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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
de rezolvări. 6 . Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. titularizare şi grad. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Auxiliary verbs 1.3. Insertion 1.4. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.6. Constituent Phrase 1. Complementary distribution .Contents: 8 1.1. The Distribution of an Element 1.2.5.
since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. very much. Consequently. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Semantic.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. 1. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. For instance. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sequences of the kind her mother very. They are just strings. her mother.1. loves. that is sequences fragmented at random. Syntactic.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.2. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama.
an order given to an interlocutor). Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. (Mi-a spus secretul. should. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. be).3. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. etc. 1.e. we are dealing with a directive (i. must.4. 1.) 10 . (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).
These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.6. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. live. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. Consider. 1.5. an ‘empty’ there subject.) 1. etc. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. for instance. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.
as the star indicates. whereas (7) is not.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. 12 . He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Munt. pragmatic. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. he had not yet been able to estimate. distribution. this would really hurt. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. using your own examples: insertion. semantic. If the given context is the one under (6). auxiliary Activity 1 verb. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. syntactic. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Pratice Define and illustrate. How much. complementary distribution.
to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 .
Instances of negation 2.8. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 188.8.131.52.2. Tests for negativity 2.5. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. affirmative sentences. Polarity Items 2. Negative vs. Full – local negation 2. Key terms 2.4.6. Key terms .1. Conclusion.
We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. it asserts something. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.Positive vs. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. in that they do not state anything. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b. This example can be compared to: (2)a. Consequently. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.2. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.) is said to be an assertion. For instance. Negative .Declarative vs. in the sense that it states something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.
/ Don’t do that. Did they tell her the secret? ) . listen to this. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .g.interrogative (e.non-assertion .) .positive sentence . / Come with me. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.other (if –clauses.negative (e.Nadina VIŞAN . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.g./ She can’t wait to read that book. / She finally admitted. don’t bother her.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret./ We didn’t come here just to talk. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. comparison.assertion .positive and declarative secret. They told her the ( e. 16 ./ If you like her.g. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.
) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. Susan doesn’t like her friends. In the case of the sentences under (4). am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. (John e nefericit. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. For example. I met a girl named Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) b. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). since the negative word not is not present there. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.Unit two Sentence negation 2. word negation. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. John is unhappy. Susan dislikes her friends.) 17 .3.) b. (Nu demult. John is not happy.
She was not an unattractive woman. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. these sentences look negative. I was not a little worried. since the negative word not is present inside them. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. but their meaning tells us a different story. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent.) c. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.) b. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. just like in the case of word negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. He was not without intelligence. In other words. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. In other words. where the word 18 . we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.
/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Translate the following sentences into English. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). semantic negation. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Când a aflat vestea. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.e. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special.
affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. dar nu neobişnuit. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune.4. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Era el destul de isteţ. ci doar indecişi. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. dar nu în mod special. 2. Negative vs. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.
Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) (9) I didn’t go there. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.1.). syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. such as do insertion. (see subsection 1. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. etc. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Nu m-am dus acolo. For instance. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (M-am dus acolo.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.
incorrect. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / I don’t like her very much. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. 22 . doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan did not get married to Jim. / She does not hate animals./ They didn’t leave. / We don’t come here often.
3. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. * and they don’t like her either. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. not even the smart ones. . Susan dislikes/ likes her friends.Unit two Sentence negation 2. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and they don’t like her either. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). *and neither do they like her. and neither do they like her. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. *not even the smart ones. even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. which is ungrammatical. Example (14) is syntactically negative. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. 4.
/ A few of them stayed behind. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. they go skiing in the mountains. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Few of them stayed behind. / No problems were caused after all. In conclusion. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / You have never met her. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. 2. / This boy is no good. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / They caused us no problems. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.5.
(27) a . In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (26) I saw nobody. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . I went nowhere. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-a venit John).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. Susan could not go to the theatre.
I never went to his place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. 26 . I didn’t see any student.) c. No day passed without me thinking of him. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I didn’t see anybody.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. All that glitters is not gold.) (29) a. no incorporation takes place. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (N-am văzut nici un student.) b. / I didn’t ever go to his place. b. I didn’t go anywhere. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. Not all that glitters is gold.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.
/ I showed him nothing.V. / He should not be released. / None of them liked house music. / I saw nobody. seldom. / Not one of them came to meet her. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.4. nici măcar din alea scurte. not even short ones. etc. / Not a word fell from her lips.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. (Nu citesc romane. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.) We seldom watch T. / I didn’t see anybody.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.) They barely read any novels. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers. . scarcely. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. and we don’t go to the theatre either.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. rarely./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. barely. / No one ever listens to her. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction./ They never went there.
/ You’ve eaten hardly anything. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.) 28 them. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) c. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / I scarcely ever see her.) b. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / Hardly anybody liked him. Never have I met a more horrible person.) d. . and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / I seldom look at her like that. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / Few people came to see her.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor.
the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. in the sense that the 29 . / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.) They don’t think that he likes them. / She could rely on nobody but him. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.
does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. suppose. the negative meaning is less strong. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. / I suppose she doesn’t care. want. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. etc. sound/feel like. barely.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. intend.) 30 . be probable. be likely. guess. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. probability. expect. In sentence (37).) b. appear. advise.: think. 2.6. / I expect he won’t come here again. For example. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. look like. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / They believe she does not like them. cannot appear in an affirmative context. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. should be desirable. seem. believe. suggest. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. be supposed to. etc. we can very well say something like: (38) a. ought to. intention. imagine. choose. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. although not negative in meaning. / He reckoned he would not win her over. etc.
are clearly not grammatical. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). and sentences such as: (39) a. That is 31 . It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity.2. b. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.*She lifted a finger to help me.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. *She likes our chairman at all. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.
/ He arrived before 5. / I somewhat like his proposal. / You needn’t send her anything. / I still love you) Either vs. some (I haven’t any money. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I like you a lot. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Well. / I like it . already (I haven’t seen him yet. etc.) Yet vs. / Well. still (I don’t love you any more. too. / I eat caviar most of the times. too. / Bob is still living at that address. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I somehow like him. / I have some money. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I can understand both of these 32 . / I have already seen him.) Any more vs. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now.) Until vs. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why.). / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Don’t worry. either. a lot (I don’t like you much. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. too (I don’t like it. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. you can still do something about it. / She hardly ever comes here. / Come on.) At all vs.) Hardly ever vs. / They say he once had someone very close.) Much vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.
/ You must be telling lies. lay a finger on someone. find a trace. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). sleep a wink. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. have/be worth a red cent. lift/raise/ stir a finger. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. move a muscle. / Peter knows some English and so does John. hear a peep. nici unuia dintre noi. leave a stone unturned. mulţumesc./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. touch a drop. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. have a care/ friend in the world. hurt a fly. flinch. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. last a minute. / You must pay that fine. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. bat an eye(lid). see/ feel/ remember a thing. Translate into English.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. de când cu 33 . / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge./ I can understand all of these ten English words. turn a hair. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. Ion nu e prea deştept. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Ajută-mă. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. give a damn/darn. know a single person. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. crack a smile. / I nearly always have to clean it myself.
budge.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / No trouble at all. / No hands wanted. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No admittance. B: Aşi. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. he left the room. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. he’s a pig. but you really should do something about it. / No entry. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Nothing succeeds like success. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / I had no end of trouble. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Hotărât lucru. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. Translate into Romanian. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No man is wise all the time. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / He is no end of a fellow. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. n-a sunat încă. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No sooner said than done. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. nu e vina mea. / He won’t make old bones. / Never is a long word. / Not that I care. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare.
and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / I hate making any commitments. N-am văzut pe nimeni. as well: 35 . In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. 2.7. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. Normally./ I saw no one.Unit two Sentence negation rather). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. say it.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. c) He is anxious to say something. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. / He is reluctant to ever say anything.
mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. B: Not this poem.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. nu poezia asta.) 2. nu îmi place poezia asta. I don’t like this poem. (Nu. nu-mi place. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. Key terms.8. Conclusion.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. I don’t. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. The second negation is somehow independent. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. however. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. 36 . We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. from a syntactic point of view. B: Nu. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 . interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e.
Minor Types of Questions 3.3.Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Optional Exercises . Key Terms.3 Alternative Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.2 Wh.184.108.40.206.1.1 Yes/No Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2. Direct vs.3.2.2.
it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.1. If we try to analyze the examples above.Unit three Questions 3. for a subsequent section. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.
paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. (3) and (4). all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. pe mama. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. (2). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary.g. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. 48 . Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.
the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Since the question is not direct any more. Likewise. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the sequence of the tenses is violated. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. 49 . since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. in this case. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. because.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. In the case of indirect questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.
/ He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / He asked me who she was. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. sau mai bine zis. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. c) Ştii ce. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. ce culoare are pielea. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / I don’t know who she is. spune la un moment dat femeia. identify the incorrect sentences. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / He asked me who she is. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / I don’t know whom she fancies. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă.
the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.Unit three Questions 3. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 . In this case. being typical of spoken language. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.2. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.
(when / the accident happen) ? 9. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (how long / wait for me?) 10. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8.1. (what time / shops close today) ? 7.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .
(Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. it has. they did. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da). that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. are said to be positively – oriented. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 .
. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You look down. I’ve still got plenty of time. …………………. 2. as in the example: 1. ……………………………. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: You’ve been learning German for years. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. 7. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.. (speak yet) B: ……. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. ……………? (hear her) B: …. but I want to play basketball a little longer.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . . 4.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. because you always copy everything I do! 5. 6.. 3. ……. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.
8. ………………………………. which When.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. You could have mentioned it earlier.2. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. I didn’t get home until late last night.Unit three Questions B: …………………. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. how. A: There was a terrible car crash.. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . where. 3.. what . . . why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. . A: It’s past your bedtime. 10.2 Wh – questions Wh. 9.
(Poppy Z. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . Nearly two hundred years. / My new car cost 10. trying to find places where I resided in life. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city./ She dropped her glasses. / Kay’s gone out shopping.000dollars./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. what ever. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / David’s car was stolen. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / That’s my pen. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / Shirley got married to Ben. of course. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / There are six students in my class./ Sara owns two cars. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. why ever. / She lives in the suburbs.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom./ I have French lessons twice a week. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. I cannot do that. / I went to Hawaii on holiday.
3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.2. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 .
Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. How far is it the cinema? 3. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How long is she be spending in America? 8. You can’t be serious. didn’t use he? 4. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Let’s stay for another few days. wasn’t it there? 17. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. There was a fax for you this morning. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. shall we stay? 14. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. can you be? 58 . Who did left the gate open? 18. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How long is she be spending in America? 15. shall we stay? 7. He used to work in a bank. didn’t use he? 11.
la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. will you not? 27. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. să-mi înfrâng frica. deci. despre o lume dură. neliniştea infantilă. doesn’t he go? 23. Toate vechi. uneori disperat. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. ca şi cei ce au fost. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. will you not? 21. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. deci. Whose it is this book? 32. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Ani întregi. How long time does it take to get there? 28. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. That was Jeremy’s brother. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul.Unit three Questions 19. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. That’s your car. Pot reveni. dacă prin absurd 59 . Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. isn’t it this? 25. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. plin de germeni virulenţi. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. wasn’t it he? 22. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. John goes jogging every morning. How long have you be lived in London? 26.
contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . pe sub bolţile din care. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. ghiceam doar unde se află. “Spune! striga el. Riscul? Ratarea. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. dar şi drumul. mă întreb. naiv. Şi. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. indiferent de risc. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. laşii. B. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. picură apa roşietică. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. iar proştii. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. străină priceperii lor. umed. de atunci. murdar. neîntrerupt. inactivii. lung. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. negru. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. îi ştiu gustul. puturos.
la urma urmei. 3. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo.3. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. didn’t she? .1.3. will you? (38) She went to Prague. exclus. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. domnule profesor. care i-a determinat alegerea. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. nu se poate. da? (37) Let’s go there. Tag Questions Tag questions. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. viaţa? Oare e drept. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.Unit three Questions viaţă. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. orbitor. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. golul alb.
Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host sentence is negative. In this way. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. aren’t they? 62 . is it? (Deci. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. or falling. (Din păcate.e. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. au fost cheltuiţi. sarcasm. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. The suggestion is that in this case.) A: Oh. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. the tag is negative too). the tag is affirmative too. or “comment tags”. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hasn’t she? (Aha. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not.
…/ Let me know. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / I may see you tomorrow. / Don’t leave without me. / Each of us is staying. / That’s your car over there. / She used to talk a lot. / Tell me. / I think you don’t like my music. / I am dressed smartly enough. / The boy often watched his sister. / Few people like her. / She left an hour ago. / You ought not to smoke. / I may not see you tomorrow. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I am older than you. / He simply hates empty words. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / You have been invited. / There is enough food for everyone. / He has to marry Susan. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / The boy never watched his sister. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / Everyone felt happy about it. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / Surely you have enough money. / She has a brother.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I don’t think you like my music. / You will pick me up. / He hates his wife. / Let’s eat dinner now. / A few people like her. / I must go now. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / They said he liked music. 63 . / I think you like my music. / That was your father. / Activity 12 He will be on time. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / You will pick me up at 7. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. after all.
/ They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. or what? 3. 5. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences./ I’m right about this…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. So you enjoyed my talk. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one.. using a question tag at the end. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. / He never used to study so hard….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. He used to play squash.
/ Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.1.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.3.1. Recapitulatory echo questions . / Grants… 3. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) B: Chinese? 65 .2.3.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.questions which repeat part or all of the message.
If the wh. rather than the repetition.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.2. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. consternation.3. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Închide lumina aia. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. disbelief.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.phrase is fronted. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . of something just said. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.2. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.
(Uită-te la asta. / I think I’ve found a solution. rather than did you say. with recapitulatory echo questions. am pierdut scrisoarea.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. (i. / He is interested in music. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.e. dear. intonation is rising. which letter do you 67 . you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. whereas with explicatory echo questions. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this./ He is interested in blue movies. (Vai. / We are looking for a pixie.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean./ We are looking for a purse. I’ve lost the letter.
does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.4.Nadina VIŞAN 3.
din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. şerpoaica. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. pe Condrat de Vica. aşa. cu o casă de copii. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . după pofte. cumnată Fenia. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. lui Luca Horobeţ. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat.– Crezi tu. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. în satul nostru.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. şi care s-a aciuat. lui Chizlinski. în general. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. nu purta verighetă.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. acuma sporovăiala. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. Fenio. stricata. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. da. să se încolăcească mai bine. ca să zic aşa. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. oameni aşezaţi. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi apoi Vica ce zice. lui Stavre Păici.
sau cum o chema. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. deci. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Hogea. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. sus. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. De asta erai. abia târându-şi picioarele. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. dar cum se face că a 70 . până la călcâie. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. L-a scos din geamie. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. roşu şi galben.
se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.
to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.
2.4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.3.Key Concepts .5.6.1.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.
is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. on the other hand. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.1 Syndetic vs. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. cu repros.Unit four Coordination 4. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. Example (2). where there is no indication other than a comma. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.e. i.e. reproachfully. 75 . that elements are coordinated. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. present) in the sentence.
(O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.Nadina VIŞAN 4. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. you will die. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. From the previously mentioned examples. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. vei muri. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.) Such examples. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Conversely. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. 76 . Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.) (4) If you hit my wife. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.
) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. from a logical & semantic point of view. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. the second. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. we need to specify that. respectively subordinated constituents. but presupposed. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. However. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.
stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the first. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. He moved and made a slopping noise. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. In the second. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. but the 78 . the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. adorned with cornices. John Steinbeck. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. Then he sat down. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. took off his shoes and emptied them. built. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. his shoes squished. with formal walks under rows of trees. His clothes hung to him. with enormous solidity. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. the houses were beautiful and ancient. Though the castle had vanished. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. took off his coat and emptied them. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. of cut gray stone.
and as the way is with Irish mountains. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. the higher he went the wetter it grew. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. left the house. over some of the roughest ground in the country. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Cecil Woocham – Smith. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 .
A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. (G. were to take down the name of every man. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .K. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. however distinguished. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. As one can easily notice. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. as shown in (9). who was caught at a University Extension lecture. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. we should be seriously annoyed. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.3 Sentence vs. yesterday and the day before yesterday.
/ Bob and George are admired by their students. and even tennis. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John is ready and Mary is ready. / Joan plays many games. / John both composed the music and wrote the words.Unit four Coordination example (7). 10. 5. 8. / Peter.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and I passed. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Our flag is red. Her pet kitten is black and white. plays football. 9. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. yellow and blue. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 7. our respective examinations. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 4. / Peter and John played football. Pratice Distinguish coordination. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 3.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 2. John and Mary are ready. but not John. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.
Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.) b. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) c. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. 6. as can be seen in (10b). or deleted. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Activity 4 2. 5. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Jane 82 . John writes poetry and Bill prose. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. 3. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.Nadina VIŞAN b. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.
9. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. the predication buy a pair of shoes. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. So. these syntactical processes. 8. 83 . the so-called Principle of Economy. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. than a longer repetitive one.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.e. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. can be reduced by substitution.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 7.) The common element. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. i. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Besides ellipsis. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. 10.
Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . A citit. 2. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. the old men and women 2. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. one or (the) other method. 4. 3. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. George and Jane went back to their parents. Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. using reduced structures: 1. some reason or another. simple books and magazines for children 3. 4. George and Jane are separated. In certain cases. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare.
Can we discuss the ………….. like: salt and pepper. fish and chips. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. . only for damage. 12....You gain some things and you lose others. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. sweet and sour. They get on quite well together. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 16. even though they have their little …………. for my wallet. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. A pendulum swings ………..Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. they reached home………. After all their adventures. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 6. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 5. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 5. it’s a case of ………… 7. the amount I’ve already saved up. 2. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 13. 11. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.I searched ………. 15. 6.… 14. 7. Marks and Spencers. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. I need another 100$ ………. of your proposals later on? 3. 8. 8.
Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. as in: (17) a. 4. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. of course. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. etc.) There are.4. For instance. the expressive function of coordination is. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. Nor sun. more often than not. and 86 . b. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. In fact.
or . (I-am dat banii.) In certain cases.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.) b. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. sometimes but. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. too): (20) a. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. both … and .) 87 .) c.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. where the subordinator is repeated. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. 20 (b)).) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. etc). some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.g. and cherished her. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. o respectau si o indrageau.
) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. if we were to rewrite the example . one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.) b. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (Imi place si o admir. (O admir si imi place.* I ironed and washed my pants.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. and hit my wife. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and you’ll die. I washed and ironed my pants. From this point of view. In this case. I admire and like her. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I like and admire her.) b.
) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (If you do that. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. he failed). he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Brown experiments with humans. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) (While Dr.Unit four Coordination 1. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. 97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
Contents: 100 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.
takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. From the functional point of view.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. as the name suggests it. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. 5. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.g.) 101 . e. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.which are based on coordination . (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.
) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. for example). an adverbial item. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (I-a dat cartea. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. sentences) required by the verb (or. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. in certain cases. We do not presuppose however something like.) 102 . we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. For instance. we associate it with these objects. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. by an adjective + preposition. such as proud of.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. for instance. In a way. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.
(Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. 103 . In other words. which is the adverbial willingly. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. A second observation.e. Thus. to her) and one extra-item.) b. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. i. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. to add something. The second example. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. I am afraid that he won’t come. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. an additional one. related to example (4).
) (11) If you don’t marry me. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. a închis toate ferestrele. like. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. etc. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. I’ll die.) 104 . before you decide on what label to stick on an object. such as want. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. am să mor. (Înainte să plece din cameră.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. So. make. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.
After I told her the story. this to whomever wants it. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. They came to e. 5. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 6. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. 4. 2. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Whoever did that was a genius. Susan disappeared without saying a word.g.She came to him of her own will. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. 3. [. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .g.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. The book that because they home. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. she looked at me sadly.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. e.
at our age.) 106 . as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. but he declined. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. though it was largely politeness. stating their function: Activity 2 1. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland.He took an intelligent interest in her. As you can see. 3. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 4. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. which. You suggestion that we should. 5. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 6. 2. etc.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. FOR. WHETHER. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. not object. was a novelty to Mitzi.
) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (15) It is John who did it. (E de dorit să plece. when.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. why.) b.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. etc. Who did it was John. 107 . (Am vrut să plec imediat. who. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. where. which. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. Where he went is London.) (16) a. how.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.
But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In conclusion. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. etc. Compare. As you will see. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. if. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.) (18) She told me this before she left. done from a structural point of view. before. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. however. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. Unlike complement clauses. which sums up this classification. In (18).) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.1. for instance. consider the following table. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.
and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.g. I will come back such as because. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. for. whether he will come when I feel like it. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will go there because I feel like it. after. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.g. etc. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.: e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. at your young age. back.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. surely you cannot sincerely believe. Introduced know e. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. Dear Ludwig. you understand. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. 109 . as.g.
Accidental Man) b)1. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. Too. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Late that afternoon. a tightening in her breathing. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. As she left the house. he said. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree.The day Monroe had died was in May. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. 2. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. she stopped to speak to Monroe. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. But she thought that no one would call again. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.
g.g. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. I told her everything after she arrived. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. However. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. că e. a correspondence can be traced.g. interesting.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. 111 .2.g. As you have probably noticed already. That he loved e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g.
the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). whereas wh complements are the 112 . i. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.1. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.2. We will come back to that in the next chapter. complements.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. whenever you identify a wh. Secondly. So. In the fourth place. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.complement.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. (Cred că mă place. Thirdly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.e. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.
outbuildings. c) I am coming home one way or another.g. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. because. She mistrusted her handwriting. Pratice Consider the following text. a house. but no idea what to do with them. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. a barn. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. before. their introductory elements (e. for no matter how she tried. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. after. I first thought to tell in 113 .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship.
which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. because they modify. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.4. it would make you fear to do such again. and I have not the will or the energy. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.e. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. these clauses can be complements. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. According to a structural criterion.
dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. look at. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. be very careful to use this term correctly. ce o fi având. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. think of. interested in. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. answering the question to whom? So. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. îşi spuseseră că Anton. 115 .e. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1.g. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Nevasta secera în tăcere. Alţii. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Pratice Translate the following. însă. O zbughi înapoi. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. (…) “Mă. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. după ce că are grâu puţin.
timp de un ceas. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. de fapt. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Toată lumea înţelesese că. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. cât de bolnavă era. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. Nici acum. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. izolate de sat. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. întâi. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 .
cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. la nişte prieteni comuni. Iată. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Pace nu era. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. acum sunt desluşiţi. la Odobeşti. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. În realitate. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. aşa de oţetit. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Era bine de ştiut. de pildă. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. amânase scrisul. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. stricau totul. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. deşi cam târziu. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti.
întâia noapte de război) 118 . (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.
the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. subject relative clauses. whose.. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc).SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. 119 . of which.g. etc.
Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.5. The Co-reference Condition 6.6. Key Concepts .220.127.116.11. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.3.7. Relative Clause Introducers 6.
(1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. 121 .1.Unit six Relative clauses 6. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. The Co-reference Condition .a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). 6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.2. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.
We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. 122 . Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. John loves that woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. By combining these two clauses.
so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The common element woman is present. This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 . Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. John offered flowers to that woman. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b.
WHO 124 . They met those students. I had a book. 4. I went to London. The king was just passing by. Susan wants to meet Jane. frequently used in written language. 8. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. I bought Jim a book. therefore in spoken English. WHERE 3. This is my husband. by leaving behind a trace. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 6. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. 9. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. too. Any of the students would answer to questions. WHICH 4. None of the students agreed with them. WHO 5. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 5. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. The students like their teacher. She came to London. I introduced him to Jim. 10. 7. 2. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. He told Jim everything about his plans. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I lost the book’s cover. I love my husband very much. John told his friend a story about the king. The students like their teacher. 3. He’s the author who received the prize. He liked that book. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2.
A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.Unit six Relative clauses 6. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. 2. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. . (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. i.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. TO 11.e. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. most of them were from England. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. (Cine strică plateşte.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHOSE 7. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHICH 8. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. WHOM 6. WHOM 10.
) • Predicative This was what she intended. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. it is covert. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. unlike in the case of (14).) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted.e. is no longer overtly expressed. Unlike their sisters. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. in a manner of speaking.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Cel care strică plăteşte. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) .) So.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.
defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. who incidentally is the god of commerce. (Mercur. they define it).) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. este zeul meu favorit. who is the god of commerce. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. They only provide supplementary information about it. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (22) Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.) (Mercury. They can be thus divided into: 1. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. is my favourite god. 127 . Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. care este zeul negoţului.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (Du-te unde pofteşti.
On the day on which this occurred I was away. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 2. this type of relative clauses. 8. 5.e. who is a genius. Independent I don’t know what you want. 7. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. They are what 128 . 10. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 6. restrictive relative clauses. on whom nobody could depend. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 9. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. I have met him where I least expected. i. Shakespeare. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. then it is an attribute. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function.This is the village where I spent my youth. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. As we were saying. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. She. is a genius. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. is a great playwright. who came to see me.
): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. care a murit acum câţiva ani. however sad this may be.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. When the antecedent has no determiner.) 2. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. . etc. 6.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. composed The (Freddie Mercury. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. etc. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. a. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. who died a few years ago.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.
ci o fată a woman. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. îţi văd prea bine defectele.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Mie. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. who am your son. but a peevish. Dintre toate personajele prezente. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. care-ţi sunt fiu.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. poftiţi în faţă. ill-tempered. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. iritabilă şi uscată. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care nu sunt o femeie. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. 7. 4. who neither work nor am anxious. (Eu. 6. can see your shortcomings only too well. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 130 . numai eu nu. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală.) Pratice Translate the following. 3.) (28) They come to me. 2. dried-up old maid. (Ei apeleaza la mine. bătrînă morocănoasă. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 5.
) (33) He was a railway fanatic. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. than whom few more can be more crashing. (32) service finished late. erau acum în posesia lui.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. părăsi camera. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. were now in his possession. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. .5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. heard. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.
The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.1.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. literary style: (37) a. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The genitive form with which is still in use.5. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. 6.) d. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) c. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. as can be seen in (36d). relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. too.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. but it is typical of the formal.
but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. (Iris Murdoch.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.
ships (that can be personified) a. (45) (46) . (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. of which. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. animals.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) b. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) • states. … Italy. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. He is not the man which he used to be.) b. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. but to a type or a function: a.
whom it concerned most closely.Unit six Relative clauses b.) 6. while. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. France. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.) 135 (47) . …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. It is poor what gets the punches. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Nu ştiam ce vor. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.2 Relative Adverbs: when.) b.5. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. why. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. how. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. etc. Poland is the place where Christine was born. where. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. reason. time. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.) b) dialectal (49) a. etc. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. pe care o privea direct.
(Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) 136 . Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) 6.) When they introduce free relative clauses. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. He went where he had been before. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b.) b.) e. A system where by a new discovery will arise.They left when they decided it was proper to.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.5.) c. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) b. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.3.
) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. Moreover.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.
Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. but they are used very infrequently: as. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. 138 (64) his shoes. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. any. . (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. but • in standard language a.4.) b. not any.5. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. much. Honest man as he was. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every.
(Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. And always on the buttered side. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. . (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) c. This is the same one that/as you had before.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. him as was in China … (Uncle George. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. It’s the dry weather does it. Uncle George.) • in dialect a.) c. ăl de fusese in China…) b. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.
) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.
Where he was from.3): (72) a. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) c. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What Inman remembered was this passage.5. 2. What I’m saying is.) b. 7. 3. makes me a wart and a wen. we all have to come to some terms.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. That which shows God out of me. The man that John spoke to is a genius. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. fortifies me. 6. 5. It seemed a thing 141 . When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man who John spoke to is a genius. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.” 4. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The man John spoke to is a genius. b. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.
142 . when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 13. who had not witnessed many dawns. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. of living.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. he had left Ruby high and dry. (…) Partly. 11. 8. 12. Whatever his fate was. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. though. 9. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Oh. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. which is a lot. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said. 10.
pirpiriu. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . pe linie paterna. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. cumnatul unui portughez. un var primar. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei strabunic.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. mort de tanar. nu prea sarac. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. vasnic. una din nepoatele unui inginer. plutonier. (Iris Murdoch. Cumnatul meu avea. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. divortata. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. fiu natural al unui morar. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. poate. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique.al lui. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa.
regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. She was a woman. This is the book. I lost the cover of the book. The opposite phenomenon. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. insurat de trei ori la rand. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. By extension. b.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. 144 . c.2. Teatru) 6. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.
7. 4. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 3. In the interest of public decency. 5. The difference between (76) and (77). and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 9. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. he requested that the public be excluded. acting again as a genuine pied piper.Unit six Relative clauses b. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The problem of safe transportation. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. no easy answers to which could be offered. has been troubling them forever. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 6. 2. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 8. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.
This story.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. 3. whose interest he most sincerely shared. has been deleted. 10. no matter which. 146 . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. 2. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back.His father’s friends. was now complete. They do not function as attributes. His friends.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. he rarely saw now. Activity 9 were now all gone. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Irene. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. as the case is). 5. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 4. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 6.
închipuirea. 4. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Toate sfârşeau. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. De douazeci de ani.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 7. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 3. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. himeric. Pentru alţii. 6. 2. pentru dumneata bunăoară. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). 5. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Nelu. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut.
Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. 8. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. a făcut el. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 12. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 10. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. cu surle şi cu tobe. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. 9. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.
14. din direcţia căreia apoi. fie pe stradă. 149 . toată lumea întreba cine e. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. pe strada Icoanei. 15. Avea acum un fel de vertij. În spatele lor. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. zise ea cu ochii mari. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. 16. 20. despre care. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. deşi atât de aproape. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. Dacă mă lovea. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. de unde venea şi Marta. fie la teatru. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 18. trăia larg de tot. apărură. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. din care cauză pe Dora. cu sclipiri abia vizibile.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. care era foarte “mondenă”. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 17. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. roiuri de fetiţe. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. până mai adineauri.
în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. după ce maşina a fost reparată. aveau un stil al lor. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 22.Nadina VIŞAN 21. când au urcat râpa iar. 23. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. de sus de unde eram. Pare-se că snobii. pe care eu nu-l aveam. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. 24. de mine. Pentru mine însă. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. pe care ea îi admira acum. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. până în şosea.
by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 .
1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 18.104.22.168.3.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3. Key Concepts . That Complements as Direct Objects 7.1.7. That Complements as Subjects 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.Extraposition 7.2.2. That Deletion 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 22.214.171.124.3.1.Clause Shift 7.6.Topicalization 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.1. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.4. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.
Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). but also of infinitival ones.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. Apart from those introduced by that.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. placed in a marginal position. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. the clause is extraposed. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. (3) Tell me if you need anything. 7. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. 153 .1. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. In other words.
) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.
7. 5. 2. 6. 15. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 14. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 2. 11. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It is no use trying to convince her. 6. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 9. 4. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 10. 8. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 11. 9. 8. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 13. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It appears that no one voted for him.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It was suggested that they should meet the President.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 10. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is nice to meet you. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 7. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 3. 3. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 4. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year.
2. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. atât 156 . 4. 5. 5. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 3. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 6. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 3. după porţi. zice Lionel. mă ascundeam în grabă. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They never expected it that he would come back. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 4. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 18. sub poduri. în gropi. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 2. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 2.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 3.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. I don’t expect it that he will come back.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. I guess it that he will come back.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. unde se nimerea. în canal. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.
Mi s-a părut chiar că.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. excelentă. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 6. 7. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. 5.” 4. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. (Nu întotdeauna. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. fără să cârteşti. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. 157 . Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Spunând cele ce-am spus. fără îndoială. vor căuta să o zdruncine.
It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Pratice Read the following. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.) While in the case of extraposition. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.Nadina VIŞAN 7. in the case of topicalization. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.2. subject clauses are the frequent situation.1. this asymmetry is undone. 1.
was inconceivable. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. even today. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . To walk by was an expression of his own despair. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He did not blame Gracie. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. but not now. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 5. 6. He was utterly gone. 3. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 8. mere chance would decide. She had always been the slave of chance. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 4. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. whether it would finally carry her off. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 2. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. 7. he felt no spring of interest in her. This was another era.
This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.3. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.1.) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.
e. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. 161 . Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. the verb to drive). From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. we obtain. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.
/ He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 4.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. prime-minister. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. 8. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 3./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 7. 162 . /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 6. 5. who had just returned from Africa.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 2.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.
) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .2.Unit seven That complements 7. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.
) 164 .) a. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. They believe that the man is guilty.1. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. He announced their engagement.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. state. He announced that they were engaged. desire. suggest. afirm.) b.: (25) a. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. etc.) b. predict. prefer. (Cred că omul este vinovat. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. promise. etc. explain. deny. consider.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.Nadina VIŞAN 7. They believe the man is guilty. deem. communicate. estimate. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. They promised him that he would received a new house. judge.2.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
… now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. In older stages of English. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. for example.) language. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) 172 .Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. they lose their meaning.e. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. hope =>purpose. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.) I like him in that he is smart. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. on condition that. ibid. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.
as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. . He gave such an answer as had expected. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) When the structure contains the word such. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. He gave an answer such. That can be deleted. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) (66) 173 a. să o vadă trecând. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.
) 174 . 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. He gave an answer such that I had expected. (Iris Murdoch. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever. for better or worse. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) b.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.
(A dovedit că poate să facă asta. 175 . (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.1. for instance. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.Unit seven That complements 7. He showed he was able to do it. tell). (A prins de veste că ei vin.) b. He said he had borrowed her money.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (69) a. say. that he uses a relaxed tone. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.3. He got word they were coming.3 ‘That Deletion 7.) c.
rele. *I like it he was here. I like it that he was here. for better or worse. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.3. they were chained to each other forever. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. they were chained to each other forever. 7. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.3. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.Nadina VIŞAN 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3.) (De asemenea. bune. (Iris Murdoch.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.) b. for better or worse. because that has been deleted.2. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. ibid. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.
which is ungrammatical in English. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. that they were not too late to leave. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.4. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke.) 177 . 7.) b)He told me that she was there. 7) They maintain. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. simultaneity. he said. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. spuse el. (“Este acolo”.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. you want me to believe. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.
) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.) b. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (“Era acolo”. The Present complement). (A spus că. până pleacă ea.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. I will leave her.) b. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . He said he would leave her. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. spuse el.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. “She was here”. o să vină el. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Future Perfect -----. (Am să o părăsesc. vine el. He told me that she had been there. (A spus că o să o părăsească. he said. (Pâna să plece. In the example below.
Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius.) 179 .etc.) On the other hand. insist. hope. be aware.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. etc. regret. think. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. be amazed/concerned. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. notice. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. whisper. forget. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. realize it). show.) b. With such factive verbs as realize. dream. believe. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. wish. report. mention. discover. say. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.
She realized that all men are fools. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) b. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. we notice that general truths.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. He knew that she thought all men were fools. Consider also: (85) a.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. She still believed that the earth was flat.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. 180 . cu un respect tandru reciproc. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. feign habits which are not their own. in tender deference to each other. (Iris Murdoch. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. She believed that the earth is round.
) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. such as a. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. There are however cases. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) In (88). Peter said that John will leave at 5. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) b.) b. 181 . the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.Unit seven That complements 2. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.
f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. Imagine.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. for instance. The time is 3 o’clock. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. g) John thought that Harry ran. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. f) John said that Harry would leave. John said that Harry will leave. But 182 . d) John said that Harry was leaving.
jaybird. c. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. quail. love of practical jokes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. b. slyness in a fight. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. kingfisher. She admired their keenness of wit. Cooper’s hawk. whistling swan. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Crows will relish what presents itself. lack of pridefulness. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. lark. nighthawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a. bluebird. Translate the following. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. 183 . *John told Mary that she had baked a pie.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. redtailed hawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. geese both grey and white.
Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. He had fought hard through the war. Now here he stood jailed. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. He died erect. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. […] During the latter stages of the tale. in the very act of expiring. war hero though he was. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. he claimed. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. But as the battle raged around them. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . the young officer. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. And they might just hang him. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice.
from the very frequent subject. 185 . which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. object ones up to the attributive function. On certain occasions that can be deleted.Unit seven That complements 7. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). on other occasions it has to stay there. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). adjective or by a de-verbal noun. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. or else. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function.
Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. cel mai mare. 2. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. 3. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. peste puţin. 4. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Unul din ei. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Mama. Fiind 186 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine.
un vis de acesta 187 . 9. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 6. 7. ea. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Se mira. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Nu ţi-a trecut. care îl pândise. fericit. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. aşa. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. va pleca din oraş la vie. cel puţin pentru un timp. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. luminos şi apropiat şi când. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. venind de la avocat. de ce constata în sine. 8. 5. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. dacă va mai veni. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent.
Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. liniştit. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. lucrul era înfăptuit.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. încă o dată. Acesta.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. 11. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. 12. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Astfel de va fi. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. şi mândria că a biruit. dar şi teama că. fireşte. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13.
Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. spre Jurubiţa. mai puternic decât oricând. fără o vorbă scrisă. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. să le lămurească pe toate. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Pe toate. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. 14. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 .Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. ci numai aşa. după cum. unde alerga să mărturisească totul.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
5.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.9.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Key Concepts .4.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 220.127.116.11.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.3.1.
Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. From this perspective. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). (3) a.) • like that complements. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. To love her is something really wonderful. It is important for you to know what you need. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. 193 . I told her that she should be more careful in the future. That you love her is something wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.) b. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). It is important that you should know what you need. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). b. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).1. Consider the following: • like that complements.) b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (2) a. I told her to be more careful in the future. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.
Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. For instance. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. the Conditional. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. moduri nepersonale) By convention. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. etc. as opposed to the finite ones. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. 194 . English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. 2.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. participial clauses. the Participle) (i. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. d. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.) b. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so.e. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. the Gerund. gerundial clauses.
it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time.) 195 . The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. namely no ending.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.) c. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.
A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 3. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.2. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. (7) They saw her leave. 2. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 8. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 4. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 10. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 6. the criterion of form. 7. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 8.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 5.
/ A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Au văzut-o că pleaca.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. 2. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. hear.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. (10) 197 . / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.
/ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. .) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. uncharacteristic for literary English. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. 3. Pratice Translate the following.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. 198 (11) the universe. However. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.
(13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. to use the appropriate technical term. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. as I have already mentioned. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. 199 .Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. or the control constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. In other words.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Further on.
(E omeneşte să greşeşti.) In this situation. It is important for him not to err.) b. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. PRO to err is human. PRO to forgive divine. So far.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) b. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.) Object: (18) a. I hoped for him to be there in time. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. the logical subject.) 200 . (E important ca el să nu greşească. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. namely the agent of the event. şi creştineşte să ierţi. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.
(S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. but the patient of the verb persuade. him is not the agent of the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. Semantically. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (Cred că este un lingvist competent. not to the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. He stepped aside for her to enter.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . him is related to the main clause verb. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.) b.
Likewise. I hate animals to be tortured. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ I would love them to come. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ I allowed them to come. \ She wanted him to leave. \ They tempted him to leave. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ 202 . \ She promised him to leave. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ They convinced her to come back. \ He persuaded her to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction.
) In examples (25) and (26). so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. \ They did not wish her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. \ They really asked her to come back.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. 203 . So. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. • Last but not least.
To sum up the discussion. hate. 204 . / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. which are said to be free.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. to meet her. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. that is not required by certain verbs. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. with special semantic and syntactic properties. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.). bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. etc. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. seem. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. appear.
(A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. agree to. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. venture. propose. etc. mean.) b) verbs such as abide. dislike.3 The Distribution of PRO . Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. decline. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. wish. deserve. intend. arrange. bear. care to.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. hope. prefer. aspire to. contrive. scheme. seek (= try). hate.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. fail. etc. manage. refuse. afford. need. try. 8.) 205 friend. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. Compare: (31) a. condescend. / E greu să îl suporţi. like. deign. expect. endeavour. desire. omit.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. . etc. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. presume. scorn. want.
Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. desirable.) 206 . I hate that you should say a thing like this.) b. stand. possible. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. however. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. endeavour.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. unlikely. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. conclude. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. I would like for him to become president of the country.) 8. forget.etc.Nadina VIŞAN b. verbs of liking and disliking. ask. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. For all of them to have been killed is. etc. claim. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. threaten.) b. suggest.) b. be important. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. bear. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.
where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) 207 .Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 2.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) b. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) 8.
) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. the preposition is deleted. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.) 5. I decided for John to represent us. but the meaning remains. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) 4. Direct Objects (39) a.Nadina VIŞAN 3. . (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) 208 knowledge.) b. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Like in the case of that complements.
) c. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) d. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. He is a bastard to work for.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. You’re an idiot to go there. The stew is delicious to eat. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) b. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. delicious. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. curious about. She is pretty to look at. etc. This paint is like concrete to work with. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.: (42) a.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.) e. 6.
to tell you the truth. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. drept să spun.) I’ve never met him. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. / Pe şleau. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. you’re a bad driver.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. / Ehei.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. să nu piardă trenul. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 .) Oh. final or introductory infinitive In this case. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. conduci prost. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.
enable. direct. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. (49) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun.etc. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. encourage. influence. inspire. 8. induce. oblige. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. inform. b. According to this. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show.: (51) a. nu mai vreau să te vad.) b. promise. press.) . swear. urge. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. need. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. etc.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.
(53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. allow./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. command. prevail on. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. count on. permit. etc.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu./ And now he 212 . / I do not intend to tell him that myself.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. choose. look to.etc. nominate.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. vote. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. order. name.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. depend on. elect. etc.
grow.: (55) She appears to like him. (Se pare că îi place de el. seem. etc. come. be going to. 213 (58) (59) . An Accidental Man) 8.e. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (57) He is to come any day now. this construction is lexically governed. i.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. be about to.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.verbs: appear. (Iris Murdoch. (56) She grew to like him in the end.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. etc. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. happen.etc.
: (62) They heard him insult her. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. etc.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. be reported.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. overhear.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). that of intention. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. feel. etc. hear.) 8. . is well supported by the syntactical analysis. be alleged. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be considered. watch. be claimed. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. In (57). hence there is no control situation whatsoever.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be rumoured. be thought. perceive.etc.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. observe.
(N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. picture. know. consider. (Cred că este un geniu. have. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. remember. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. recollect. prove. deem. presume. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. find.) 215 (67) . (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. However. occasion.: (68) I believe him to be a genius.) • with a full infinitive: get. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. judge. imagine. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. etc. discover. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. cause.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. understand. figure. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. believe.
Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. if he himself was out of spirits. Harold. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. permit. expect. wish. mean. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. command.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.etc. love. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. who wasn’t used to men with moods. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. they had depressed and fuddled him.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. he hated anyone to comment 216 . want. desire. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. etc.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. order.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. choose. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. suffer. prefer.
(L. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. A little crossly. though he tended to look down on those below it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. he didn’t envy those above it. He suspected hostility at once. so that we might get to the future and have done.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. to make sure we attended strictly to business. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.P. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. the herd instinct was very strong in him. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . Both seemed to him a little unreal.
The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. 218 . we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions.Nadina VIŞAN 8. From this perspective. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. The last criterion.
mai bine219 . ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. fireşte. e) Când doi oameni. să-l capete. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. de bună seamă. Şi tu să fii. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. lovit şi umilit. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. bunăoară. un bărbat şi o femeie. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. e important ce întrebări pui. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar să nu-ţi spună. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. E posibil. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. într-o zi. de asemenea. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii.
220 . ca să nu şi-o amintească. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri.Şt. încă. Să spui de pildă. pe care deja o uitase.Nadina VIŞAN zis.Şt. (B. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. în ploaie. mai bine de două decenii. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. să nu vrea să se şteargă. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. în jos. sau. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu.Delavrancea. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. d-a lungul gâtului. De era vară. că eşti tânăr. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. mai pline de înţeles. în parte. avusese dreptate. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. în parte. aşa cum îi apăruse el. .să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. un picior.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.
i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. un miros îngrozitor. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. orice-ar fi. şi nu un amant. fie ea şi grăbită.. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. o mizerie. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. de fapt. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. orice bucureştean ştie. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. deşi. ei. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. Mă laud singură. Într-un cuvânt. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. biata Muti. (Al. nici ca să 221 . să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. şi prin faţă. sunt aici cu tot ce am. prin faţă e coborârea.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele...
în realitate. parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.
participles. verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.
2.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.1.The Gerund 9.1.Participial Constructions 9.The Verbal Noun 9.5 Key Concepts .9.2.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 18.104.22.168.2.3.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 22.214.171.124.
Let us start with the Participle: 9. Due to this situation. (Susan doarme.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.1. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.) 225 . The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.
(Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. were closing. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). blood-shot and painted. In (2) the forms come. 226 . (A venit Susan) b. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. the past participle can appear after a noun. i. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.) As you can see in this second case. it functions attributively.) More infrequently. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. Susan has come. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.e.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. too: (6) Her eye-lids. Susan has been killed. been and killed are past participle forms.
mother permitting.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. God willing. leul poate să atace.) 227 . people should pay attention to high notes. o să ajung la timp. Arriving here.) d.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. ea o luă la fugă.) c. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I will arrive there on time. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. When singing. o să ajung la timp.) b. (Sosind aici. a lion can attack. they started singing. he will eventually marry her. (Ştiind cine era el. If provoked. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. she ran away. Weather permitting. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.) b. începură să cânte.) c. Oh.
) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) 228 . (Am simţit-o tremurând. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (L-au descoperit că fură. He was found killed by a bullet. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. notice.) b. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. smell. (L-am descoperit furând. I found him stealing. hear.) ii. They found him killed by a bullet.) b. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. watch. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. respectively. He was found stealing. behold. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.
know. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. send. recollect. etc. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.: When she heard his words. have. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) • mental perception verbs: remember. I must get my hair cut.) b.: a. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon.) b. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 .) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. hear.) • Causative verbs: get . start. find. feel. a.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. etc. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. leave. recollect. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) b. I heard it said that men are a bore. she knew herself dismissed. etc. He’ll soon get things going. have. keep. make a. (A fost văzut plângând. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. confess. set. etc.) c.) • Causative verbs: get. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.
(Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) • verbs of permission.) b./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. He wanted his car fixed immediately. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Nu după multă vreme./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. Men like shopping made easy.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. lovit şi plin de sânge. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. command I ordered my bill made out.
the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / Dinny. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). sitting taut between her father and her sister.1. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / In any case.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.2. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. with its lips drawn back. Unlike the gerund. 231 . feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.e. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / My Lord. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.
) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. 7. 6. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. the rain will stop. using either a present participle. I was astonished at what I saw. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I left. She had heard it all before. I left. 2. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. The tree had fallen across the road. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I turned on the light.She didn’t want to hear the story again. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. 5. (Desi nu ştia limba. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 3.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. It had been uprooted by the gale. I have looked through the fashion magazine. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (Văzând acestea. 4.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. am plecat. se va opri şi ploaia. People were sleeping in the next room. I knew that the murderer was still at large. am plecat.
the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. haired (twice). Read the sentences and try to correct them. a pot of paint fell on my head. 9. Tied to the post. red (twice). cloth. minded (3 times). Sitting in the dentist’s chair.shoulder. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. 6. hearted (twice). stony. I let the dog out of the room. stricken. They began quarreling about how to divide it. my hands often get very cold. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Mother punished me for my mistake. a scorpion bit him. his horse fell at the last jump. 8. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 9. bald. He sat down to his own dinner. Reading in bed. 4. straight. empty. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Passing under a ladder. 12. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. narrow. Dropped by parachute. roast. They found the treasure. shaven. open. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. eyed (3 times). I slammed the door of my room. Riding in the first race. 233 . 10. 11. 2. Climbing down the tree. dark. 3. broad. quick. sharp. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 8. 5. three. many. fishy. coloured. handed. eagle. skinned. 7. open. He fed the dog. Leaving the cinema. mown. drunken. lighted. b) Headed (5 times).Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. covered. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Barking furiously.Running into the room. wooden. one of the eggs broke. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. lion. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. cornered. Getting out of bed. 10.
7. are in grave danger of extinction._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. was today taken back to prison. lead. ________ hiding in a barn. were taken to hospital. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. plank. meat.Spielberg. the same verb is missing twice.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. candle. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . meaning. stream. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (injure). image. head. graven. are sold throughout the world. Translate into English: 1. (find) 6. In the following pairs of sentences. I stared at the canvas for ages./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. The escaped prisoner. _______ for their elegance and precision. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. man. is expected to be a great hit. deer. (produce) 3. duty. _______ for a bargain. rotten. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. wealth. bounden. eyes. (take) 2. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. _______ my arm.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. / Many old people . (admire) 5. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. hidden. shorn.I fell on the ice. (hunt). b) grass. Whales. (grow) 4. lamb. The film. _______ by S. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. / Swiss watches. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. ill-gotten. / Three people. shrunken.
4. O umbreluţă. După câtva timp. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. trezit. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Şi sufletul său. şi moi. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. 2. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. 3. nesigur şi moale. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. precum şi foile de plăcintă. care le rânduia. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. când strânsă. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. păsări tăiate. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. deodată sufocat. ca şi cum. Şi. legume date prin mai multe ape. le cocea. întinse. le fierbea. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. când deschisă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia.
(Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.2. crezi. 236 . According to this criterion.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Dacă vezi. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. The Gerund 9.1. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. Likewise.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.2.Nadina VIŞAN 9.
In that. Him winning and you losing was surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. gerunds differ from participles. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) 9. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.) b. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. Consider the following table. His winning and your losing were both surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.2.
A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) Unlike participles. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.) 2. Consider (32). as being verbal 238 . extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. *It was illegal growing a beard. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. It was illegal to grow a beard. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.
) b. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Just like in the case of noun phrases. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. It’s no good talking to her.) 3. as offered in the table below: 239 . (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) 9.3. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.2. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) b. Participles vs.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.
Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. perfect. 3. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. forms: continuous . 2. babies suck their thumb. passive ones She was crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (adverbial of time) 4. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles may function adverbials: house.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. + noun] 1. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project.
/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial.
The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 2. 8. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 9. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. crying game / crying woman. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 12. 10. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. He was spotted talking to her. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 5. swimming duck / swimming trunks. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 14. 11. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. shooting gallery / shooting star. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 7. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 12. 15. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. eating habits/ eating people. 6. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 13. 242 .Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 4. 3. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record.
Unit nine Ing complements 9. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.) The absence of a determiner like the. but the presence of a direct object (i. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .3. a The absence of an of phrase. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.
George’s shooting the attacker. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. These are features that normally characterize any noun. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . In the second situation. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case.
very large. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. Jim left quietly. / His coming there puzzled her. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. 245 . the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ His sudden coming puzzled her./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. the sheriff. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.
It has been noticed that. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.Nadina VIŞAN 9. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. the meaning is different. for example. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. ING Forms and Infinitives. whenever we meet an –ing form.4. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. For instance. With the infinitive. However. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. Look. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 .
g. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.) After looking at this example. the infinitive is future-oriented. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. containing an infinitive. future-oriented value of the infinitive). the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. anterior to the verb in the main clause.) The first example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. having left) is infrequently used in English. On the other hand.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. (S-a oprit din mâncat.) . and the most well-known one.
e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.e. i. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.) As you can see. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. recollect. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) . forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). which means that they are similar in meaning.
c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. the petrol tank is not filled yet.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. the action is not completed.) . the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. dar asta este. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. In the second example. but that’s it.
e) need. In the second example.) With [. want With [+ human] objects. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.human] objects. the event has not happened yet. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. The house needs repairing. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparată.) b. (Casa trebuie reparată. mean has the sense signify.) 250 .) wedding.
‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. whereas in the second case. I did ask Mr. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. it’s overrated. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. (take) down her answer.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. Lady Corven.’ ‘In any case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. but they went by too quickly. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. gerund or infinitive. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. however appearances were against us. my Lord. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. my Lord. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘Tell me. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Croom (try) (follow) one. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.
he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. I just used the word and they fell.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly. Then. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. and went out (post) it himself. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ 252 .’ said Clare. I must go back now. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. licked the envelope with passion. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.
Pratice In the following texts. Participles mainly function as adverbials. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. the 253 . Last but not least. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.5. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles.Unit nine Ing complements 9.
He looked up towards the daylight. someone looking for survivors. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. slowly rising in a swirling motion. moving up towards his chest. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. according to the books he read. It was like a mist. hoping he would see somebody up there. the enormous split in the earth. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. covering the girl’s head. their edges crashing inwards.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. but then he saw it billowing up from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. it 254 . First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. then the noise and the cracking stone. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. The two sides were moving apart. down. Then he saw movement at his feet. down into God knows where. She started coughing. At first. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. The sight of the two children.
and sunlight. brightening to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. 255 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. She finished what jobs there were. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. my dear. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. Having a French governess.
making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. închizând ochii. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Ridicându-se. Vaucher şi cu mine. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. and then went riding with her in the rain. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. În urma slugii. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. 2. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. cei doi Mamona. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . totul se animă deodată. într-o joi. ucenicul său necredincios. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. mama mea. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821.
continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. pe Vaucher. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. despre salvgardarea realizărilor.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. o sărută pe frunte. afară ploua în continuare. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. aşezată cu spatele la noi. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. totul mi se părea cunoscut. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. 3. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. Neclintiţi. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. se duse lânga mama şi. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. pe mama mea părând absentă. Şi deodată. aplecându-se puţin. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. la mine. după cum îi spusese mama. privit. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. auzit şi zadarnic. am ştiut şi cine. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. dar ştiutoare. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi.
a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. dar. şi. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. Au coborât din camion încet. cu tot cu baraca. camionul a plecat. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. 5. şi cu stiva de lemne. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi cu soba. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze.
Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. apart from his distress for parents. Having regard to the date of drafting. he had not yet been able to estimate. in some way. How this time was to come. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 11.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. because of pity. whereas if she went away she would get none. and that 263 . was unclear to Mitzi. You have been much in my thoughts. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. How much. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 5. 12. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 9. to retire early from my employment. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. and meet it right here at home. I am sorry not to have seen you. 7. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 4. 3. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. and this particularly of late. 13. this would really hurt. since I have decided. 10. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. he had been advised. 2. 6. without profound questioning.
looking forward had not yet taken place. 17. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / Before you go on changing the subject. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 264 . 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / Whenever I visited my aunt.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. 14. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. he did not come to see her. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. 19. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. even for months. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. please consider his proposition. for attending his sister’s wedding. one of the eggs broke. / In the end. I was made say Grace before every dinner. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes.
to end in some awful tragedy. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. rather than the hefty type. a little girl. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. cotton mills at Manchester. centered in London and themselves. her recklessness. (and there he was. it was said. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . They hated trying on. an open-air person. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Essentially. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. quite unexpectedly. 265 . Tony was a child. Clarissa used to think. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. and it was bound. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. She felt as when. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. of all people. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. Instead of which she had married. At country houses she had met them of course. without discovery. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. Though much in request before her marriage. Vulgar men did. she said. her old friend Hugh. of the quick and wiry. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. They rushed into shops. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time.
Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. indeed. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. the more she would be torturing him. (John Galsworthy . astfel. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Reading many novels. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp.Rindurile dvs. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. cre s-au nascut lent. dar vizitele acestui om din topor.Over the River) 2. The closer she allowed him to come to her. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. De uitat. nu puteam sa le uit. nu a facut-o pentru asta. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. she was uneasy. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. ii faceau bine.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. short of the contacts of love. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. si in plus. era un bun sfatuitor.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. to keep abreast of the current. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. with all its impatience of restraint. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Bolnava nu se simtea. aveam tot mai 266 . (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. she professed. Cind l-a chemat. but lying in her bath. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate.
pe scaunul lui tare. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. lungimea picioarelor. o data sau de doua ori. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia.) 7. latimea si ascutisul labei. (St. fa-o. (St. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Banulescu – ibid. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. cit mai au de trait. vaazut cindva. nu pricep nimic. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.) 267 . are nevoie. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Banulescu – ibid. Personal. (St. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Daca tu. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Banulescu – ibid. poate fi compensata. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. mi-am zis. Milionarule. Ce a iesit.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Banulescu – ibid.) 5. (St. 4. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.) 6. se stie. ca si tine.
Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. to Emmanuel College. Translate them. Who was may father. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. my grandfather. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. a wounded soldier. (. Cambridge.P. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.. when I was even younger than you. Who. 2. Who told me. Ernest Richard Atkinson. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. delivered from the holocaust. And had a brother killed in the same battle.. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Who when asked about his memories of the War. for being a renegade. Could he be blamed.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Arthur Atkinson M.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who came home from the war. A story-book romance. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .
4. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. a moody man. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. How 269 . glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. to whom. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. Fabianism. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). Rachel Williams. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. he had already engaged himself? 3. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. and because – but this is mere speculation. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. deep-set.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows.
as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. 270 .Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum a trăit el. la şcoală. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. satul. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum a ajuns el. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum au tăcut ei. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. cu taina aceasta. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Ion. Ion. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. om mare. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic.
împotriva tuturor. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6.pune totul in discuţie. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. singurul lui stăpân. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cu sau fără voie. 271 . când voi fi singur. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. greşeli dintr-astea. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. de mama lor. Când actriţa. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. din franţuzeşte. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. L-au derivat cei din teatru. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”.
Tot aşa. traversând. 3. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. provocându-le. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. privindu-mă în ochi. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Am început. uneori şi astăzi chiar. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. ci un sistem de acomodare. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 6. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. sau ridicole. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. parcă începusem s-o uit. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. 4. pe jumătate prezent. de pildă. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. dam buzna peste automobile. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. continuând. 272 . Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Într-o vreme. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. 5. A devenit palid. nevasta-mea. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări.
De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. 9. 11. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Dacă nemţii înaintau. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. fireşte. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. Am început. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. 8. că nu m-am gândit la asta. iar. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. orice s-ar întâmpla. Aş vrea să mă las jos. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. ca un acrobat. E o problemă. şi să nu ameţesc. să merg întins. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. şi dacă merg întins. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. De altminteri. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie.
nu mai pricepu nimic. la carti. eu am venit sa va intreb. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Ilie nu-l asculta. 17. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Uite. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. se uita in jos. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. La un moment dat. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Ii venea greu. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. de la proces. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : .Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. nu mai semana.. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. la amintiri. 15. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 13. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. 274 . cu mirare. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta.. de la lucruri personale. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. la fata locului. Greu era din partea asta. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Adica tot trecutul. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. 14. 16. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Acum isi ferea privirea. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Auzindu-l.Ma. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. trebuia sa le spuna. de la obiecte de pret. In curind. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. de uimire. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. dar nu se mai putea. dar nu-i spuse si de ce.
Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Aici era ceva. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Zimbea siret. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. se indeparta nepasator. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui.Unit ten Revision exercises 18.Ce sa fac. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». apoi se uitau la Ilie. asa cum facuse pina acum. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». There was even 275 . fara sa-si dea seama de ce. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . vorbe asa si-asa. 19. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Nu era nevoie. which was part of his rich outfit. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. dar. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. cum zicea Anghel. 20. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. . dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte.
Miller at her hotel. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. He felt then. to admit that she was a proud. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. She was one 276 . It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He walked a long time. But Daisy. a simplification. to move fast. 4. to take his way home on foot. on this occasion. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. gave an exclamation. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. asked for Mrs. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. rude woman. paying no attention. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. 3. conversationally. going astray. 5. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence.Nadina VIŞAN relief. for the instant. resuming her walk. at least. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. the young lady. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room.
as it were. indeed. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. He left me musing.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. 8. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal.Walker. on the other hand. as to projected changes. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. and wondering what the deuce he meant. uncomfortably. in their own phrase. Advising with me. often. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. make a point. in radiant loveliness. making Paul stop and look at her. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. 7. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. She appeared. as text book. Her daughter. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. She rustled forward. of studying European society. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. while residing abroad. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. 6. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. smiling and chattering. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve.
for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. was only half satisfied with this. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. with his humorous density. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. or at any rate not heeding. 11. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. and perceived that it must be something important. H. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. wondered what they were talking about. 9. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. which was deliberate. H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. and.’ 278 . though E.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. The agent became a very familiar type to H. not seeing. was immensely struck with him. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. 10. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. and acute too. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. while Paul. H. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. could see he was remarkable. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister.
that the haunting wonder which now. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. appeared to fill his whole childhood. 15. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. which was very copious. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. had the power to chain his sympathy. as he looked back. 13. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. 14. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. But she gave him no chance. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . the affair having been quite a cause celebre. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. H. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. not glancing at him for a moment. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it.
proudly. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. and to H. ironically reserved. It was very possible she was capricious. as a general thing. 18. At the theatre. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. yet 280 . even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. dragging herself on her knees. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. and there were others. 17. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. where the Pearl of Paraguay. H. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. that she must be on the contrary. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. 16. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. disheveled and distracted. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. The whole establishment.
who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. had blown a certain chill. young men were invited. It came over H. 281 . didn’t mind. *Old. Their mistakes and illusions. 3. H. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. No one ever listens to her. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. on which the damp breath of the streets. would always be more or less irritating. 19. with the poor. 20. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 2. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. and lurking within this nebulous design. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect.
Either John or he * have got to give in. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 6. 8. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. her arms held out. I saw her as a vision. “Oh. Rachel. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. striding like a Spartan maid. 5. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. her shining blue feet twinkling. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. I was definitely going to be sick. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. walking quickly. 11. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 7. I blundered by. 12. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. slipped on some steps. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons.Nadina VIŞAN 4. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. c) When I saw her sitting there. I walked fast. 282 . She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 10. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 9.
The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. One or more solutions can be valid: 1.
analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. but that we saw and pitied. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. could cook my meals. where my servant. The old women spoke no English. 2. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 4. if they were poor. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . And then I ventured to add that. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. which was really alarming. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 3. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 5. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life.
was informed. this. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. would really hurt.apart from his distress = apart from. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. 285 . to settle.g. he. etc. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart form his distress for parents. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. his. was anxious. How much. on Saturday. he had not yet been able to estimate.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. before they left town.g. Constituents: He. on a house. etc. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. apart from his distress for parents. was anxious = was + anxious. had not been able to estimate. at noon. this would really hurt. distress. Constituents: how much. Munt. to pay their annual visit. etc. Constituents: Margaret.
negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. interrogative. – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. which is not assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. interrogative. – first clause is non-assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive.. interrogative.. which context is non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – comparison. negative.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen..semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – assertive/ Don’t do that. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. it is assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. second clause is non-assertive. negative/ Come with me./ She finally admitted.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . don’t bother her. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). Second clause is an imperative. and is non-assertive. / If you like her.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. listen to this.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. The sentence is however 286 . – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.
he was hardly pleased. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. – someone hates animals./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. everybody used to travel by coach. – I like somebody else. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. – they told the truth to somebody else. / I don’t like her very much. but nothing out of the ordinary. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. only irresolute. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. –double negation cancellation./ He was exceptionally cunning./ When he learned the news. – someone did that. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / They didn’t leave. / She does not hate animals. not even when it’s quiet around./ He was smart enough. but not more than she does others./ Hardly interested in the conference.but to someone else./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ Not long ago. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. the two brothers dared to protest. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. but it isn’t Susan./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ They weren’t really confused. / You have never met 287 .Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. but it wasn’t them./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / She does like John. not even this thing./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection.
negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. not even in my dreams. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / This is hardly the 288 .negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. they go skiing in the mountains. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.. did they? / No problems were caused after all. – I cannot look him in the eye.Nadina VIŞAN her.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. – negative insertion. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem... not even when you were very young. were they? / This boy is no good.. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her... Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. did they? / A few of them stayed behind..negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. / Should they not have told her the truth.. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. I could hardly wait to hear the news..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.
– I don’t often look at her like that. when we started our holiday. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.Never shall I trust a man again./ We seldom receive such generous praise./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. but she also lent him a car. – I never see her..Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / Hardly anybody liked him. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Not many people came to see her. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – I almost never look at those paintings.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Few people came to see her./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Almost nobody liked him. never trust a man again. Activity 8 I shall never. / I seldom look at her like that.. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.
I don’t like his proposal at all. – 290 . I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ I expect he won’t come here again. – They say he never had anyone very close./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / She could rely on nobody but him. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. –At no time did we leave the office. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / Don’t worry. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – Only on this man could she rely. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. you can’t do anything about it any more. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter./ Well./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / They say he once had someone very close. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. you can still do something about it. / Come on. / He reckoned he would not win her over.. – It isn’t likely that he will help her.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – Come on. – Nowhere could the keys be found. / They believe she does not like them./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – They don’t believe she likes them. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over./ I somewhat like his proposal.
– Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – She almost always comes here. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / You needn’t send her anything./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Bob is still living at that address. –Alice still lives here. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ Peter knows some English and so does John. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam.. – You can’t be telling lies. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. / You must pay that fine./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / She hardly ever comes here. either. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Well. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must be telling lies. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. 291 . – Well her husband has always been a good person. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – You should send her something. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. too.
give me a hand./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Nobody told us a thing. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ 292 ./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. not yet. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Zis si facut./ He was a tough man. ever since I got this ulcer. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Norocul la noroc trage. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. / Jim is so brave.D./ You look so tired today. has never studied anywhere./ They say this Ph./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. He isn’t that smart. I haven’t seen her in years. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Don’t go on believing him./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Have they rung the bell? No. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. Oh. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ N-are nici cap nici coada. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Nimic de facut. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. to any of us. He didn’t move a muscle. e un magar./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I haven’t done anything./ He’s a happy man./ Am avut un car de necazuri. It’s no wonder. / Please./ E un baiat de zahar. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is.
’/ Deloc descurajat. I had never had the opportunity to prove. one way or another.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. without too much determination. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. no story. thrown out. no memory.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. slowly. for I thought this threatening. 293 . We had nothing in common. that I was a decent man.’ ‘Nici o problema. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. parasi camera. nothing. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . I hadn’t really expected miracles. feebly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. with the same needs they had. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .
• It was my turn to say something. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. on the front seat. or if you understood what I meant. Not for a moment had I thought that. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. You really made me mad. he was sitting beside me. I was sleepy and tired. Unfortunately. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move.. the only 294 . by coming here to the monastery. bad. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. he immediately answered me patronizingly. things you do any moment. good. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. it’s not words. let alone irritable. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. It’s not made up of theories and the like. Your judgement is false. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. I’d be so happy if it were so. but facts. clear or confusing. I admit. your story. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. We have to judge it as it is. not as we would like it to be or some other way. to say the least. that’s what the world is about. Radu had calmed down.
who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. keep your conscience clean: you have one. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. did you ever step up front. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. you can go to Ursu’s. and if you like. although it was a difficult thing to do. too? A gun is power. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. precious words. no matter how huge they are. either. me. But I was just wondering. or you are lying hidden. we are leaving. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. Look. me. fear might be hiding. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. but I didn’t want to lie to myself.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. But what about you and Melania. and an inability to act. or call the respect of others. behind these big. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. to fight. it’s yours. it’s your problem. as Baciu would have us be. Anyway. • So. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. just to please myself. 295 . Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. keep it squeaky clean. you do as you think fit. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. soon we’ll be in town. I won’t interfere. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. clears your way. it solves troubles.
correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. the sentence is incorrect 3. because before is a positive polarity item 2. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.. -correct 3. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.. – incorrect.Negative attraction b) 1. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.incorrect. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. has not arrived yet – double negation. as soon as he delivered it. . but they gradually got used to it. . But it was not because I had no answer to give. has yet arrived -correct 2. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . or some other woman.Negative incorporation 296 . She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. will he?. firmly determined not to answer immediately. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. The villagers were not very religious.correct 3. correlatives are mixed 2. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.
astfel că nici nu se mişcă. nu era 297 . incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Avea sufletul prea obosit. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. she couldn’t marry him. b) But it was rather (API) late. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Nu putea să se mişte. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. much less ((NPI) for her.) Însă era cam târziu. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. (ibid. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. either (NPI). His spirit was too tired. Ştia că are dreptate. (ibid. not happy at all (NPI).) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Her stillness. her lack of motion would have to do (API). too troubled. prea răscolit. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. yet.
e) At length. he made his way to the screen.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. inima îi batea năvalnic. se îndreptă spre paravan. The Satanic Verses. his heart was beating fast. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI).Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. (Salman Rushdie. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. if anything (NPI). which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. şi destul de hotărât. she looked younger than ever (NPI). Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. (ibid. 298 . (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. and not a little unsteadily.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate.
He wrote to his father refusing the offer. care if the school were willing to treat him. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. 299 . (ibid. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. the gift was useless. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. h) C. Ce-i pasă lui C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Home receded from the prodigal son. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.) C.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. i) What did C. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. The point was. and probably an administrative headache as well. but his father would have none of it (NPI). însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva.
. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. 300 . correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
I didn’t know where she was leading me to. the bitch. “Now. Luca Horobet. to make them lust after her. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. all godfearing husbands and fathers. do you really think that this vixen. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Vica. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. yes. Fenia. she likes to entrance them. and then what do you 308 . daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. She has an eye for gentle men. they were. 2. Fenia. keep Condrat away from her. Stavre Paici. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. now she was chatty. she didn’t wear a ring.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. you are in enough trouble as it is. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Chizlinski.
as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. 4. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. 3. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. G. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. a seventy-eight year old lad. what’s her name. He got him out of his mosque. her hair pinned with blue combs. ankle-long flowered calico. dragging his feet listlessly. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 .”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. It even takes him a while to go to the window. have a girlfriend. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. with a railway station and a mosque. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. the minister of Tartars and Turks. The mullah. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah.
Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.
Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – similar situation 10. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination 2.) 9. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.. Her pet kitten is black and white. John is ready and Mary is ready. yellow and blue. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. our respective examinations.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – sentence coordination 7.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.phrasal coordination (in this case. and I passed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John and Mary are ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . Our flag is red.
We can and will demand payment. her son and others. 10. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 8. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Activity 5 This book and the other.) Joan plays many games.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. but John does not play football. many guest or few. 5. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 2. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. plays football. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). much satisfaction or little 312 . Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 9. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. your proposal and his. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. her idea and John’s. and even tennis. your work and mine. that method and those. Activity 4 1. 3. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. but not John. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan.
He read. The facts and figures 3. Bread and butter 16. 5. 8. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Over and above 13.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. etc. Ups and downs 6. Safe and sound 313 . Life and soul 5. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Law and order 8. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Spick and span 9. High and low 2. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Activity 8 1. 4.) 6. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Few and far between 14. 3. Pros and cons 4. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Swings and roundabouts 7. To and fro 15. 7. magazines are only for children. Wear and tear 12. He snapped at him and slapped him. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Touch and go 10. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. but not simple. Thick and thin 11.
My son and daughter are twins. 7. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 4. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. exclusive 15. 6. 10. Symmetric 21. 8. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – symmetric. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 3. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. b. 7. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 1. – asymmetric 18. 314 . exclusive 17.. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 4. 2. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. There are some chairs and a table in the room.symmetric 11. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 5. 2. – symmetric. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 5. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Symmetric 13. – symmetric. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. inclusive 16. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. Asymmetric 20. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 8. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. My son and heir is safe. Asymmetric 19.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 3. 10. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – symmetric 2. 9. 6. – similar situation 9. 9.
15. 10. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. ‘Madam. nor fowl. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. thanks for asking. 11. We’ll stick together. Not only should you rest 315 . By hook or by crook. Should he pour water in the basin. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. I’ll still finish this paper. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 2. He went to bed. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 9. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. Her husband is long dead and buried. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. They came to me. for better or worse. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 5. 8. it was too small. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. Brother or no brother. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. clothes and all. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 6. There are doctors and doctors. 12.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. (2) 1. He’s neither fish. 7. No drinking and driving. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 2. 14. 4. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 3. Jim thought it over for a while.
both dead and buried. but she blinks in approval. and then. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. but he’d come out a cripple. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. she started doing a great job. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. he’d leap high. so he’d gone down and died in no time.’ (3) 1. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Mrs. From time to time she will launch a helping question. So she’ll listen to him. just like when he was thirty. an important man. what’s its name. This. 2.Nadina VIŞAN assured. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. What do you know? The moment Mrs. he starts lecturing her about life and things. And. their common ground. Whatever she tried her hand at. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. at equal intervals. They hadn’t kept him there too long. she knows for sure. stop dead in his tracks. so he could leap in pursuit. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. Her first husband had been a professor. tense with concentration. and she listens to him. it would work out fine. You know. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. as she always does. tense like a bow. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. 316 . triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. without mentioning financial matters. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere.
subordinate. you. at me Activity 2: 1. about her problems at home After I told her the story. – Susan. came. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater .Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .subordinate. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days .subordinate. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. told. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . whomever wanted to listen. she looked at me sadly. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. is aware. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as a modifier 3.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.subordinate. cannot tell. looked. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . – obligatory elements: she.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as an object (direct). – she. – she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – she.
at our age. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . remove our home yet again .Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate.subordinate. that we should. that you are choosing exile . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. since the main verb is think of something) 5.complement b) 1.
direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. a house. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. a barn. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . outbuildings. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 .complement.
who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. that kept her constantly tense and grim. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. When Anton put the sickle down. staring at each other. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . (…) ‘Well. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. sickle in hand. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Activity 5 1. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . subject/ to do such again – complement.wh complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. But other people.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement.A few days before the war. without straightening her back. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object.
while on other occasions he would show caution. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. but also his sharp nose. 3. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Ana could not stand a trip now. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Not even at this point. or if he does. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. while they spoke from miles away. Why! He was not of two minds. which he doesn’t rely on completely. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. but he doesn’t spurn either. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. For no bold man really falters. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Only he had Ana to think of. as if they were at his beck and call. that was for sure. 2. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. First. rather than a real threat. you need courage even for this small thing. he will turn back and no longer be daring.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. 321 . or other more hidden means. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. for even swallowing your food is a big deal.
and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. But it was not ok. and twice we were requested to get out.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. without really knowing why. to see some mutual friends. it was the women. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. he had postponed writing back. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. And here’s how this first day looked. they would ruin the arrangement. come on. We were going to drive to a vineyard. 4. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. are we getting off again? What is wrong. and when things didn’t go as planned. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. although he could have said so earlier. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. Twice did we get in the car. in Odobesti. under the silliest of pretexts. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. 322 . and on Monday followed another feast). for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. So. In fact. by the cars of some of us.
restrictive 7. why they all left . This is my husband whom I love very much. 9. when we first met . John told his friend a story about the king. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 7. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. He told her the secret. who was just passing by.restrictive 4. Activity 3 1. 11. 3. 5. 7. which was silly of him.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. I bought Jim a book that he liked.She came to London where I went too. where I spent my youth . Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. most of whom were from England. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 4. 2. 10. 10. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2.restrictive 2. 6. Activity 2 1. The students like their teacher. 8. all of whom would answer to his questions. 8. on which this occurred . I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 3. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.restrictive 6. like their teacher. You couldn’t join the party.free 8.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . The students. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 6. which was a pity. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 5. where I least expected 323 . 4. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . any of whom would answer to questions. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.
restrictive 10. When . What I’m saying – subject. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.subject 8. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. 7.adjunct 3. You. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Why . the prince chose Cinderella. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. 3. who cannot say a word.adjunct 6. What Inman remembered – subject. what their parents made them. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. 6. come up front. Of all the persons there you had to choose me.subject 9. I. Who . which . 5. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Of all the persons there.adjunct 10. when . Which – subject 4. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.Nadina VIŞAN .adjunct 11. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Activity 5 1.When Ada remarked – adjunct. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition.free Activity 4 1. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. Where . was very displeased with the situation. Where . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. where we talk money – predicative.free 9. What – direct object 2. 4. however sad . Where he was from – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.adjunct 5. 2. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. where – predicative 7. who think so highly of yourselves.
which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12. whatever – predicative 13. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which requires an accusative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what little she knew – direct object.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . how . Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. what . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.
who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . but whose second cousin. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose great-grandfather. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. in his turn. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. a sergeant. due to its invariable character. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. having changed quite a number of jobs. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. got married and had a daughter.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a rather tiny looking man. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages.
has been troubling them forever. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . whose interest he most sincerely shared. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.His father’s friends. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. – yes.yes Activity 9 1. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded.no 5. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. – no 9. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. no easy answers to which could be offered. . was now complete. The problem of safe transportation. – yes 2. . the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. – no 4. – obligatory pied piping 2.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. – no pied piping 5. he rarely saw now. . with deletion of the noun friends].yes 7. were now all gone. . .Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. In the interest of public decency. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. .yes 3.obligatory 3. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. Irene. This story. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – no pied piping 327 . His friends. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. – yes 6.obligatory 4. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.yes 10.
I did so. for instance. 4. Nelu. Only an ugly endless dream remained. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 8. 7. the third born son. where two teams battled every day… 5. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 3. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . or as of a vast arena. For twenty years. irrespective of age and nature. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. In other people’s opinion.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 2. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. For all the four children. Everything was ending. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 6. yours. 328 . I am to be envied. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream.and he couldn’t thank me enough.
If any of your qualities were to persuade them. You are newly arrived here. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 16. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. 15. 13. although she was standing quite close to him. where from Marta was coming too. on Icoanei street. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. from MR street. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 11. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. barely glittering in the distance. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 329 . 14. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. the tram was rattling along. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 12. she said.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 10.R. All that you have read is rubbish. staring aimlessly. 17. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. since I don’t really know which my true life is. leaving streets and houses behind. Behind them. He was suffering from dizziness. What you’re saying sounds very nice. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away.
or the many Egyptian dynasties. So. 23. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. had a personal style in clothes. who only lived once in this world. 24. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I don’t know what might have happened. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 21. after the car was fixed. While some trees are still green. who prompted everyone on the street. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. had a huge house in Bucharest. or the clash of stars above. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway.Nadina VIŞAN 18. But for me. From the vantage point I was in. in her pursuits. She was a woman of means. While we were poor. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. so optimistic and composed? 19. 22. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. 20. But. likes and dislikes. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 330 . Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. which I did not posses. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. day by day. If he had hit me. I could see my woman falling away from me. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me.
He will answer for it that his son is innocent.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. 3. – unextraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 7. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. 8.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 6. prepositional object 11. direct object 3. subject 8. 331 .It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – impossible 7. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 2. object 6. – extraposed. direct object 10. – extraposed. – questionable. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – the same as 3. object 5. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 2. – extraposed. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. subject 4. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It appears that no one voted for him. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It will be soon announced when you can leave. subject 9. – extraposed.
same as 12. It is nice to meet you. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. It is no use trying to convince her.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 18. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. a bit too intricate 5. – correct 2.correct 4. – the same as 12. 10. I don’t expect it that he will come back. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. although a bit intricate 2. Activity 3: 1. – grammatical.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 17. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – impossible. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. tense influences the 332 . idiomatic formula 16.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – incorrect. . – impossible 11. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – grammatical.incorrect. 14. same as 12. I guess it that he will come back. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – impossible. but pragmatically impossible 3.. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. They never expected it that he would come back. 9.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical.grammatical.grammatical. . but pragmatically impossible 4. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – impossible. 15. . tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – impossible. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – same as 12. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.
since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. under bridges. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 5. in the pits on the road.incorrect. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.’ Lionel says. though. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. – correct 6. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. behind gates. 2. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. in the ditch. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I hurriedly hid wherever I could. thus. (Not always. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 3. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.’ 4. 333 .
I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. 8. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. It is less ambiguous than the first. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. since the 334 . who had just returned from Africa. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. Activity 7 1. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. who had just returned from Africa. – the first sentence is the better of the two. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. By saying this. 3. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.Nadina VIŞAN 6. – the second sentence is questionable. without trying to protest too much. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. because it is less ambiguous. 2. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 4. 7. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.
/ He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. 6. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The second and third sentences are grammatical. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 7. so there is no need for extraposition. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. – both sentences are grammatical. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 8. 5. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. extraposition is obligatory here. 335 . The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. although the third one has not undergone clause shift.
correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. coordinated. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. .relative Activity 9 1. – prepositional object. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – complement 5. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – direct object. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. (Iris Murdoch.complement 4. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – relative 3. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – complement 2. – complement that clause. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (Iris Murdoch.We discovered that our map has disappeared. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.) complement that clauses.) adverbial of sequence/result. for better or worse. . . ibid. – adverbial of sequence/result.adverbial of sequence/result. required by deverbal noun 336 . .prepositional object. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – subject. – relative 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.
– that is obligatory 7) They maintain. that deletion is obligatory. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. you want me to believe.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. f) John said that Harry would leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.
a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. a. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. c. sequence of tenses is observed 4. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – both sentences are grammatical. – grammatical sentences. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. b. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time.
ciocârlii şi şoimi. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. quail. While the first is possible because of the generalization. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. geese both grey and white. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. hawk. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. prepeliţe. present perfect instead of past perfect. – generalization on habits of birds. cenuşii şi albe. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . lark. present instead of simple past. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation.
– the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. The generic present is used in this case. lack of pridefulness. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. lipsa de vanitate. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. slyness in a fight. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). She admired their keenness of wit. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Crows will relish what presents itself. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. love of practical jokes.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer.
the young officer. But as the battle raged around them. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. he claimed. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Murise în picioare. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. in the very act of expiring. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. He had fought hard through the war. se ridicase în picioare. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . tânărul ofiţer. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. He died erect. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. tragică şi eroică. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. El căzuse pe spate. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. […] During the latter stages of the tale.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying.
şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. they gathered around my desk. în închisoare. I realized I could not tell him the big news. he closed the album. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. 2. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. mother went home and I was left alone. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. to finish my drawing. Activity 13 1. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. 342 . When the boys saw that mother had left. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. – similar situation to the one under (c). And they might just hang him. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Acum stătea aici. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. the oldest. Luptase din răsputeri în război. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. war hero though he was. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). susţinea el. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. A short while later. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. When he saw me. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. They all had their hands in their pockets. How can I explain? I just felt shy.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Now here he stood jailed. One of them. But when he reached me. deşi era erou de război.
He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. All his senses were now keen. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . for her vineyard. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. brightly and closely.’ 5. 4. 6. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.’ Mr. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. or fear his rage. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. or if she would do so again. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. as if he had been drunk.
Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 7. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.Nadina VIŞAN to him. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 11. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 9. And if things were so. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . 10. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. thinking of him. The last time when we met here you scared me. 8. he would achieve his goal and be a victor.
12. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 14. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . without putting anything in a note. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. We either sell them or we don’t. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. towards Jurubita. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. where he would run to confess everything. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. which secretly drove him. 13. namely the impatience of this young man. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. more urgently than ever.
/ He was forced to send Tom on the front.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . 346 . – simple infinitive. 9. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. – simple infinitive. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.simple infinitive. grammatical 3.. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 6.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical. grammatical 10. – perfect infinitive. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. . – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. / they saw her leave. – simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. grammatical 2. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 7. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 5. / He had Mary clean her room. .INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. – infinitive continuous. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.
– Test: He persuaded her. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ I allowed [them to come. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / I want to never see you again. Test: *She wanted him. you need to try harder. / It is not too late for him to learn.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: They tempted him. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: *I allowed them. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They asked her. Test: *They would have hated her. Test: *They did not wish her. Test: *I would love them. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Test: * I would like people. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ They would have hated [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ I would love [ them to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. – Test: She promised him. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly.
/ He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I want you to leave my house. not to miss the train. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / To make a long story short. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He is easy to talk to. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He is young enough to start again. . / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is easy to live with. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. / Oh. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. . / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. I don’t need you or your services. .Nadina VIŞAN for years. . / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / I want to tell you what I think of you. Activity 6 Oh.obligatory subject control verb 348 .
Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. If he himself was out of spirits. Predicative 4 . 1] A little crossly. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. 349 . Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. who wasn’t used to men with moods. so that we might get to the future and have done. Harold. he didn’t envy those above it.to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. 1 – PRO. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Subject. they had depressed and fuddled him. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2].Accusative + Infinitive. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. He suspected hostility at once. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Subject.
man and woman. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. more believable than evidence itself. we seem to forget about our own pain. PRO controlled by ‘him’. c) Unlike plane trips. direct object 3 – PRO –to. f) The passing time is important. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. excitedly. PRO controlled by ‘me’. true. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. object 2 – PRO –to. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. more meaningful. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. cautiously. PRO controlled by ‘she’. And you might also be hit and humiliated. PRO controlled by ‘she’. One day. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. e) When two persons. 350 . b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. But when we need to comfort others. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. slowly. 1 – PRO-to. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. or better said.
g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. And to actually start to believe you are so. He had not been able to leave Dr. Mrs. which he had already forgotten. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. as he had appeared to him in the rain. If it was summer. not even those parts where he had been half-right. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. for instance. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. my wish being only to please and serve. Moroi says heavily. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. And I would care for this man so deeply. 351 . or. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. k) With this considerable dowry. even when this love is hurried. S.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. not to want to wipe it off. in the street. while swearing to change my way of life. all down our neck. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. that you are young. Stroescu. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. or their talk that night. h) I want us to go. That is it. to live only with your coughing. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. tickled by the trickles of sweat. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. I am indeed praising my own merits. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself.
352 . m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. no matter what. Well. for that’s the door people get off by.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. she was suddenly so shocked. here I am with all of my own. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. or to speak so fast. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. met by squalor and terrible smells. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. every Bucharester knows it. If you will have what I can give you. poor Muti. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). ready to submit to any demand. haphazardly. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him.
/ In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ She sent him shopping. badly beaten and bloodied. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ He went to have a tooth pulled.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. with its lips drawn back./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. / They found it thrown in a corner. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Don’t keep him waiting. – Attributive past participle. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. 353 .
before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Accusative + present participle / In any case. they began quarreling about how to divide it. – As she was running into the room. Activity 4 1. 2. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having fed the dog. The tree had fallen across the road.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Finding the treasure. having heard it all before. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Running into the room. I slammed the door of my room. 8. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 6. he sat down to his own dinner. Attributive present participle. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Turning on the light. – Attributive present participle. 4. 10. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I was astonished at what I saw. 9./ Running into the room. 3. Sleeping in the next room. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 7. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. having been uprooted by the gale.
an idea suddenly occurred to me. Climbing down the tree. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. I let it out of the room. my hands often get very cold. many-coloured. a scorpion bit him.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 6. 3. three-coloured. the sea was tossing the post up and down. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. he broke one of the eggs. wooden-headed. a pot of paint fell on my head. 4. I let the dog out of the room. lion-hearted. broad-shouldered. 9. 10. Dropped by parachute. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. one of the eggs broke. – As he was tied to the post. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. narrow-minded. his horse fell at the last jump. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As he left the cinema. / Climbing down the tree. I often get very cold hands. his horse fell at the last jump. a pot of paint fell on my head./ Reading in bed. Barking furiously. – As I was passing under a ladder. 12. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. stony-hearted. my hands often get very cold. red-handed. 5. bald-headed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As he was getting out of bed. fishy-eyed. – As he was riding in the first race. an idea suddenly occurred to me. one of the eggs broke. – As he was climbing down the tree. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Tied to the post. Passing under a ladder. Leaving the cinema. a scorpion bit him. Riding in the first race. Activity 5 Fair-haired. 2. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 11. open-minded. the sea was tossing it up and down. / Getting out of bed. empty-headed. 355 . Getting out of bed. he was bit by a scorpion. 7. cloth-covered. Reading in bed. 8. – When I read in bed. – As the dog was barking furiously. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. sharp-eyed/minded.
was today taken back to prison. produced by S. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Many old people. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. open-hearted. Activity 8 1. injuring my arm. The film. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are sold throughout the world.I fell on the ice. (take) 2. / Swiss watches. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. I stared at the canvas for ages. 7. The escaped prisoner. shorn lamb. stricken deer. lighted candle. shaven head. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. injured when their car crashed on the M1. ill-gotten wealth. graven image. drunken man. sunken eyes. straight-shouldered. (find) 6. (produce) 3. / Three people. hunting for a bargain. dark-skinned. roast meat. Whales. (admire) 5. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. shrunken stream.Spielberg. are in grave danger of extinction. (hunt). hidden meaning. were taken to hospital. found hiding in a barn. (grow) 4. mown grass. bounden duty. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. admired for their elegance and precision. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. rotten plank. 356 . admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. Activity 7 1. is expected to be a great hit./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (injure). eagle-eyed.
the carved chicken. streaked with yellow veins of fat. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. flat and soft. He felt close to his father. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. in charge of his house and lands. the twice rinsed vegetables. So. yet left them room to sway free. suddenly suffocated. 3. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. and the puffed pastry beds. A parasol. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. 4. and moreover. After a while. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. he started peering anxiously around as if. thrown in the pots.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. now taken down. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. sprinkled with sticky flour. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. the fish. 357 . boil them. its scales scraped off by the knife. seeking some promised land. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. he were struggling for breath. bake them. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. 2. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. hovering uncertain and soft. And his soul. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. then put up. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts.
/ John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. . Gambling is his favourite pastime. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . Activity 10 1. / I am sorry for being so late./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. He smiled to hear her talking in that way./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats.gerund 5. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. – Accusative + participle 3. he left the store without buying a thing. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – participle (attribute) 2.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. – gerund (subject) 4. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / After annoying the shop-assistant. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places.
The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (attribute. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. . participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. 8. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – Nominative + participle 13. – gerund (half or full. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs.possessive ING (direct object) 9.participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. He was spotted talking to her.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. preceded by preposition). – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14.
. my Lord. however appearances were against us. – gerund (full. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Croom to try to follow one. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.’ 360 . – verbal noun (has adjective). take down her answer. Lady Corven. – verbal noun (has determiner.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. I did ask Mr. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. adjective. hold up his pen and speak.verbal noun (has determiner. – gerund or verbal noun. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.’ ‘Tell me.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. but they went by too quickly. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. adjective.
It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ said Clare. he addressed the note.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘I do hate asking for things.’ 361 .’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I just used the word and they fell. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. licked the envelope with passion.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. Then. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. my Lord. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. and went out to post it himself. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. I spend all my time hunting a job.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. it’s overrated. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I must go back now.
attribute. hoping (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. Has a complex subject) in the hole. gerund. attribute. the very earth opening up (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. adverbial of time. It was like a mist. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute). village which is burning). attribute) in a swirling motion. someone looking for survivors (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute. after verb of perception. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. slowly rising (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. the enormous split in the earth. At first. First the crack snaking (half gerund. (participle. attribute. slightly 362 . but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. down into God knows where. following the verb ‘remember’. then the noise and the cracking stone. Then he saw movement at his feet. …while their edges were crashing inwards). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. He looked up towards the daylight. The sight of the two children. direct object). attribute). The two sides were moving apart. direct object) towards him. elliptical here. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. direct object) from below. down. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish.
you. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. subject of ‘being’) being (participle.e. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. one. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun.). covering (participle.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. early.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. prepositional object. i. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. etc. has ‘of’ phrase). according to the books he read. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. moving up (participle. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. my dear. direct object). Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of reason).
as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. Vaucher and I. Standing up. and not only in my imagination or theirs. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. mother. and sunlight. Young Mamona left the room without a word. And. So. and everything got suddenly animated. examining (participle. preceded by preposition. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. slanted on to her cheek. for Dornford was busy on an important case. attribute) stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. brightening (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. adverbial of manner). the two Mamonas. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of reason). attribute) a sudden whoop. and then went riding (participle. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of manner). we were all gathered in that room. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. She finished what jobs there were. preceded by preposition. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. a door was opened and as a servant entered. reluctant or not. attribute) to winter brilliance. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips.
yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. Entering our house on a Thursday. about sparing no effort. who knows. Vaucher might have known that too. his disloyal apprentice. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. to me. and to Young Mamona.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. as mother had ordered him. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. And. for anyway. and smelling so hard of rain. 3. killed by Young Mamona. 4. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. about concentrating all our resources. Not so unimaginable though. And then. each carrying a wooden box. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . kissed her forehead. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. to Vaucher. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. in the year 1812. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. let alone greet us or say something. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. and ended his life in the year 1821. he looked like someone who did. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. bending a little. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. he found us sitting each in his place. I knew who it would be. too. he went to mother and. her back towards us. So when Old Mamona came in. 2. sitting in his puddle. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. He cast us a swift glance. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. closing my eyes. without taking his sack off his shoulders.
Reach that place they did one sunny morning. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. barrack. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. 5. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. each pausing before jumping down. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. stove. And suddenly. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. as an afterthought. everything seemed familiar. And all around them was the great field 366 . After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. of taking notes and rewriting them. already seen and heard.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. They got off the truck slowly. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. wood pile. But. futile. long board table. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions.
Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. 367 . The next thing was to go to the well. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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