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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. 6 .de rezolvări. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
184.108.40.206. Auxiliary verbs 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.Contents: 8 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Constituent Phrase 1. Insertion 1.2.6. Complementary distribution .
since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Consequently. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Semantic. For instance.1. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . 1. very much. loves. her mother.2. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. They are just strings. Syntactic.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. that is sequences fragmented at random. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. sequences of the kind her mother very. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence.
The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. we are dealing with a directive (i. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. must. be). 1.) 10 . Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. should.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. 1.4.e. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). (Mi-a spus secretul. an order given to an interlocutor).3.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. etc.
The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.6. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. Consider. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. etc. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. 1. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. an ‘empty’ there subject. live. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.5. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.) 1. for instance. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.
apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. using your own examples: insertion. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. distribution. How much. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. semantic. as the star indicates. syntactic. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. complementary distribution.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. he had not yet been able to estimate. Pratice Define and illustrate. pragmatic. this would really hurt. Munt. 12 . Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. whereas (7) is not. If the given context is the one under (6).
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 .
7.4.2. Key terms .1.3. Key terms 2. Instances of negation 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.5.8. Negative vs. Tests for negativity 2. Full – local negation 2.2.6. Polarity Items 2. Conclusion. affirmative sentences. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.
a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Declarative vs.2. This example can be compared to: (2)a. Negative . We do not therefore have two independent systems: . it asserts something. in that they do not state anything. in the sense that it states something. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Consequently. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.Positive vs. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.) is said to be an assertion. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. For instance.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.
Nadina VIŞAN ./ She can’t wait to read that book.non-assertion . They told her the ( e. / Come with me.g./ Don’t do that. Did they tell her the secret? ) .interrogative (e. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.g. listen to this. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.negative (e. don’t bother her. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. comparison. 16 .) ./ If you like her.g.positive and declarative secret. / She finally admitted.) .positive sentence ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.other (if –clauses.assertion .
(John nu e fericit) (4) a.) b. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (Nu demult.3. since the negative word not is not present there. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) 17 .) b. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is unhappy. For example. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. In the case of the sentences under (4). I met a girl named Susan. (John e nefericit. Susan dislikes her friends. John is not happy.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan doesn’t like her friends. word negation. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.
(Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. In other words. where the word 18 .) c.Nadina VIŞAN In this case.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. these sentences look negative. since the negative word not is present inside them. more precisely the phrase it is part of.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. but their meaning tells us a different story. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. He was not without intelligence. I was not a little worried.) b. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. just like in the case of word negation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation.
a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. / Când a aflat vestea. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Translate the following sentences into English. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . without intelligence. semantic negation. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.e. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive.
/ Nu erau nelămuriţi. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. affirmative sentences. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. 2. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era el destul de isteţ. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.4.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. ci doar indecişi. dar nu în mod special. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. Negative vs. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală.
(Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (M-am dus acolo. (see subsection 1.) (9) I didn’t go there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. For instance.). (Nu m-am dus acolo. such as do insertion. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .1.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. etc.
/ They didn’t leave. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan did not get married to Jim. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. 22 . nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. incorrect. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / We don’t come here often. / She does not hate animals. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative.
and they don’t like her either. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). and neither do they like her. 4. * and they don’t like her either.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. which is ungrammatical. even the smart ones. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which does not happen in the case of (18). as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. *not even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. . nici măcar de cei deştepţi. *and neither do they like her. 3. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. not even the smart ones. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Example (14) is syntactically negative.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.
Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. In conclusion. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / They caused us no problems. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains. / You have never met her. / This boy is no good. / A few of them stayed behind. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view.5. / In no time he was able to solve the problem.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. 2. / Few of them stayed behind. / No problems were caused after all.
This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (27) a . Susan could not go to the theatre. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. I went nowhere. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-a venit John). (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (26) I saw nobody.
no incorporation takes place.) (29) a.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) b. 26 .) c. Not all that glitters is gold. I didn’t see any student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. / I didn’t ever go to his place. I never went to his place. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. No day passed without me thinking of him. b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.) b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. I didn’t see anybody. (N-am văzut nici un student. I didn’t go anywhere. All that glitters is not gold.
/ Not a word fell from her lips. nici măcar din alea scurte. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.) We seldom watch T. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / I showed him nothing. . / She said not a word when I spoke to her.4. / He should not be released./ They never went there. seldom. barely. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.) They barely read any novels. / Not one of them came to meet her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I didn’t see anybody. scarcely. not even short ones.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / None of them liked house music. / I saw nobody. rarely.V.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. etc./ They didn’t come to meet her. (Nu citesc romane.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / No one ever listens to her.
) c. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Never have I met a more horrible person. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Hardly anybody liked him.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Few people came to see her. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I scarcely ever see her.) 28 them. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. . / You’ve eaten hardly anything. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) d. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I seldom look at her like that. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) b. which triggers inversion): (35) a.
/ She could rely on nobody but him. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one./ We seldom receive such generous praise. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again.) They don’t think that he likes them. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. in the sense that the 29 . / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. As you can see from the translation of these examples.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.
(Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. ought to. intention. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. 2. be likely. should be desirable. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. suppose. / I suppose she doesn’t care. She doesn’t like our chairman at all.6. intend. guess.) b. etc. barely. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. appear. / He reckoned he would not win her over.) 30 . choose. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. imagine. look like. sound/feel like. want. advise. For example. seem. etc. / I expect he won’t come here again. In sentence (37). be probable. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. suggest. etc. / They believe she does not like them. the negative meaning is less strong.: think. be supposed to. probability. believe. although not negative in meaning. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. we can very well say something like: (38) a. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. cannot appear in an affirmative context.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. expect.
This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. That is 31 .2. and sentences such as: (39) a. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă.*She lifted a finger to help me. b. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. *She likes our chairman at all. are clearly not grammatical.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context.
still (I don’t love you any more. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / They say he once had someone very close. / I can understand both of these 32 .) Any more vs. / Come on. / Well. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why.) Much vs. too. / I have already seen him. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. you can still do something about it. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well.) Until vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I like you a lot. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / I somewhat like his proposal. / She hardly ever comes here. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. some (I haven’t any money. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) Hardly ever vs. too. / Don’t worry. / I still love you) Either vs. / He arrived before 5.) At all vs. a lot (I don’t like you much. etc. / I eat caviar most of the times. / Bob is still living at that address. too (I don’t like it. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I like it . / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / I have some money.).) Yet vs. / I somehow like him. either. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.
crack a smile. last a minute. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. mulţumesc. have/be worth a red cent. bat an eye(lid). see/ feel/ remember a thing. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. nici unuia dintre noi. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. hear a peep. give a damn/darn. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. find a trace./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. leave a stone unturned./ I can understand all of these ten English words. touch a drop. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). move a muscle. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Ajută-mă. lift/raise/ stir a finger. Ion nu e prea deştept. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. know a single person. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / You must pay that fine. say / breathe/ understand a word. hurt a fly. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / You must be telling lies. have a care/ friend in the world. de când cu 33 . / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. turn a hair. Translate into English. sleep a wink. flinch. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. lay a finger on someone.
/ Nothing succeeds like success. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / No entry. nu e vina mea. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / He is no end of a fellow. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. Translate into Romanian. n-a sunat încă. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. încercând să prindă criminalul. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. but you really should do something about it. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Hotărât lucru. he’s a pig. / I had no end of trouble. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. budge. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Not that I care. he left the room. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No trouble at all. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / He won’t make old bones. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Never is a long word. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / No sooner said than done. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / No hands wanted. B: Aşi. / No admittance. / No man is wise all the time.
N-am văzut pe nimeni. / I hate making any commitments. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. say it.7. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. 2. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. as well: 35 . b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Normally.Unit two Sentence negation rather)./ I saw no one.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. c) He is anxious to say something.
The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. B: Not this poem. (Nu. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. 36 . it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. I don’t. The second negation is somehow independent. however. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. from a syntactic point of view. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.) 2.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu poezia asta. B: Nu. nu-mi place. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. Conclusion. nu îmi place poezia asta.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.8. Key terms. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. I don’t like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
e. interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .
3 Alternative Questions 3.Questions 3.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 220.127.116.11. Direct vs.2.2 Wh.1.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.1 Tag Questions 18.104.22.168. Optional Exercises . Key Terms.2 Echo Questions 3.
Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. If we try to analyze the examples above. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.Unit three Questions 3. for a subsequent section.1. focusing on direct questions mainly. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .
48 .g. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (2). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. pe mama. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (3) and (4). the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.
In the case of indirect questions.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. Since the question is not direct any more. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Likewise. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). 49 . in this case. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. because.
/ Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / I don’t know whom she fancies. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. spune la un moment dat femeia. identify the incorrect sentences. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / I don’t know who she is. / He asked me who she was. ce culoare are pielea. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / He asked me who she is. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. c) Ştii ce. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. sau mai bine zis.
V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. In this case. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.2. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. being typical of spoken language.Unit three Questions 3. as Quirk shows. Let us provide 51 .
(you / keep a secret) ? 8. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (who / talk to last night)? 5. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. 3. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.1. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (which / you like best) ? 4.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.
that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. it has.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. are said to be positively – oriented. (Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . instead of Negative Polarity ones. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. they did. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement.
A: Your mother is shouting for you. ……. ……………………………. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. but I want to play basketball a little longer.. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. A: You look down. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: She had her tenants evicted. …………………. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. ……………? (hear her) B: …... . because you always copy everything I do! 5. (speak yet) B: ……. 4. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 6.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 2. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. I’ve still got plenty of time. 7. as in the example: 1.. A: You’ve been learning German for years. 3.
why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.. You could have mentioned it earlier. which When.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.Unit three Questions B: …………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. .2. 3. 8.. where. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. ………………………………. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. . A: It’s past your bedtime. what . I didn’t get home until late last night. A: There was a terrible car crash. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 9.2 Wh – questions Wh. . how. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. 10.
what ever. trying to find places where I resided in life. / Shirley got married to Ben. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / My new car cost 10. of course. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / She lives in the suburbs. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ We’ve lived here for ten years.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / That’s my pen./ She dropped her glasses. / David’s car was stolen. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. why ever. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / There are six students in my class. (Poppy Z./ I have French lessons twice a week. I cannot do that. Nearly two hundred years. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / Kay’s gone out shopping./ Sara owns two cars. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 .000dollars. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.
3.) 57 . (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.2. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.
Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. shall we stay? 7. There was a fax for you this morning. can you be? 58 . How long is she be spending in America? 8. You can’t be serious. shall we stay? 14. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. He used to work in a bank. wasn’t it there? 17. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. didn’t use he? 4. didn’t use he? 11. Who did left the gate open? 18. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Let’s stay for another few days. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. How far is it the cinema? 10. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How far is it the cinema? 3.
How long time does it take to get there? 28. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. ca şi cei ce au fost. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine.Unit three Questions 19. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. doesn’t he go? 23. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. isn’t it this? 25. Who did told you about the problem? 31. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Toate vechi. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. wasn’t it he? 22. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. deci. Pot reveni. despre o lume dură. deci. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. uneori disperat. plin de germeni virulenţi. That was Jeremy’s brother. will you not? 27. neliniştea infantilă. Whose it is this book? 32. Ani întregi. să-mi înfrâng frica. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. will you not? 21. dacă prin absurd 59 . Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. John goes jogging every morning. That’s your car.
B. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. “Spune! striga el. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. picură apa roşietică. inactivii. pe care oricum am simţit-o. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. străină priceperii lor. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. naiv. puturos. neîntrerupt. îi ştiu gustul. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . laşii. pe sub bolţile din care.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Şi. ghiceam doar unde se află. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. mă întreb. lung. Riscul? Ratarea. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. murdar. negru. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. umed. dar şi drumul. de atunci. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. iar proştii. indiferent de risc.
nu se poate. da? (37) Let’s go there. will you? (38) She went to Prague. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.3. Tag Questions Tag questions. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. exclus. 3. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. orbitor.Unit three Questions viaţă. care i-a determinat alegerea. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. la urma urmei. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. didn’t she? . da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. domnule profesor. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. viaţa? Oare e drept. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.3.1. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. golul alb.
hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. (Din păcate. it’s all spent. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. au fost cheltuiţi. The suggestion is that in this case. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi. sarcasm.e. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. In this way. is it? (Deci. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. the tag is negative too).) A: Oh. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. if the host sentence is negative. the tag is affirmative too. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. aren’t they? 62 .Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. or falling. or “comment tags”. hasn’t she? (Aha.
/ I am dressed smartly enough. / Everyone felt happy about it. 63 . nu?) • with a falling intonation. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Don’t leave without me. / There is enough food for everyone. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Each of us is staying. / You have been invited. / Surely you have enough money. / The boy often watched his sister.…/ Let me know. / You will pick me up. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. after all. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Few people like her. / I don’t think you like my music. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That was your father. / A few people like her. / He has to marry Susan. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / She has a brother. / I am older than you. / I must go now. / You will pick me up at 7. / I may see you tomorrow.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I think you don’t like my music. / The boy never watched his sister. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / He hates his wife. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / They said he liked music. / That’s your car over there. / Tell me. / She used to talk a lot. / I think you like my music. / She left an hour ago. / You ought not to smoke. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Let’s eat dinner now. / He simply hates empty words.
using a question tag at the end. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. He used to play squash. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. 5.. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. So you enjoyed my talk./ I’m right about this…. or what? 3. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / He never used to study so hard…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….
(Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Grants… 3.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.) B: Chinese? 65 . / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.questions which repeat part or all of the message.1.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.3. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. Recapitulatory echo questions .) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.2. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.1.
The difference between recapitulatory 66 . misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. If the wh. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Închide lumina aia. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. of something just said. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.3. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. consternation.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.2. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.phrase is fronted. rather than the repetition. disbelief.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.
am pierdut scrisoarea. rather than did you say. / I think I’ve found a solution. with recapitulatory echo questions. dear.e. (Uită-te la asta. (Vai.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh./ We are looking for a purse. / He is interested in music. intonation is rising. / We are looking for a pixie. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. which letter do you 67 . intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (i. I’ve lost the letter./ He is interested in blue movies. whereas with explicatory echo questions. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.
Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .4. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it.
astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. şi apoi Vica ce zice. nu purta verighetă. pe Condrat de Vica. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. şerpoaica.– Crezi tu. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. Fenio. şi care s-a aciuat. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. cu o casă de copii.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. Are gust de oameni blânzi. în satul nostru. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. ca să zic aşa. aşa. stricata.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. lui Luca Horobeţ. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. lui Chizlinski. cumnată Fenia. acuma sporovăiala. după pofte. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. lui Stavre Păici. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. să se încolăcească mai bine. da. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. în general. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . oameni aşezaţi. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei.
Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. abia târându-şi picioarele. roşu şi galben. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. L-a scos din geamie.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Hogea. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. sau cum o chema. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. dar cum se face că a 70 . Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. deci. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. sus. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. De asta erai. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. până la călcâie.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
2.1.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.6.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.5.Contents: 74 4.3.Key Concepts .Coordinating Conjunctions 4.
We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. that elements are coordinated.e. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. 75 . present) in the sentence. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.e. on the other hand. cu repros. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.1 Syndetic vs. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. where there is no indication other than a comma. i. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Example (2). some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4.
Conversely. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.) Such examples. 76 . From the previously mentioned examples. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.Nadina VIŞAN 4. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. you will die. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.) (4) If you hit my wife. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. vei muri.
Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. but presupposed.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. we need to specify that. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. However.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. from a logical & semantic point of view. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the second. respectively subordinated constituents. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 .
Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. the houses were beautiful and ancient. took off his coat and emptied them. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. In the second. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. but the 78 . John Steinbeck. with formal walks under rows of trees. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. Then he sat down. his shoes squished. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. took off his shoes and emptied them. His clothes hung to him. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. adorned with cornices. In the first. built. He moved and made a slopping noise. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. with enormous solidity. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. of cut gray stone. Though the castle had vanished. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets.
and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and as the way is with Irish mountains. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. the higher he went the wetter it grew. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. left the house.
) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.K. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. as shown in (9). this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. were to take down the name of every man. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. (G. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. we should be seriously annoyed.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.3 Sentence vs. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. As one can easily notice. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. however distinguished.
our respective examinations. 9. and even tennis. Our flag is red. / Bob and George are admired by their students. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 5. 8. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. John and Mary are ready. plays football.Unit four Coordination example (7). / Peter and John played football. John is ready and Mary is ready. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Her pet kitten is black and white. Pratice Distinguish coordination.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 10. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 3. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. John and Mary are the newly married couple. yellow and blue. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 4. but not John. 7. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. 2. 6 John sang and Mary danced. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. and I passed. / Joan plays many games. Activity 2 sentences: 1.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. / Peter.
or deleted. 5. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John writes poetry and Bill prose. 3. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. as can be seen in (10b).) c.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.Nadina VIŞAN b. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Jane 82 . Activity 4 2. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.) b. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 6.
Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 8. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 83 . can be reduced by substitution. the so-called Principle of Economy. 9. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 10. i. the predication buy a pair of shoes. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. 7. Besides ellipsis. So. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. these syntactical processes.e.) The common element. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. than a longer repetitive one.
using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane are separated. one or (the) other method.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Translate the following sentences. 4. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 4. In certain cases. George and Jane went back to their parents. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. 3. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. the old men and women 2. 2. simple books and magazines for children 3. some reason or another. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. A citit.
bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 .. 12. they reached home………. sweet and sour. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. it’s a case of ………… 7. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. 2. 8.. only for damage. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. I need another 100$ ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. for my wallet. 6. 15. even though they have their little …………. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. fish and chips. . I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. A pendulum swings ………. 8. After all their adventures. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Can we discuss the ………….Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 5. 7.. 6.. 11. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 13. like: salt and pepper. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 5. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 16. Marks and Spencers.… 14... Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. They get on quite well together.You gain some things and you lose others. of your proposals later on? 3. the amount I’ve already saved up.I searched ……….
(Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) There are. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. as in: (17) a.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear.4. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. In fact. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. b. and 86 . Nor sun. more often than not. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. 4. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. of course. the expressive function of coordination is. For instance. etc.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.
Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. where the subordinator is repeated. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. both … and . or . I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) c. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. too): (20) a. 20 (b)). sometimes but. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.) In certain cases.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. o respectau si o indrageau. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.) b. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.g. (I-am dat banii. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) 87 . ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. etc). either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. and cherished her.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.
) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.* I ironed and washed my pants.) b. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. I washed and ironed my pants. and hit my wife. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.) b. (Imi place si o admir. (O admir si imi place. I like and admire her. and you’ll die. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. if we were to rewrite the example . In this case. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. From this point of view. I admire and like her.
(A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) (While Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. he failed). Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Brown experiments with humans. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.Unit four Coordination 1. Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. (If you do that. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.
) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.which are based on coordination .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. as the name suggests it.g. 5. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. e. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. From the functional point of view.) 101 . takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.
by an adjective + preposition.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. such as proud of.) 102 . In a way. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. an adverbial item. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. we associate it with these objects. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). for example). in certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. for instance. sentences) required by the verb (or.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. (I-a dat cartea. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. For instance. We do not presuppose however something like.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly.
We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.e. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. to add something. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. related to example (4). a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. 103 .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. Thus. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to her) and one extra-item. which is the adverbial willingly. i. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. A second observation. I am afraid that he won’t come. In other words. The term comes from the verb to adjoin.) b. an additional one. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The second example. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.
(Înainte să plece din cameră. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. such as want. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. a închis toate ferestrele. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. make.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. etc.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) 104 . I’ll die. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. am să mor. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (11) If you don’t marry me. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. like. So.
She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. The book that because they home. [. 4. 6.g.g. Susan disappeared without saying a word. They came to e. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . 5. this to whomever wants it. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 3.g. e. she looked at me sadly.She came to him of her own will.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. 2. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. Whoever did that was a genius. After I told her the story.
not object. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God.He took an intelligent interest in her. As you can see. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. etc.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. was a novelty to Mitzi. 3. 6. at our age. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. stating their function: Activity 2 1. You suggestion that we should. 5. though it was largely politeness.) 106 . but he declined. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 4. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 2. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. WHETHER. which. FOR.
(E de dorit să plece.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) (16) a. (Am vrut să plec imediat. where. 107 . (14) I was afraid of what he might say. Who did it was John. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) b. when. which. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. why.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. how. (15) It is John who did it. who.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. Where he went is London. etc.
done from a structural point of view. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. which sums up this classification. consider the following table. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In conclusion.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. etc. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. for instance. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. if. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . Unlike complement clauses. As you will see.) (18) She told me this before she left. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4.1. however. before. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. In (18). Compare.
Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.g. you understand. back. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. Dear Ludwig. for.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I will come back such as because. whether he will come when I feel like it. etc.g. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will go there because I feel like it. Introduced know e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.g. as. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. after. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.: e. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. at your young age. 109 .
As she left the house. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. he said. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. 2.The day Monroe had died was in May. a tightening in her breathing. she stopped to speak to Monroe. Late that afternoon. Accidental Man) b)1. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Too. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . but he asked her to wake him when she returned. But she thought that no one would call again. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep.
g. că e.g. As you have probably noticed already.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. That he loved e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. interesting. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. However. 111 .g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. a correspondence can be traced. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. I told her everything after she arrived. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.2.
(Cred că mă place.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. So.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.1. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. i. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.2.complement. whenever you identify a wh. In the fourth place. whereas wh complements are the 112 . Secondly. Thirdly. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly..e. complements. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. We will come back to that in the next chapter.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.
It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Pratice Consider the following text. a barn. outbuildings. because. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. after.g. their introductory elements (e. I first thought to tell in 113 . for no matter how she tried. She mistrusted her handwriting. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. before. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but no idea what to do with them. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. a house. c) I am coming home one way or another.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out.
(Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. these clauses can be complements. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. it would make you fear to do such again. and I have not the will or the energy.e.4. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. According to a structural criterion. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. because they modify. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective).
după ce că are grâu puţin. (…) “Mă. interested in. answering the question to whom? So. Alţii. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. etc. îşi spuseseră că Anton.g. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. be very careful to use this term correctly. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. 115 . look at.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.e. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. Nevasta secera în tăcere.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Pratice Translate the following. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. think of. O zbughi înapoi. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. însă. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. ce o fi având. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.
Nici acum.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. cât de bolnavă era. timp de un ceas. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. izolate de sat. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. de fapt. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Toată lumea înţelesese că. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. întâi. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila.
Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Pace nu era. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. acum sunt desluşiţi. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. de pildă. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. deşi cam târziu. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. amânase scrisul. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. În realitate. aşa de oţetit. Iată. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Era bine de ştiut. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. stricau totul. la Odobeşti. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. la nişte prieteni comuni.
întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.
etc.g. etc).. 119 . accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. of which. whose. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.
Key Concepts .4. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.3.1. Relative Clause Introducers 22.214.171.124.6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.7.
Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.2. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.1. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. 121 . The Co-reference Condition .) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. 6. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.
reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. 122 . The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. By combining these two clauses. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. John loves that woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.
Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The common element woman is present. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman. 123 . This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent.
Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHERE 3. I went to London. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. therefore in spoken English. Susan wants to meet Jane. 7. WHO 5. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. He told Jim everything about his plans. She came to London. 6. I had a book. 8. WHICH 4. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. frequently used in written language. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. The students like their teacher. I love my husband very much. He liked that book. The king was just passing by. The students like their teacher. by leaving behind a trace. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. They met those students. 9. 3. too. None of the students agreed with them. I lost the book’s cover. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. John told his friend a story about the king. I introduced him to Jim. I bought Jim a book.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 2. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. He’s the author who received the prize. 10. 4. This is my husband. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Any of the students would answer to questions. 5. WHO 124 .
dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. WHOSE 7. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. i. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. relative clauses are divided into 1. TO 11. .3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.Unit six Relative clauses 6. WHOM 10. most of them were from England.e. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. WHOM 6. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. WHICH 8. 2. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. (Cine strică plateşte.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.
) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.e.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. it is covert.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Cel care strică plăteşte.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) So. is no longer overtly expressed. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. unlike in the case of (14). (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Predicative This was what she intended. Unlike their sisters. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. in a manner of speaking. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.
is my favourite god. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (Mercury. they define it). they offer crucial information about this antecedent. who is the god of commerce. who incidentally is the god of commerce. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. They only provide supplementary information about it.) (22) Mercury. (Du-te unde pofteşti. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Mercur. este zeul meu favorit. care este zeul negoţului.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. 127 . defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.
(free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 9. 7. is a genius. 10. restrictive relative clauses. 8. 6. I have met him where I least expected. was the one we all welcomed and admired. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. i. this type of relative clauses.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion.e. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). then it is an attribute. Independent I don’t know what you want. She. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 2. As we were saying. who is a genius.This is the village where I spent my youth. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. On the day on which this occurred I was away. They are what 128 . is a great playwright. who came to see me. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Shakespeare. 5. on whom nobody could depend. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius.
) 2. 6.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. .): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. who died a few years ago. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. composed The (Freddie Mercury. etc.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. etc. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. however sad this may be. care a murit acum câţiva ani. When the antecedent has no determiner. a.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.
) (28) They come to me. but a peevish. iritabilă şi uscată. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. îţi văd prea bine defectele. numai eu nu. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. bătrînă morocănoasă. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. ill-tempered. 130 .) Pratice Translate the following. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. Mie. care nu sunt o femeie. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 3. dried-up old maid. 4.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. ci o fată a woman. can see your shortcomings only too well. 7. (Eu. 2. Dintre toate personajele prezente. who neither work nor am anxious. poftiţi în faţă. who am your son. care-ţi sunt fiu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 5.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 6. (Ei apeleaza la mine. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu.
ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. . (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. heard. than whom few more can be more crashing.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. erau acum în posesia lui. (32) service finished late.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. were now in his possession. părăsi camera.
too. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. The genitive form with which is still in use. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) d.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. but it is typical of the formal. literary style: (37) a.5. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) b.) b.1. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. as can be seen in (36d). The woman whose painting I sold was very young.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. 6. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) c.
Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Iris Murdoch. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.
revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) • states. of which. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. animals. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. but to a type or a function: a. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. ships (that can be personified) a.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. … Italy. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. (45) (46) . He is not the man which he used to be.) b.) b.
France. pe care o privea direct. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. how.2 Relative Adverbs: when. reason.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. etc. time. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele.) b. Poland is the place where Christine was born. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) b) dialectal (49) a. It is poor what gets the punches. why. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.Unit six Relative clauses b. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.) 6.) 135 (47) . (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. (Nu ştiam ce vor. while. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. whom it concerned most closely.5. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. where.
) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. He went where he had been before. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.5. They returned to the land whence they had come. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) e. The place whither he goes is unknown.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) 6. This is the place wherefrom they came.) b.3. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) c. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) b. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) 136 . (S-a dus unde mai fusese.
] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.
every. any. Honest man as he was. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. 138 (64) his shoes.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. .Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. but • in standard language a. not any.4. much.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. but they are used very infrequently: as.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.5. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.
când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English.) c. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. This is the same one that/as you had before. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. . Uncle George. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) c. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. And always on the buttered side.) • in dialect a. ăl de fusese in China…) b. There’s not many as’ll say that. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. It’s the dry weather does it. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. him as was in China … (Uncle George. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.
For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.
5. fortifies me.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. The man that John spoke to is a genius. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.) c. 3. That which shows God out of me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What Inman remembered was this passage.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. The man John spoke to is a genius.5. Where he was from. makes me a wart and a wen. The man who John spoke to is a genius. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.) b.3): (72) a.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. 7. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 6. b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. we all have to come to some terms. It seemed a thing 141 . This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.” 4. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. What I’m saying is. 2.
8. who had not witnessed many dawns. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 12. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. which is a lot. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. of living. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 13. Oh. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Whatever his fate was. The rudeness of eating. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 10. 142 .Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. Ruby said. 9. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. though. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 11. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. he had left Ruby high and dry. (…) Partly.
care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . cumnatul unui portughez. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. fiu natural al unui morar. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. pirpiriu. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. plutonier. un var primar. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. mort de tanar. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. (Iris Murdoch. divortata. una din nepoatele unui inginer.al lui. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. poate. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carei strabunic. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. Cumnatul meu avea. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. nu prea sarac. pe linie paterna. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. vasnic.
where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.2. insurat de trei ori la rand.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. b. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. The opposite phenomenon. Teatru) 6. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. I lost the cover of the book. 144 . Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. By extension. She was a woman. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. c. This is the book. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.
The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 7. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 4. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. The problem of safe transportation. 5. 9. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . In the interest of public decency. 8. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 3. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. The difference between (76) and (77). She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. has been troubling them forever.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. he requested that the public be excluded. 6. no easy answers to which could be offered.Unit six Relative clauses b. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 2. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.
Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. whose interest he most sincerely shared. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 3. 146 . She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 10. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. no matter which. Irene. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. was now complete. 6. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).His father’s friends. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. as the case is). Activity 9 were now all gone. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. His friends. has been deleted. They do not function as attributes. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. he rarely saw now.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 2. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. 4. 5.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. This story.
4. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 3. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. sunt vrednic de invidiat. 7. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. 6. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . închipuirea. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Nelu. 5. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Pentru alţii. Toate sfârşeau. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. himeric. 2. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. De douazeci de ani. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. pentru dumneata bunăoară.
8. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. 12.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. nici în searbăda mea versiune. 10. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. cu surle şi cu tobe. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. a făcut el. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. 9. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă.
căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. fie pe stradă. dinspre Maria Rosetti. până mai adineauri. despre care. 16. toată lumea întreba cine e. din care cauză pe Dora. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. pe strada Icoanei. trăia larg de tot. Avea acum un fel de vertij. În spatele lor. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. deşi atât de aproape. 15. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. 149 . ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 20.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. de unde venea şi Marta. care era foarte “mondenă”. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Dacă mă lovea. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. zise ea cu ochii mari. apărură. roiuri de fetiţe. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. fie la teatru. 18. din direcţia căreia apoi. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. 17. 14.
când au urcat râpa iar. Pare-se că snobii. după ce maşina a fost reparată. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. 24. până în şosea. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea.Nadina VIŞAN 21. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. 22. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. pe care ea îi admira acum. aveau un stil al lor. de mine. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. pe care eu nu-l aveam. Pentru mine însă. de sus de unde eram. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. întâia noapte de război) 150 . N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. 23.
151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
2.7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.1.5. Key Concepts .1. That Deletion 126.96.36.199.2. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1.4. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.Topicalization 7.3. That Complements as Subjects 188.8.131.52.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 184.108.40.206. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 220.127.116.11. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.Clause Shift 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 18.104.22.168.Extraposition 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 22.214.171.124.5.2.
but also of infinitival ones. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. Apart from those introduced by that.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. 7.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). 153 . complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. In other words. the clause is extraposed.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. placed in a marginal position. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.
but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.
Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 6. 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 7. 6. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 5. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 8. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 7. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 9. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 10. 8. 11. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 10. It is no use trying to convince her. 2. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 4. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 9. 11. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 13. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 3.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 14. It appears that no one voted for him. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is nice to meet you. 15. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 4. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. They considered it very silly of her to 155 .The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 3.
3. 4. în gropi. I guess it that he will come back. zice Lionel. după porţi.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. atât 156 . That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 6.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 5. în canal. 4.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. unde se nimerea. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 2. 2. 5. 3. 2. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They never expected it that he would come back. mă ascundeam în grabă. sub poduri. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 18. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1.
Spunând cele ce-am spus. Mi s-a părut chiar că.” 4. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. fără îndoială. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. 7. fără să cârteşti. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. excelentă. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 6. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. vor căuta să o zdruncine. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. 157 . Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 5. (Nu întotdeauna. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale.
noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. this asymmetry is undone. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.Nadina VIŞAN 7. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Pratice Read the following. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.2.1.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. in the case of topicalization. 1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . subject clauses are the frequent situation. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently.) While in the case of extraposition.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.
She had always been the slave of chance. 2. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 5. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . He was utterly gone. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. he felt no spring of interest in her.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. whether it would finally carry her off. mere chance would decide. 7. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. was inconceivable. This was another era. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 6. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. but not now. even today. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 3. 4. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He did not blame Gracie. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 8.
Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.3. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.) 160 . This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.
The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. 161 . we obtain. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. the verb to drive). (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.e. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.
Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. who had just returned from Africa.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. prime-minister. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 5. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 162 . 7.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 6./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 8.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 4. 3.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 2.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. who had just returned from Africa./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.
(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.2. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.Unit seven That complements 7.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.
) b.) a.) 164 . (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. desire. estimate. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. They believe the man is guilty.1.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. deem. (Cred că omul este vinovat. He announced that they were engaged.) b. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.2. etc. He announced their engagement. promise. state.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. explain. suggest.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. They promised him that he would received a new house. communicate.: (25) a. deny. judge. (I-au promis o casă nouă. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. They believe that the man is guilty.Nadina VIŞAN 7. consider. etc. prefer. afirm. predict.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. ibid. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) language. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. for example. they lose their meaning. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. In older stages of English. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.e. on condition that.) I like him in that he is smart.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) 172 . the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. hope =>purpose.
(I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) (66) 173 a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. .) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. He gave such an answer as had expected. That can be deleted. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) When the structure contains the word such. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. He gave an answer such.) b. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) b. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. să o vadă trecând. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.
10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. they were chained to each other forever.) 174 . ibid.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. (Iris Murdoch. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid.We discovered that our map has disappeared.) b. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. for better or worse.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.
that he uses a relaxed tone. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A prins de veste că ei vin. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (69) a.1. He got word they were coming. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. for instance.3.3 ‘That Deletion 7. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. He said he had borrowed her money. He showed he was able to do it.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c. tell).) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. say.Unit seven That complements 7.) b. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. 175 .
rele.2. I like it that he was here. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. (Iris Murdoch. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. (Îmi place că e aici. 7.) (De asemenea. they were chained to each other forever. for better or worse. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. for better or worse.) b. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3. *I like it he was here.3.Nadina VIŞAN 7. they were chained to each other forever. because that has been deleted.3. bune. ibid. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.
spuse el. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. he said. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. which is ungrammatical in English. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (“Este acolo”. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.4.) 177 . The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 7) They maintain.) b)He told me that she was there. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. you want me to believe.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. that they were not too late to leave. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 7. simultaneity. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.
) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. “She was here”.) Future Perfect -----. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. he said.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.) b. o să vină el. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. He told me that she had been there. I will leave her. vine el.) b. (Pâna să plece. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. He said he would leave her. (A spus că. The Present complement). (Am să o părăsesc. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. In the example below. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. spuse el.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . până pleacă ea. (“Era acolo”.
) On the other hand. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. mention. believe.etc. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. be amazed/concerned. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. notice. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. show. discover. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. be aware. regret. insist. whisper. think. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. forget.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. say. hope. dream. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) 179 . realize it). (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. report. etc.) b. With such factive verbs as realize. wish.
Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. He knew that she thought all men were fools. cu un respect tandru reciproc. we notice that general truths.) b. She believed that the earth is round. feign habits which are not their own. 180 .) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. She realized that all men are fools. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair.) b. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Iris Murdoch. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. Consider also: (85) a. in tender deference to each other.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. She still believed that the earth was flat.
181 .) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional.) b.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) b.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. There are however cases. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.Unit seven That complements 2.) In (88). She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. such as a. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. 3. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.
d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. for instance. The time is 3 o’clock. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. John said that Harry will leave. Imagine.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. c) John said that Harry is leaving. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. g) John thought that Harry ran. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. But 182 . g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.
183 . Crows will relish what presents itself. c. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She admired their keenness of wit. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. kingfisher. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. whistling swan. slyness in a fight.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. bluebird. jaybird. a. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. quail. love of practical jokes. nighthawk. Translate the following. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. as evidenced by its drear plumage. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. lark. Cooper’s hawk. b. lack of pridefulness. redtailed hawk. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. geese both grey and white. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs.
It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. war hero though he was.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. he claimed. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He died erect. And they might just hang him. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He had fought hard through the war. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Now here he stood jailed. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. the young officer. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. in the very act of expiring. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . […] During the latter stages of the tale. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. But as the battle raged around them. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest.
on other occasions it has to stay there. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. 185 . which they share with wh-complements. On certain occasions that can be deleted. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. or else.Unit seven That complements 7. object ones up to the attributive function. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. from the very frequent subject. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).
Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. 4. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. cel mai mare. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 3. Mama. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. neconvenabil şi primejdios. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Unul din ei. peste puţin. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Fiind 186 . Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 2.
cel puţin pentru un timp. aşa. dacă va mai veni. Nu ţi-a trecut. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. venind de la avocat. care îl pândise. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. 8. 5. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. de ce constata în sine. Se mira. 6. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. fericit.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. va pleca din oraş la vie. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. un vis de acesta 187 . să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. ea. 9. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 7.
Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. dar şi teama că. Astfel de va fi. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. liniştit. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. fireşte. încă o dată. 11. 12. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Acesta. şi mândria că a biruit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. lucrul era înfăptuit. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere.
Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Pe toate. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. ci numai aşa. mai puternic decât oricând. să le lămurească pe toate. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. după cum. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. spre Jurubiţa. 14. fără o vorbă scrisă. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.4.3.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.6.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.Key Concepts .5.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.1.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 126.96.36.199.
) b. (2) a. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. b. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). I told her that she should be more careful in the future. From this perspective. It is important that you should know what you need. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. To love her is something really wonderful. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. 193 .Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.) • like that complements. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.1. Consider the following: • like that complements. That you love her is something wonderful.) b. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important for you to know what you need. I told her to be more careful in the future. (3) a. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).
etc. 2. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Conditional. the Participle) (i. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. the Gerund. moduri nepersonale) By convention. participial clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. 194 . She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. d.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.e.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.) b. For instance. gerundial clauses. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. as opposed to the finite ones.
) 195 . He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) c. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) b. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. namely no ending. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.
She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 10. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 9. 3. 5. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 6. 7. (7) They saw her leave. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 2. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 8.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 4. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . the criterion of form. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.2.
) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. 2. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. hear. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. (10) 197 .) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo.
Pratice Translate the following. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. uncharacteristic for literary English. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. However.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 3. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. 198 (11) the universe./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. . / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.
as I have already mentioned. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. to use the appropriate technical term. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. 199 . we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. In other words. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Further on.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. or the control constructions. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.
) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. namely the agent of the event.) b.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. So far. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. PRO to err is human. şi creştineşte să ierţi. PRO to forgive divine. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.) In this situation. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. I hoped for him to be there in time. the logical subject.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) 200 .
but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). He stepped aside for her to enter. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. In other words.) b. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. not to the infinitive. Semantically. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but the patient of the verb persuade.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. him is related to the main clause verb.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.
(Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Likewise. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ She promised him to leave. \ They tempted him to leave. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ I would love them to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ They convinced her to come back. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. I hate animals to be tortured. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ I allowed them to come. \ 202 . but with the infinitive in the subordinate. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ She wanted him to leave. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ He persuaded her to come.
\ They did not wish her to come back. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. \ They really asked her to come back. 203 . hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. So. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) In examples (25) and (26). • Last but not least. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.
). both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. Pratice Translate the following sentences./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. seem. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. to meet her. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. which are said to be free. hate. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. To sum up the discussion. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. 204 . that is not required by certain verbs. appear. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. etc. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.
Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. presume. desire. contrive. 8. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. hate. like. care to. hope. deserve.) 205 friend. etc. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. omit. prefer. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. fail. etc. decline.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. agree to.) b) verbs such as abide.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. scheme. try. bear. afford. need. aspire to. condescend.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. etc. seek (= try). endeavour.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. intend./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. . want. arrange. refuse. deign. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. mean.3 The Distribution of PRO . dislike. wish.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. scorn. venture. expect.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. / E greu să îl suporţi. manage. Compare: (31) a. propose.
(Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. bear.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. stand.) 206 . be important.) b. ask. however. I hate that you should say a thing like this. endeavour. I would like for him to become president of the country. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. verbs of liking and disliking. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. threaten. claim.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) 8. For all of them to have been killed is. conclude.) b. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. suggest. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. possible.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.Nadina VIŞAN b. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. etc.etc. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. unlikely. forget.) b. desirable. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.
The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) 207 .) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) b. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 8.) 2.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.
this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) b.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Like in the case of that complements. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 5. the preposition is deleted. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. . (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Direct Objects (39) a.) 4.) b. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. I decided for John to represent us.) 208 knowledge. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. but the meaning remains.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure.
(Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. curious about.) c) adverbial of result 209 . You’re an idiot to go there. She is pretty to look at. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. delicious.) d. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. He is a bastard to work for. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. The stew is delicious to eat. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) e.: (42) a. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) b. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) c.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. etc. This paint is like concrete to work with. 6. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.
/ E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. you’re a bad driver. să nu piardă trenul. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. drept să spun. conduci prost./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Pe şleau. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.) I’ve never met him.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. to tell you the truth. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch.) Oh. / Ehei. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. final or introductory infinitive In this case.
According to this. inform. swear. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. press. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. induce. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. promise.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. enable.) b. nu mai vreau să te vad.etc. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. influence.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. encourage. need.: (51) a.) . Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. b. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. 8. etc. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. inspire. urge. (49) a. direct. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. oblige. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.
/ I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. look to. permit. order. choose. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. prevail on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. name. vote. allow./ And now he 212 . etc.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. etc. count on.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. elect. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. nominate.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. depend on.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions.etc. command.
) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. be about to.: (55) She appears to like him. etc.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Se pare că îi place de el. grow. i. (56) She grew to like him in the end. 213 (58) (59) .) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). etc.verbs: appear. (57) He is to come any day now.etc. be going to. this construction is lexically governed. come. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. happen. An Accidental Man) 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.e.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. seem. (Iris Murdoch. (O să întârzii/ leşin.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.
(Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. feel. hear. In (57). that of intention. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). etc.etc. observe. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.) 8.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be reported.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). overhear. be considered. be thought. (L-au auzit insultând-o. watch. etc.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. be alleged.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. perceive.: (62) They heard him insult her. be claimed. . be rumoured. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.
understand. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. prove. figure. discover. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. recollect.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. know. find.) • with a full infinitive: get. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. (Cred că este un geniu. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. believe. occasion. picture. deem. consider. However. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night.) 215 (67) .: (68) I believe him to be a genius. have. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. etc. presume. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. judge. imagine. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. remember. cause.
The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. wish. command. who wasn’t used to men with moods. choose.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. expect.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. desire. they had depressed and fuddled him.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. order.etc. permit. prefer. suffer. he hated anyone to comment 216 . want. if he himself was out of spirits. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. etc. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. love.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. mean. Harold. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.
She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . A little crossly. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. the herd instinct was very strong in him. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. though he tended to look down on those below it.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. he didn’t envy those above it. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. to make sure we attended strictly to business. (L. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.P. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. so that we might get to the future and have done. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Both seemed to him a little unreal. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. He suspected hostility at once.
we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. From this perspective. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The last criterion. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. 218 .Nadina VIŞAN 8. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.
(Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. de bună seamă. un bărbat şi o femeie. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. dar să nu-ţi spună. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. mai bine219 . c) Călătoriile cu liftul. de asemenea. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. bunăoară. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. lovit şi umilit. e) Când doi oameni. să-l capete. E posibil. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. Şi tu să fii. fireşte. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. e important ce întrebări pui. într-o zi.
în parte. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. . Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. că eşti tânăr. ca să nu şi-o amintească. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Şt. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. un picior. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. să nu vrea să se şteargă. aşa cum îi apăruse el. în ploaie.Şt. 220 . în jos. Însă Paul Achim trăise. d-a lungul gâtului. avusese dreptate. De era vară. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. mai pline de înţeles. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. să traiesc numai cu tusea. sau.Delavrancea. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. pe care deja o uitase. în parte.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. încă.Nadina VIŞAN zis. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. (B. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. mai bine de două decenii. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Să spui de pildă. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi.
fie ea şi grăbită. (Al.. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. şi prin faţă. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. prin faţă e coborârea.. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. Mă laud singură. ei. nici ca să 221 . ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. orice-ar fi. biata Muti. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. orice bucureştean ştie. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. Într-un cuvânt.. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. sunt aici cu tot ce am. şi nu un amant. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. un miros îngrozitor. o mizerie. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. de fapt.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. deşi. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor).Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu.
niciodată ea nu i le pune. parcă la întâmplare. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. în realitate.
verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.
ING Forms and Infinitives 9.5 Key Concepts .1.The Gerund 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 220.127.116.11.The Verbal Noun 18.104.22.168.3.Participial Constructions 9.
Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. (Susan doarme. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.1.1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Due to this situation.) 225 . The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.
In (2) the forms come. Susan has come. it functions attributively.) More infrequently. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. i. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. been and killed are past participle forms.e. the past participle can appear after a noun.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. too: (6) Her eye-lids. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (A venit Susan) b. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. blood-shot and painted. 226 . especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. were closing. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). Susan has been killed.) As you can see in this second case. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.
oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. a lion can attack. If provoked. I will arrive there on time. începură să cânte.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a.) d. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.) c. Weather permitting. Arriving here. mother permitting. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. (Sosind aici. they started singing. ea o luă la fugă. Knowing who the guy was. (Ştiind cine era el. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. I will arrive there on time. God willing.) b. he will eventually marry her. o să ajung la timp. leul poate să atace.) b.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) 227 . she ran away.) c. When singing. Oh.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. o să ajung la timp. people should pay attention to high notes.
) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. They found him killed by a bullet. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. smell. respectively. which stands for an adverbial clause.) ii. hear.) b. watch. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. (L-am descoperit furând. I found him stealing. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) 228 . behold. (L-au descoperit că fură. He was found killed by a bullet. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. He was found stealing. notice.) b.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (Am simţit-o tremurând. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.
) • Causative verbs: get . a.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. make a. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. (A fost văzut plângând. etc. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. she knew herself dismissed. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.: When she heard his words.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. find. etc. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. leave. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. He’ll soon get things going.: a.) • Causative verbs: get. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . hear. recollect. send.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.) b. feel. have. etc. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. keep. etc. start.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. know. I heard it said that men are a bore.) c.) b. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) b. set. confess. I must get my hair cut. have. recollect.
Men like shopping made easy.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.) b. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea./ L-a trimis la cumpărături.) • verbs of permission. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. lovit şi plin de sânge. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu după multă vreme. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. He wanted his car fixed immediately. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . command I ordered my bill made out. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi.
heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Unlike the gerund. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. with its lips drawn back. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / In any case.2. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.e. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / Dinny. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.1. 231 . feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / My Lord. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. sitting taut between her father and her sister. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.
7. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. (Desi nu ştia limba. se va opri şi ploaia.She didn’t want to hear the story again.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. the rain will stop. The tree had fallen across the road. I was astonished at what I saw. I left. am plecat. using either a present participle. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I left. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 4. (Văzând acestea. People were sleeping in the next room. It had been uprooted by the gale. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 5. She had heard it all before. I turned on the light. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . am plecat. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 6. 3.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. 2.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I knew that the murderer was still at large. I have looked through the fashion magazine.
a rug caught her foot and she fell. They found the treasure. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. lighted. an idea suddenly occurred to me. b) Headed (5 times).Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. cloth. open. many. stricken. 4. Reading in bed. 10. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. covered. the sea was tossing the post up and down. narrow. open. Read the sentences and try to correct them. Riding in the first race. 6. 3. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. He fed the dog. 8. Climbing down the tree. dark. a scorpion bit him. shaven. He sat down to his own dinner. cornered. 12. three. 8. hearted (twice). Getting out of bed.Running into the room. drunken. Dropped by parachute. skinned. one of the eggs broke. wooden. haired (twice). How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1.shoulder. his horse fell at the last jump. empty. quick. 2. I slammed the door of my room. fishy. sharp. minded (3 times). bald. roast. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. stony. broad. Passing under a ladder. eagle. lion. Leaving the cinema. 9. red (twice). the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Tied to the post. I let the dog out of the room. 11. eyed (3 times). coloured. 9. handed. 7. 10. mown. Mother punished me for my mistake. Barking furiously. my hands often get very cold. straight. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 5. a pot of paint fell on my head. 233 .
_______ my arm. Translate into English: 1. deer. shrunken. is expected to be a great hit. graven. candle.Spielberg. lead. were taken to hospital._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (find) 6. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. / Three people./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. lamb. plank. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. rotten. (take) 2.I fell on the ice. the same verb is missing twice. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. Whales. hidden. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (hunt). are sold throughout the world. / Many old people . ________ hiding in a barn. are in grave danger of extinction. ill-gotten. I stared at the canvas for ages. _______ by S. The escaped prisoner. _______ for a bargain. The film. meat. head. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. was today taken back to prison. (injure). man. (grow) 4. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. 7. duty. meaning. wealth. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . / Swiss watches. eyes. In the following pairs of sentences. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. (admire) 5.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. stream. image. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. bounden. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. _______ for their elegance and precision. (produce) 3. b) grass. shorn.
S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. care le rânduia. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. 2. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. şi moi. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. Şi. deodată sufocat. ca şi cum. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. când strânsă. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. După câtva timp. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. legume date prin mai multe ape. O umbreluţă. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. întinse. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. 4. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. 3. Şi sufletul său. păsări tăiate. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. când deschisă. le fierbea. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. le cocea. trezit. precum şi foile de plăcintă. nesigur şi moale.
Nadina VIŞAN 9. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. Likewise. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. 236 . crezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.2.1. The Gerund 9. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. According to this criterion.2. (Dacă vezi. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.
whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.) b. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.2. Him winning and you losing was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. That he won and you lost was surprising. gerunds differ from participles.) b. In that.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.) 9. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. His winning and your losing were both surprising.2. Consider the following table. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.
(Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. *It was illegal growing a beard.) b. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Consider (32). It was illegal to grow a beard. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.) 2. as being verbal 238 .) Unlike participles.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.
(Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. as offered in the table below: 239 . and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.) 3. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) b. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. It’s no good talking to her. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.2.) 9. Participles vs. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. Just like in the case of noun phrases.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.3.
+ noun] 1. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. 3. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may function adverbials: house. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. 2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. babies suck their thumb.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. forms: continuous . passive ones She was crying. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. (adverbial of time) 4. (prepositional object clause) 5.
/ Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri.
3. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 12. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 7. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 13. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 2. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 4. shooting gallery / shooting star. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 11. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 9. 6. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. eating habits/ eating people. 5. 15. crying game / crying woman. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 12. He was spotted talking to her. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 10. 8. 14. swimming duck / swimming trunks. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 242 . pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.
The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. a The absence of an of phrase.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. but the presence of a direct object (i. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.3.) The absence of a determiner like the. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.
The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. In the second situation. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. How can we tell? In the first case. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. George’s shooting the attacker.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.
/ Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / His coming there puzzled her. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. very large. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. the sheriff. Jim left quietly. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. 245 ./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.
(A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. However. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. ING Forms and Infinitives. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street.Nadina VIŞAN 9. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. the meaning is different. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. For instance. Look.4. for example. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. whenever we meet an –ing form.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).
(S-a oprit din mâncat. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) After looking at this example. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. containing an infinitive. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. and the most well-known one.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) The first example. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. On the other hand. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. future-oriented value of the infinitive). having left) is infrequently used in English. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.) . anterior to the verb in the main clause. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.g.
forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. which means that they are similar in meaning.) As you can see. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.e. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) . The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. recollect.e. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. i. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.
but that’s it. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the action is not completed.) . the petrol tank is not filled yet. dar asta este.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. In the second example. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.
) b. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Casa trebuie reparată.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. The house needs to be repaired.) 250 .) wedding. In the second example.) With [. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. want With [+ human] objects. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.human] objects. the event has not happened yet. (Casa trebuie reparată. e) need. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. mean has the sense signify. The house needs repairing.
(take) down her answer.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. (hold) up his pen and (speak). what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. it’s overrated.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. Lady Corven. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. my Lord. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. Croom (try) (follow) one. my Lord. whereas in the second case. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. gerund or infinitive. but they went by too quickly.’ ‘In any case.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ ‘Tell me. however appearances were against us. I did ask Mr.
the sisters started about eleven o’clock. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. licked the envelope with passion. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. suddenly.’ said Clare. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. Then. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. I just used the word and they fell. and went out (post) it himself.’ 252 . I must go back now. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.
since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which.Unit nine Ing complements 9. the 253 . although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Last but not least. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Pratice In the following texts.5. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun).
someone looking for survivors. The two sides were moving apart. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. Then he saw movement at his feet. He looked up towards the daylight. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. hoping he would see somebody up there. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. their edges crashing inwards. The sight of the two children. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. according to the books he read. the enormous split in the earth. but then he saw it billowing up from below. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. At first. down. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down into God knows where. She started coughing. covering the girl’s head. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. then the noise and the cracking stone. it 254 . It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. slowly rising in a swirling motion. moving up towards his chest. It was like a mist.
Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. Having a French governess.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. slanted on to her cheek. 255 . She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. brightening to winter brilliance. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. my dear. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and sunlight. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. for Dornford was busy on an important case. looking idly out over the Temple lawn.
Ridicându-se. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. ucenicul său necredincios. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. În urma slugii. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. and then went riding with her in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Vaucher şi cu mine. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. totul se animă deodată. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. 2. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . mama mea. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. cei doi Mamona. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. închizând ochii. într-o joi.
după cum îi spusese mama. privit. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. dar ştiutoare. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. afară ploua în continuare. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. 3. pe Vaucher. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. aplecându-se puţin. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. pe mama mea părând absentă. la mine. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Şi deodată. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. aşezată cu spatele la noi. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. auzit şi zadarnic. totul mi se părea cunoscut. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. se duse lânga mama şi. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. Neclintiţi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. o sărută pe frunte. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . am ştiut şi cine.
au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu soba. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. 5. şi cu stiva de lemne. Au coborât din camion încet. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. camionul a plecat. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. dar.
Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
was unclear to Mitzi. and that 263 . Having regard to the date of drafting. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. and this particularly of late. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. apart from his distress for parents. 9. to retire early from my employment. and meet it right here at home. because of pity.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 6. he had not yet been able to estimate. 4. 13. in some way. You have been much in my thoughts. 12. 5. 11. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. whereas if she went away she would get none. since I have decided. How this time was to come. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. How much. without profound questioning. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 7. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 3. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. I am sorry not to have seen you. 10. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. this would really hurt. he had been advised. 2.
so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. looking forward had not yet taken place.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / Before you go on changing the subject. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. 17. / Whenever I visited my aunt. for attending his sister’s wedding. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / In the end. 264 . I was made say Grace before every dinner. one of the eggs broke. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. he did not come to see her. even for months. this always makes us feel embarrassed. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. 14. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. 19. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. please consider his proposition.
And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. rather than the hefty type. centered in London and themselves. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Instead of which she had married. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Clare had never come into close contact with those who. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. her old friend Hugh. (and there he was. to end in some awful tragedy. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. cotton mills at Manchester. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. Clarissa used to think. 265 . Tony was a child. Vulgar men did. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. and it was bound. a little girl. They hated trying on. her recklessness. of all people. an open-air person. Though much in request before her marriage. she said. it was said. of the quick and wiry. without discovery. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. They rushed into shops. She felt as when. quite unexpectedly. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. She felt herself much older by nature and experience.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. Essentially. At country houses she had met them of course.
Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Reading many novels. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. The closer she allowed him to come to her. she was uneasy. with all its impatience of restraint. the more she would be torturing him. astfel. to keep abreast of the current. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. De uitat. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. short of the contacts of love. (John Galsworthy . de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. aveam tot mai 266 . si in plus. dar vizitele acestui om din topor.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Bolnava nu se simtea. ii faceau bine.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. cre s-au nascut lent. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita.Over the River) 2.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. but lying in her bath. nu a facut-o pentru asta. she professed.Rindurile dvs. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. era un bun sfatuitor. nu puteam sa le uit. Cind l-a chemat. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. indeed. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.
Cind a murit Gora Serafis. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Personal. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Daca tu. Banulescu – ibid. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. nu pricep nimic. (St. Banulescu – ibid. poate fi compensata. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. latimea si ascutisul labei. 4. Banulescu – ibid. fa-o.) 267 . (St. Milionarule. pe scaunul lui tare. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. o data sau de doua ori.) 6.) 7. lungimea picioarelor. vaazut cindva. mi-am zis. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. se stie. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.) 5. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. are nevoie. cit mai au de trait. Ce a iesit. Banulescu – ibid. (St. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. ca si tine.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. (St. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.
Who. And had a brother killed in the same battle. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. a wounded soldier. Translate them. delivered from the holocaust.. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Could he be blamed. (. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who when asked about his memories of the War. my grandfather. 2. when I was even younger than you..) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Cambridge. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Arthur Atkinson M. Who came home from the war. A story-book romance. for being a renegade. Who told me.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. to Emmanuel College.P. Ernest Richard Atkinson. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who was may father.
daughter of an ill-paid journalist. 4. and because – but this is mere speculation. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). deep-set. a moody man. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. to whom. Rachel Williams. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. Fabianism. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. How 269 . and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. he had already engaged himself? 3. for flirting with ideas (European socialism.
nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion. Cum a trăit el. Ion. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. om mare. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. cu taina aceasta. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum au tăcut ei. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. la şcoală. satul. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum a ajuns el. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. 270 .
mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. L-au derivat cei din teatru. greşeli dintr-astea. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. când voi fi singur. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Când actriţa.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. din franţuzeşte. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cu sau fără voie. împotriva tuturor. 271 . de mama lor. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English.pune totul in discuţie. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. singurul lui stăpân.
Era să am din cauza asta un duel. 6. sau ridicole. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. dam buzna peste automobile. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. ci un sistem de acomodare. Într-o vreme. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. traversând. 4. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. 272 . continuând. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. de pildă. Am început. nevasta-mea. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. 3. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. A devenit palid. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Tot aşa. fostă prietenă din copilărie. 5. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. pe jumătate prezent. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. provocându-le. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. tânăr şi frumos şi el. privindu-mă în ochi. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. parcă începusem s-o uit. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări.
De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . să merg întins. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 8. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. fireşte. iar. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. E o problemă. orice s-ar întâmpla. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Aş vrea să mă las jos. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Dacă nemţii înaintau. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Am început. ca un acrobat. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. De altminteri. 11.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. fără să mă opresc o clipă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. şi dacă merg întins. şi să nu ameţesc. 9. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. că nu m-am gândit la asta.
acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . la fata locului. Uite. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. se uita in jos. 274 . de la lucruri personale. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Greu era din partea asta. Adica tot trecutul. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. de uimire. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. La un moment dat. cu mirare. Ii venea greu. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. 16. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. nu mai pricepu nimic. la carti. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 14. eu am venit sa va intreb. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Ilie nu-l asculta. 17. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Auzindu-l. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. nu trebuie sa va suparati. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. 15. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu.Ma. nu mai semana. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta.. de la obiecte de pret. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani.. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. 13. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. trebuia sa le spuna. de la proces. Acum isi ferea privirea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. la amintiri. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. dar nu se mai putea. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. In curind.
vorbe asa si-asa. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. Zimbea siret. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. apoi se uitau la Ilie. dar. se indeparta nepasator. Nu era nevoie. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. cum zicea Anghel. asa cum facuse pina acum. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. which was part of his rich outfit.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. 20. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. There was even 275 . care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. . nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea.Ce sa fac. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . 19. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Aici era ceva.
for the instant. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. to admit that she was a proud. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. paying no attention.Miller at her hotel.Nadina VIŞAN relief. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. at least. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. rude woman. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. the young lady. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. on this occasion. He walked a long time. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. 3. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. But Daisy. to take his way home on foot. gave an exclamation. conversationally. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. a simplification. asked for Mrs. 4. She was one 276 . going astray. 5. resuming her walk. He felt then. to move fast.
often. He left me musing. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. as to projected changes. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease.Walker. make a point. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. while residing abroad. making Paul stop and look at her. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. in their own phrase. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. as text book. indeed. on the other hand. 8. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. She appeared. in radiant loveliness. She rustled forward. 7. Advising with me. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. Her daughter. 6. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. and wondering what the deuce he meant. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. uncomfortably. smiling and chattering. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. as it were. of studying European society. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might.
It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. 11. H. 9. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. with his humorous density. H. which was deliberate. and. while Paul. The agent became a very familiar type to H. though E. wondered what they were talking about. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. or at any rate not heeding. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved.’ 278 . 10. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. H. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. was immensely struck with him. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. not seeing. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. was only half satisfied with this. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. and acute too. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. and perceived that it must be something important. could see he was remarkable.
H. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. as he looked back. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. 15.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . that the haunting wonder which now. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. But she gave him no chance. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. 13. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 14. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. had the power to chain his sympathy. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. appeared to fill his whole childhood. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. which was very copious. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. not glancing at him for a moment. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge.
dragging herself on her knees. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. H. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. where the Pearl of Paraguay. yet 280 . that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. ironically reserved. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. disheveled and distracted. proudly. It was very possible she was capricious. The whole establishment. that she must be on the contrary. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. and to H. 17. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. 16. as a general thing. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. At the theatre. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. 18. and there were others.
No one ever listens to her. had blown a certain chill. and lurking within this nebulous design. 3. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. didn’t mind. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. H. It came over H. with the poor. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 2. 19. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. would always be more or less irritating. *Old. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. on which the damp breath of the streets. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. Their mistakes and illusions. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. 20. 281 . young men were invited. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction.
9. slipped on some steps. 8. 10. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. I walked fast. I saw her as a vision. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. I blundered by. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 5. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 7. “Oh. Rachel. striding like a Spartan maid. 11./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. walking quickly. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out.Nadina VIŞAN 4. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. her shining blue feet twinkling. Either John or he * have got to give in. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 282 . 6. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 12. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. her arms held out. c) When I saw her sitting there. I was definitely going to be sick. b) I got up and got well away from her this time.
The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6.
which was really alarming. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 2. 5. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . who is a wonderfully handy fellow. where my servant. And then I ventured to add that. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. could cook my meals. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. 3. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. 4. but that we saw and pitied. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. The old women spoke no English. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. if they were poor. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt.
was anxious. was anxious = was + anxious. to settle. was informed. he had not yet been able to estimate.g. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. on a house. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. to pay their annual visit. this. etc. Constituents: Margaret. How much. he. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. would really hurt. etc. Munt. this would really hurt. etc. apart from his distress for parents. apart form his distress for parents. distress. had not been able to estimate. on Saturday.apart from his distress = apart from. 285 . his.g.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. Constituents: He. Constituents: how much. at noon. before they left town. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e.
. negative/ Come with me. – non-assertive.. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – non-assertive. / If you like her. interrogative. listen to this. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – first clause is an ifclause. negative/ If you like jazz.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – comparison. The sentence is however 286 . positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. don’t bother her. negative.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. second clause is non-assertive. which is not assertive. and is non-assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive./ She finally admitted. Second clause is an imperative. interrogative. it is assertive.. – first clause is non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. which context is non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . interrogative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). – assertive/ Don’t do that.
but it isn’t Susan. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ Susan did not get married to Jim . – someone hates animals. he was hardly pleased. / She does like John./ He was smart enough. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / You have never met 287 . / Not really convinced by what the had heard.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. not even when it’s quiet around. but nothing out of the ordinary./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / She does not hate animals./ When he learned the news./ They weren’t really confused. but it wasn’t them./ Not long ago. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. – they told the truth to somebody else. – I like somebody else./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / They didn’t leave./ He was exceptionally cunning./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. not even this thing./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. the two brothers dared to protest. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. but not more than she does others.but to someone else. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. –double negation cancellation. / I don’t like her very much. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ Hardly interested in the conference. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. everybody used to travel by coach. only irresolute. – someone did that./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other.
– I couldn’t wait to hear the news. did they? / No problems were caused after all. were they? / This boy is no good. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even in my dreams. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips..negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing..negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret..negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.Nadina VIŞAN her.. / This is hardly the 288 ... did they? / A few of them stayed behind. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. they go skiing in the mountains.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. / Should they not have told her the truth. – I cannot look him in the eye. – negative insertion. not even when you were very young. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.
– Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Not many people came to see her.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Almost nobody liked him. / I seldom look at her like that. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / Few people came to see her. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. but she also lent him a car. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – I almost never look at those paintings. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. never trust a man again.. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / Hardly anybody liked him. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – I never see her. Activity 8 I shall never./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I don’t often look at her like that. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. when we started our holiday. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.Never shall I trust a man again. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police../ We seldom receive such generous praise.
– We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. you can’t do anything about it any more. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / He reckoned he would not win her over. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – They don’t believe she likes them. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / You must on no account touch this machinery. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / Come on. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her./ I expect he won’t come here again. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – I don’t expect he will come here again. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – Come on. / They believe she does not like them. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – Only on this man could she rely.I don’t like his proposal at all. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ I somewhat like his proposal. / She could rely on nobody but him. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – 290 . – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. –At no time did we leave the office. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / Don’t worry. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / We will see them again somewhere sometime./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – Nowhere could the keys be found. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. you can still do something about it./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance./ Well. – They say he never had anyone very close. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / They say he once had someone very close./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.
– I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. either. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Bob is still living at that address./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ I can understand all of these ten English words. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – You should send her something. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – You can’t be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – She almost always comes here. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. too. – Well her husband has always been a good person. / You must pay that fine. / Well. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / She hardly ever comes here. –Alice still lives here. / You must be telling lies. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet.. / You needn’t send her anything. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. 291 .
/ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. He didn’t move a muscle./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Nimic de facut./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. / Don’t go on believing him./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ You look so tired today. I haven’t seen her in years. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge.D. It’s no wonder. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ I don’t know why she’s crying. give me a hand. e un magar. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ 292 . not yet. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. I haven’t done anything. / He can’t have done a thing like that.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. has never studied anywhere. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Nobody told us a thing. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. Oh. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ E un baiat de zahar./ He’s a happy man. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ I don’t know a thing about her. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. ever since I got this ulcer./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Zis si facut. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ N-are nici cap nici coada. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. He isn’t that smart. / Jim is so brave./ Have they rung the bell? No./ They say this Ph. / Please. to any of us./ He was a tough man.
• Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . We had nothing in common. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. parasi camera. for I thought this threatening. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. slowly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . I hadn’t really expected miracles. 293 . Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. nothing. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly.’ ‘Nici o problema.’/ Deloc descurajat.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. feebly. without too much determination. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. that I was a decent man. no memory./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. thrown out. I had never had the opportunity to prove./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. one way or another. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. with the same needs they had. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.
I admit. he was sitting beside me. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B.. but facts. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. good.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. Radu had calmed down. he immediately answered me patronizingly. Unfortunately. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. your story. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. by coming here to the monastery. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. things you do any moment. It’s not made up of theories and the like. the only 294 . Not for a moment had I thought that. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. on the front seat. You really made me mad. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. not as we would like it to be or some other way. let alone irritable. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. to say the least. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. • It was my turn to say something. bad. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. clear or confusing. it’s not words. We have to judge it as it is. I was sleepy and tired. or if you understood what I meant. I’d be so happy if it were so. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. that’s what the world is about. Your judgement is false.
clears your way. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. keep your conscience clean: you have one. me. too? A gun is power. and if you like. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. it solves troubles. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. behind these big. and an inability to act. me. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. precious words. • So. fear might be hiding. it’s yours. no matter how huge they are. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. we are leaving. But what about you and Melania. it’s your problem. Anyway. although it was a difficult thing to do.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. 295 . But I was just wondering. just to please myself. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. or you are lying hidden. did you ever step up front. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. to fight. either. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. you do as you think fit. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. soon we’ll be in town. as Baciu would have us be. keep it squeaky clean. Look. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. you can go to Ursu’s. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. I won’t interfere. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. or call the respect of others. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise.
Negative raising (transportation) f)1. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Negative attraction b) 1.Negative incorporation 296 . She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. has yet arrived -correct 2.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . the sentence is incorrect 3.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . But it was not because I had no answer to give. ..incorrect. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. will he?. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. because before is a positive polarity item 2. .. firmly determined not to answer immediately. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. The villagers were not very religious. or some other woman. – incorrect. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . as soon as he delivered it. but they gradually got used to it. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.correct 3. correlatives are mixed 2. has not arrived yet – double negation. -correct 3.
prea răscolit. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. she couldn’t marry him. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. (ibid. yet. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. nu era 297 . No one should know to what torture she was subjected. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Avea sufletul prea obosit. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. (ibid. much less ((NPI) for her. His spirit was too tired. either (NPI). not happy at all (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Nu putea să se mişte. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince.) Însă era cam târziu. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Her stillness. b) But it was rather (API) late. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. too troubled. Ştia că are dreptate. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. her lack of motion would have to do (API).
se îndreptă spre paravan. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. 298 .) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. if anything (NPI). (ibid. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. inima îi batea năvalnic. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. (Salman Rushdie. arăta mai tânără ca oricând.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. e) At length. his heart was beating fast. he made his way to the screen. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. and not a little unsteadily. şi destul de hotărât. she looked younger than ever (NPI). I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. The Satanic Verses. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi.
h) C.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). but his father would have none of it (NPI). The point was. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. care if the school were willing to treat him. the gift was useless. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about.) C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Ce-i pasă lui C. i) What did C. and probably an administrative headache as well. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. (ibid. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Home receded from the prodigal son. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. 299 . îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare.
. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. – indirect question. correct. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. 300 . correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question.indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
they were. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. keep Condrat away from her. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. Stavre Paici. the bitch. yes. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. “Now. you are in enough trouble as it is. Chizlinski. She has an eye for gentle men. 2. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. she didn’t wear a ring. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. Luca Horobet. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. Fenia. Vica. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. now she was chatty. to make them lust after her. Fenia. and then what do you 308 . all godfearing husbands and fathers. do you really think that this vixen. she likes to entrance them. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia.
How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. her hair pinned with blue combs. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. G. It even takes him a while to go to the window. the minister of Tartars and Turks. The mullah. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. dragging his feet listlessly.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. He got him out of his mosque. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. have a girlfriend. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. a seventy-eight year old lad. with a railway station and a mosque. 3. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. ankle-long flowered calico. what’s her name. 4. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . too?” And you suddenly saw them transported.
But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.
– sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Her pet kitten is black and white. Our flag is red. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. our respective examinations. John is ready and Mary is ready.. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. yellow and blue. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .phrasal coordination (in this case.) 9. – similar situation 10. – sentence coordination 2.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .COORDINATION Activity 2 1.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and I passed.. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John and Mary are ready. – sentence coordination 7. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.
but not John. 9. plays football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. your proposal and his. 8.) Joan plays many games. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 6. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. that method and those. much satisfaction or little 312 . – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 7. and even tennis. 5. your work and mine. her idea and John’s. Activity 5 This book and the other. 3. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. her son and others. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. We can and will demand payment. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. but John does not play football. many guest or few. 10. 2. Activity 4 1.
Safe and sound 313 . (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Wear and tear 12. Life and soul 5. 5. 3. Swings and roundabouts 7. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. I have always fought and will fight for progress. He snapped at him and slapped him. Activity 8 1. Over and above 13. Law and order 8.) 6. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. He read. Ups and downs 6. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. To and fro 15. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Spick and span 9. Touch and go 10. 7.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. High and low 2. The facts and figures 3. (I have always fought for progress and always will. etc. 4. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Bread and butter 16. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Thick and thin 11. magazines are only for children. 8. Pros and cons 4. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. but not simple. Few and far between 14.
Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 1. exclusive 17. exclusive 15. – symmetric. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 10. 10. My son and daughter are twins. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 7. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 6.. – similar situation 9.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. inclusive 16. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 2. 6. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 314 . 3.There is a table and some chairs in the room. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed.symmetric 11. – symmetric. 5. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Not John but his two sons are to blame. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 5. 9. 8. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. Cathy and David have arrived. 9. 4. 2. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. b. Symmetric 21. – symmetric. – symmetric 2. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Asymmetric 20. – symmetric 10. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 4. My son and heir is safe. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 8. Symmetric 13. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. There are some chairs and a table in the room. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 3. 7. Asymmetric 19. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. cause-effect Activity 10 1. Neither he nor his wife was/were here.
6. for better or worse. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. thanks for asking. 15. By hook or by crook. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 9. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 8. I’ll still finish this paper. ‘Madam. 11. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. Her husband is long dead and buried. nor fowl. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. I hope my letter finds you alive and well.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. He’s neither fish.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 3. it was too small. No drinking and driving. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 2. 4. Brother or no brother. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 2. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Should he pour water in the basin. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 14. Jim thought it over for a while. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. There are doctors and doctors. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 12. clothes and all. 3. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. They came to me. (2) 1. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. He went to bed. 5. Not only should you rest 315 . 7. 10. We’ll stick together. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements.
So she’ll listen to him. 2. just like when he was thirty. Her first husband had been a professor. Mrs. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. tense like a bow. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. she knows for sure. an important man. he’d leap high. What do you know? The moment Mrs. she started doing a great job. at equal intervals. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. stop dead in his tracks. And. and she listens to him. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. Whatever she tried her hand at. This. it would work out fine. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle.Nadina VIŞAN assured. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. but he’d come out a cripple. so he’d gone down and died in no time. what’s its name. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. their common ground. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere.’ (3) 1. as she always does. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. without mentioning financial matters. so he could leap in pursuit. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. and then. From time to time she will launch a helping question. he starts lecturing her about life and things. both dead and buried. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. tense with concentration. They hadn’t kept him there too long. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. 316 . You know. but she blinks in approval. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses.
at me Activity 2: 1. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. you.subordinate. is aware.subordinate. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – she. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. about her problems at home After I told her the story. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . told. cannot tell. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . looked. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an object (direct). – obligatory elements: I.subordinate. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – obligatory elements: she. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct 2.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . – she. – Susan. came. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3. she looked at me sadly.
since the main verb is think of something) 5.Nadina VIŞAN 4. remove our home yet again . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age. that we should. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .complement b) 1. that you are choosing exile .subordinate.subordinate.subordinate.subordinate.
modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. a barn.complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. a house. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. outbuildings.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object.
this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Activity 5 1. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement.wh complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. When Anton put the sickle down. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. staring at each other. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. sickle in hand.A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. But other people. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. direct object. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . (…) ‘Well. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. without straightening her back. subject/ to do such again – complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her.
that was for sure. Ana could not stand a trip now. Not even at this point. he will turn back and no longer be daring. 3. you need courage even for this small thing. or other more hidden means. 2. 321 . Why! He was not of two minds. but he doesn’t spurn either. or if he does. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. as if they were at his beck and call. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. while on other occasions he would show caution. but also his sharp nose. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. which he doesn’t rely on completely. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. while they spoke from miles away. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. rather than a real threat. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. For no bold man really falters. Only he had Ana to think of.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. First. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger.
Costel didn’t want to give up this job. And here’s how this first day looked.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. But it was not ok. In fact. and on Monday followed another feast). Twice did we get in the car. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. 4. to see some mutual friends. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. although he could have said so earlier. in Odobesti. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. it was the women. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. come on. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. are we getting off again? What is wrong. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. and when things didn’t go as planned. 322 . not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. under the silliest of pretexts. he had postponed writing back. and twice we were requested to get out. We were going to drive to a vineyard. by the cars of some of us. without really knowing why. So. they would ruin the arrangement.
3. He is the author who they gave a prize to. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 8. 9. why they all left .restrictive 6. 11. 8. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. They met those students none of whom agreed with them.restrictive 7. 4. all of whom would answer to his questions. most of whom were from England. which was silly of him. The students. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.restrictive 2. where I spent my youth .free 8. You couldn’t join the party. 7. any of whom would answer to questions. 5. He told her the secret. John told his friend a story about the king. 3. 6. 7. These are people who we cannot tell much about. on which this occurred . 5. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 10. where I least expected 323 . 4.restrictive 4. which was a pity. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 6. like their teacher. 10. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. This is my husband whom I love very much. The students like their teacher. when we first met . 2. what you want – free/ where you can park your car .She came to London where I went too. Activity 2 1. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. who was just passing by.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. Activity 3 1.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE .
adjunct 5. who think so highly of yourselves. 3. What Inman remembered – subject. which . This isn’t the Bucharest I know.restrictive 10. what their parents made them. where – predicative 7. 7. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. What – direct object 2. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Where he was from – adjunct. Which – subject 4. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when . come up front. who cannot say a word. was very displeased with the situation. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. 5.adjunct 6. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Where . Why . where we talk money – predicative. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. however sad .adjunct 3. You. 4. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .free Activity 4 1. 6.adjunct 11.adjunct 10. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. Activity 5 1. Who . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. I. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Where . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.subject 8.subject 9.free 9. What I’m saying – subject. When . the prince chose Cinderella.Nadina VIŞAN . Of all the persons there. 2. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.When Ada remarked – adjunct. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.
what .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . what little she knew – direct object.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. which requires an accusative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. whatever – predicative 13. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. how .whom is ungrammatical due to the [. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .
a sergeant. a rather tiny looking man. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who. due to its invariable character. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. having changed quite a number of jobs. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. got married and had a daughter. whose great-grandfather. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. but whose second cousin. in his turn. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine.
he requested that the public be excluded. Irene. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – yes. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – no pied piping 5. . The problem of safe transportation. . In the interest of public decency.obligatory 3. he rarely saw now.yes 10. His friends. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.yes 3. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. – yes 6. This story. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. was now complete. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. were now all gone. . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – yes 2. . and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.yes 7.His father’s friends. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. . – no 4.obligatory 4. – obligatory pied piping 2. . no matter which – [pied piped phrase. – no 9. . no easy answers to which could be offered. has been troubling them forever.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. – no pied piping 327 .The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. with deletion of the noun friends].yes Activity 9 1.no 5.
3. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town.and he couldn’t thank me enough. yours. 6. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. the third born son. Only an ugly endless dream remained. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. For all the four children. For twenty years. Everything was ending. or as of a vast arena. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. Nelu. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. where two teams battled every day… 5. 328 . I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . I did so. 2. irrespective of age and nature. 8. 4. for instance. 7. I am to be envied. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. In other people’s opinion.
she said. the tram was rattling along. 13. All that you have read is rubbish. 10. He was suffering from dizziness. 16. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. Behind them. What you’re saying sounds very nice. You are newly arrived here. 12. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. barely glittering in the distance. 14. which was why he saw Dora very far away.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. on Icoanei street. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 11. leaving streets and houses behind.R. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. staring aimlessly. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. Let me tell you my last conclusion. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 17. 329 . He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. from MR street. 15. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. since I don’t really know which my true life is. although she was standing quite close to him. where from Marta was coming too.
likes and dislikes. If he had hit me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. But. or the clash of stars above. or the many Egyptian dynasties. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. While some trees are still green. 21. 20. had a huge house in Bucharest. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 330 . day by day. But for me. She was a woman of means. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. 22. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. which I did not posses. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. who only lived once in this world. So. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. had a personal style in clothes. 23. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. I don’t know what might have happened. 24. who prompted everyone on the street. From the vantage point I was in. I could see my woman falling away from me. after the car was fixed. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. While we were poor. in her pursuits. so optimistic and composed? 19. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway.
– extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – impossible 7. object 5. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. direct object 10. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed. – the same as 3. 2.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. prepositional object 11. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 9.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – questionable. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – unextraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. object 6. – extraposed. subject 8. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 331 . 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. subject 2. direct object 3. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 6. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. 8. subject 4. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. subject 7. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit.
It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – correct 2. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 18. – grammatical. . a bit too intricate 5. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.incorrect. 9. It is no use trying to convince her. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. although a bit intricate 2. but pragmatically impossible 4. – impossible. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – impossible. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 14. same as 12. 10.grammatical. 17. – incorrect.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. Activity 3: 1. . I don’t expect it that he will come back. – same as 12. – grammatical. – impossible. – impossible 11. idiomatic formula 16.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – the same as 12.correct 4. tense influences the 332 .. same as 12. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. . tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – grammatical. It is nice to meet you. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. same as 12. – impossible. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. I guess it that he will come back. but pragmatically impossible 3.grammatical. They never expected it that he would come back.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 15. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.
2.incorrect. though. 333 . I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ Lionel says. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. under bridges. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.’ 4. 3. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. behind gates. – correct 6. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. in the ditch. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. thus. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. 5. in the pits on the road. (Not always.
3. Activity 7 1. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 8. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. – the first sentence is the better of the two. without trying to protest too much. It is less ambiguous than the first. By saying this. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. who had just returned from Africa. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. 4. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 2. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence is questionable. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 7. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. since the 334 . prime-minister. because it is less ambiguous.Nadina VIŞAN 6. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return.
This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 6. The second and third sentences are grammatical. 335 ./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 5. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 7. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. extraposition is obligatory here. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. – both sentences are grammatical. so there is no need for extraposition. 8.
) adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. . – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. The idea that he had had earned him good money. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. . ibid. – relative 5. for better or worse. – complement 5.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. – prepositional object. .His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. coordinated.) complement that clauses. – subject. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. they were chained to each other forever. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. (Iris Murdoch. required by deverbal noun 336 . ibid. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.adverbial of sequence/result. – complement that clause. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.relative Activity 9 1. – direct object. – adverbial of sequence/result. – complement 2.prepositional object.complement 4. – relative 3. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.
– the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. you want me to believe. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – that is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. h) John thought that Harry had run. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . that deletion is obligatory. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. f) John said that Harry would leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is obligatory.
But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. – both sentences are grammatical. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. b. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – grammatical sentences. c. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. a.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided.
present perfect instead of past perfect. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. lark. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. geese both grey and white. quail. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. present instead of simple past. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. cenuşii şi albe.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. hawk. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. prepeliţe. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. ciocârlii şi şoimi. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . – generalization on habits of birds.
Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. lack of pridefulness. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). love of practical jokes. slyness in a fight. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. She admired their keenness of wit. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Crows will relish what presents itself. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. lipsa de vanitate. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. The generic present is used in this case.
He had fought hard through the war. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. tânărul ofiţer. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . tragică şi eroică. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Murise în picioare. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. se ridicase în picioare. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. El căzuse pe spate. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He died erect. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. But as the battle raged around them. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. he claimed. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. the young officer. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. in the very act of expiring. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. with the hammer snapping on empty loads.
which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. A short while later. Activity 13 1. When he saw me. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. war hero though he was. One of them. the oldest. în închisoare. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. mother went home and I was left alone. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. – similar situation to the one under (c).Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. they gathered around my desk. I realized I could not tell him the big news. When the boys saw that mother had left. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. 342 . deşi era erou de război. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. 2. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. And they might just hang him. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. But when he reached me. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Acum stătea aici. susţinea el. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Now here he stood jailed. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). Luptase din răsputeri în război. he closed the album. around seventeen or eighteen years old. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. to finish my drawing. They all had their hands in their pockets. How can I explain? I just felt shy. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar.
he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. as if he had been drunk. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. All his senses were now keen. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. or fear his rage. or if she would do so again.’ 5. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. for her vineyard. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. brightly and closely. 4. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .’ Mr. 6.
Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 8. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 7. The last time when we met here you scared me. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . he would achieve his goal and be a victor. 11. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 10. 9. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. thinking of him. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. And if things were so. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory.Nadina VIŞAN to him.
towards Jurubita. We either sell them or we don’t. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. 14. namely the impatience of this young man. which secretly drove him. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. without putting anything in a note.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. where he would run to confess everything. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. more urgently than ever. 12. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . 13. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled.
– ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 7. grammatical 6. grammatical 10. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. . It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. It is vital this factory to be reopened. / He was forced to send Tom on the front.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – infinitive continuous. grammatical. – simple infinitive. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. 9. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. . She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. grammatical 5. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 2. – infinitive continuous. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar..simple infinitive. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. / they saw her leave. grammatical 3. 346 . – perfect infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – simple infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / He had Mary clean her room. – simple infinitive.
] – Accusative + Infinitive. you need to try harder. Test: *She wanted him. Test: *I would love them. – Test: They asked her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. – Test: She promised him. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ I would love [ them to come. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / He is believed to have known her 347 . ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It is not too late for him to learn. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. – Test: They tempted him. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood.] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. Test: *They did not wish her. \ She wanted [him to leave. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / I want to never see you again. Test: * I would like people. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: They convinced her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I allowed [them to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *They would have hated her. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.
/ He is easy to live with. I don’t need you or your services. . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / Oh. Activity 6 Oh. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . / I want to tell you what I think of you. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb 348 . not to miss the train.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / He is young enough to start again. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / You are to blame that the factory exploded.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / I have a word to tell you. / I want you to leave my house. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. . . / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / He is easy to talk to.
Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Predicative 4 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Subject. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. so that we might get to the future and have done. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. he didn’t envy those above it. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. He suspected hostility at once.to. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 349 . If he himself was out of spirits. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. 1] A little crossly.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2].Accusative + Infinitive. Harold. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Subject. 1 – PRO.
but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. But when we need to comfort others. or better said. PRO controlled by ‘she’. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. One day. PRO controlled by ‘she’. slowly. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. 350 . so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. And you might also be hit and humiliated. f) The passing time is important. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. cautiously. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. object 2 – PRO –to. more meaningful. e) When two persons. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. c) Unlike plane trips. PRO controlled by ‘him’. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. true. we seem to forget about our own pain. direct object 3 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘me’. man and woman. 1 – PRO-to. more believable than evidence itself.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. excitedly.
That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. or. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. all down our neck. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. even when this love is hurried. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. And I would care for this man so deeply. k) With this considerable dowry. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. Moroi says heavily.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. And to actually start to believe you are so. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. not to want to wipe it off. as he had appeared to him in the rain. to live only with your coughing. not even those parts where he had been half-right. my wish being only to please and serve. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. I am indeed praising my own merits. tickled by the trickles of sweat. or their talk that night. S. Mrs. h) I want us to go. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. for instance. while swearing to change my way of life. that you are young. Stroescu. in the street. He had not been able to leave Dr. which he had already forgotten. That is it. 351 . since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. If it was summer.
or to speak so fast. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). she was suddenly so shocked. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. ready to submit to any demand. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. Well. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. here I am with all of my own. every Bucharester knows it. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. poor Muti. If you will have what I can give you. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. 352 . no matter what. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. for that’s the door people get off by. haphazardly. met by squalor and terrible smells. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes.
/ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. with its lips drawn back./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ Don’t keep him waiting. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Attributive past participle. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. badly beaten and bloodied. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ She sent him shopping. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ He went to have a tooth pulled. 353 . / They found it thrown in a corner.
The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . – Attributive present participle. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I was astonished at what I saw. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.Running into the room. Accusative + present participle / In any case. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Activity 4 1. 6. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 4. 3. Sleeping in the next room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. having been uprooted by the gale. 2. 8. Turning on the light. Having fed the dog. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. sitting taut between her father and her sister. I slammed the door of my room./ Running into the room. they began quarreling about how to divide it. a rug caught her foot and she fell. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Having looked through the fashion magazine. he sat down to his own dinner. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. The tree had fallen across the road. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Finding the treasure.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 9. 5. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 7. – As she was running into the room. having heard it all before. Attributive present participle. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 10. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny.
sharp-eyed/minded. three-coloured. a scorpion bit him. 6. Activity 5 Fair-haired. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 10. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. my hands often get very cold. a pot of paint fell on my head. / Getting out of bed. I let the dog out of the room. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As the dog was barking furiously. narrow-minded. one of the eggs broke. 3. bald-headed. – As he was tied to the post. – As I was passing under a ladder. broad-shouldered. Barking furiously. I often get very cold hands. the sea was tossing it up and down. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. I let it out of the room. Tied to the post. 7. Leaving the cinema. lion-hearted. cloth-covered. many-coloured. – As he was climbing down the tree. – When I read in bed. a scorpion bit him. 9. Getting out of bed. 355 ./ Reading in bed. my hands often get very cold. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. his horse fell at the last jump. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Climbing down the tree. Riding in the first race. fishy-eyed. – As he was riding in the first race. Dropped by parachute. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. his horse fell at the last jump. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 12. 5. he broke one of the eggs. 11. wooden-headed. open-minded. Passing under a ladder.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As he left the cinema. he was bit by a scorpion. empty-headed. 2. / Climbing down the tree. the sea was tossing the post up and down. stony-hearted. 8. 4. one of the eggs broke. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Reading in bed. – As he was getting out of bed. red-handed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad.
/ Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. produced by S.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. ill-gotten wealth. rotten plank. (find) 6. Whales. are in grave danger of extinction. stricken deer. 356 . bounden duty. (grow) 4. dark-skinned. (produce) 3. hidden meaning. open-hearted. shaven head.I fell on the ice. Activity 8 1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. were taken to hospital. Activity 7 1. straight-shouldered.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. (injure). admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail.Spielberg. shrunken stream. (hunt). injuring my arm. found hiding in a barn. was today taken back to prison. eagle-eyed. roast meat. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Swiss watches. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. The escaped prisoner. / Three people. graven image. / Many old people. (take) 2. drunken man. 7. The film. are sold throughout the world. lighted candle. shorn lamb. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (admire) 5. sunken eyes. admired for their elegance and precision. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. mown grass. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. I stared at the canvas for ages. is expected to be a great hit. hunting for a bargain./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. injured when their car crashed on the M1.
seeking some promised land. now taken down. After a while. And his soul. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. He felt close to his father. yet left them room to sway free. hovering uncertain and soft. the carved chicken. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. A parasol. So. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. streaked with yellow veins of fat. 2. in charge of his house and lands. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. flat and soft. 3. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. suddenly suffocated. he were struggling for breath. he started peering anxiously around as if. then put up. thrown in the pots. and the puffed pastry beds. sprinkled with sticky flour. bake them. the twice rinsed vegetables. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. 357 . with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. 4. the fish. and moreover. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. its scales scraped off by the knife. boil them.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment.
/ I am sorry for being so late. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / I told him not to bother putting things back./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / After annoying the shop-assistant. – Accusative + participle 3. he left the store without buying a thing. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. Gambling is his favourite pastime. Activity 10 1. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. – gerund (subject) 4./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. – participle (attribute) 2. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 ./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats.gerund 5. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. . He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday.
– accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. . gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (attribute. preceded by preposition). She’s looking forward to having lots of children. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.possessive ING (direct object) 9. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 8. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. possessive ING (predicative) 7. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – Nominative + participle 13. He was spotted talking to her. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.participle vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – gerund (half or full. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.
however appearances were against us. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – verbal noun (has determiner.’ ‘Tell me.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.. Lady Corven. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. Croom to try to follow one.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund or verbal noun. we had done nothing to be ashamed of.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has adjective). adjective. I did ask Mr. adjective. hold up his pen and speak. – gerund (full.’ 360 . my Lord. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. take down her answer. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.
c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. ‘I do hate asking for things. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment.’ said Clare.’ said Clare. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. Then. and went out to post it himself. suddenly. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. I spend all my time hunting a job. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. it’s overrated. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. I just used the word and they fell.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. he addressed the note. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. licked the envelope with passion.’ 361 . and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. my Lord. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. I must go back now. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.
stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. down into God knows where. adverbial of time. Has a complex subject) in the hole. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. At first. the enormous split in the earth. Then he saw movement at his feet. attribute) in a swirling motion. attribute. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. (participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object). slowly rising (participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. The sight of the two children. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute). It was like a mist. village which is burning). direct object) from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. elliptical here. attribute. someone looking for survivors (participle. attribute). direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. slightly 362 . the very earth opening up (half gerund. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. attribute. down. gerund. direct object) towards him. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. after verb of perception. First the crack snaking (half gerund.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. The two sides were moving apart.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. hoping (participle. …while their edges were crashing inwards).
adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. direct object). has ‘of’ phrase). subject of ‘being’) being (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. moving up (participle. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. i. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. early.).Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. according to the books he read. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of reason). one. etc.e.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . covering (participle. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. you. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. my dear. prepositional object. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.
slanted on to her cheek. and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) stopped dead. She finished what jobs there were. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. Young Mamona left the room without a word. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. examining (participle. and everything got suddenly animated. the two Mamonas. a door was opened and as a servant entered. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. So. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. Standing up. mother. which beckoned to 364 . reluctant or not. attribute) to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. preceded by preposition. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. and then went riding (participle. and sunlight. Having a French governess (participle. adverbial of manner). adverbial of manner). making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. for Dornford was busy on an important case. Vaucher and I. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of reason). and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. preceded by preposition.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. And. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. brightening (participle. we were all gathered in that room. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle.
about sparing no effort. to me. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. as mother had ordered him. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. closing my eyes. for anyway. let alone greet us or say something. killed by Young Mamona. 4. I knew who it would be. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. to Vaucher. he went to mother and. he looked like someone who did. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. bending a little. about concentrating all our resources. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. kissed her forehead. And. Not so unimaginable though. without taking his sack off his shoulders. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. and to Young Mamona. his disloyal apprentice. And then. each carrying a wooden box. So when Old Mamona came in. and ended his life in the year 1821. he found us sitting each in his place. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. and smelling so hard of rain. too. sitting in his puddle. who knows. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . her back towards us. Vaucher might have known that too. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. He cast us a swift glance. 2. 3. in the year 1812. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. Entering our house on a Thursday. about the safeguarding of all our achievements .
the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. as an afterthought. And all around them was the great field 366 . the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. each pausing before jumping down. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. They got off the truck slowly.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. already seen and heard. wood pile. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. barrack. long board table. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. everything seemed familiar. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. 5. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. And suddenly. futile. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. But. of taking notes and rewriting them. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. stove. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area.
They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 . The next thing was to go to the well. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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