then what do you 308 . to make them lust after her.

Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. The mullah. with a railway station and a mosque. He got him out of his mosque. 4. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. her hair pinned with blue combs. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. the minister of Tartars and Turks. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. G. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. dragging his feet listlessly. 3. have a girlfriend. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. ankle-long flowered calico. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. a seventy-eight year old lad. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . what’s her name. It even takes him a while to go to the window.

Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.

. Her pet kitten is black and white.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.phrasal coordination (in this case. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. our respective examinations. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – sentence coordination 7.) 9. John is ready and Mary is ready. Our flag is red. yellow and blue. and I passed. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – sentence coordination 2.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are ready. – similar situation 10. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.

We can and will demand payment. 8.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 10. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. but John does not play football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. her son and others. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. much satisfaction or little 312 . 9. plays football. 7. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words).Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. her idea and John’s. your proposal and his. 3. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Activity 4 1. that method and those. Activity 5 This book and the other. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 6.) Joan plays many games. 2. many guest or few. but not John. and even tennis.

5. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. To and fro 15. 8. Touch and go 10. (I have always fought for progress and always will. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. 3. Bread and butter 16. He snapped at him and slapped him. etc. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Life and soul 5. Spick and span 9. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Activity 8 1. Over and above 13. Law and order 8. The facts and figures 3. Ups and downs 6. magazines are only for children. Thick and thin 11. High and low 2. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Wear and tear 12. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters.) 6. He read. 7. Few and far between 14. Pros and cons 4. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. 4. but not simple. Swings and roundabouts 7. Safe and sound 313 .

A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. exclusive 17. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 8. – symmetric. 5. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – asymmetric 18. 9. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 5. Cathy and David have arrived. – symmetric. – symmetric 2. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. 10. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. My son and heir is safe. exclusive 15. 4. Symmetric 21. Either the child or the parents are to blame.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3.symmetric 11. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 2. 6. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 3. 4. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. Symmetric 13. 7. – similar situation 9. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Asymmetric 20. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 7. 3. 1. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Not John but his two sons are to blame. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. My son and daughter are twins.. Asymmetric 19. 6. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 314 . – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – symmetric. 10. b. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. inclusive 16. 2.

He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. We’ll stick together. Brother or no brother. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 3. Not only should you rest 315 .Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 3. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. Her husband is long dead and buried. it was too small. 2. 11. 10. He’s neither fish. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 6. 4. Jim thought it over for a while. Should he pour water in the basin. for better or worse. clothes and all. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. He went to bed. nor fowl. 8. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. There are doctors and doctors. By hook or by crook. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. No drinking and driving. thanks for asking. 5. 2. 9. ‘Madam. (2) 1. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. 12. 15. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 14. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 7. They came to me. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. I’ll still finish this paper.

Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. as she always does. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Whatever she tried her hand at. but she blinks in approval. Her first husband had been a professor. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. From time to time she will launch a helping question.’ (3) 1. an important man. their common ground. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. she knows for sure. Mrs. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands.Nadina VIŞAN assured. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. 316 . he starts lecturing her about life and things. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. tense like a bow. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. And. So she’ll listen to him. at equal intervals. but he’d come out a cripple. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. it would work out fine. he’d leap high. tense with concentration. what’s its name. so he’d gone down and died in no time. You know. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. This. They hadn’t kept him there too long. 2. so he could leap in pursuit. without mentioning financial matters. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. both dead and buried. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. she started doing a great job. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and she listens to him. and then. just like when he was thirty. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. stop dead in his tracks. What do you know? The moment Mrs.

– she.subordinate. looked. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . whomever wanted to listen.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . at me Activity 2: 1. is aware.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct). of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. told. – obligatory elements: she. – she.subordinate. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. she looked at me sadly. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . – Susan. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as a modifier 3. – she. came. cannot tell. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. you. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.

subordinate.subordinate.subordinate. at our age. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that we should. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that you are choosing exile . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .complement b) 1. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .Nadina VIŞAN 4. remove our home yet again .

modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. a barn. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. a house. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement.complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . direct object. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano .

But other people. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object/ and done – wh complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. without straightening her back. subject/ to do such again – complement. When Anton put the sickle down. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her.wh complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. that kept her constantly tense and grim. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . direct object/ to write that tale – complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. direct object. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. staring at each other.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement.A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. sickle in hand. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . (…) ‘Well. Activity 5 1. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement.

A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Only he had Ana to think of. 321 . you need courage even for this small thing. For no bold man really falters. 2. or other more hidden means. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. as if they were at his beck and call. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. that was for sure. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. but also his sharp nose. which he doesn’t rely on completely. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Why! He was not of two minds. 3. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. while on other occasions he would show caution.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. Ana could not stand a trip now. while they spoke from miles away. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. or if he does. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Not even at this point. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. but he doesn’t spurn either. First. rather than a real threat. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village.

and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. he had postponed writing back. Costel didn’t want to give up this job.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. by the cars of some of us. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. they would ruin the arrangement. In fact. 4. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. to see some mutual friends. under the silliest of pretexts. are we getting off again? What is wrong. and twice we were requested to get out. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. although he could have said so earlier. 322 . But it was not ok. And here’s how this first day looked. and when things didn’t go as planned. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. We were going to drive to a vineyard. in Odobesti. So. Twice did we get in the car. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. and on Monday followed another feast). come on. without really knowing why. it was the women.

He is the author who they gave a prize to.restrictive 4. He told her the secret. 10.She came to London where I went too. 4. who was just passing by.restrictive 2. You couldn’t join the party. Activity 2 1. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 5. 2. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 10. any of whom would answer to questions.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. The students. 8. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. on which this occurred . 9. 3. where I least expected 323 .restrictive 6. when we first met . This is my husband whom I love very much. Activity 3 1. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. Who are you writing this letter to? 9.free 8. where I spent my youth . when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 7. 11. 4. 7. 6.restrictive 7. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. which was silly of him. The students like their teacher. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 3. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. John told his friend a story about the king. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . I bought Jim a book that he liked. which was a pity. 5. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 8. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. like their teacher.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. why they all left . 6. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. all of whom would answer to his questions. most of whom were from England.

however sad .adjunct 6. which . was very displeased with the situation. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. come up front.subject 8. Where . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. You. 3. the prince chose Cinderella. Why . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . 7. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.When Ada remarked – adjunct. What I’m saying – subject. What Inman remembered – subject.adjunct 5. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who cannot say a word.free 9. What – direct object 2.adjunct 3. Which – subject 4. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. Of all the persons there.free Activity 4 1. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. 6.Nadina VIŞAN . 4.restrictive 10. 2. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when . Where . where we talk money – predicative. I.subject 9. Where he was from – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. Activity 5 1. 5. where – predicative 7. what their parents made them. who think so highly of yourselves.adjunct 10. Who . When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object.adjunct 11. When .

attribute 12.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. which requires an accusative form. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. how .whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which is ungrammatical due to the[. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. whatever – predicative 13. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. what little she knew – direct object.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .Key To Chapter Six Practice object.

was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . in his turn. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who. due to its invariable character. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. but whose second cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. having changed quite a number of jobs. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose great-grandfather. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. a rather tiny looking man. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. got married and had a daughter. a sergeant. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl.

She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. were now all gone. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. . – no pied piping 327 . whose interest he most sincerely shared. – yes 6. he requested that the public be excluded. The problem of safe transportation.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. .yes Activity 9 1. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.yes 3. was now complete.obligatory 3. His friends.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. .no 5. – no 4. – yes.yes 7. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. . he rarely saw now. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. This story. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. In the interest of public decency. – yes 2. – no 9. – obligatory pied piping 2. with deletion of the noun friends]. . has been troubling them forever. – no pied piping 5.His father’s friends. Irene.yes 10. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. no easy answers to which could be offered. . although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.obligatory 4.

7. Only an ugly endless dream remained. Everything was ending. for instance. 2. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. where two teams battled every day… 5. the third born son. 6. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. or as of a vast arena. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 8. 328 . since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. irrespective of age and nature. 4. I am to be envied. In other people’s opinion. yours.and he couldn’t thank me enough. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. For all the four children. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. I did so. 3. For twenty years. Nelu. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.

16. Behind them. 14. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. where from Marta was coming too. the tram was rattling along. although she was standing quite close to him. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 329 . which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. since I don’t really know which my true life is. 15. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. which was why he saw Dora very far away. she said. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. You are newly arrived here. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law.R. leaving streets and houses behind. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. All that you have read is rubbish. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. from MR street. staring aimlessly. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. 11. Let me tell you my last conclusion. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. on Icoanei street. 10. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 13. 17. barely glittering in the distance. 12. He was suffering from dizziness.

others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. had a huge house in Bucharest. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. which I did not posses. who prompted everyone on the street. 21. who only lived once in this world. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 22. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. or the many Egyptian dynasties. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. or the clash of stars above. had a personal style in clothes. 24. after the car was fixed. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 20. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. likes and dislikes. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. From the vantage point I was in. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. So. so optimistic and composed? 19. She was a woman of means. While some trees are still green. But for me. 23. I could see my woman falling away from me. day by day. While we were poor. If he had hit me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. I don’t know what might have happened. in her pursuits. 330 . I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. But.

3. for pragmatic reasons 5.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . direct object 10. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. 6. subject 2. subject 8. 331 .The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. subject 9. 2. – unextraposed. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – the same as 3. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. subject 7. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. subject 4. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – questionable. object 5. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. direct object 3. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – impossible 7. 8.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. It will be soon announced when you can leave. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. prepositional object 11. object 6. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.

– impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible 4. I guess it that he will come back. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – impossible. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.grammatical.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. .grammatical. Activity 3: 1. – impossible. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. I don’t expect it that he will come back.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 15. 17.correct 4. a bit too intricate 5. 9. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. 18. idiomatic formula 16. same as 12. – impossible. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible 11. same as 12. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. . They never expected it that he would come back. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. but pragmatically impossible 3. 10. – the same as 12. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. . tense influences the 332 .. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It is nice to meet you. 14. – incorrect. – grammatical.incorrect. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – correct 2. – grammatical. although a bit intricate 2. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. – impossible. – same as 12. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill.

tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 333 .incorrect. in the pits on the road. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. in the ditch. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check.’ 4. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. (Not always. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. – correct 6. 3. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. 2. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. thus. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform.’ Lionel says. under bridges. 5. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. though. behind gates.

As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. prime-minister. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. – the second sentence is questionable. Activity 7 1. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. without trying to protest too much. who had just returned from Africa. because it is less ambiguous.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. – the first sentence is the better of the two. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift.Nadina VIŞAN 6. 8. 3. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. 4. who had just returned from Africa. since the 334 . 2. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. By saying this. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. It is less ambiguous than the first. 7. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.

This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 335 . / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. extraposition is obligatory here. 7. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 5. The second and third sentences are grammatical. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. so there is no need for extraposition. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. – both sentences are grammatical. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 8.

Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. The idea that he had had earned him good money.prepositional object. . correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – complement that clause. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – relative 3. for better or worse.adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 5. ibid. ibid. – subject. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – prepositional object. they were chained to each other forever. required by deverbal noun 336 . – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.relative Activity 9 1. – complement 5. – direct object. (Iris Murdoch.) complement that clauses. coordinated.We discovered that our map has disappeared. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) adverbial of sequence/result. (Iris Murdoch. . . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.complement 4. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – complement 2.

f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory. f) John said that Harry would leave. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. that they were not too late to leave. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. you want me to believe. – that is obligatory. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. h) John thought that Harry had run. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. that deletion is obligatory. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.

b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. c. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. sequence of tenses is observed 4. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b. – grammatical sentences. a. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – both sentences are grammatical. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 6.

the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. quail. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. ciocârlii şi şoimi. – generalization on habits of birds. prepeliţe. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. cenuşii şi albe. present perfect instead of past perfect. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. lark. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. hawk. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. geese both grey and white. present instead of simple past. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck.

Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. slyness in a fight. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. love of practical jokes. lack of pridefulness. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Crows will relish what presents itself. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. as evidenced by its drear plumage. The generic present is used in this case. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. lipsa de vanitate. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. She admired their keenness of wit. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.

– the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. the young officer. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. He had fought hard through the war. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Murise în picioare. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. se ridicase în picioare. El căzuse pe spate. But as the battle raged around them. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. in the very act of expiring. […] During the latter stages of the tale. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. He died erect. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. tragică şi eroică. he claimed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. tânărul ofiţer.

I realized I could not tell him the big news. When he saw me. he closed the album. mother went home and I was left alone. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. war hero though he was. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. – similar situation to the one under (c). to finish my drawing. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. Now here he stood jailed. Activity 13 1. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. They all had their hands in their pockets. the oldest. Acum stătea aici. susţinea el. în închisoare. Luptase din răsputeri în război. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. How can I explain? I just felt shy. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. 2. they gathered around my desk. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. deşi era erou de război. A short while later. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. And they might just hang him. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. 342 . they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. One of them. around seventeen or eighteen years old. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. But when he reached me.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. When the boys saw that mother had left.

‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long.’ 5.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. as if he had been drunk. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. brightly and closely. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. 6. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. 4. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. or if she would do so again.’ Mr. for her vineyard. All his senses were now keen. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. or fear his rage. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . for a longer stay that would do both a power of good.

that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 11. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. thinking of him. 9. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. And if things were so. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 10. 7. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. The last time when we met here you scared me. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. 8. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard.Nadina VIŞAN to him. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great.

Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. 13. more urgently than ever. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. which secretly drove him. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 14. where he would run to confess everything. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. without putting anything in a note. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. towards Jurubita.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. We either sell them or we don’t. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 12. namely the impatience of this young man. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind.

– infinitive continuous. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 6. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. – simple infinitive. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – infinitive continuous. – perfect infinitive. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He had Mary clean her room. / they saw her leave. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.. – simple infinitive. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 346 . grammatical 5.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 7. . 9. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. grammatical 3.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 2. . / They hear him sing two patriotic songs.simple infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – simple infinitive. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. grammatical 10.

/ I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Test: *They did not wish her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I allowed [them to come. / He is believed to have known her 347 . – Test: He persuaded her. Test: *I would love them. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. – Test: She promised him. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. / It is not too late for him to learn. Test: *She wanted him. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ I would love [ them to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They asked her.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ She wanted [him to leave. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. – Test: They convinced her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / I want to never see you again. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ They did not wish [her to come back. you need to try harder. \ She promised him PRO to leave. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. Test: * I would like people. – Test: They tempted him. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us.

/ He is young enough to start again. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / He is easy to talk to. I don’t need you or your services. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . . / He is easy to live with. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I have a word to tell you. Activity 6 Oh. not to miss the train. / Oh.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / I want you to leave my house.Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. . . / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / To make a long story short. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / He is hard to stand. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.

And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Subject. 1 – PRO-to. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. so that we might get to the future and have done. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. He suspected hostility at once. 1 – PRO. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Harold. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Predicative 4 . the herd instinct was very strong in him. he didn’t envy those above it.Accusative + Infinitive. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. 1] A little crossly. If he himself was out of spirits. Subject.to. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. they had depressed and fuddled him. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods. 349 . Both seemed to him a little unreal.

One day. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. 350 . but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. we seem to forget about our own pain. object 2 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘him’. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. PRO controlled by ‘me’. f) The passing time is important. slowly. more meaningful. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. or better said. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. But when we need to comfort others. cautiously. man and woman. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘she’. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. excitedly. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. c) Unlike plane trips. true. direct object 3 – PRO –to. e) When two persons. more believable than evidence itself. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. And you might also be hit and humiliated. 1 – PRO-to.

Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. not even those parts where he had been half-right. all down our neck. to live only with your coughing. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. in the street. my wish being only to please and serve. That is it. which he had already forgotten. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. S. Mrs. not to want to wipe it off. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. for instance. Stroescu. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. I am indeed praising my own merits. He had not been able to leave Dr. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. tickled by the trickles of sweat. h) I want us to go. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Moroi says heavily. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. that you are young. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. or their talk that night. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. 351 . If it was summer. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. or. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. And to actually start to believe you are so. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. k) With this considerable dowry. And I would care for this man so deeply. even when this love is hurried. while swearing to change my way of life. as he had appeared to him in the rain.

met by squalor and terrible smells. here I am with all of my own. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. for that’s the door people get off by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. poor Muti. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. Well. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. If you will have what I can give you. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. haphazardly. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. every Bucharester knows it. no matter what. ready to submit to any demand. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). she was suddenly so shocked. 352 . l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. or to speak so fast.

– Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. – Attributive past participle. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ He went to have a tooth pulled. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ She sent him shopping.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. / They found it thrown in a corner. 353 ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. badly beaten and bloodied.. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. with its lips drawn back. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ Don’t keep him waiting. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.

In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 6. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. The tree had fallen across the road. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 9. I was astonished at what I saw.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 7. – Attributive present participle. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Sleeping in the next room. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 8./ Running into the room. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Finding the treasure. 2. Having looked through the fashion magazine.Running into the room. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 4. 5. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 3. a rug caught her foot and she fell. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Activity 4 1. 10. Having fed the dog. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Turning on the light. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. I slammed the door of my room. a rug caught her foot and she fell.She didn’t want to hear the story again. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. – As she was running into the room. having heard it all before. he sat down to his own dinner. having been uprooted by the gale. Attributive present participle.

sharp-eyed/minded. – As the dog was barking furiously. my hands often get very cold. I let the dog out of the room. three-coloured. bald-headed. 11. – As he left the cinema.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. one of the eggs broke. open-minded./ Reading in bed. Passing under a ladder. he was bit by a scorpion. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Leaving the cinema. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. Activity 5 Fair-haired. wooden-headed. 355 . 8. his horse fell at the last jump. 6. fishy-eyed. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. the sea was tossing it up and down. – As he was riding in the first race. red-handed. I often get very cold hands. a pot of paint fell on my head. – When I read in bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Riding in the first race. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. Climbing down the tree. 9. many-coloured. my hands often get very cold. I let it out of the room. 7. – As he was tied to the post. / Getting out of bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. one of the eggs broke. Dropped by parachute. 2. an idea suddenly occurred to me. empty-headed. stony-hearted. 5. Tied to the post. cloth-covered. – As he was climbing down the tree. Barking furiously. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. broad-shouldered. – As I was passing under a ladder. a scorpion bit him. narrow-minded. 10. lion-hearted. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. his horse fell at the last jump. – As he was getting out of bed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 12. he broke one of the eggs. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 4. 3. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Reading in bed. Getting out of bed. a scorpion bit him. / Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair.

Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. admired for their elegance and precision. The film. Whales. was today taken back to prison. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned.I fell on the ice. lighted candle. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (admire) 5. graven image. Activity 8 1.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. is expected to be a great hit. (produce) 3. found hiding in a barn. dark-skinned. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. are in grave danger of extinction. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. are sold throughout the world. Activity 7 1. (find) 6. shrunken stream. open-hearted. ill-gotten wealth. were taken to hospital. (injure). stricken deer. / Many old people. roast meat. shorn lamb. injured when their car crashed on the M1. hunting for a bargain. straight-shouldered. bounden duty./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. hidden meaning. (take) 2. / Three people. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (hunt). (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. The escaped prisoner. 7. (grow) 4. 356 . rotten plank. I stared at the canvas for ages. sunken eyes. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Swiss watches. produced by S. drunken man. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. eagle-eyed. injuring my arm. mown grass. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. shaven head.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks.Spielberg.

then put up. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. And his soul. the carved chicken. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. yet left them room to sway free. bake them. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. thrown in the pots. the twice rinsed vegetables. he started peering anxiously around as if. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. flat and soft. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. its scales scraped off by the knife. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. and moreover. boil them. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. A parasol. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. 2. After a while. the fish. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. in charge of his house and lands. He felt close to his father. now taken down. hovering uncertain and soft. 3. streaked with yellow veins of fat. seeking some promised land. sprinkled with sticky flour. So. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. 4. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. suddenly suffocated. 357 . he were struggling for breath. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. and the puffed pastry beds.

/ That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / I told him not to bother putting things back.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. – gerund (subject) 4. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. Activity 10 1. / I am sorry for being so late. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats.gerund 5. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. – participle (attribute) 2. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. . / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. – Accusative + participle 3. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. he left the store without buying a thing.

attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. possessive ING (predicative) 7. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6.possessive ING (direct object) 9. 8. – gerund (attribute.participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – gerund (half or full. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – Nominative + participle 13. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. . participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. He was spotted talking to her. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. preceded by preposition).

so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.’ 360 . of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – verbal noun (has adjective).Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. Lady Corven.. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – gerund (full. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.’ ‘Tell me.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has determiner. my Lord.. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. however appearances were against us.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. adjective. hold up his pen and speak. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. adjective. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. I did ask Mr. but they went by too quickly. – gerund or verbal noun. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. take down her answer. Croom to try to follow one. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.

But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. ‘I do hate asking for things. suddenly.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. Then. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. I spend all my time hunting a job.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.’ 361 . ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon.’ said Clare. it’s overrated. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. and went out to post it himself.’ said Clare. I must go back now. my Lord. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. licked the envelope with passion. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. he addressed the note. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. I just used the word and they fell. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.

attribute) in a swirling motion. …while their edges were crashing inwards). It was like a mist. At first. gerund. attribute). then the noise and the cracking stone. attribute. hoping (participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. adverbial of time. direct object). direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. The sight of the two children. the very earth opening up (half gerund. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. The two sides were moving apart. attribute. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. slightly 362 . someone looking for survivors (participle. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. direct object) towards him. (participle. after verb of perception.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. direct object) from below. down into God knows where. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. village which is burning). attribute). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. down. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. First the crack snaking (half gerund. attribute. following the verb ‘remember’. The collapsing shops (participle. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. elliptical here. He looked up towards the daylight. attribute. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. functions as direct object) and then the ground. slowly rising (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. Has a complex subject) in the hole. the enormous split in the earth.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. you. early.). the chief occupation of the people of these islands. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. direct object). adverbial of reason).e. has ‘of’ phrase). subject of ‘being’) being (participle. one. moving up (participle. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. etc. i. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. covering (participle. my dear. prepositional object. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. according to the books he read.

and everything got suddenly animated. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. Standing up. we were all gathered in that room. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. a door was opened and as a servant entered. examining (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. So. And. for Dornford was busy on an important case. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) to winter brilliance. Vaucher and I. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). She finished what jobs there were.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. the two Mamonas. and then went riding (participle. preceded by preposition. and not only in my imagination or theirs. slanted on to her cheek. and sunlight. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of manner). attribute) stopped dead. Having a French governess (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) a sudden whoop. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. brightening (participle. reluctant or not. mother. adverbial of reason). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund.

each carrying a wooden box. killed by Young Mamona. for anyway. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. as mother had ordered him. So when Old Mamona came in. and smelling so hard of rain.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. I knew who it would be. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. let alone greet us or say something. without taking his sack off his shoulders. 3. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . about concentrating all our resources. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. Entering our house on a Thursday. And then. to Vaucher. 4. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. and ended his life in the year 1821. kissed her forehead. who knows. 2. he looked like someone who did. too. sitting in his puddle. in the year 1812. And. he found us sitting each in his place. her back towards us. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. He cast us a swift glance. his disloyal apprentice. Not so unimaginable though. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. Vaucher might have known that too. bending a little. to me. about sparing no effort. he went to mother and. closing my eyes. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. and to Young Mamona. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me.

And all around them was the great field 366 . And suddenly. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. as an afterthought. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. stove. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. But. of taking notes and rewriting them. each pausing before jumping down. wood pile. everything seemed familiar. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. already seen and heard.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. futile. barrack. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. They got off the truck slowly. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. long board table. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. 5.

The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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