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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. 6 . materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. titularizare şi grad.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Contents: 8 1.1. Complementary distribution .2. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Auxiliary verbs 1.4.6. The Distribution of an Element 1. Constituent Phrase 1.3. Insertion 1.5.
that is sequences fragmented at random.1. They are just strings. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). For instance. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. very much. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. her mother.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course.2. 1. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. Syntactic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. sequences of the kind her mother very. loves.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Consequently. Semantic.
4. (Mi-a spus secretul. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. an order given to an interlocutor). The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. etc.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. we are dealing with a directive (i. be). must.3. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.) 10 . should.e. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. 1. 1. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).
live. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. Consider. for instance. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. 1. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. etc.5. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . an ‘empty’ there subject. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.6. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.) 1.
apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. 12 . whereas (7) is not. semantic. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. he had not yet been able to estimate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. complementary distribution. as the star indicates. How much. Pratice Define and illustrate. Munt. using your own examples: insertion. syntactic. this would really hurt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. pragmatic.
13 . To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
8.1. Tests for negativity 2. Full – local negation 2.6. Key terms . Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.5. Polarity Items 2.4. affirmative sentences.7.2.3. Instances of negation 2. Negative vs.2. Conclusion. Key terms 2.
Positive vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) is said to be an assertion. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . in that they do not state anything. Consequently. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. For instance.2. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.) b. in the sense that it states something. it asserts something. Negative . (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .Declarative vs.
negative (e. / Come with me. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.Nadina VIŞAN ./ She can’t wait to read that book. listen to this.g. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.g.g./ Don’t do that. don’t bother her. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.other (if –clauses.positive and declarative secret./ If you like her. They told her the ( e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .) .non-assertion .) .interrogative (e. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.assertion . comparison. Did they tell her the secret? ) ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.positive sentence . / She finally admitted. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. 16 .
John is not happy. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. For example. Susan doesn’t like her friends.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. since the negative word not is not present there. (Nu demult. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. In the case of the sentences under (4).) b. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.) 17 . John is unhappy. Susan dislikes her friends. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) b. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.3. word negation.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (John e nefericit. I met a girl named Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.
He was not without intelligence. I was not a little worried. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. just like in the case of word negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent.) b. where the word 18 . we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. In other words. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. She was not an unattractive woman. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.) c. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. since the negative word not is present inside them. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. these sentences look negative. but their meaning tells us a different story.
semantic negation. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura.e./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). / Când a aflat vestea. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. without intelligence. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Translate the following sentences into English.
2. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. dar nu neobişnuit. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. ci doar indecişi. affirmative sentences. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu în mod special. / Era el destul de isteţ. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Negative vs. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.
). (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (Nu m-am dus acolo.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. etc. For instance.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.) (9) I didn’t go there. (M-am dus acolo. such as do insertion. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. (see subsection 1.1. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.
incorrect. / We don’t come here often. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. 22 . Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ They didn’t leave. / Susan did not get married to Jim. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / She does not hate animals. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / I don’t like her very much. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1.
(Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and neither do they like her. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. even the smart ones. not even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. which is ungrammatical. 4. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). 3. *and neither do they like her. *not even the smart ones. . and they don’t like her either. which does not happen in the case of (18).Unit two Sentence negation 2. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Example (14) is syntactically negative. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. * and they don’t like her either.
/ Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / This boy is no good. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . 2. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. In conclusion. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / A few of them stayed behind. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains. / Few of them stayed behind. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.5. / No problems were caused after all. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / They caused us no problems.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / You have never met her. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / At no time was he able to solve the problem.
Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. I went nowhere. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (27) a . (N-a venit John). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (26) I saw nobody.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner.
/ I didn’t ever go to his place.) b. I didn’t go anywhere. Not all that glitters is gold.) (29) a.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) b. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. I didn’t see anybody. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. b.) c.Nadina VIŞAN b. no incorporation takes place. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I never went to his place. No day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. (N-am văzut nici un student. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. 26 . All that glitters is not gold.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. I didn’t see any student.
/ They didn’t come to meet her. / I showed him nothing./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not many women are famous opera composers.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / No one ever listens to her. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. seldom. etc. / Not one of them came to meet her. scarcely. / None of them liked house music. / He should not be released.V. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.) We seldom watch T.4. and we don’t go to the theatre either. rarely. / I saw nobody. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. barely./ They never went there. / Not a word fell from her lips. / I didn’t see anybody. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. not even short ones. nici măcar din alea scurte.) They barely read any novels. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. . because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. (Nu citesc romane.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.
) c. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. . and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / I seldom look at her like that. Never have I met a more horrible person.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.) d. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.) 28 them.) b. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Few people came to see her.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / I scarcely ever see her. / Hardly anybody liked him. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.
/ A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. in the sense that the 29 . / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.) They don’t think that he likes them. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. never trust a man again. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.
although not negative in meaning. / He reckoned he would not win her over. look like. guess.: think. / They believe she does not like them. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. we can very well say something like: (38) a.) b. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. ought to. suppose. intention. 2. She doesn’t like our chairman at all.) 30 . advise. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. want. etc. suggest. appear.6. sound/feel like. In sentence (37). seem. cannot appear in an affirmative context.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. etc.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. expect. intend. be supposed to. For example. be probable. probability. the negative meaning is less strong. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. believe. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / I expect he won’t come here again. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. should be desirable. be likely. imagine. barely. choose. / I suppose she doesn’t care. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. etc. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute.
It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. That is 31 . N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. and sentences such as: (39) a. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. *She likes our chairman at all.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. b. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.2. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.*She lifted a finger to help me. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.
we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I still love you) Either vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Don’t worry. / Well. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / He arrived before 5. / I can understand both of these 32 . / I have already seen him. / I somehow like him.) Much vs. etc. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Bob is still living at that address. / She hardly ever comes here. still (I don’t love you any more. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) Any more vs. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. too (I don’t like it. / I like you a lot. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I have some money.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / You needn’t send her anything.) Until vs. either. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.) Yet vs.) At all vs. you can still do something about it. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Come on. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I somewhat like his proposal. too. / They say he once had someone very close. / I eat caviar most of the times. some (I haven’t any money.) Hardly ever vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I like it . / Well.). too. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.
touch a drop. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. move a muscle. crack a smile. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. lay a finger on someone. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. Ion nu e prea deştept. de când cu 33 . n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. last a minute. Translate into English. hurt a fly. turn a hair. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. give a damn/darn. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. bat an eye(lid). see/ feel/ remember a thing. have/be worth a red cent. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. flinch. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. find a trace. hear a peep. have a care/ friend in the world. nici unuia dintre noi. / You must be telling lies. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / You must pay that fine. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. leave a stone unturned. / Ajută-mă. / Peter knows some English and so does John. know a single person. say / breathe/ understand a word. sleep a wink./ I can understand all of these ten English words.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. mulţumesc. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has.
/ Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. nu e vina mea. / No sooner said than done. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Hotărât lucru. n-a sunat încă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / He is no end of a fellow.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Not that I care. he’s a pig. / Nothing succeeds like success. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No admittance. but you really should do something about it. / I had no end of trouble. / No trouble at all. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No entry. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Never is a long word. / He won’t make old bones. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. budge. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. B: Aşi. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. Translate into Romanian. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No hands wanted. / No man is wise all the time. he left the room. N-are nici o grijă pe lume.
N-am văzut pe nimeni. / I hate making any commitments. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord./ I saw no one. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). 2. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.Unit two Sentence negation rather). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Normally. as well: 35 . b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. say it. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.7. c) He is anxious to say something. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present.
B: Not this poem. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. from a syntactic point of view. nu poezia asta. (Nu. Key terms. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. nu-mi place. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. B: Nu. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. however. Conclusion. 36 .) 2. I don’t like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. nu îmi place poezia asta. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. I don’t.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. The second negation is somehow independent. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.8. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
e. interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .
Optional Exercises .1 Yes/No Questions 3.2.2 Echo Questions 3.3.3. Direct vs.2.1 Tag Questions 3.1. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.Questions 3.2 Wh. Minor Types of Questions 3. Key Terms.3.4. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.3 Alternative Questions 220.127.116.11.
it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.1. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. If we try to analyze the examples above. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.Unit three Questions 3. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. focusing on direct questions mainly.
pe mama. (2).g. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. 48 . Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. (3) and (4).
It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Likewise. in this case. In the case of indirect questions. the sequence of the tenses is violated. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. 49 .Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). because. Since the question is not direct any more.
sau mai bine zis. / I don’t know whom she fancies. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. identify the incorrect sentences. c) Ştii ce. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. ce culoare are pielea. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. / He asked me who she is. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / He asked me who she was. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / I don’t know who she is. spune la un moment dat femeia.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions.
In this case. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.Unit three Questions 3. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Let us provide 51 .2. being typical of spoken language. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.
2. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (who / talk to last night)? 5. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (which / you like best) ? 4. 3. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.1. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (what time / shops close today) ? 7.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.
are said to be positively – oriented. they did. it has. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . instead of Negative Polarity ones. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da).
as in the example: 1. 4. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. 3. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….. ……………………………. because you always copy everything I do! 5.. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.? (a mean thing to do) 54 ..Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. but I want to play basketball a little longer. (speak yet) B: ……. A: Your mother is shouting for you. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 2. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: You’ve been learning German for years. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. …………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. 6.. I’ve still got plenty of time. . ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: She had her tenants evicted. 7. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….. A: You look down. …….
…………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. 10. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . what . She’s got a reputation for being heartless.2. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. how.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.Unit three Questions B: …………………. A: There was a terrible car crash. which When. ………………………………. I didn’t get home until late last night. 3. 9. where. . . You could have mentioned it earlier... 8.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . A: It’s past your bedtime. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.2 Wh – questions Wh.
/ Kay’s gone out shopping. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city.000dollars. (Poppy Z. of course. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / My new car cost 10. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often./ She dropped her glasses. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / That’s my pen. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ Sara owns two cars. I cannot do that. / She lives in the suburbs. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. trying to find places where I resided in life.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / Shirley got married to Ben./ We’ve lived here for ten years. why ever. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / David’s car was stolen. / There are six students in my class. what ever./ I have French lessons twice a week. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. Nearly two hundred years.
2.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 .
Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. He used to work in a bank. can you be? 58 . Let’s stay for another few days. There was a fax for you this morning. You can’t be serious. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. shall we stay? 7. How far is it the cinema? 3.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. How far is it the cinema? 10. How long is she be spending in America? 8. He used to work in a bank. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. didn’t use he? 11. Who did left the gate open? 18. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Let’s stay for another few days. wasn’t it there? 17. shall we stay? 14. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. How long is she be spending in America? 15. didn’t use he? 4.
That was Jeremy’s brother. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. dacă prin absurd 59 . How long time does it take to get there? 28. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. That’s your car. uneori disperat. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20.Unit three Questions 19. despre o lume dură. să-mi înfrâng frica. plin de germeni virulenţi. will you not? 21. Toate vechi. deci. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. neliniştea infantilă. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. deci. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Who did told you about the problem? 31. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Ani întregi. wasn’t it he? 22. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. isn’t it this? 25. Whose it is this book? 32. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Pot reveni. John goes jogging every morning. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. ca şi cei ce au fost. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. will you not? 27. doesn’t he go? 23. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie.
ghiceam doar unde se află. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. “Spune! striga el. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. lung. picură apa roşietică. pe sub bolţile din care. iar proştii. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. neîntrerupt. străină priceperii lor.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. umed. Şi. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. murdar. laşii. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . negru. de atunci. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Riscul? Ratarea. pe care oricum am simţit-o. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. îi ştiu gustul. dar şi drumul. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. mă întreb. indiferent de risc. puturos. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. B. naiv. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. inactivii. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă.
când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. will you? (38) She went to Prague. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. Tag Questions Tag questions. la urma urmei. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3.Unit three Questions viaţă. orbitor.3. care i-a determinat alegerea. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo.3. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. da? (37) Let’s go there.1. exclus. golul alb. 3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. didn’t she? . domnule profesor. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. viaţa? Oare e drept.
Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. aren’t they? 62 . The suggestion is that in this case. the tag is affirmative too.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail.e. the tag is negative too). Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. In this way. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. or falling. is it? (Deci. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. if the host sentence is negative. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. it’s all spent. or “comment tags”. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. hasn’t she? (Aha.) A: Oh. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. sarcasm. (Din păcate. au fost cheltuiţi. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi.
/ I am dressed smartly enough. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / That was your father. / Everyone felt happy about it. / Surely you have enough money. / He simply hates empty words. / There is enough food for everyone. / You ought not to smoke. / I am older than you. / I may see you tomorrow. / I don’t think you like my music. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / That’s your car over there. / The boy never watched his sister. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / They said he liked music. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Let’s eat dinner now. / A few people like her. / She used to talk a lot. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You have been invited. / I think you like my music. / I think you don’t like my music. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / There are a lot of cars on that street.…/ Let me know. / He has to marry Susan. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I must go now. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / The boy often watched his sister. / Each of us is staying. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / You will pick me up. / Don’t leave without me. 63 . / Tell me. / She left an hour ago. / Few people like her.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / You will pick me up at 7. / He hates his wife. / She has a brother. after all.
there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. or what? 3./ I’m right about this….. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. 5. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / He never used to study so hard…. So you enjoyed my talk. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. He used to play squash. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. using a question tag at the end. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. isn’t it? / Is this a great party.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged.
as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.2. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.3. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 18.104.22.168.3. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. / Grants… 3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.) B: Chinese? 65 . Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. Recapitulatory echo questions . / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.questions which repeat part or all of the message.
(Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. If the wh. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. consternation.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. of something just said. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.phrase is fronted.2. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. disbelief. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. rather than the repetition. (Închide lumina aia. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.3. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.
am pierdut scrisoarea.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. / I think I’ve found a solution./ We are looking for a purse. (i. which letter do you 67 . rather than did you say. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. dear.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / We are looking for a pixie.e. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. whereas with explicatory echo questions. / He is interested in music. intonation is rising. (Uită-te la asta. I’ve lost the letter. with recapitulatory echo questions.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen./ He is interested in blue movies. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. (Vai.
Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.4. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .Nadina VIŞAN 3. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. she knows about it. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.
care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . lui Luca Horobeţ. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. şerpoaica. după pofte. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. oameni aşezaţi. şi care s-a aciuat. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. în general. în satul nostru. şi apoi Vica ce zice. Are gust de oameni blânzi. ca să zic aşa. să se încolăcească mai bine. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. Fenio.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. pe Condrat de Vica. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. aşa. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu.– Crezi tu. nu purta verighetă. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. lui Chizlinski. cumnată Fenia. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. da. stricata. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. acuma sporovăiala. lui Stavre Păici. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. cu o casă de copii. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu.
L-a scos din geamie. deci. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. roşu şi galben. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. De asta erai. dar cum se face că a 70 . tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. Hogea. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. până la călcâie. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. abia târându-şi picioarele.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. sau cum o chema. sus. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile.
to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.
Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.5.Contents: 74 4.4.Key Concepts .6.3.Coordination and Subordination 4.1.2.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.
cu repros. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.e. Example (2). where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. where there is no indication other than a comma. on the other hand. reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4. that elements are coordinated.1 Syndetic vs.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. i. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. present) in the sentence. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.e. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. 75 . We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.
We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. you will die.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Conversely. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.) Such examples. From the previously mentioned examples. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. 76 .) (4) If you hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN 4. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. vei muri.
c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. respectively subordinated constituents. we need to specify that. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. from a logical & semantic point of view.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. the second. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. However. but presupposed.
his shoes squished. took off his coat and emptied them. of cut gray stone. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. took off his shoes and emptied them. with formal walks under rows of trees. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. His clothes hung to him. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. the houses were beautiful and ancient. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. He moved and made a slopping noise. adorned with cornices. with enormous solidity. built. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Then he sat down. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. In the second. John Steinbeck. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. Though the castle had vanished. but the 78 . In the first. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph.
and as the way is with Irish mountains. over some of the roughest ground in the country. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. the higher he went the wetter it grew. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . left the house. Cecil Woocham – Smith. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside.
(L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.3 Sentence vs. were to take down the name of every man. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. however distinguished. (G. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. as shown in (9). we should be seriously annoyed. As one can easily notice. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.K. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
Pratice Distinguish coordination. our respective examinations. Activity 2 sentences: 1. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. / Joan plays many games. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 4. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 7. and I passed. John is ready and Mary is ready. yellow and blue. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 5. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. John and Mary are the newly married couple.Unit four Coordination example (7).) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. plays football. 8. / Peter. 10. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Her pet kitten is black and white. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / Peter and John played football. 2. Our flag is red. but not John. John and Mary are ready.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. and even tennis. 3. / Bob and George are admired by their students. 9.
6. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. 5. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 3. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. or deleted. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. as can be seen in (10b). A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Activity 4 2. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Jane 82 .) c. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.Nadina VIŞAN b. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.) b. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. John writes poetry and Bill prose.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.
9. 10. So. i. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. the predication buy a pair of shoes.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.e. Besides ellipsis. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. these syntactical processes. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. 8. the so-called Principle of Economy. 83 . as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 7. than a longer repetitive one.) The common element. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. can be reduced by substitution.
the old men and women 2. 4. A citit. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Translate the following sentences. In certain cases. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. George and Jane went back to their parents. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. George and Jane are separated. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . some reason or another. 3. simple books and magazines for children 3. one or (the) other method. 2. using reduced structures: 1. 4. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau.
After all their adventures. 6. 13. 2. even though they have their little …………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 12. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. for my wallet. 16. 6. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. They get on quite well together. 15. like: salt and pepper.I searched ………. 11. 5. 7. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. fish and chips.. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Marks and Spencers. I need another 100$ ………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. they reached home………. the amount I’ve already saved up. 8. 8. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. sweet and sour. Can we discuss the …………. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1... 5.. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. A pendulum swings ………. only for damage. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases.You gain some things and you lose others. of your proposals later on? 3.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. . Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….… 14.. it’s a case of ………… 7.
We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. and 86 . more often than not. For instance. b. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. In fact. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. as in: (17) a. Nor sun. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. of course.4. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. 4. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. the expressive function of coordination is. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.) There are.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. etc.
Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. o respectau si o indrageau.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) b. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. too): (20) a. 20 (b)). If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.) 87 . (I-am dat banii.) In certain cases. both … and . ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.g. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. sometimes but. etc). either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. where the subordinator is repeated.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.) c. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. or . (Ei o placeau pe Susan. and cherished her.
these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. From this point of view. I like and admire her. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . and hit my wife.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. if we were to rewrite the example . the order of these conjuncts is fixed.) b.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (O admir si imi place. I washed and ironed my pants. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. and you’ll die. (Imi place si o admir.* I ironed and washed my pants. I admire and like her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. In this case. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.
) (While Dr.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. Brown experiments with humans. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.Unit four Coordination 1. (If you do that. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. he failed).) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.
g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) 101 . the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.which are based on coordination . as the name suggests it.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. From the functional point of view.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. 5. e.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .
) 102 . we associate it with these objects. in certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. We do not presuppose however something like. (I-a dat cartea. an adverbial item. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. such as proud of. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. In a way. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. by an adjective + preposition. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). for instance. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. sentences) required by the verb (or.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. for example). For instance.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.) Whenever we think of this particular verb.
We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. In other words. related to example (4). Thus. to her) and one extra-item. 103 . to add something. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book.e. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. which is the adverbial willingly. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) b. an additional one. The second example. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. I am afraid that he won’t come. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. A second observation. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. i. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.
(Dacă nu te însori cu mine. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (11) If you don’t marry me. like. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. such as want. a închis toate ferestrele. (Înainte să plece din cameră. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. etc.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. make. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. So.) 104 . before you decide on what label to stick on an object. am să mor. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. I’ll die.
Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.g. The book that because they home.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. Whoever did that was a genius. she looked at me sadly. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. After I told her the story. 3. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . 4. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.g. 2. They came to e. 6. e. [.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. 5.She came to him of her own will. Susan disappeared without saying a word. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. this to whomever wants it.
was a novelty to Mitzi. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. WHETHER. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. 5. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. at our age. but he declined.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. which. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.) 106 . etc. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. 6.He took an intelligent interest in her. 3. You suggestion that we should. FOR. As you can see. though it was largely politeness. stating their function: Activity 2 1. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. 4. not object. 2.
why.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) (16) a.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (E de dorit să plece. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) b.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. Who did it was John.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (15) It is John who did it. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. where.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. how. which. who. 107 . when.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. Where he went is London. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. etc.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.
But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. In conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In (18). The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.) (18) She told me this before she left. which sums up this classification. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . Unlike complement clauses. As you will see. Compare. if. for instance. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb.1. before. consider the following table. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. done from a structural point of view. etc. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. however. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.
I will come back such as because. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.g. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little.g. back. 109 .g. for. Dear Ludwig. etc. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. surely you cannot sincerely believe.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. Introduced know e. whether he will come when I feel like it. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. as. after.: e. I will go there because I feel like it. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. you understand. at your young age.
We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Late that afternoon. she stopped to speak to Monroe. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Too. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Accidental Man) b)1. a tightening in her breathing. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. As she left the house. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. he said. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. 2. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. But she thought that no one would call again.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.The day Monroe had died was in May.
g.2. As you have probably noticed already. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. a correspondence can be traced. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. 111 . Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. că e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. interesting. However. I told her everything after she arrived. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. That he loved e.g.
So. i.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. whereas wh complements are the 112 . Secondly. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. We will come back to that in the next chapter.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.e.2. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.1.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Thirdly. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. (Cred că mă place. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. In the fourth place. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.complement.. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. complements. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. whenever you identify a wh.
she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. their introductory elements (e. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. and I do not know how things might stand between us. for no matter how she tried. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. before. c) I am coming home one way or another. after. but no idea what to do with them. a house. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes.g. outbuildings. a barn. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. Pratice Consider the following text. because. She mistrusted her handwriting. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. I first thought to tell in 113 . It gave her pleasure to play on the piano.
and I have not the will or the energy. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 .Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. because they modify.4. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). these clauses can be complements.e. it would make you fear to do such again. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. According to a structural criterion.
Alţii. după ce că are grâu puţin. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e.g. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. (…) “Mă. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. be very careful to use this term correctly. think of. answering the question to whom? So. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Pratice Translate the following. interested in. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. 115 . Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. ce o fi având. O zbughi înapoi. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. Nevasta secera în tăcere. look at. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. etc.e. îşi spuseseră că Anton. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. însă.
devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. de fapt. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Toată lumea înţelesese că. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. izolate de sat. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. cât de bolnavă era. Nici acum. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. timp de un ceas. întâi.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă.
de pildă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Era bine de ştiut. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. stricau totul. aşa de oţetit. În realitate. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. la nişte prieteni comuni. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. amânase scrisul. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Pace nu era. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. acum sunt desluşiţi. Iată. deşi cam târziu. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. la Odobeşti. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 .
Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. întâia noapte de război) 118 . (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. frate.
119 . the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. whose.g. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc. etc). subject relative clauses. of which.
Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.2.5. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.6. Key Concepts . The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.6. The Co-reference Condition 6.1.7. Relative Clause Introducers 6.3.4.
This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. The Co-reference Condition . 6.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.2. 121 . It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).1.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.
) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. John loves that woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. By combining these two clauses. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. 122 .
John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. This way. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The common element woman is present. 123 .Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause.
I went to London. 5. 2. 8. 10. Susan wants to meet Jane. I had a book. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. They met those students. I bought Jim a book. John told his friend a story about the king. 9. None of the students agreed with them. 7. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. WHO 5. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. too. The students like their teacher. I lost the book’s cover. I love my husband very much. The king was just passing by. 3. He’s the author who received the prize. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. This is my husband. He liked that book. WHERE 3.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. WHICH 4. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. The students like their teacher. frequently used in written language. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 6. Any of the students would answer to questions. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. by leaving behind a trace. 4. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. He told Jim everything about his plans. I introduced him to Jim. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. therefore in spoken English. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. She came to London. WHO 124 . She doesn’t know anything about Jane.
dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. WHOSE 7. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. TO 11. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. i. 2. relative clauses are divided into 1.Unit six Relative clauses 6. WHOM 10. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. WHOM 6. most of them were from England. WHICH 8. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.e. .) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. (Cine strică plateşte.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form.
is no longer overtly expressed. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (Cel care strică plăteşte. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. in a manner of speaking. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. Unlike their sisters. these relatives cannot function as attributes.e. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. it is covert. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) So. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. unlike in the case of (14). (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.
(21) The man who came to woo me was a god. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. who is the god of commerce. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who incidentally is the god of commerce. is my favourite god. they define it).) (Mercury.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. 127 . is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. They can be thus divided into: 1. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.) (22) Mercury. (Du-te unde pofteşti. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. (Mercur. They only provide supplementary information about it. care este zeul negoţului.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. este zeul meu favorit.
who is a genius. i. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 6. Shakespeare. is a great playwright. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. on whom nobody could depend. On the day on which this occurred I was away. 8. I have met him where I least expected. She.This is the village where I spent my youth. is a genius. 10. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. As we were saying. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 5. 2. They are what 128 . 9. then it is an attribute. Independent I don’t know what you want. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. who came to see me. this type of relative clauses. 7. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius.e. restrictive relative clauses. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. can only function as attributes (or modifiers).
a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. etc. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. composed The (Freddie Mercury. . care a murit acum câţiva ani. however sad this may be. who died a few years ago. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. When the antecedent has no determiner. etc.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. a. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) 2. 6. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.
7. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. numai eu nu. poftiţi în faţă.) (28) They come to me.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.) Pratice Translate the following. Mie. ci o fată a woman. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. who am your son. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. but a peevish. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). (Eu. 5. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 2. îţi văd prea bine defectele. bătrînă morocănoasă. ill-tempered. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. dried-up old maid. care nu sunt o femeie.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 3. 6. care-ţi sunt fiu. Dintre toate personajele prezente. iritabilă şi uscată. can see your shortcomings only too well. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. (Ei apeleaza la mine. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. 130 . 4. who neither work nor am anxious.
heard. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. were now in his possession. (32) service finished late.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. . in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.Unit six Relative clauses 6. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. părăsi camera. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. than whom few more can be more crashing. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. erau acum în posesia lui.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.
as can be seen in (36d). The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. 6.) b.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .) b. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The genitive form with which is still in use. but it is typical of the formal. too.1.) d. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) c. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.5. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. literary style: (37) a. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.
(Iris Murdoch.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.
This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (45) (46) .Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) • states.) b. animals.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. of which. He is not the man which he used to be. by the way. but to a type or a function: a. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. … Italy. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) b. ships (that can be personified) a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.
When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. reason. whom it concerned most closely. France. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) b) dialectal (49) a. where. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) 6. Poland is the place where Christine was born. etc. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. etc.) b. why. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. how. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. while. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Nu ştiam ce vor. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.Unit six Relative clauses b.2 Relative Adverbs: when. pe care o privea direct.5. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) 135 (47) .) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. It is poor what gets the punches. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. time.
(S-a dus unde mai fusese. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. He went where he had been before.They left when they decided it was proper to.) 136 .) c. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. no antecedents are required: (52) a.5. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) e.3.) b. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. A system where by a new discovery will arise. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) 6. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) b. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.
] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.
) b. much. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. not any.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. 138 (64) his shoes. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. Honest man as he was.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.4. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. I’ll get you such things as you may want. but they are used very infrequently: as. but • in standard language a. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. any. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. . every.5.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.
the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. And always on the buttered side.) • in dialect a. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. ăl de fusese in China…) b. Uncle George.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. This is the same one that/as you had before. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. It’s the dry weather does it. . (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. him as was in China … (Uncle George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.) c.) c. There’s not many as’ll say that.
(It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) 140 .Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.
Where he was from. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. makes me a wart and a wen. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.) c. That which shows God out of me.5. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What I’m saying is. The man who John spoke to is a genius. 3. 2. 6. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. The man that John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 5. It seemed a thing 141 . The man John spoke to is a genius.” 4. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.3): (72) a.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. What Inman remembered was this passage. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. fortifies me. we all have to come to some terms. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. b.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 7.
Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. though. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 8.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Whatever his fate was. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 13. (…) Partly. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. which is a lot. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 11. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. of living. 9. who had not witnessed many dawns. 142 . (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Ruby said. he had left Ruby high and dry. Oh. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 10. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 12.
al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. mort de tanar. divortata. pe linie paterna. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. (Iris Murdoch. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. poate. un var primar. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carei strabunic. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. una din nepoatele unui inginer. Cumnatul meu avea. pirpiriu. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . nu prea sarac. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. plutonier. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var.al lui. fiu natural al unui morar. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. cumnatul unui portughez. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. vasnic.
I lost the cover of the book. The opposite phenomenon. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. This is the book. insurat de trei ori la rand. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. Teatru) 6. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi.2. b. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Everybody listened to that woman. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.6.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. 144 . She was a woman. c. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. By extension.
Unit six Relative clauses b. The problem of safe transportation. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 6. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 2. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 7. no easy answers to which could be offered. 4. 9. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The difference between (76) and (77).) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. In the interest of public decency. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 3. he requested that the public be excluded. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. has been troubling them forever. 5. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 8. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory.
The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 5. as the case is). for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. 6. 4. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. whose interest he most sincerely shared. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 146 . The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Activity 9 were now all gone.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.His father’s friends. They do not function as attributes. His friends. was now complete. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 2. Irene. 10. 3. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). he rarely saw now. no matter which. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). This story. has been deleted. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing.
din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. închipuirea. Toate sfârşeau. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pentru alţii. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. 5. himeric. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 4. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Nelu. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. 6. De douazeci de ani. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 3. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. 7. 2. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată.
Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. 10. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. 8. 9. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. cu surle şi cu tobe. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 12. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. nici în searbăda mea versiune. a făcut el. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire.
pe strada Icoanei. toată lumea întreba cine e. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 15. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 16. fie pe stradă. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. apărură. Avea acum un fel de vertij. care era foarte “mondenă”. din direcţia căreia apoi. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. până mai adineauri. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. despre care. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. trăia larg de tot. de unde venea şi Marta. din care cauză pe Dora. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. 149 . printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. 17. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 20. Dacă mă lovea. dinspre Maria Rosetti. 18. 14. fie la teatru. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. deşi atât de aproape. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. zise ea cu ochii mari. În spatele lor. roiuri de fetiţe. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă.
N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Pentru mine însă. 23. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. pe care eu nu-l aveam. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea.Nadina VIŞAN 21. până în şosea. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. de mine. când au urcat râpa iar. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 24. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. pe care ea îi admira acum. de sus de unde eram. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 22. aveau un stil al lor. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Pare-se că snobii. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii.
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function. 151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
Extraposition 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 22.214.171.124.7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.3. That Deletion 126.96.36.199.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.3. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 188.8.131.52. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 184.108.40.206.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.1.Clause Shift 7. Key Concepts . That Complements as Subjects 7.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.3.Topicalization 220.127.116.11.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 18.104.22.168.
1. the clause is extraposed. In other words. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. Apart from those introduced by that. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. 153 . (3) Tell me if you need anything. placed in a marginal position. 7. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. but also of infinitival ones.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.
) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.
15. 13. 3. 3. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 2.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 9. 4. 7. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It appears that no one voted for him. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 6. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 4. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 9. 2.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 7. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 6. It is no use trying to convince her. 10. 8. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 14. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 5. 11. 10. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 11. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 8. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It is nice to meet you. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.
4. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 5. mă ascundeam în grabă. 3. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. zice Lionel. 6. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 2. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. după porţi. They never expected it that he would come back. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. unde se nimerea. în canal. atât 156 . “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 2. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 4. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. în gropi. sub poduri.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 3. I guess it that he will come back. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 5. 18. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.
Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. fără să cârteşti. 7. (Nu întotdeauna. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. excelentă. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade.” 4. 157 . precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. 5. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. când locuia în conacul din La Roque).Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. vor căuta să o zdruncine. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Mi s-a părut chiar că. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. fără îndoială. 6. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. Spunând cele ce-am spus. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist.
in the case of topicalization.Nadina VIŞAN 7. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. subject clauses are the frequent situation. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. this asymmetry is undone.) While in the case of extraposition. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .2. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Pratice Read the following. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. 1.1.
He was utterly gone. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. She had always been the slave of chance. This was another era. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 6. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. mere chance would decide. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. even today. 2. 8. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. 3. but not now. 5. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. 4. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 7. whether it would finally carry her off. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. was inconceivable. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. he felt no spring of interest in her. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. He did not blame Gracie. To walk by was an expression of his own despair.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument.
(Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.1. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.3.
From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.e. we obtain. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. the verb to drive).) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. 161 . by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.
/*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 8. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 162 .? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 4.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 7. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. who had just returned from Africa.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 6. who had just returned from Africa. 2. prime-minister. 5.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. who had just returned from Africa. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 3.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.
(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.2. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.
) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. promise. (Cred că omul este vinovat. prefer. afirm. suggest. etc.1. He announced their engagement. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. predict. They believe that the man is guilty.Nadina VIŞAN 7. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. estimate.: (25) a. explain. They believe the man is guilty. (I-au promis o casă nouă. He announced that they were engaged. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.2. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. consider. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. They promised him that he would received a new house. communicate.) a.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. state. desire. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. judge.) b. etc. deny. deem.) 164 .) b.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. hope =>purpose. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. for example. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) language. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.e.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. ibid.) I like him in that he is smart. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. they lose their meaning. on condition that. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) 172 . In older stages of English.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.
.) b. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. He gave an answer such.) b. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) When the structure contains the word such. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. să o vadă trecând. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) (66) 173 a. He gave such an answer as had expected. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. That can be deleted.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.
12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) b. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. for better or worse. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. He gave an answer such that I had expected. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever.) 174 . 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. (Iris Murdoch. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. ibid. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.
175 . (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. He got word they were coming.Unit seven That complements 7. say.) b. (69) a. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. that he uses a relaxed tone. tell). (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.3.) c.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (A prins de veste că ei vin. for instance.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. He showed he was able to do it. He said he had borrowed her money.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.
3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. because that has been deleted. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. (Iris Murdoch. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) (De asemenea.Nadina VIŞAN 7.2. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.3. 7. they were chained to each other forever.) b. rele. bune. ibid.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. *I like it he was here. for better or worse. I like it that he was here. they were chained to each other forever. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.3. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . for better or worse. (Îmi place că e aici.
Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 7. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. he said. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. which is ungrammatical in English.) 177 . 7) They maintain. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. you want me to believe. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.) b)He told me that she was there. that they were not too late to leave. simultaneity. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.4. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. spuse el. (“Este acolo”. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.
(Pâna să plece.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (Am să o părăsesc. In the example below. (A spus că o să o părăsească. până pleacă ea. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) Future Perfect -----. o să vină el. He told me that she had been there. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. The Present complement). (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că.) b. spuse el.) b. vine el.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. (“Era acolo”.) b. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . “She was here”. I will leave her. He said he would leave her.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. he said. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.
realize it). whisper. wish. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. report. think. forget. be amazed/concerned. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.) On the other hand.) 179 . (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. believe. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. notice. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. be aware. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.etc. etc. regret. say. insist. hope.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.) b. discover. mention. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. With such factive verbs as realize. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. dream. show.
180 . in tender deference to each other.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. feign habits which are not their own. She realized that all men are fools.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. we notice that general truths. cu un respect tandru reciproc. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) b. Consider also: (85) a. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. (Iris Murdoch. She believed that the earth is round.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. He knew that she thought all men were fools. She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.
) In (88). (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. Peter said that John would leave at 5. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. such as a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) b. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.Unit seven That complements 2. 181 .) b. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. There are however cases. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Peter said that John will leave at 5.
f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. John said that Harry will leave. g) John thought that Harry ran. Imagine. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. for instance. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. The time is 3 o’clock. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. d) John said that Harry was leaving.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. But 182 . f) John said that Harry would leave. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. h) John thought that Harry had run.
John told Mary that she should bake a pie. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. nighthawk. Translate the following.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. whistling swan. c. slyness in a fight. jaybird. bluebird. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Crows will relish what presents itself. kingfisher. 183 . redtailed hawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. lack of pridefulness. b. a. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. lark. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. quail. Cooper’s hawk. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. love of practical jokes. She admired their keenness of wit. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. geese both grey and white. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life.
Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. And they might just hang him. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. the young officer. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Now here he stood jailed. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He died erect. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. But as the battle raged around them. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . he claimed. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. in the very act of expiring. He had fought hard through the war. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. war hero though he was.
which they share with wh-complements. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.Unit seven That complements 7.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. object ones up to the attributive function. from the very frequent subject. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). 185 . topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. on other occasions it has to stay there. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). On certain occasions that can be deleted. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. or else.
s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Unul din ei. 2. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. cel mai mare. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Fiind 186 . ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Mama. 4. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. peste puţin. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur.
s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. cel puţin pentru un timp. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. dacă va mai veni. luminos şi apropiat şi când.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. venind de la avocat. ea. 8. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. fericit. 7. 9. aşa. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. va pleca din oraş la vie. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. care îl pândise. Se mira. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. de ce constata în sine. Nu ţi-a trecut. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. 6. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. 5. un vis de acesta 187 . pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor.
dar şi teama că. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. liniştit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. 12. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. şi mândria că a biruit.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Astfel de va fi. încă o dată. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. lucrul era înfăptuit. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Acesta. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. 11. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. fireşte. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.
simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. 14. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. după cum. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. ci numai aşa. să le lămurească pe toate. mai puternic decât oricând. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. fără o vorbă scrisă. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. spre Jurubiţa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Pe toate. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.6.What Are Infinitive Complements 22.214.171.124.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 126.96.36.199.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.5.3.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.Key Concepts .The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.7.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.
(A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. It is important that you should know what you need. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). I told her to be more careful in the future. b. 193 . (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. To love her is something really wonderful. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) • like that complements. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. It is important for you to know what you need. (2) a. That you love her is something wonderful. Consider the following: • like that complements.1.) b.) b. (3) a. From this perspective. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions.
(Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. For instance. moduri nepersonale) By convention. participial clauses.e. the Gerund.) b.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. 194 . infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. the Conditional. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. d. 2. etc. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. as opposed to the finite ones. the Participle) (i. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. gerundial clauses.
(Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) 195 . If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.) b.) c. namely no ending. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.
10.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. the criterion of form. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 6. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 8. 8. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.2. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. (7) They saw her leave.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 4. 7. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 5. It is vital this factory to be reopened. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 2. 3.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 9. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.
/ L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. hear.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. 2. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (10) 197 .
198 (11) the universe. .) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. uncharacteristic for literary English. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. Pratice Translate the following.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. However. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. 3.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.
to use the appropriate technical term. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. In other words.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. as I have already mentioned. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. or the control constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Further on. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. 199 . that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.
(E omeneşte să greşeşti.) b. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. It is important for him not to err. PRO to forgive divine. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) In this situation.) Object: (18) a. namely the agent of the event. I hoped for him to be there in time.) b. PRO to err is human. the logical subject. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. So far.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. şi creştineşte să ierţi. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.) 200 . What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.
where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. In other words. Semantically. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. He stepped aside for her to enter. not to the infinitive.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. but the patient of the verb persuade. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) b. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. him is not the agent of the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. him is related to the main clause verb.
\ They tempted him to leave. \ They convinced her to come back. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ I allowed them to come. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ He persuaded her to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ I would love them to come. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ She promised him to leave. \ She wanted him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ 202 . from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. Likewise. I hate animals to be tortured.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist.
This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. \ They really asked her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job.) He seems to be a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. 203 . • Last but not least.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb.) In examples (25) and (26). so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. So. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.
with special semantic and syntactic properties. to meet her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. To sum up the discussion. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. that is not required by certain verbs.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. hate. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.). / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. 204 . etc. appear. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. which are said to be free. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. seem. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă.
(A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. condescend.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. venture. dislike. hope.3 The Distribution of PRO . agree to. care to. etc.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. etc. etc. deign.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) b) verbs such as abide. seek (= try). manage. / E greu să îl suporţi.) 205 friend. try./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. aspire to. wish. scorn. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. endeavour. bear. mean. like. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. presume.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. 8. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. propose. deserve. refuse. prefer. intend. omit. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. . decline. hate. afford. arrange. expect. contrive. need. scheme.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. fail. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. want. desire. Compare: (31) a.
(Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) 8. however. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. stand.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. unlikely. ask. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) b. claim. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. threaten.) 206 . Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. endeavour.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.etc. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. possible.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. verbs of liking and disliking. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. desirable. I would like for him to become president of the country. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. etc. bear. For all of them to have been killed is. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. be important. I hate that you should say a thing like this. forget. conclude.) b. suggest.
) 8. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) b. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) 207 .) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 2.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. Predicative Clauses (39) a. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.
Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. the preposition is deleted.) b.Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Direct Objects (39) a. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 4.) b. . Like in the case of that complements. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. but the meaning remains.) 208 knowledge. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. I decided for John to represent us.) 5. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure.
) b.) d. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. etc. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. She is pretty to look at. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. delicious. 6. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. curious about. He is a bastard to work for. This paint is like concrete to work with. The stew is delicious to eat.) e.) c. You’re an idiot to go there.: (42) a. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.
to tell you the truth.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Ehei. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / Pe şleau. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. să nu piardă trenul. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank.) I’ve never met him. drept să spun. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. conduci prost.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. (final) (Nu-l cunosc./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. you’re a bad driver. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.) Oh. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale.
) b. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. need. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. swear. b. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. 8. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. promise. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. encourage.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. urge. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. inspire. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. nu mai vreau să te vad. oblige.etc. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.) . (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. influence. inform.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. induce. press. etc. According to this. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.: (51) a. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. direct. enable. (49) a.
name.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. count on.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. nominate. elect. permit. order.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.etc. prevail on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. choose. command. allow. look to. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. depend on. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. etc. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. vote. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on./ And now he 212 . / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.
etc. happen.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. come. i. An Accidental Man) 8. (56) She grew to like him in the end.: (55) She appears to like him.etc.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. 213 (58) (59) .e. this construction is lexically governed.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Se pare că îi place de el. (Iris Murdoch.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. seem.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. be about to.verbs: appear. be going to. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (57) He is to come any day now. grow. etc.
perceive. watch.: (62) They heard him insult her.) 8. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. In (57). be claimed. etc. be considered. .Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be alleged. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. be rumoured. (L-au auzit insultând-o.etc. that of intention. observe. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. be thought.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. hear. overhear. feel. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. etc.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be reported.
discover. deem. believe. However.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. imagine.) 215 (67) . presume. consider. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. recollect. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. cause. judge. know. figure. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. prove. picture. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. have. remember.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. occasion.) • with a full infinitive: get. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. understand. etc.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. find. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. (Cred că este un geniu.
) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. want. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. wish. choose. he hated anyone to comment 216 . they had depressed and fuddled him. permit.etc. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. Harold. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. suffer. desire. love. order. command.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. etc. who wasn’t used to men with moods.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. mean. expect. prefer. if he himself was out of spirits.
A little crossly. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. though he tended to look down on those below it. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. (L.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. he didn’t envy those above it. so that we might get to the future and have done. Both seemed to him a little unreal.P. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. to make sure we attended strictly to business. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. He suspected hostility at once. the herd instinct was very strong in him. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.
we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.Nadina VIŞAN 8. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. From this perspective. The last criterion. 218 .
e important ce întrebări pui. E posibil. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. dar să nu-ţi spună. fireşte. de bună seamă. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. mai bine219 . dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. lovit şi umilit. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. într-o zi. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. e) Când doi oameni. de asemenea. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. Şi tu să fii. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. un bărbat şi o femeie. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. bunăoară. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. să-l capete.
năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Şt. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. mai bine de două decenii. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. . Să spui de pildă. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. în parte. să nu vrea să se şteargă. pe care deja o uitase. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr.Delavrancea. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. (B. că eşti tânăr. 220 . în ploaie.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în jos. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. mai pline de înţeles. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. aşa cum îi apăruse el. De era vară. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. avusese dreptate.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. sau. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri.Nadina VIŞAN zis. încă. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. ca să nu şi-o amintească.Şt. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. în parte. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. să traiesc numai cu tusea. d-a lungul gâtului. un picior.
sunt aici cu tot ce am. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea.. o mizerie. de fapt.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte.. prin faţă e coborârea. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. (Al. nici ca să 221 . căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. Mă laud singură. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. şi nu un amant. fie ea şi grăbită. biata Muti. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. deşi. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. orice bucureştean ştie. orice-ar fi. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. Într-un cuvânt. şi prin faţă. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). un miros îngrozitor. ei.. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut.. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.
parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate.
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.
The Gerund 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.5 Key Concepts .Participial Constructions 188.8.131.52.4.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 184.108.40.206.1.Characteristics of Gerunds 220.127.116.11.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 18.104.22.168.The Verbal Noun 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.
1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Due to this situation.1. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.1.) 225 . This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. (Susan doarme. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.
(Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. it functions attributively. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. In (2) the forms come.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. Susan has come. 226 .) As you can see in this second case. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. were closing. Susan has been killed. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (A venit Susan) b.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. i.) More infrequently. the past participle can appear after a noun. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. too: (6) Her eye-lids. blood-shot and painted. been and killed are past participle forms. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.e.
) d. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. If provoked.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. o să ajung la timp. leul poate să atace. they started singing. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.) b.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. Arriving here. Oh. (Ştiind cine era el. God willing. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. When singing. (Sosind aici. începură să cânte.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. ea o luă la fugă.) c.) b. she ran away. people should pay attention to high notes. I will arrive there on time. I will arrive there on time. he will eventually marry her. Weather permitting.) c. o să ajung la timp.) 227 . (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. mother permitting. a lion can attack. Knowing who the guy was.
They found him killed by a bullet. smell.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (Am simţit-o tremurând. hear.) b. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) 228 . I found him stealing. which stands for an adverbial clause.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. watch. notice.) ii. behold. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. respectively. (L-au descoperit că fură. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found stealing. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. He was found killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. (L-am descoperit furând.
I must get my hair cut. know.) • mental perception verbs: remember. I heard it said that men are a bore.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) b. recollect. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (A fost văzut plângând. set. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . etc.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. recollect. feel. etc. find. send. etc.) b.) c. make a. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.: When she heard his words.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. leave. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. confess. a. hear. keep. etc. she knew herself dismissed.: a. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. He’ll soon get things going. have. start. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. have.) • Causative verbs: get.) • Causative verbs: get . He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) b.
” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu după multă vreme./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.) • verbs of permission. lovit şi plin de sânge. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 ./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) b. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. command I ordered my bill made out. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. Men like shopping made easy./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.
and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / Dinny. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. with its lips drawn back. Unlike the gerund. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / In any case.e. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / My Lord.2. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her.1. 231 . sitting taut between her father and her sister. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever.
5. using either a present participle. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. am plecat. I left. am plecat.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 2. I left. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. She had heard it all before.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. the rain will stop. I turned on the light.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. se va opri şi ploaia. 4. People were sleeping in the next room. The tree had fallen across the road. (Văzând acestea. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. 6. It had been uprooted by the gale. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I have looked through the fashion magazine. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 3. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 7. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . I knew that the murderer was still at large. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (Desi nu ştia limba. I was astonished at what I saw.
How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. quick. hearted (twice). it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. eagle. 10. wooden. stricken.Running into the room. Riding in the first race. Passing under a ladder. handed. one of the eggs broke. 8. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 9. dark. They found the treasure. minded (3 times). 5. b) Headed (5 times). open. a scorpion bit him. a pot of paint fell on my head. Reading in bed. lighted. I let the dog out of the room. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Mother punished me for my mistake. broad. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. haired (twice). a rug caught her foot and she fell. narrow. 2. 6. 12. 3. coloured. stony. Barking furiously. mown. 9. He fed the dog. 4. Climbing down the tree. his horse fell at the last jump. cloth. drunken. straight. roast. shaven. open. 11.shoulder. Getting out of bed. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 10. I slammed the door of my room. lion. an idea suddenly occurred to me. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Dropped by parachute. Read the sentences and try to correct them. 233 . covered. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. many. empty. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Tied to the post. sharp. 7. three. Leaving the cinema. He sat down to his own dinner. eyed (3 times). fishy. red (twice). The following sentences contain misrelated participles. They began quarreling about how to divide it. my hands often get very cold. 8. skinned. cornered. bald.
_______ by S. The escaped prisoner. duty./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (injure). / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. wealth. In the following pairs of sentences. graven. image.I fell on the ice. meat. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. lamb. (admire) 5. plank. Translate into English: 1. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. Whales. / Swiss watches. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. b) grass. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. is expected to be a great hit. deer. are sold throughout the world. are in grave danger of extinction.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. eyes. (take) 2. head. (find) 6._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (grow) 4. / Many old people . ________ hiding in a barn. The film.Spielberg. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. rotten. the same verb is missing twice. hidden. / Three people. was today taken back to prison. stream. shrunken. lead. bounden. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (produce) 3. man. _______ for their elegance and precision. (hunt). meaning. candle. I stared at the canvas for ages. 7. _______ for a bargain. ill-gotten. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . shorn. were taken to hospital. _______ my arm. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite.
silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. întinse. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. 4. păsări tăiate. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. le fierbea. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Şi. După câtva timp. nesigur şi moale. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. deodată sufocat.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. 2. O umbreluţă. când deschisă. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Şi sufletul său. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. legume date prin mai multe ape. şi moi. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. precum şi foile de plăcintă. care le rânduia. le cocea. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. când strânsă. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . 3. ca şi cum. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. trezit. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc.
) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. (Dacă vezi. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. Likewise. crezi.2. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.Nadina VIŞAN 9.2.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. The Gerund 9. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.1. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. According to this criterion. 236 .
(M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. Him winning and you losing was surprising. His winning and your losing were both surprising.2. gerunds differ from participles. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. In that. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Consider the following table.2.) b.) b. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.) 9. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. That he won and you lost was surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.
Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.) 2. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. as being verbal 238 . (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.) Unlike participles. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. It was illegal to grow a beard. Consider (32). A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. *It was illegal growing a beard. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) b. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.
as offered in the table below: 239 . (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Participles vs. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. Just like in the case of noun phrases.) 3. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.) b.) b.) 9. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. It’s no good talking to her.2.3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. 2. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. forms: continuous . Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. (adverbial of time) 4. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. babies suck their thumb. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . + noun] 1. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participles may function adverbials: house. 3. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. passive ones She was crying.
/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala.
The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. He was spotted talking to her. shooting gallery / shooting star. 12. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. crying game / crying woman. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 5. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 2. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 11. 13. 4.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 15. eating habits/ eating people. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 7. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 3. swimming duck / swimming trunks. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 14. 6. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 10. 8. Gambling is his favourite pastime. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 12. 242 . 9.
e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. but the presence of a direct object (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. a The absence of an of phrase. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e.Unit nine Ing complements 9.
This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. These are features that normally characterize any noun. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. Thus. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. In the second situation.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. George’s shooting the attacker. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. How can we tell? In the first case. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.
Jim left quietly./ His sudden coming puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. the sheriff. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. very large. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / His coming there puzzled her. 245 ./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb.
whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . ING Forms and Infinitives.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. whenever we meet an –ing form. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. Look. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). For instance. the meaning is different. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive. for example. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.4. However.
Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. and the most well-known one. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.) . anterior to the verb in the main clause. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. future-oriented value of the infinitive). This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.g.) After looking at this example. having left) is infrequently used in English. containing an infinitive. the infinitive is future-oriented. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. (S-a oprit din mâncat. On the other hand.) The first example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.
recollect. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. i.) . having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. which means that they are similar in meaning.) As you can see. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e.e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.
) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. In the second example.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the petrol tank is not filled yet. the action is not completed. dar asta este. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) .) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. but that’s it. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.
In the second example. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. The house needs repairing.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. want With [+ human] objects. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. the event has not happened yet. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.) With [. e) need. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.human] objects.) 250 . it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) b.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) wedding. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Casa trebuie reparată. mean has the sense signify.
my Lord. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. (hold) up his pen and (speak). why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. my Lord. Lady Corven.’ ‘Tell me.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. however appearances were against us.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. but they went by too quickly. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. whereas in the second case. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. gerund or infinitive.’ ‘In any case. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Croom (try) (follow) one. (take) down her answer. I did ask Mr. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. it’s overrated.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.
he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. he addressed the note. I just used the word and they fell.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I must go back now. and went out (post) it himself. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.’ said Clare. licked the envelope with passion. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ 252 . the sisters started about eleven o’clock. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. suddenly. Then. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ said Clare. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).
don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Participles mainly function as adverbials. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Pratice In the following texts. Last but not least. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). the 253 . We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which.5.
slowly rising in a swirling motion. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. covering the girl’s head. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. It was like a mist. Then he saw movement at his feet. it 254 . She started coughing. He looked up towards the daylight. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. down into God knows where. The two sides were moving apart. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. At first. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. the enormous split in the earth. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. according to the books he read. but then he saw it billowing up from below. their edges crashing inwards. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. moving up towards his chest. down. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The sight of the two children. then the noise and the cracking stone. hoping he would see somebody up there. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. someone looking for survivors.
brightening to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. my dear. and sunlight.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. for Dornford was busy on an important case. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. 255 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. Having a French governess. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. slanted on to her cheek. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. She finished what jobs there were.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count.
închizând ochii. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. În urma slugii. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. and then went riding with her in the rain. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Vaucher şi cu mine. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. cei doi Mamona. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. 2. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. într-o joi. Ridicându-se. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. ucenicul său necredincios. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. mama mea. totul se animă deodată.
o sărută pe frunte. afară ploua în continuare. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. se duse lânga mama şi. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. dar ştiutoare. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. la mine. privit. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. pe Vaucher. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. aplecându-se puţin. după cum îi spusese mama. auzit şi zadarnic. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. totul mi se părea cunoscut. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. am ştiut şi cine. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Neclintiţi. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. pe mama mea părând absentă. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. Şi deodată. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. 3. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri.
camionul a plecat. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu stiva de lemne. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu masa lungă de scândură.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi. cu tot cu baraca. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. 5. şi cu soba. Au coborât din camion încet. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. dar. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze.
Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. in some way. and that 263 . 6. How this time was to come. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. How much. he had been advised. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. since I have decided. I am sorry not to have seen you. this would really hurt. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 12. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. without profound questioning. and this particularly of late. 2. 7. 13. to retire early from my employment. 9. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. he had not yet been able to estimate. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. was unclear to Mitzi. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. because of pity. 5. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. and meet it right here at home. 11.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. whereas if she went away she would get none. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. apart from his distress for parents. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 4. Having regard to the date of drafting. 3. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 10. You have been much in my thoughts.
I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. I was made say Grace before every dinner. one of the eggs broke. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / Whenever I visited my aunt. 264 . / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. for attending his sister’s wedding. / Before you go on changing the subject. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. this always makes us feel embarrassed. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / In the end. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. looking forward had not yet taken place. please consider his proposition. 19. he did not come to see her. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 17. even for months. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 14.
And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. it was said. an open-air person. of all people. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. of the quick and wiry. cotton mills at Manchester. a little girl. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. to end in some awful tragedy. quite unexpectedly. They rushed into shops. She felt as when. her recklessness. she said. 265 . Clarissa used to think. Vulgar men did. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. rather than the hefty type. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. They hated trying on. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. Tony was a child. and it was bound. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. Essentially. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. without discovery. her old friend Hugh. centered in London and themselves. Instead of which she had married. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Though much in request before her marriage. Clare had never come into close contact with those who.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. At country houses she had met them of course. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. (and there he was. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes.
au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. nu a facut-o pentru asta. aveam tot mai 266 . cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. De uitat. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. she professed. si in plus. Cind l-a chemat. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. with all its impatience of restraint. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. The closer she allowed him to come to her. the more she would be torturing him. but lying in her bath. era un bun sfatuitor. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Reading many novels.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. viguros si vesel in felul lui.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.Rindurile dvs. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. cre s-au nascut lent.Over the River) 2. ii faceau bine. Bolnava nu se simtea. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. nu puteam sa le uit. short of the contacts of love. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. she was uneasy. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. astfel. to keep abreast of the current. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. indeed. (John Galsworthy .
se stie. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. fa-o. vaazut cindva. poate fi compensata. ca si tine. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Banulescu – ibid. (St. Milionarule. cit mai au de trait. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. (St. Banulescu – ibid. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Daca tu. (St. lungimea picioarelor. Ce a iesit. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. latimea si ascutisul labei. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste.) 5. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Personal. o data sau de doua ori. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 7. are nevoie.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. pe scaunul lui tare. (St.) 267 . Banulescu – ibid. mi-am zis. Banulescu – ibid. 4.) 6. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. nu pricep nimic.
Who came home from the war. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. my grandfather.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative.. Who when asked about his memories of the War. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .P. a wounded soldier. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. A story-book romance. delivered from the holocaust. Cambridge. Arthur Atkinson M. Who was may father. Translate them. to Emmanuel College. (. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Could he be blamed. Who told me. for being a renegade.. when I was even younger than you. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And had a brother killed in the same battle.
That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. Fabianism. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. How 269 . he had already engaged himself? 3. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. to whom. a moody man.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. 4. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. deep-set. Rachel Williams. and because – but this is mere speculation. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles.
uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum au tăcut ei. la şcoală. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. fără să poată pleca nicăieri.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum a ajuns el. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. om mare. cu taina aceasta. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Ion. satul. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Ion. Cum a trăit el. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. 270 . ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat.
Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. cu sau fără voie. împotriva tuturor. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. de mama lor. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. 271 . dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. L-au derivat cei din teatru. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. greşeli dintr-astea.pune totul in discuţie. Când actriţa. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. din franţuzeşte. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. singurul lui stăpân. când voi fi singur.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară.
parcă începusem s-o uit. Tot aşa. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. continuând. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. uneori şi astăzi chiar. 6. 3. Într-o vreme. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. sau ridicole. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. ci un sistem de acomodare. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. provocându-le. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. 4. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. privindu-mă în ochi. nevasta-mea. traversând. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. 272 .Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. 5. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. de pildă. A devenit palid. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Am început. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. dam buzna peste automobile. pe jumătate prezent. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe.
simţeam că mi se dilată inima. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. E o problemă. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. Dacă nemţii înaintau. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. fireşte. şi dacă merg întins. să merg întins. ca un acrobat. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Aş vrea să mă las jos. că nu m-am gândit la asta. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. şi să nu ameţesc. 9. Am început. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. 8. 11. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. iar. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. orice s-ar întâmpla. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. De altminteri. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu.
Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. 16. de la proces. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 14. Greu era din partea asta. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Acum isi ferea privirea. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani.. La un moment dat.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. se uita in jos. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Auzindu-l. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Adica tot trecutul. Uite. 15. eu am venit sa va intreb.. In curind. Ii venea greu. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. la carti. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. nu mai pricepu nimic. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. la fata locului. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. de uimire. dar nu se mai putea. cu mirare. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu.Ma. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. 13. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Ilie nu-l asculta. trebuia sa le spuna. nu mai semana. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. de la obiecte de pret. la amintiri. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. 17. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. de la lucruri personale. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. 274 .
vorbe asa si-asa. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. 20. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Zimbea siret. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». dar. asa cum facuse pina acum. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. apoi se uitau la Ilie. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala.Unit ten Revision exercises 18.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. There was even 275 . Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Nu era nevoie. . E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui.Ce sa fac. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Aici era ceva. which was part of his rich outfit. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . 19. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. cum zicea Anghel. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. se indeparta nepasator.
He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. at least. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. resuming her walk. to admit that she was a proud. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. going astray. gave an exclamation. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. conversationally. asked for Mrs. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. But Daisy. She was one 276 . He walked a long time.Miller at her hotel. to move fast. for the instant. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. He felt then. on this occasion. the young lady. rude woman. paying no attention. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. 4. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one.Nadina VIŞAN relief. to take his way home on foot. 5. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. a simplification. 3.
She rustled forward. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . of studying European society. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. in their own phrase. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. uncomfortably. 6. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. She appeared. Her daughter. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. as text book. on the other hand.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. and wondering what the deuce he meant. 7. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative.Walker. make a point. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. as it were. He left me musing. making Paul stop and look at her. Advising with me. in radiant loveliness. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. smiling and chattering. as to projected changes. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. while residing abroad. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. often. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. indeed. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. 8.
as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. wondered what they were talking about. H. 9. or at any rate not heeding. not seeing. 11. H. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. The agent became a very familiar type to H. 10. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. and.’ 278 . that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. while Paul. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. H. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. could see he was remarkable. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. which was deliberate. and acute too. with his humorous density. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. though E. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. and perceived that it must be something important. was only half satisfied with this. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. was immensely struck with him. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us.
His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . 13. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. which was very copious. had the power to chain his sympathy. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 15. appeared to fill his whole childhood. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. as he looked back. 14. that the haunting wonder which now. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. not glancing at him for a moment. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. But she gave him no chance. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. H.
Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. that she must be on the contrary. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. H. and to H. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. proudly. 17. where the Pearl of Paraguay. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was very possible she was capricious. yet 280 . ironically reserved. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. 18. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. 16. disheveled and distracted. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. as a general thing. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. At the theatre. and there were others. The whole establishment. dragging herself on her knees.
/ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. would always be more or less irritating. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Their mistakes and illusions. 19. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. didn’t mind. 20. with the poor. on which the damp breath of the streets. young men were invited.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 3. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 281 . had blown a certain chill. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 2. H. No one ever listens to her. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. It came over H. *Old. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. and lurking within this nebulous design.
12. 8./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 10. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. striding like a Spartan maid. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 9. her arms held out. I was definitely going to be sick. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. I walked fast. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. walking quickly. 5. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. Either John or he * have got to give in. “Oh. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. I blundered by. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. her shining blue feet twinkling. Rachel.Nadina VIŞAN 4. I saw her as a vision. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 6. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. slipped on some steps. 7. 282 . I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 11. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. c) When I saw her sitting there. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her.
Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. One or more solutions can be valid: 1.
I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. The old women spoke no English. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 2. which was really alarming. if they were poor. 4. could cook my meals. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. 5. where my servant. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 3. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. but that we saw and pitied. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. And then I ventured to add that. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt.
to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1.g. Munt. to pay their annual visit. was anxious = was + anxious. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. his. he.g. at noon. would really hurt. etc. he had not yet been able to estimate. apart form his distress for parents. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. was informed. distress. Constituents: He. etc. Constituents: Margaret. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. this would really hurt. on Saturday. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 285 . etc. this. to settle. had not been able to estimate.apart from his distress = apart from. before they left town. How much. Constituents: how much. was anxious. apart from his distress for parents.
– non-assertive. – non-assertive.. and is non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / If you like her.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – first clause is non-assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question..SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. interrogative. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. interrogative. which context is non-assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. listen to this. it is assertive. negative/ Come with me.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . don’t bother her. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – assertive/ Don’t do that. negative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. which is not assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to)./ She finally admitted.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. The sentence is however 286 . negative/ If you like jazz. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – comparison. second clause is non-assertive. Second clause is an imperative.
/ They didn’t leave./ He was exceptionally cunning. he was hardly pleased. but it wasn’t them./ They weren’t really confused. but not more than she does others. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / He wasn’t unusually bright. but it isn’t Susan. –double negation cancellation. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. the two brothers dared to protest./ When he learned the news. – someone hates animals. only irresolute. but nothing out of the ordinary./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. everybody used to travel by coach./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / I don’t like her very much./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. – they told the truth to somebody else./ He was smart enough. / She does like John. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / You have never met 287 . / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. – someone did that. not even this thing. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / She does not hate animals.but to someone else./ Not long ago. – I like somebody else.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. not even when it’s quiet around./ Hardly interested in the conference. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place.
. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. not even when you were very young. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even in my dreams. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. – I cannot look him in the eye. were they? / This boy is no good...negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor..negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.Nadina VIŞAN her. / This is hardly the 288 . I could hardly wait to hear the news... Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.
/ I hardly ever look at those paintings. but she also lent him a car./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. never trust a man again. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. when we started our holiday. – Not many people came to see her. Activity 8 I shall never./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – I almost never look at those paintings. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – I don’t often look at her like that.Never shall I trust a man again. – I never see her./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – You haven’t eaten a thing.. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / Few people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Almost nobody liked him. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / I seldom look at her like that./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / Hardly anybody liked him.
–At no time did we leave the office. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – They don’t believe she likes them. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. you can still do something about it. / Come on. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / They believe she does not like them. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – Come on./ I expect he won’t come here again. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – Only on this man could she rely. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ I somewhat like his proposal. – 290 . Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ Well. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. you can’t do anything about it any more. / You must on no account touch this machinery.. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – They say he never had anyone very close. / They say he once had someone very close. / She could rely on nobody but him. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / Don’t worry.I don’t like his proposal at all.
/ I nearly always have to clean it myself./ Bob is still living at that address. – Well her husband has always been a good person.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. either. 291 . / You must pay that fine. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine../ Peter knows some English and so does John./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / She hardly ever comes here. –Alice still lives here. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You must be telling lies. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – You should send her something. – She almost always comes here. / Well. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. too. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / You needn’t send her anything. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – You can’t be telling lies. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test.
to any of us./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ 292 . / He can’t have done a thing like that. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. ever since I got this ulcer. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. not yet. He didn’t move a muscle. He isn’t that smart. e un magar./ E un baiat de zahar./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ They say this Ph. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. has never studied anywhere./ You look so tired today. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ He’s a happy man./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. / Jim is so brave. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. give me a hand.D. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. Oh. I haven’t seen her in years./ Nimic de facut./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. / Don’t go on believing him. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Nu spune nu niciodata. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. / Please. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Zis si facut./ You took his leaving you very hard./ He was a tough man./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Nobody told us a thing./ Have they rung the bell? No. I haven’t done anything./ I don’t know a thing about her. It’s no wonder./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis.
• Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. one way or another.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant ./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home.’/ Deloc descurajat. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. I had never had the opportunity to prove. I hadn’t really expected miracles.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. feebly./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. no story. parasi camera. We had nothing in common. 293 . Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . nothing. without too much determination. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ Nu-i nici un deranj. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. slowly. no memory. for I thought this threatening. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. that I was a decent man. with the same needs they had.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze.’ ‘Nici o problema. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. thrown out.
In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. that’s what the world is about. It’s not made up of theories and the like. or if you understood what I meant. good. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. the only 294 . “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. your story. Radu had calmed down. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. it’s not words. We have to judge it as it is. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. but facts. things you do any moment. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. I was sleepy and tired. • It was my turn to say something. I’d be so happy if it were so. to say the least. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. Your judgement is false. Not for a moment had I thought that. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. clear or confusing. he was sitting beside me. Unfortunately. he immediately answered me patronizingly. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. let alone irritable. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. on the front seat. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. You really made me mad. by coming here to the monastery. bad. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. I admit. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch..
but I didn’t want to lie to myself. to fight.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. me. we are leaving. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. too? A gun is power. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. soon we’ll be in town. keep your conscience clean: you have one. But I was just wondering. Look. precious words. clears your way. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. it’s your problem. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. behind these big. either. as Baciu would have us be. keep it squeaky clean. or you are lying hidden. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. 295 . and an inability to act. it solves troubles. Anyway. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. although it was a difficult thing to do. or call the respect of others. just to please myself. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. me. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. it’s yours. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. • So. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. did you ever step up front. no matter how huge they are. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. But what about you and Melania. and if you like. I won’t interfere. you can go to Ursu’s. fear might be hiding. you do as you think fit.
– incorrect. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. the sentence is incorrect 3. But it was not because I had no answer to give.correct 3.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . has yet arrived -correct 2. .incorrect. firmly determined not to answer immediately. but they gradually got used to it. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. because before is a positive polarity item 2. as soon as he delivered it. correlatives are mixed 2. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.Negative attraction b) 1.. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. The villagers were not very religious. . will he?. or some other woman. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.Negative incorporation 296 . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. has not arrived yet – double negation.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.. -correct 3. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.
she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. yet. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită.) Însă era cam târziu. Avea sufletul prea obosit. nu era 297 .Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. (ibid. b) But it was rather (API) late. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. her lack of motion would have to do (API). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. either (NPI). Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Nu putea să se mişte. not happy at all (NPI). astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Ştia că are dreptate. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). prea răscolit. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired. (ibid. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. too troubled. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. much less ((NPI) for her. Her stillness. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. she couldn’t marry him.
inima îi batea năvalnic. she looked younger than ever (NPI). g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). his heart was beating fast.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. (Salman Rushdie. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. şi destul de hotărât. e) At length.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. The Satanic Verses. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. 298 . f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. se îndreptă spre paravan. and not a little unsteadily. (ibid. (ibid. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. he made his way to the screen. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. if anything (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că.
îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. care if the school were willing to treat him. h) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor.) C. Home receded from the prodigal son. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). and probably an administrative headache as well. The point was. 299 . told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. i) What did C.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. but his father would have none of it (NPI). the gift was useless. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Ce-i pasă lui C. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. (ibid.
300 .Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. . correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
yes. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. the bitch. and then what do you 308 . She has an eye for gentle men. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. Vica. 2. they were. Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. do you really think that this vixen.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. she likes to entrance them. now she was chatty. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. all godfearing husbands and fathers. keep Condrat away from her. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. you are in enough trouble as it is. Luca Horobet. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. to make them lust after her. Stavre Paici. “Now. Fenia. Chizlinski.
For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. G. ankle-long flowered calico. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. a seventy-eight year old lad. dragging his feet listlessly. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. He got him out of his mosque. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. what’s her name. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. with a railway station and a mosque. 4. The mullah. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. It even takes him a while to go to the window. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . have a girlfriend. the minister of Tartars and Turks. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. 3. her hair pinned with blue combs.
and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .
John and Mary are ready.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – sentence coordination 2. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. our respective examinations. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. Our flag is red. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.. – sentence coordination 7.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . John and Mary are the newly married couple. yellow and blue. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. Her pet kitten is black and white.) 9.phrasal coordination (in this case. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . John is ready and Mary is ready. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.. – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. and I passed.
and even tennis. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Activity 4 1. much satisfaction or little 312 . 5. many guest or few. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. but not John. 3. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 7. your proposal and his. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. but John does not play football. 6.) Joan plays many games. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Activity 5 This book and the other. her son and others. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 2. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. that method and those. your work and mine. We can and will demand payment. 10. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. her idea and John’s.
) 6. 8. Wear and tear 12. Touch and go 10. Ups and downs 6. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Pros and cons 4. Over and above 13. Safe and sound 313 . magazines are only for children. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Spick and span 9. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Bread and butter 16. 5. He read. To and fro 15. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Few and far between 14. Law and order 8. Thick and thin 11. etc. Activity 8 1. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. I have always fought and will fight for progress. 3. 4. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He snapped at him and slapped him. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Life and soul 5. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Swings and roundabouts 7. The facts and figures 3. but not simple. 7.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. High and low 2.
There are some chairs and a table in the room. 9. 8. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Either the child or the parents are to blame. My son and daughter are twins. Asymmetric 19. exclusive 17. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 5. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 4. 1.. – symmetric. 10. 7. 9. 6. Symmetric 21. 4. b. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – symmetric. – asymmetric 18. exclusive 15.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – symmetric 10. 10. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 7.symmetric 11. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 3. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. inclusive 16. My son and heir is safe. – similar situation 9. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. Cathy and David have arrived. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 314 . His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 5. 3. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 2. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Asymmetric 20. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Symmetric 13. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 2. 6. – symmetric. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – symmetric 2.
I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 12. 8. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 2. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. I’ll still finish this paper. 3. Her husband is long dead and buried. clothes and all. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 6. He went to bed. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. Brother or no brother. 15. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. Jim thought it over for a while. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 2. 4. 10. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 9. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. thanks for asking. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 11. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 7. No drinking and driving.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. They came to me. By hook or by crook. 3. He’s neither fish. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. nor fowl. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. There are doctors and doctors. it was too small. (2) 1. ‘Madam. 14. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. Not only should you rest 315 . 5. We’ll stick together. for better or worse. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Should he pour water in the basin.
So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. stop dead in his tracks. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. tense with concentration. he’d leap high. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. Whatever she tried her hand at. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Mrs. 316 . so he could leap in pursuit. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Her first husband had been a professor. she knows for sure. and then. but she blinks in approval. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. she started doing a great job. You know. So she’ll listen to him. And. What do you know? The moment Mrs. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth.’ (3) 1. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. at equal intervals.Nadina VIŞAN assured. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. without mentioning financial matters. This. tense like a bow. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. but he’d come out a cripple. it would work out fine. just like when he was thirty. an important man. he starts lecturing her about life and things. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. as she always does. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. so he’d gone down and died in no time. 2. both dead and buried. and she listens to him. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. They hadn’t kept him there too long. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. their common ground. what’s its name.
is aware. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.subordinate. – she. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. functioning as an object (direct). to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. she looked at me sadly. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness .subordinate. cannot tell.subordinate. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. you. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . looked. – obligatory elements: she. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – obligatory elements: I. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – she.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . functioning as a modifier 3. whomever wanted to listen. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. came. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. – she. – Susan. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. told.
Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that you are choosing exile .subordinate. that we should.complement b) 1.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age. remove our home yet again .Nadina VIŞAN 4. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . since the main verb is think of something) 5.
direct object b) to dry it – complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. a barn. adjunct (time)/ 319 . modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. a house.complement. outbuildings. but no idea – relative that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object.
and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. without straightening her back. (…) He dashed back.wh complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. subject/ to do such again – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. sickle in hand. But other people. (…) ‘Well. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. that kept her constantly tense and grim. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. When Anton put the sickle down. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. Activity 5 1. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. direct object/ to sit there – complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object/ and done – wh complement. staring at each other. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .A few days before the war. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. direct object. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly.
2. as if they were at his beck and call. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. but he doesn’t spurn either. Ana could not stand a trip now. For no bold man really falters. or other more hidden means. 321 . while they spoke from miles away. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. you need courage even for this small thing. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. that was for sure. but also his sharp nose. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Only he had Ana to think of. First.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Not even at this point. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. or if he does. Why! He was not of two minds. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. 3. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. which he doesn’t rely on completely. while on other occasions he would show caution. rather than a real threat. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him.
who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. it was the women. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. And here’s how this first day looked. under the silliest of pretexts. and on Monday followed another feast). In fact. and twice we were requested to get out. in Odobesti. come on. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. are we getting off again? What is wrong. and when things didn’t go as planned. to see some mutual friends. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. So. by the cars of some of us. 4. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. We were going to drive to a vineyard. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. he had postponed writing back. But it was not ok. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. without really knowing why. although he could have said so earlier. Twice did we get in the car. they would ruin the arrangement. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. 322 .Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh.
They met those students none of whom agreed with them. why they all left .RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. I bought Jim a book that he liked. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. all of whom would answer to his questions. Activity 2 1. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE .restrictive 6.restrictive 7. which was a pity. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 11. what you want – free/ where you can park your car .She came to London where I went too. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. He is the author who they gave a prize to. where I least expected 323 . The students like their teacher. 6. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. John told his friend a story about the king. 8. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 5. 10. 5. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 2. which was silly of him. This is my husband whom I love very much. You couldn’t join the party. 7. 4. 6.restrictive 4. Activity 3 1. 9. 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. The students. 3. when we first met . who was just passing by. 7. He told her the secret. where I spent my youth . 4. like their teacher.free 8. 8.restrictive 2. on which this occurred . any of whom would answer to questions. 10. most of whom were from England.
was very displeased with the situation.adjunct 5.adjunct 10. what their parents made them. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Which – subject 4.adjunct 6. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. 7. where – predicative 7. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. who cannot say a word. where we talk money – predicative. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. 2. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.When Ada remarked – adjunct.free Activity 4 1. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. 6. 3. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. 4. Why . Where he was from – adjunct. the prince chose Cinderella.adjunct 3. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .subject 8.free 9. when . I. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. Who . What Inman remembered – subject. What – direct object 2. come up front. What I’m saying – subject. who think so highly of yourselves. Where . When . You. 5. which . however sad . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.Nadina VIŞAN . Where . Activity 5 1. Of all the persons there.subject 9.adjunct 11.restrictive 10.
adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical due to the[. what little she knew – direct object.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. which requires an accusative form. how . that is ungrammatical because it 325 . whatever – predicative 13. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.attribute 12. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.
had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. but whose second cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . a sergeant. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. due to its invariable character.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose great-grandfather. who. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. having changed quite a number of jobs. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. got married and had a daughter. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. in his turn. a rather tiny looking man. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin.
with deletion of the noun friends]. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.yes 3. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. This story. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. no easy answers to which could be offered. – yes. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he rarely saw now. were now all gone.His father’s friends. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. – no pied piping 5. The problem of safe transportation. – no 4. . His friends.yes 10.yes Activity 9 1. whose interest he most sincerely shared. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – yes 2. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.no 5.yes 7. he requested that the public be excluded. – yes 6. was now complete. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. – no pied piping 327 . . . although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. .obligatory 3. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. has been troubling them forever. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. In the interest of public decency. – no 9.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. – obligatory pied piping 2.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. Irene. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.obligatory 4. .
He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 4.and he couldn’t thank me enough. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 3. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. yours. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 7. Nelu. Everything was ending. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . For all the four children. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 6. where two teams battled every day… 5. or as of a vast arena. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. irrespective of age and nature. For twenty years. Only an ugly endless dream remained. I did so. the third born son. In other people’s opinion. for instance. I am to be envied. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. 328 . But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 8. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 2. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly.
to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 329 . and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. she said. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 13. the tram was rattling along. 11. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. since I don’t really know which my true life is. He was suffering from dizziness. where from Marta was coming too. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 16. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 12. What you’re saying sounds very nice. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 15. 14. from MR street. 10. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. All that you have read is rubbish. You are newly arrived here. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 17. leaving streets and houses behind. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. although she was standing quite close to him. on Icoanei street.R. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. Behind them.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. barely glittering in the distance. staring aimlessly.
Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. day by day. She was a woman of means. I could see my woman falling away from me. 23. While some trees are still green. who only lived once in this world. 20.Nadina VIŞAN 18. or the clash of stars above. so optimistic and composed? 19. 22. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 21. But. likes and dislikes. after the car was fixed. From the vantage point I was in. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. While we were poor. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. I don’t know what might have happened. which I did not posses. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 24. So. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. who prompted everyone on the street. If he had hit me. had a personal style in clothes. But for me. 330 . in her pursuits. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. or the many Egyptian dynasties. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. had a huge house in Bucharest.
subject 8. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed. direct object 3. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. subject 7. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – extraposed. – impossible 7. It appears that no one voted for him. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. subject 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – unextraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. object 6. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 6. 2. direct object 10. – extraposed. 8. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – the same as 3.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. subject 4. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. subject 9.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . prepositional object Activity 2: 1. object 5. 3. – extraposed. 331 .The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – questionable. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life.
idiomatic formula 16. – impossible. It is nice to meet you. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. but pragmatically impossible 4. 10. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. 14. – grammatical. – same as 12. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – impossible. same as 12. tense influences the 332 . – grammatical. a bit too intricate 5. 18. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 15. 17. They never expected it that he would come back. although a bit intricate 2. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. – impossible. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – impossible 11. 9. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.incorrect. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. but pragmatically impossible 3. . – impossible.grammatical.. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. . but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – correct 2.grammatical. I don’t expect it that he will come back.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. Activity 3: 1. . tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.correct 4. same as 12. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – incorrect. I guess it that he will come back. – the same as 12. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It is no use trying to convince her. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical.
I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. behind gates. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. thus.’ 4.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 333 . 3. in the ditch. 5. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour.’ Lionel says. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. 2.incorrect. though. – correct 6. (Not always. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. under bridges. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. in the pits on the road. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.
? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. Activity 7 1. 3. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. without trying to protest too much. It is less ambiguous than the first. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. 7. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. because it is less ambiguous.Nadina VIŞAN 6. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. since the 334 . / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. 8. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. – the second sentence is questionable. 4. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 2. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. By saying this. – the first sentence is the better of the two. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. who had just returned from Africa. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. The second and third sentences are grammatical./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 5. extraposition is obligatory here. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. so there is no need for extraposition. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 6. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 335 . 7./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 8. – both sentences are grammatical. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.We discovered that our map has disappeared. – complement 2. (Iris Murdoch. – direct object. . – prepositional object. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – complement that clause. – relative 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – complement 5. ibid. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. they were chained to each other forever. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. ibid. for better or worse. required by deverbal noun 336 . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. . correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – subject.adverbial of sequence/result. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers.complement 4. – adverbial of sequence/result. The idea that he had had earned him good money.) complement that clauses. – relative 5. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. (Iris Murdoch. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.prepositional object.relative Activity 9 1. coordinated.) adverbial of sequence/result.
– that is obligatory 7) They maintain. f) John said that Harry would leave. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. that deletion is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. – that is obligatory. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. you want me to believe.
a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. a. c. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. / b) John said that his car is out of gas.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. b. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – grammatical sentences. – both sentences are grammatical. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 .
hawk. present instead of simple past. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. lark. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. While the first is possible because of the generalization. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. geese both grey and white. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. present perfect instead of past perfect. cenuşii şi albe. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. – generalization on habits of birds. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. ciocârlii şi şoimi. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. prepeliţe. quail. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow.
Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. love of practical jokes. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. The generic present is used in this case. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Crows will relish what presents itself. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. She admired their keenness of wit. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lipsa de vanitate. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . slyness in a fight. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. lack of pridefulness.
She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. He had fought hard through the war. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. se ridicase în picioare. But as the battle raged around them. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . He died erect. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. tragică şi eroică. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. […] During the latter stages of the tale. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. tânărul ofiţer. in the very act of expiring. El căzuse pe spate. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Murise în picioare. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. he claimed.
în închisoare. susţinea el. But when he reached me. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Acum stătea aici. 2. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Luptase din răsputeri în război. the oldest. And they might just hang him. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. I realized I could not tell him the big news. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Activity 13 1. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. mother went home and I was left alone. – similar situation to the one under (c). Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. deşi era erou de război. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. How can I explain? I just felt shy. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. 342 . they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. When he saw me. One of them. A short while later. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. he closed the album. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. to finish my drawing. Now here he stood jailed. war hero though he was. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). When the boys saw that mother had left. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. they gathered around my desk. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. They all had their hands in their pockets.
He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. or fear his rage. as if he had been drunk. 4. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. brightly and closely. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. 6. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. or if she would do so again. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. for her vineyard. All his senses were now keen.’ 5. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things.’ Mr. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing.
And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . it meant that he would approve of him from then on. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. claiming you had no ambition for the future. thinking of him. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 7. 9. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. 8. 11. 10.Nadina VIŞAN to him. And if things were so. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. The last time when we met here you scared me. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat.
Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. where he would run to confess everything. 13. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. without putting anything in a note. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. towards Jurubita. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. more urgently than ever. 14. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. We either sell them or we don’t. namely the impatience of this young man. which secretly drove him. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 12. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital.
INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 9..simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. – simple infinitive. – perfect infinitive. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. . – infinitive continuous. It is vital this factory to be reopened. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 3. grammatical 10. 346 . – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive. . grammatical. / He had Mary clean her room. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / He was forced to send Tom on the front. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. grammatical 6. grammatical 5. grammatical 2. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 7. – simple infinitive. / they saw her leave.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.
\ He persuaded her PRO to come. you need to try harder. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / It is not too late for him to learn. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: * I would like people. – Test: They convinced her. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: They tempted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. – Test: They asked her. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. / I want to never see you again. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: She promised him. Test: *I would love them. – Test: He persuaded her. \ I allowed [them to come. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ I would love [ them to come. Test: *They did not wish her. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ They really asked her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. Test: *I allowed them. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.
/ He is hard to stand. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. Activity 6 Oh. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / I have a word to tell you. . / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want you to leave my house. / He is easy to live with. / He is young enough to start again. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / I want to tell you what I think of you. not to miss the train. .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / Oh. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / To make a long story short. . . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. I don’t need you or your services. / He is easy to talk to.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.
the herd instinct was very strong in him.Accusative + Infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 1 – PRO. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Harold. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. He suspected hostility at once.to. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. he didn’t envy those above it.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Subject. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Subject. 1 – PRO-to. Predicative 4 . Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. If he himself was out of spirits. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. 1] A little crossly. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. so that we might get to the future and have done. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. 349 .
PRO controlled by ‘him’. direct object 3 – PRO –to. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. PRO controlled by ‘she’. e) When two persons. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. f) The passing time is important. man and woman. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. object 2 – PRO –to. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. PRO controlled by ‘she’. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. 350 . slowly. One day. PRO controlled by ‘me’. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. true. more meaningful. more believable than evidence itself. excitedly. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. we seem to forget about our own pain. or better said. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. c) Unlike plane trips. And you might also be hit and humiliated. But when we need to comfort others. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. 1 – PRO-to. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. cautiously. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business.
for there is no shame in it when need drives you. in the street. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. Moroi says heavily. Mrs. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. even when this love is hurried. h) I want us to go. not even those parts where he had been half-right. or. That is it. for instance. while swearing to change my way of life. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. S. And I would care for this man so deeply. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. as he had appeared to him in the rain. all down our neck. He had not been able to leave Dr. my wish being only to please and serve. tickled by the trickles of sweat. to live only with your coughing. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. or their talk that night. not to want to wipe it off. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Stroescu. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. which he had already forgotten. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. that you are young. If it was summer. 351 . your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. And to actually start to believe you are so. I am indeed praising my own merits. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. k) With this considerable dowry. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it.
l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. 352 . o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. Well. ready to submit to any demand. met by squalor and terrible smells. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. haphazardly. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). she was suddenly so shocked. no matter what. here I am with all of my own. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. every Bucharester knows it. or to speak so fast. for that’s the door people get off by. If you will have what I can give you. poor Muti. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by.
/ She sent him shopping. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. 353 ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. with its lips drawn back. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ Don’t keep him waiting. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. – Attributive past participle. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. badly beaten and bloodied.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates.. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / They found it thrown in a corner./ He went to have a tooth pulled. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.
– Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. – As she was running into the room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. having heard it all before. Sleeping in the next room. 10. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I was astonished at what I saw. 8. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. he sat down to his own dinner.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. I slammed the door of my room. lying face downwards in a sea of mud.She didn’t want to hear the story again. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . having been uprooted by the gale. 7. 3. 4. – Attributive present participle. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Attributive present participle. 6. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. they began quarreling about how to divide it. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. 9. 2. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Activity 4 1./ Running into the room. 5. Accusative + present participle / In any case. The tree had fallen across the road. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Turning on the light.Running into the room. Having fed the dog. sitting taut between her father and her sister. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Finding the treasure.
the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. his horse fell at the last jump. 12. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. Barking furiously. 4. 355 . open-minded. he broke one of the eggs. I let it out of the room. – As he was tied to the post. a scorpion bit him. wooden-headed. sharp-eyed/minded. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Passing under a ladder. – As I was passing under a ladder. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was riding in the first race. I often get very cold hands. he was bit by a scorpion. bald-headed. Getting out of bed. his horse fell at the last jump. empty-headed. – As he was climbing down the tree. 10. three-coloured. my hands often get very cold. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 7. narrow-minded. I let the dog out of the room. lion-hearted. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. my hands often get very cold. red-handed. Activity 5 Fair-haired. one of the eggs broke. the sea was tossing it up and down. broad-shouldered. Dropped by parachute. many-coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Climbing down the tree. a pot of paint fell on my head. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. 5. a scorpion bit him. the sea was tossing the post up and down. – As the dog was barking furiously. Reading in bed. Tied to the post. one of the eggs broke. – As he left the cinema.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Leaving the cinema. 11. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. – When I read in bed. – As he was getting out of bed. 6. 3. Riding in the first race. 9. stony-hearted. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. / Climbing down the tree. cloth-covered. fishy-eyed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 8./ Reading in bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. / Getting out of bed. 2.
The escaped prisoner. (hunt). (take) 2. / Swiss watches. bounden duty. stricken deer. / Many old people.Spielberg. sunken eyes. (injure). injuring my arm. hunting for a bargain. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. is expected to be a great hit. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. lighted candle. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. 356 . eagle-eyed. produced by S. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. rotten plank. dark-skinned. found hiding in a barn. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (produce) 3. Whales. Activity 8 1.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. 7. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. straight-shouldered. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. admired for their elegance and precision. graven image. are sold throughout the world. The film. mown grass. (find) 6./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Three people. injured when their car crashed on the M1. ill-gotten wealth. open-hearted. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. was today taken back to prison. shrunken stream. shorn lamb.I fell on the ice. I stared at the canvas for ages. (grow) 4. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. drunken man. roast meat. are in grave danger of extinction. (admire) 5. Activity 7 1. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. hidden meaning.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. shaven head. were taken to hospital.
in charge of his house and lands. thrown in the pots. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. 4. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. he started peering anxiously around as if. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. bake them. seeking some promised land. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. flat and soft. 2. he were struggling for breath. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. the twice rinsed vegetables. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. After a while. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. then put up. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the carved chicken. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. He felt close to his father. 357 . the fish. A parasol. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. suddenly suffocated. yet left them room to sway free. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. hovering uncertain and soft. now taken down. And his soul. and the puffed pastry beds. boil them. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. So. 3. sprinkled with sticky flour. its scales scraped off by the knife. and moreover. streaked with yellow veins of fat.
/ Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. It was worth trying to continue the efforts./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / After annoying the shop-assistant. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I am sorry for being so late. he left the store without buying a thing./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. Activity 10 1. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. Gambling is his favourite pastime.gerund 5. – participle (attribute) 2. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. – gerund (subject) 4./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. – Accusative + participle 3. .
preceded by preposition). The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. She’s looking forward to having lots of children.possessive ING (direct object) 9. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – Nominative + participle 13. . The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12.participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – gerund (half or full. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. He was spotted talking to her. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – gerund (attribute. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. 8. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.
Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.. adjective. – gerund (full. adjective.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund or verbal noun. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.’ 360 . ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Lady Corven.. hold up his pen and speak. – verbal noun (has determiner. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has adjective).’ ‘Tell me. take down her answer. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. but they went by too quickly.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. my Lord. Croom to try to follow one. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. however appearances were against us. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.
I spend all my time hunting a job. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. suddenly. Then.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. my Lord. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.’ said Clare. I just used the word and they fell.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. he addressed the note. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ 361 . it’s overrated. I must go back now. licked the envelope with passion.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. and went out to post it himself.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. ‘I do hate asking for things.
attribute. The sight of the two children. gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. (participle. attribute). stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) towards him. elliptical here. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. the enormous split in the earth. attribute. adverbial of time. The collapsing shops (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object). First the crack snaking (half gerund. after verb of perception. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. It was like a mist. slightly 362 . shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. village which is burning). direct object) from below. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. …while their edges were crashing inwards). attribute). … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. hoping (participle. attribute. attribute) in a swirling motion. At first. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. slowly rising (participle. following the verb ‘remember’.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. someone looking for survivors (participle. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. down. The two sides were moving apart. functions as direct object) and then the ground. down into God knows where. Has a complex subject) in the hole.
’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . according to the books he read. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.e. you. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund.). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. adverbial of reason). the chief occupation of the people of these islands. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. one. early. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. direct object). etc. my dear. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. i. has ‘of’ phrase). She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. moving up (participle. covering (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count.
adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. And. a door was opened and as a servant entered. and then went riding (participle. So. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. mother. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Young Mamona left the room without a word. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) a sudden whoop. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. attribute) to winter brilliance. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of manner). preceded by preposition. and everything got suddenly animated. for Dornford was busy on an important case.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. adverbial of manner). the two Mamonas. we were all gathered in that room. Standing up. adverbial of reason). Having a French governess (participle. brightening (participle. She finished what jobs there were. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. examining (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. preceded by preposition. attribute) stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and sunlight. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. slanted on to her cheek. reluctant or not. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. Vaucher and I.
Vaucher might have known that too. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. Entering our house on a Thursday. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . Not so unimaginable though. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. So when Old Mamona came in. to me. about sparing no effort. 4. let alone greet us or say something. in the year 1812. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. And then. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. kissed her forehead. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. He cast us a swift glance. about concentrating all our resources. I knew who it would be. too. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. sitting in his puddle. without taking his sack off his shoulders. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . and ended his life in the year 1821. he went to mother and. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. each carrying a wooden box. for anyway. and smelling so hard of rain. her back towards us. bending a little. closing my eyes. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. 2. he looked like someone who did. 3. he found us sitting each in his place. his disloyal apprentice. killed by Young Mamona. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. to Vaucher. who knows. And. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. as mother had ordered him. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. and to Young Mamona. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher.
everything seemed familiar. They got off the truck slowly. wood pile. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. And all around them was the great field 366 . of taking notes and rewriting them.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. as an afterthought. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. each pausing before jumping down. long board table. 5. futile. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. already seen and heard. And suddenly. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. stove. But. barrack. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces.
Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. 367 . The next thing was to go to the well. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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