NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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6 . titularizare şi grad.de rezolvări. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

Complementary distribution .4. Insertion 1.1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.3.2.5.Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Auxiliary verbs 1. Constituent Phrase 1.

sequences of the kind her mother very. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Syntactic. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. They are just strings. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. her mother. For instance.1. Consequently. loves. that is sequences fragmented at random. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Semantic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 .2. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. 1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. very much.

be).Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. 1.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. an order given to an interlocutor).3. (Mi-a spus secretul. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). 1. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. should. must. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. etc. we are dealing with a directive (i. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.) 10 .e.4.

which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.) 1. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. live. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. for instance. 1.5. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. Consider. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. etc. an ‘empty’ there subject.6. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.

distribution. 12 . Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. syntactic. whereas (7) is not.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. he had not yet been able to estimate. Munt. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. How much. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. as the star indicates. complementary distribution. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Pratice Define and illustrate. pragmatic. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. semantic. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. using your own examples: insertion. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. If the given context is the one under (6). Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt.

To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

Full – local negation 2. affirmative sentences. Instances of negation 2. Key terms 2.2. Key terms .8. Conclusion.5. Negative vs.1. Polarity Items 2.3.2.6.7. Tests for negativity 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.4. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.

in that they do not state anything.2. in the sense that it states something.) is said to be an assertion. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . This example can be compared to: (2)a.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b.Positive vs. Negative .Declarative vs. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Consequently. it asserts something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. For instance. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.

) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.Nadina VIŞAN . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.positive and declarative secret.interrogative (e.g. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive sentence . / She finally admitted.g. They told her the ( e.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. listen to this. 16 ./ Don’t do that./ We didn’t come here just to talk.negative (e.assertion . Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . Did they tell her the secret? ) .) . comparison. don’t bother her.g. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / Come with me./ She can’t wait to read that book.other (if –clauses./ If you like her.non-assertion . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.

(Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends. In the case of the sentences under (4). word negation. John is not happy. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.) b. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. since the negative word not is not present there. (John e nefericit. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. For example.Unit two Sentence negation 2. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. Susan doesn’t like her friends.) 17 . There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. John is unhappy.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. I met a girl named Susan.3. (Nu demult.

) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a.) c. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) b. She was not an unattractive woman. but their meaning tells us a different story. In other words.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. where the word 18 . He was not without intelligence.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. since the negative word not is present inside them. In other words. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. I was not a little worried. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. these sentences look negative. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. just like in the case of word negation. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.

/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence. / Când a aflat vestea. Translate the following sentences into English. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive.e. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or .

affirmative sentences.4. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu neobişnuit. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Era el destul de isteţ. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. ci doar indecişi. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. Negative vs. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. 2. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. dar nu în mod special. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi.

For instance.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.1. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (M-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) (9) I didn’t go there.). etc. such as do insertion. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Nu m-am dus acolo. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. (see subsection 1.

The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. 22 . whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. incorrect./ They didn’t leave. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / Susan did not get married to Jim. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / I don’t like her very much. / We don’t come here often.

which is ungrammatical. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). * and they don’t like her either. Example (14) is syntactically negative. *not even the smart ones.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. even the smart ones. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. . Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. *and neither do they like her. and neither do they like her. which does not happen in the case of (18). not even the smart ones.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. 4.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 3.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. and they don’t like her either. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.

/ Not always a witty interlocutor. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / A few of them stayed behind. / Few of them stayed behind. / You have never met her. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. In conclusion. / This boy is no good. they need to refer to these tests of negativity.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / No problems were caused after all.5. 2. / They caused us no problems. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. they go skiing in the mountains.

b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (27) a . A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . I went nowhere. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (26) I saw nobody. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-a venit John). (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object.

(Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. All that glitters is not gold. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) b.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) c.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. No day passed without me thinking of him. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. no incorporation takes place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t see anybody. I didn’t go anywhere. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) b. 26 . / I didn’t ever go to his place. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) (29) a. b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. Not all that glitters is gold. I didn’t see any student. (N-am văzut nici un student. I never went to his place.

barely. / I saw nobody. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / I showed him nothing. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / None of them liked house music.4.V. / No one ever listens to her. / Not one of them came to meet her. rarely. and we don’t go to the theatre either. not even short ones. scarcely. nici măcar din alea scurte. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret./ They never went there. . negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. seldom.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. (Nu citesc romane. / She said not a word when I spoke to her./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / Not a word fell from her lips. etc.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.) We seldom watch T. / He should not be released./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / I didn’t see anybody.) They barely read any novels.

.) 28 them. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I scarcely ever see her. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Few people came to see her. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / I seldom look at her like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) c.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / Hardly anybody liked him. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. Never have I met a more horrible person.) d. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) b. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.

/ The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.) They don’t think that he likes them. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei./ We seldom receive such generous praise.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. never trust a man again. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. in the sense that the 29 . / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.

In sentence (37). ought to. choose. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.6. be supposed to. advise. / He reckoned he would not win her over. the negative meaning is less strong. etc. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. suppose. suggest. etc.) b. / I suppose she doesn’t care. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. probability. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. guess. be likely. barely. cannot appear in an affirmative context. we can very well say something like: (38) a. expect. etc. imagine. believe. intend.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. want.) 30 . / I expect he won’t come here again.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. For example. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. look like. intention. 2. be probable. although not negative in meaning. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / They believe she does not like them. sound/feel like. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. seem.: think. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. should be desirable. appear.

N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. That is 31 . The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. *She likes our chairman at all. b. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. are clearly not grammatical. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.2. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.*She lifted a finger to help me. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. and sentences such as: (39) a. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.

/ I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / I can understand both of these 32 . too. you can still do something about it. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.) Hardly ever vs. / Well. / Come on. / Don’t worry. / He arrived before 5. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). some (I haven’t any money. already (I haven’t seen him yet.) Yet vs. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.) Any more vs. / I have already seen him. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. either. too. / I still love you) Either vs. / You needn’t send her anything. / I somewhat like his proposal. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) At all vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.) Until vs. / I somehow like him. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I like you a lot. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.) Much vs. / I have some money.). / Well. still (I don’t love you any more. / Bob is still living at that address. / They say he once had someone very close. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / She hardly ever comes here. / I like it . / I eat caviar most of the times. too (I don’t like it. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. etc. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why.

/ I can understand all of these ten English words. lift/raise/ stir a finger. lay a finger on someone. sleep a wink. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. bat an eye(lid). / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. touch a drop. crack a smile. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). have a care/ friend in the world. de când cu 33 .Unit two Sentence negation sentences. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. mulţumesc. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. turn a hair. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. hear a peep. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / You must be telling lies. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. leave a stone unturned. / You must pay that fine. Translate into English. last a minute. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. give a damn/darn. Ion nu e prea deştept. say / breathe/ understand a word. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. have/be worth a red cent. find a trace. hurt a fly. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. know a single person. nici unuia dintre noi. flinch. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Ajută-mă. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. move a muscle.

/ He won’t make old bones. / Never is a long word. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. but you really should do something about it. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / Not that I care. / No man is wise all the time. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. n-a sunat încă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. Translate into Romanian. / No entry. he left the room. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. B: Aşi. nu e vina mea. / Nothing succeeds like success. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / I had no end of trouble. As you have noticed from the exercises above. încercând să prindă criminalul. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / No sooner said than done. he’s a pig. / He is no end of a fellow. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / No admittance. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Hotărât lucru. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. budge. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / No hands wanted. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No trouble at all. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it.

Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). as well: 35 . which is not the case of the sentence under (45)./ I saw no one. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. c) He is anxious to say something. say it.7. 2. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. / I hate making any commitments. Normally.Unit two Sentence negation rather). b) I love asking some funny remarks.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it.

Key terms. nu îmi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. Conclusion. I don’t. nu poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. 36 . One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. B: Nu. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. B: Not this poem. (Nu.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. The second negation is somehow independent. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives.) 2. however. I don’t like this poem. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. from a syntactic point of view. nu-mi place.8.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
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Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .e.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.

2.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Key Terms. Minor Types of Questions 3.2.3.Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.3. Direct vs.1.2 Echo Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.4.3. Optional Exercises .2.2 Wh.3.

for a subsequent section. If we try to analyze the examples above.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.Unit three Questions 3. focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.1.

Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (2). and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. pe mama. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. 48 . (3) and (4). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.g. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences.

in this case. 49 . since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). In the case of indirect questions. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. because. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Likewise. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Since the question is not direct any more. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically.

(Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / He asked me who she is. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. ce culoare are pielea. / He asked me who she was. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. spune la un moment dat femeia. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / I don’t know who she is. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. c) Ştii ce. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. sau mai bine zis. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. identify the incorrect sentences.

Let us provide 51 . one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.Unit three Questions 3.2. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. being typical of spoken language. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.

1. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (how long / wait for me?) 10. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (which / you like best) ? 4.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.2. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.

(Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. it has. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. are said to be positively – oriented.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. they did. instead of Negative Polarity ones.

. A: You’ve been learning German for years. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. as in the example: 1. . 2. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. 3. (speak yet) B: ……. A: You look down. A: She had her tenants evicted. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.. but I want to play basketball a little longer. I’ve still got plenty of time. …………………. ……………………………. It was the kind of film that really depresses me... A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 6. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 7. because you always copy everything I do! 5. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.. ……. 4.

I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. ………………………………. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. ..questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. .2. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.. 8. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. how.2 Wh – questions Wh. 10. what . .. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.Unit three Questions B: …………………. 9. You could have mentioned it earlier. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. 3. A: It’s past your bedtime. where. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. which When. I didn’t get home until late last night. A: There was a terrible car crash.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .

Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. I cannot do that.000dollars. Nearly two hundred years. / Shirley got married to Ben. / My new car cost 10. why ever. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / That’s my pen. (Poppy Z. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / David’s car was stolen./ I have French lessons twice a week. trying to find places where I resided in life. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. what ever. / She lives in the suburbs./ Sara owns two cars. / Kay’s gone out shopping. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair./ She dropped her glasses. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / There are six students in my class. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. of course./ We’ve lived here for ten years. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are.

(A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.2.) 57 . Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.

How long is she be spending in America? 15.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. wasn’t it there? 17. shall we stay? 14. How long is she be spending in America? 8. didn’t use he? 4. You can’t be serious. Let’s stay for another few days. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. shall we stay? 7. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. There was a fax for you this morning. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. can you be? 58 . Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. How far is it the cinema? 3. Who did left the gate open? 18. didn’t use he? 11. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5.

Ani întregi. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. uneori disperat. John goes jogging every morning. isn’t it this? 25. să-mi înfrâng frica. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile.Unit three Questions 19. Pot reveni. will you not? 21. doesn’t he go? 23. Whose it is this book? 32. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. plin de germeni virulenţi. ca şi cei ce au fost. despre o lume dură. wasn’t it he? 22. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. How long time does it take to get there? 28. will you not? 27. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. deci. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. That was Jeremy’s brother. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Who did told you about the problem? 31. deci. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. That’s your car. dacă prin absurd 59 . neliniştea infantilă. Toate vechi. Don’t forget to ring the dentist.

Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. ghiceam doar unde se află. mă întreb. neîntrerupt. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. iar proştii. de atunci. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. negru. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. puturos. Riscul? Ratarea. pe sub bolţile din care. Şi. îi ştiu gustul. străină priceperii lor. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. indiferent de risc. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. inactivii. laşii. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. dar şi drumul. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. “Spune! striga el. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. umed. B. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . naiv. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. lung. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. murdar. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. picură apa roşietică. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă.

didn’t she? . absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui.Unit three Questions viaţă. nu se poate. 3. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. golul alb. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.1. domnule profesor. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English.3. la urma urmei. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. care i-a determinat alegerea. da? (37) Let’s go there. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. will you? (38) She went to Prague. orbitor. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. viaţa? Oare e drept.3. exclus. Tag Questions Tag questions. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.

since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. In this way. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.) A: Oh. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. aren’t they? 62 . or “comment tags”.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. The suggestion is that in this case. au fost cheltuiţi. hasn’t she? (Aha. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. the tag is affirmative too. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. (Din păcate. sarcasm. if the host sentence is negative. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. the tag is negative too). or falling. is it? (Deci. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet.e.

/ You will pick me up at 7. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / I may see you tomorrow. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Few people like her.…/ Let me know. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / He hates his wife. / That’s your car over there. / You will pick me up. / I may not see you tomorrow. / They said he liked music. / The boy often watched his sister. 63 . after all. / Don’t leave without me. / Everyone felt happy about it. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I don’t think you like my music. / I think you don’t like my music. / I must go now. / She left an hour ago. / You ought not to smoke. / I think you like my music. / He has to marry Susan. / You have been invited. / There is enough food for everyone. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / A few people like her. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Tell me.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That was your father. / She used to talk a lot. / Surely you have enough money. / I am older than you. / He simply hates empty words. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / She has a brother. / Let’s eat dinner now. / The boy never watched his sister. / Each of us is staying.

So you enjoyed my talk. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam./ I’m right about this…. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. or what? 3. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged.. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . 5. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / He never used to study so hard…. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.

/ Students… Student loans might replace grants. Recapitulatory echo questions .) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.3.2. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.1. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / Grants… 3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.) B: Chinese? 65 . / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.3. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2.1.questions which repeat part or all of the message. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.

phrase is fronted. of something just said.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.2. If the wh. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. disbelief.2. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. (Închide lumina aia.3.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. consternation. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. rather than the repetition. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.

(i. / I think I’ve found a solution./ We are looking for a purse. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (Vai./ He is interested in blue movies. intonation is rising. dear.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. I’ve lost the letter. / We are looking for a pixie.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. am pierdut scrisoarea.e. rather than did you say. whereas with explicatory echo questions. with recapitulatory echo questions. / He is interested in music. (Uită-te la asta. which letter do you 67 . / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.

aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . she knows about it.4. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.

lui Luca Horobeţ. da. în general. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. şi apoi Vica ce zice.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. cumnată Fenia. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. acuma sporovăiala.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. stricata. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. nu purta verighetă. lui Stavre Păici. Fenio. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2.– Crezi tu. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. în satul nostru. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. ca să zic aşa. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şerpoaica. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. şi care s-a aciuat. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. cu o casă de copii. după pofte. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. oameni aşezaţi. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. lui Chizlinski. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. aşa. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. pe Condrat de Vica. să se încolăcească mai bine.

De asta erai. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. sus. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Hogea. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. L-a scos din geamie. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. roşu şi galben. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. deci. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. sau cum o chema. abia târându-şi picioarele. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. până la călcâie. dar cum se face că a 70 .

furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Key Concepts .1.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.6.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.2.Coordination and Subordination 4.Contents: 74 4.4.5.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.

cu repros. i. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. where there is no indication other than a comma. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. 75 .1 Syndetic vs. on the other hand. reproachfully. present) in the sentence.Unit four Coordination 4.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Example (2).e. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. that elements are coordinated. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.e. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination.

Nadina VIŞAN 4. 76 . In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.) Such examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. vei muri. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. From the previously mentioned examples. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Conversely. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.) (4) If you hit my wife. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. you will die.

(John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. but presupposed. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. However.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. we need to specify that.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. from a logical & semantic point of view. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the second. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. respectively subordinated constituents. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.

this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. He moved and made a slopping noise. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. with enormous solidity. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. Though the castle had vanished. John Steinbeck. took off his shoes and emptied them. In the first. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. took off his coat and emptied them. built.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. of cut gray stone. the houses were beautiful and ancient. His clothes hung to him. Then he sat down. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. his shoes squished. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. In the second. adorned with cornices. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. with formal walks under rows of trees. but the 78 .

waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Cecil Woocham – Smith. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. left the house. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. the higher he went the wetter it grew. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and as the way is with Irish mountains. over some of the roughest ground in the country.

Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. as shown in (9). were to take down the name of every man. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. we should be seriously annoyed. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.3 Sentence vs. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. however distinguished. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. As one can easily notice.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.K. (G. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .

Our flag is red. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Her pet kitten is black and white. John is ready and Mary is ready. 8. / John both composed the music and wrote the words.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.Unit four Coordination example (7). and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 6 John sang and Mary danced. yellow and blue. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 2. 4. and I passed. and even tennis. / Peter and John played football. 5. but not John. plays football. 9. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Activity 2 sentences: 1. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. / Joan plays many games.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. Pratice Distinguish coordination. / Peter. 3. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John and Mary are ready. 7. 10. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. our respective examinations.

(John scrie poezii si Bill proza. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Jane 82 .) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case.) c. 3. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. John writes poetry and Bill prose. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.Nadina VIŞAN b. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune.) b. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. or deleted. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. 6. Activity 4 2. as can be seen in (10b). 5.

83 . i. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. can be reduced by substitution. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 10. 8. these syntactical processes.e. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. than a longer repetitive one. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. So.) The common element. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. 7. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. the so-called Principle of Economy. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 9. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. Besides ellipsis.

In certain cases. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. 4. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 2. A citit. simple books and magazines for children 3. using reduced structures: 1. one or (the) other method. George and Jane went back to their parents. 4. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. some reason or another. George and Jane are separated. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. the old men and women 2. Translate the following sentences.

… 14. even though they have their little …………. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together.. 6. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.. 11. only for damage. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. Marks and Spencers. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. for my wallet. sweet and sour. 8. 5. . 12. I need another 100$ ………. 7.. 8. fish and chips. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. they reached home………. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.. 5. 13. the amount I’ve already saved up. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases.I searched ………. 15.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 2. Can we discuss the …………. 6. A pendulum swings ………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. They get on quite well together.You gain some things and you lose others. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . of your proposals later on? 3.. like: salt and pepper. After all their adventures. it’s a case of ………… 7. 16.

For instance. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. more often than not.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.4.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. etc. of course. 4. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. the expressive function of coordination is. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.) There are. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. and 86 . as in: (17) a. b.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. In fact. Nor sun. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.

) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. both … and .g. too): (20) a. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. o respectau si o indrageau. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) In certain cases. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) b. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. sometimes but. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (I-am dat banii. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) 87 . and cherished her. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. where the subordinator is repeated. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. or . 20 (b)). etc).) c. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.

In this case.* I ironed and washed my pants.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. and hit my wife.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. (Imi place si o admir. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. if we were to rewrite the example .) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. From this point of view. and you’ll die. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b. (O admir si imi place. I admire and like her.) b. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I like and admire her. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I washed and ironed my pants.

assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. (If you do that.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Brown experiments with humans.) (While Dr. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed). Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.Unit four Coordination 1. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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Nadina VIŞAN

(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 .

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .

the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.g.which are based on coordination .) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .) 101 . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. as the name suggests it. 5. e.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. From the functional point of view.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.

(I-a dat cartea de bună voie. sentences) required by the verb (or. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. (I-a dat cartea. for instance. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. we associate it with these objects.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.) 102 . the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. for example). An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. For instance. they are still presupposed by the speaker. by an adjective + preposition. in certain cases. an adverbial item. In a way. We do not presuppose however something like. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. such as proud of.

to her) and one extra-item. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. In other words. A second observation.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. to add something. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. I am afraid that he won’t come. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. Thus. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. related to example (4). and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. i. 103 . it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. The second example.) b. an additional one.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. which is the adverbial willingly.e. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.

am să mor. like. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. (Înainte să plece din cameră.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. So. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. a închis toate ferestrele. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. such as want. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.) (11) If you don’t marry me. make. etc. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.) 104 . The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. I’ll die. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.

I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Whoever did that was a genius. After I told her the story. this to whomever wants it. 3. Susan disappeared without saying a word.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. 5. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. e. [. 4.g. 6. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. The book that because they home. she looked at me sadly.g.g. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 2. They came to e.She came to him of her own will.

FOR. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. etc. WHETHER. 2.He took an intelligent interest in her. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. You suggestion that we should. 3. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. As you can see.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. at our age. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. was a novelty to Mitzi. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 5. 6. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. not object. which.) 106 . though it was largely politeness. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. but he declined.

(Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (15) It is John who did it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. etc. how. (E de dorit să plece. why. who.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. Who did it was John. which.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. 107 .) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. when.) (16) a.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. where. Where he went is London. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) b.

however.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. etc. done from a structural point of view. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. Compare. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. In conclusion. before. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. which sums up this classification.) (18) She told me this before she left. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.1. As you will see. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. for instance. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In (18). the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . if. Unlike complement clauses. consider the following table.

whether he will come when I feel like it. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. etc. at your young age.g. Dear Ludwig. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. you understand.g. for. as. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I will go there because I feel like it. surely you cannot sincerely believe. back. after. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. 109 .: e. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I will come back such as because. Introduced know e. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.g. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.

He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep.The day Monroe had died was in May. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. Accidental Man) b)1. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. As she left the house. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Too. 2. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. a tightening in her breathing. Late that afternoon. he said. But she thought that no one would call again. she stopped to speak to Monroe. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again.

g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. I told her everything after she arrived. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. a correspondence can be traced. interesting. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. However.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g. That he loved e. 111 . since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g.g.g.2. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. As you have probably noticed already. că e.

i.1. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter..complement. whenever you identify a wh.e. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. whereas wh complements are the 112 . (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. So.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Secondly. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. Thirdly. (Cred că mă place. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. In the fourth place.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. complements. We will come back to that in the next chapter.2. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.

for no matter how she tried. outbuildings. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. before. Pratice Consider the following text. c) I am coming home one way or another. a house. and I do not know how things might stand between us. after. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. their introductory elements (e. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. because. I first thought to tell in 113 . Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. but no idea what to do with them. a barn. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. She mistrusted her handwriting.

wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. because they modify. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.e. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. it would make you fear to do such again. these clauses can be complements. and I have not the will or the energy. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. According to a structural criterion.4.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.

etc. 115 . însă. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. be very careful to use this term correctly. look at.e. think of. O zbughi înapoi. interested in. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Pratice Translate the following. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. ce o fi având. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Alţii. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. îşi spuseseră că Anton.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. (…) “Mă. Nevasta secera în tăcere. după ce că are grâu puţin. answering the question to whom? So. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz.g. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită.

întâi. Nici acum. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Toată lumea înţelesese că. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. izolate de sat. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. de fapt. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât de bolnavă era. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. timp de un ceas.

Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Pace nu era. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. la nişte prieteni comuni. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. În realitate. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Iată. cu automobilele unora dintre ei.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. deşi cam târziu. de pildă. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. stricau totul. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. la Odobeşti. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. amânase scrisul. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. acum sunt desluşiţi. aşa de oţetit. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 . frate.

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. 119 . of which.. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. whose. etc).g. etc. subject relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.

1.6.3. Relative Clause Introducers 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.2.4.5. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.6. The Co-reference Condition 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Key Concepts .7.

It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. 6.2. 121 .1. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. The Co-reference Condition .) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.

(Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. 122 . The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. By combining these two clauses. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. John loves that woman.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed.

Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. This way. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 . The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The common element woman is present. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. John offered flowers to that woman.

too. WHO 5. Any of the students would answer to questions. WHERE 3. 6. Susan wants to meet Jane. 9. I lost the book’s cover. None of the students agreed with them. He liked that book. He told Jim everything about his plans. I introduced him to Jim. I love my husband very much. I had a book. I went to London. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. 2. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 4. The students like their teacher. by leaving behind a trace. This is my husband. 3. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHICH 4. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. The king was just passing by. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. John told his friend a story about the king.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. She came to London. frequently used in written language. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. WHO 124 . I bought Jim a book. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. They met those students. 7. The students like their teacher. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. therefore in spoken English. 10. He’s the author who received the prize. 5. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 8.

) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHICH 8. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. i. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.e. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. TO 11. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. relative clauses are divided into 1.Unit six Relative clauses 6. WHOM 6. (Cine strică plateşte. . A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHOM 10. most of them were from England. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. 2. WHOSE 7.

(Asta era ceea ce voise ea. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) So. in a manner of speaking. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. these relatives cannot function as attributes. is no longer overtly expressed. unlike in the case of (14).) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. Unlike their sisters.) • Predicative This was what she intended.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) .e.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. it is covert.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Cel care strică plăteşte.

este zeul meu favorit.) (22) Mercury. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. who is the god of commerce. (Mercur. they define it).Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. They can be thus divided into: 1. (Du-te unde pofteşti. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. is my favourite god. 127 . care este zeul negoţului. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.) (Mercury. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They only provide supplementary information about it.

is a genius.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 5. 8. restrictive relative clauses. Shakespeare. then it is an attribute. this type of relative clauses. As we were saying. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. On the day on which this occurred I was away. 10. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. is a great playwright. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 2. Independent I don’t know what you want. on whom nobody could depend. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. I have met him where I least expected. 9. They are what 128 .e. who came to see me. i. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 7. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 6.This is the village where I spent my youth. who is a genius. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. She.

care a murit acum câţiva ani.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. etc. etc. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. 6. composed The (Freddie Mercury. . a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. a. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. who died a few years ago. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. When the antecedent has no determiner. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.) 2. however sad this may be.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.

who am your son.) Pratice Translate the following. iritabilă şi uscată. 7. poftiţi în faţă. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. bătrînă morocănoasă.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. ill-tempered. Dintre toate personajele prezente. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. 2.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. care nu sunt o femeie. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. (Eu. Mie. 6. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. ci o fată a woman. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. 4. who neither work nor am anxious.) (28) They come to me. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. îţi văd prea bine defectele. 5. care-ţi sunt fiu. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). numai eu nu. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. can see your shortcomings only too well. 3. dried-up old maid. 130 . (Ei apeleaza la mine. but a peevish.

In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. than whom few more can be more crashing. heard.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. părăsi camera. were now in his possession. . ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. erau acum în posesia lui. (32) service finished late. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.Unit six Relative clauses 6. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.

5. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) b. literary style: (37) a. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. The genitive form with which is still in use.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. as can be seen in (36d). (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără.) b. too.1. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) d. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. 6. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) c. but it is typical of the formal. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.

There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Iris Murdoch.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.

… Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. by the way. (45) (46) . Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) b. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. ships (that can be personified) a. He is not the man which he used to be. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. but to a type or a function: a. animals.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. of which. (Nu mai este omul care era odată.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) • states.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.) b. … Italy.

Poland is the place where Christine was born. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. whom it concerned most closely. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.) b. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. France.5. why. It is poor what gets the punches. reason. how. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. etc. (Nu ştiam ce vor. pe care o privea direct.2 Relative Adverbs: when. time.) 135 (47) . When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. where. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.Unit six Relative clauses b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. while.) 6. etc.) b) dialectal (49) a.

This is the place wherefrom they came. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) b.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. no antecedents are required: (52) a. He went where he had been before.) e.5.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.3. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. The place whither he goes is unknown.) 6. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) c. A system where by a new discovery will arise. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) b. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) 136 .

] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. Moreover.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.

little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.5. any.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.4. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. but • in standard language a.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. not any. . much. 138 (64) his shoes. every.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. Honest man as he was.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. I’ll get you such things as you may want.) b. but they are used very infrequently: as.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car.

I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. him as was in China … (Uncle George. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. ăl de fusese in China…) b.) • in dialect a.) c. . And always on the buttered side. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. It’s the dry weather does it. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. Uncle George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. This is the same one that/as you had before. There’s not many as’ll say that.) c. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.

For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) 140 . It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.

b. That which shows God out of me. 5. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 2. The man who John spoke to is a genius.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. Where he was from.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. What Inman remembered was this passage. makes me a wart and a wen. The man John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 7. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. What I’m saying is. 3. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.3): (72) a.” 4. fortifies me. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. It seemed a thing 141 .) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. 6. we all have to come to some terms. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.) c. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.5. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) b.

who had not witnessed many dawns. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 12. The rudeness of eating. 10. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. which is a lot. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Whatever his fate was. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. though.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. (…) Partly. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 8. 13. Oh.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. 142 . 11. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. he had left Ruby high and dry. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 9. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. of living. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here.

dar care avea un var de-al doilea. fiu natural al unui morar. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. nu prea sarac. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator.al lui. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. pe linie paterna. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. pirpiriu. cumnatul unui portughez. poate. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. un var primar. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. una din nepoatele unui inginer. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. vasnic. mort de tanar. Cumnatul meu avea. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carei strabunic. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. plutonier. divortata. (Iris Murdoch. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage.

insurat de trei ori la rand. By extension. c. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. The opposite phenomenon. Teatru) 6. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. 144 . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.6. She was a woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.2. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. This is the book. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. I lost the cover of the book. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. b.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar.

Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. has been troubling them forever. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 3. 7. 5. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. In the interest of public decency. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The difference between (76) and (77). 4. 2. 8. no easy answers to which could be offered. The problem of safe transportation.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. he requested that the public be excluded. acting again as a genuine pied piper.Unit six Relative clauses b. 6. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 9. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.

Activity 9 were now all gone. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). as the case is). His friends. 5. he rarely saw now. Irene. 6. 2. was now complete. 4. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. whose interest he most sincerely shared. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.His father’s friends. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 10. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. They do not function as attributes. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). no matter which. has been deleted. 146 . 3. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. This story. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.

as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. 6. 5. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 7. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. închipuirea. 2. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Nelu. himeric. 4. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 3. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Pentru alţii. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Toate sfârşeau. De douazeci de ani. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire.

Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 10. a făcut el. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. cu surle şi cu tobe. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. 8. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. 12. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 9. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 .

Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. 18. pe strada Icoanei. de unde venea şi Marta.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. din direcţia căreia apoi. despre care. care era foarte “mondenă”. 16. trăia larg de tot. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. deşi atât de aproape. Avea acum un fel de vertij. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. Dacă mă lovea. 149 . 17. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. zise ea cu ochii mari. 14. roiuri de fetiţe. fie pe stradă. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. din care cauză pe Dora. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. fie la teatru. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. până mai adineauri. În spatele lor. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. toată lumea întreba cine e. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. dinspre Maria Rosetti. 15. 20. apărură.

după ce maşina a fost reparată. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. aveau un stil al lor. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. pe care ea îi admira acum. întâia noapte de război) 150 . în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. până în şosea. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. Pare-se că snobii. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă.Nadina VIŞAN 21. de sus de unde eram. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care eu nu-l aveam. de mine. 22. 23. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. Pentru mine însă. când au urcat râpa iar. 24. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi.

151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.1.2.3. Key Concepts .1.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.4. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.2.3.5.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.4.3.2.1.3.Extraposition 7.1.2.2.Clause Shift 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.7.2. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.1. That Deletion 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.3.2.1.1.6.Topicalization 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.5.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.

Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.1. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. (3) Tell me if you need anything. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. Apart from those introduced by that.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. the clause is extraposed. 153 . placed in a marginal position. but also of infinitival ones.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. In other words. 7.

(Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.

4. 2. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 15. 11. 8. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 10. 5. 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It is no use trying to convince her. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It appears that no one voted for him. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 9. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 11.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 7. 4. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 3. 7. 9. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 13. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is nice to meet you. 6.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 10. 3. 14. 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 6.

4. 2.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 18.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. zice Lionel. I guess it that he will come back. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. atât 156 . 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. unde se nimerea. sub poduri. 6. 4. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 5. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. în gropi. în canal. 2. 5.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. mă ascundeam în grabă. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. după porţi. They never expected it that he would come back. 3. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 2. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1.

Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. fără să cârteşti. fără îndoială. 7. (Nu întotdeauna. Spunând cele ce-am spus. excelentă. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. 5. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. 157 .” 4. vor căuta să o zdruncine. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 6.

(Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Pratice Read the following.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. subject clauses are the frequent situation. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. in the case of topicalization. this asymmetry is undone. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Consequently.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.) While in the case of extraposition. 1. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.2.Nadina VIŞAN 7.

That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. He was utterly gone. 3. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. but not now. This was another era. 2. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 8. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 6. 4. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. mere chance would decide. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. whether it would finally carry her off. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. 5. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. was inconceivable. he felt no spring of interest in her. 7. even today. He did not blame Gracie. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. She had always been the slave of chance.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument.

(A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.) 160 .1.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.3.

clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. 161 . we obtain.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. the verb to drive). (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.e. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.

6./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 8. /? He appointed Mr Hugh./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 2.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 7. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. 5. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 4. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 3. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 162 .He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.

) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .Unit seven That complements 7. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.

judge. (I-au promis o casă nouă. etc. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.) b. predict. etc.: (25) a. communicate. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.) 164 . consider. They believe the man is guilty. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. (Cred că omul este vinovat. estimate. deem.) b.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. They promised him that he would received a new house. explain.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. deny. They believe that the man is guilty. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. prefer. promise. suggest.2.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. He announced that they were engaged.) a. afirm. desire.1. state. He announced their engagement. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.Nadina VIŞAN 7.

Unit seven

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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for example.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.) 172 . on condition that.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. hope =>purpose. In older stages of English.) language. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) I like him in that he is smart. ibid. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.e. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. they lose their meaning. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.

such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. .) When the structure contains the word such. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) b. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave such an answer as had expected. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) b.) (66) 173 a. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. să o vadă trecând.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. He gave an answer such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. That can be deleted.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.

10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch.We discovered that our map has disappeared. for better or worse. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. He gave an answer such that I had expected.) 174 .) b. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.

When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (69) a. (A prins de veste că ei vin. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. He said he had borrowed her money. He got word they were coming.3. for instance.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.Unit seven That complements 7. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. say. tell). 175 . (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) b. that he uses a relaxed tone. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c. He showed he was able to do it.1. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.3 ‘That Deletion 7.

for better or worse. for better or worse. (Iris Murdoch. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .Nadina VIŞAN 7.) (De asemenea.3. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.3. bune. I like it that he was here.3. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. because that has been deleted. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. they were chained to each other forever. ibid. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.) b. 7. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. (Îmi place că e aici.2. *I like it he was here. rele.

(“Este acolo”.4. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. that they were not too late to leave. 7) They maintain. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. he said. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. spuse el. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. you want me to believe. 7.) 177 . The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. simultaneity. which is ungrammatical in English. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.) b)He told me that she was there.

“She was here”. (A spus că. până pleacă ea. (Am să o părăsesc. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. The Present complement).) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. In the example below. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) b.) b. He said he would leave her.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. I will leave her. (Pâna să plece. He told me that she had been there. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (“Era acolo”. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. he said.) b. vine el. spuse el. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . o să vină el.) Future Perfect -----.

think. be aware.etc. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. wish. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. etc. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. show. insist. notice. say. mention. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.) On the other hand. report. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. With such factive verbs as realize.) b. discover. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. believe. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. regret. hope. dream. whisper. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees.) 179 . forget. be amazed/concerned. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. realize it). (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause.

) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. He knew that she thought all men were fools. in tender deference to each other.) b.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. we notice that general truths. (Iris Murdoch. She realized that all men are fools. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. Consider also: (85) a. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. She still believed that the earth was flat. 180 . cu un respect tandru reciproc.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. She believed that the earth is round. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. feign habits which are not their own.

There are however cases.Unit seven That complements 2.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. 3.) In (88). (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) b. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. 181 . simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) b. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. such as a.

b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. d) John said that Harry was leaving.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. Imagine. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. But 182 . The time is 3 o’clock. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. for instance. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. g) John thought that Harry ran. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. h) John thought that Harry had run.

slyness in a fight. as evidenced by its drear plumage. jaybird.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Crows will relish what presents itself. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. She admired their keenness of wit. Cooper’s hawk. 183 . paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. quail. bluebird. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. redtailed hawk. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. c. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. geese both grey and white. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. kingfisher. b. Translate the following. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a. lack of pridefulness. love of practical jokes. whistling swan. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. nighthawk. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy.

and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. the young officer. And they might just hang him. He had fought hard through the war. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. war hero though he was. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. in the very act of expiring. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. he claimed. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. […] During the latter stages of the tale. But as the battle raged around them. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Now here he stood jailed. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying.

object ones up to the attributive function. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. 185 . on other occasions it has to stay there. which they share with wh-complements. On certain occasions that can be deleted. or else. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. from the very frequent subject. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).Unit seven That complements 7. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).

peste puţin. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. neconvenabil şi primejdios. 2. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Fiind 186 . Mama. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 3. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Unul din ei. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 4. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. cel mai mare. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei.

va fi mai interesant pentru ea. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Nu ţi-a trecut. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Se mira. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. va pleca din oraş la vie. luminos şi apropiat şi când. 7. un vis de acesta 187 . fericit. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 8. ea. venind de la avocat. care îl pândise. dacă va mai veni. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. 5. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. de ce constata în sine. aşa. cel puţin pentru un timp. 9. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. 6.

(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. lucrul era înfăptuit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. şi mândria că a biruit. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. 11. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Astfel de va fi. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. dar şi teama că. încă o dată. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. liniştit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. fireşte. 12. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Acesta. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13.

Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . ci numai aşa. mai puternic decât oricând. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. spre Jurubiţa. să le lămurească pe toate. după cum.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Pe toate. fără o vorbă scrisă. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. 14. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. unde alerga să mărturisească totul.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.1.7.9.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.3.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.6.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.8.4.Key Concepts .5.2.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.

What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (2) a. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) b. From this perspective. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. It is important that you should know what you need.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. That you love her is something wonderful. It is important for you to know what you need. Consider the following: • like that complements. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). To love her is something really wonderful.1. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (3) a. 193 . (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) • like that complements. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).

* She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. d. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. as opposed to the finite ones. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. moduri nepersonale) By convention. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. the Gerund. gerundial clauses.) b. For instance. 194 . etc. the Conditional.e. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. 2. participial clauses. the Participle) (i.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.

(Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. namely no ending. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) b. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) 195 .) c. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.

2. 8. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 10.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.2. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. the criterion of form. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 5. 8. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 7. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 6. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. (7) They saw her leave. 4. 3. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .

/ I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. (10) 197 .) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. 2. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. hear.

However. 3.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. Pratice Translate the following. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. uncharacteristic for literary English. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. . 198 (11) the universe.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.

so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.Unit eight Infinitive complements because.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. In other words. as I have already mentioned. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. or the control constructions. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. to use the appropriate technical term. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. 199 . since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. Further on.

It is important for him not to err. So far. I hoped for him to be there in time.) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) In this situation. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to err is human. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. namely the agent of the event.) b. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. PRO to forgive divine.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) b.) 200 . şi creştineşte să ierţi. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. the logical subject. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.

him is related to the main clause verb. Semantically.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) b. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. but the patient of the verb persuade. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. not to the infinitive. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (Cred că este un lingvist competent. In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. He stepped aside for her to enter. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. him is not the agent of the infinitive.

) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ I would love them to come. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ I allowed them to come. \ She promised him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Likewise. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ She wanted him to leave. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. I hate animals to be tortured. \ 202 . Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ They tempted him to leave.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They convinced her to come back. \ He persuaded her to come.

Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. 203 .) He seems to be a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. • Last but not least. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.) In examples (25) and (26). so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. \ They really asked her to come back. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. So. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb.

seem. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. hate. with special semantic and syntactic properties. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. 204 . that is not required by certain verbs. to meet her. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. which are said to be free. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. appear. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6.).Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. To sum up the discussion. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. Pratice Translate the following sentences. etc. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi.

want. arrange. deserve. contrive. mean.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.) b) verbs such as abide. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. propose. Compare: (31) a. etc. omit. prefer.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. care to. intend. etc. afford. deign. expect. bear. endeavour. seek (= try).3 The Distribution of PRO . scheme. hope. refuse. desire. manage. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. agree to. venture. etc. . / E greu să îl suporţi. dislike. condescend. need. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. like. 8. try.) 205 friend. scorn. decline. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. aspire to. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. hate. presume.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. fail.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. wish. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită.

I remembered that I had to go to the post office.etc. threaten. desirable. verbs of liking and disliking. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. claim. For all of them to have been killed is. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării.) b. etc. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.Nadina VIŞAN b. I would like for him to become president of the country. forget.) 8.) b. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. ask. suggest. however.) b.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) 206 . (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. conclude. unlikely. be important. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. stand. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. bear. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. possible. endeavour. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.

) 207 . The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) 2.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) b.) 8. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.

Like in the case of that complements.) 208 knowledge. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. .Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 5. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure.) b. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. the preposition is deleted. Direct Objects (39) a. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. I decided for John to represent us. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. but the meaning remains. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 4. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.

: (42) a.) c.) c) adverbial of result 209 . He is a bastard to work for. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) e. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. 6. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. The stew is delicious to eat. curious about.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. She is pretty to look at. You’re an idiot to go there. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. delicious. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. This paint is like concrete to work with.) b. etc.) d.

/ Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . drept să spun. to tell you the truth. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. you’re a bad driver. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) I’ve never met him. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / Pe şleau. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. să nu piardă trenul. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.) Oh./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / Ehei.

oblige.etc. induce. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. swear.: (51) a. etc. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. press. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. (49) a. urge. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. 8. enable.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. direct. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.) . According to this. influence. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. nu mai vreau să te vad. encourage. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. inspire.) b. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. b. promise. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. inform. need. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.

/ I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. look to. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. count on. depend on. allow. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.etc.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. command. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. prevail on. vote.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. choose.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. name. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it./ And now he 212 . nominate. permit. etc. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. elect. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. order.

(57) He is to come any day now.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. 213 (58) (59) . etc. be going to. happen. An Accidental Man) 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. i. grow. etc. (O să întârzii/ leşin. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.e.verbs: appear. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). (56) She grew to like him in the end. come. (Iris Murdoch.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. be about to. this construction is lexically governed. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. seem.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.etc. (Se pare că îi place de el.: (55) She appears to like him.

the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).etc. (L-au auzit insultând-o. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.) 8. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. etc. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. etc. be thought. observe. watch. be considered. overhear. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.: (62) They heard him insult her. be claimed.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. feel.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be reported. In (57). hear. be rumoured. . that of intention. be alleged. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. perceive.

believe. recollect. figure. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. imagine. presume. etc. understand. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. know. (Cred că este un geniu.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. picture. judge. remember. discover. cause. consider. prove. deem. have. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.) 215 (67) . since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. However. find.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.) • with a full infinitive: get. occasion.

suffer. choose.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. prefer.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. he hated anyone to comment 216 . thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. who wasn’t used to men with moods. wish. order. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. mean. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. etc.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. if he himself was out of spirits. permit. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. command. love. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. want. they had depressed and fuddled him. expect. desire.etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. Harold.

though he tended to look down on those below it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. (L. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. A little crossly. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason.P. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. he didn’t envy those above it. Both seemed to him a little unreal. He suspected hostility at once. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. so that we might get to the future and have done. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. to make sure we attended strictly to business. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.

We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not.Nadina VIŞAN 8. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The last criterion. From this perspective. 218 . This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.

de bună seamă. să-l capete. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. lovit şi umilit. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. Şi tu să fii. un bărbat şi o femeie. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. într-o zi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. e important ce întrebări pui. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. fireşte. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. E posibil. dar să nu-ţi spună. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. de asemenea. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. bunăoară. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. mai bine219 . e) Când doi oameni.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts.

d-a lungul gâtului. în ploaie. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. pe care deja o uitase. (B. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.Delavrancea. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. în parte. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. să traiesc numai cu tusea.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. sau. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în jos. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.Nadina VIŞAN zis. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. De era vară. mai bine de două decenii. că eşti tânăr. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. . ca să nu şi-o amintească. aşa cum îi apăruse el. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. în parte. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Să spui de pildă. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. un picior. încă.Şt. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Însă Paul Achim trăise. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să nu vrea să se şteargă. 220 . gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. mai pline de înţeles. avusese dreptate.Şt.

i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. biata Muti. o mizerie. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. de fapt.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. (Al. şi prin faţă. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor).. un miros îngrozitor. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. orice bucureştean ştie. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. Într-un cuvânt. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. Mă laud singură. orice-ar fi. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.. ei. deşi. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă.. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. nici ca să 221 . deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă..Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. sunt aici cu tot ce am. şi nu un amant. prin faţă e coborârea. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. fie ea şi grăbită. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului.

în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.

verbal nouns. participles.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .

1.1.1.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.1.3.The Gerund 9.2.2.1.4.Participial Constructions 9.2.5 Key Concepts .Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Verbal Noun 9.3.9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.2.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.

The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Due to this situation. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.) 225 . (Susan doarme. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1.1.

too: (6) Her eye-lids.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. been and killed are past participle forms. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. were closing. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. the past participle can appear after a noun. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.) More infrequently. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. 226 .) As you can see in this second case. it functions attributively.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. blood-shot and painted.e. i. Susan has come. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. (A venit Susan) b. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. In (2) the forms come. Susan has been killed.

she ran away. leul poate să atace. a lion can attack.) c. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. people should pay attention to high notes.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. (Ştiind cine era el. I will arrive there on time. începură să cânte. Knowing who the guy was. I will arrive there on time. God willing.) d. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. When singing.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a.) b. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. If provoked. o să ajung la timp. Arriving here. mother permitting. Oh.) b. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. ea o luă la fugă. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. they started singing. he will eventually marry her.) c. Weather permitting.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. (Sosind aici.) 227 .

) ii.) b. which stands for an adverbial clause. behold. hear. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. respectively. smell. I found him stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. watch. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found killed by a bullet. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. He was found stealing. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (Am simţit-o tremurând.) 228 .) b. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. notice. (L-am descoperit furând. (L-au descoperit că fură. They found him killed by a bullet.

recollect.) b. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. make a. leave. set.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) b. etc. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. confess.) c. I heard it said that men are a bore. etc. feel. (A fost văzut plângând. start. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. I must get my hair cut. a.) b.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.: When she heard his words. have.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. etc. recollect. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. etc. find. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. He’ll soon get things going. have.) • Causative verbs: get .: Imagine him saying a thing like that. hear. send. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. know. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . keep.: a. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. she knew herself dismissed.) • Causative verbs: get.

/ Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.) • verbs of permission.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. command I ordered my bill made out./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. / Nu după multă vreme. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. lovit şi plin de sânge. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota.) b. Men like shopping made easy./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.

231 . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / Dinny.1. / My Lord. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). with its lips drawn back. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.2. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. sitting taut between her father and her sister. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Unlike the gerund. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / In any case. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.e. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.

I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. (Desi nu ştia limba. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I turned on the light. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I have looked through the fashion magazine. 6. (Văzând acestea. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 7. I was astonished at what I saw. She had heard it all before.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. using either a present participle. 2. I left.She didn’t want to hear the story again.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. the rain will stop. It had been uprooted by the gale.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. se va opri şi ploaia. The tree had fallen across the road. am plecat. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 5. People were sleeping in the next room. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I left. 4. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. am plecat. 3. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul.

8.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Barking furiously. cornered. haired (twice). I let the dog out of the room. a scorpion bit him.shoulder. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Getting out of bed. 5. covered. cloth. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. mown. b) Headed (5 times). the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. lion. Reading in bed. handed. 12. one of the eggs broke. bald. hearted (twice). roast. a pot of paint fell on my head. sharp. 10. red (twice). 233 . many. 8. Dropped by parachute. minded (3 times). Tied to the post. He sat down to his own dinner. 11. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 9. straight. open. coloured.Running into the room. fishy. his horse fell at the last jump. I slammed the door of my room. quick. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 10. eagle. my hands often get very cold. 6. three. They began quarreling about how to divide it. eyed (3 times). narrow. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. shaven. 7. open. 2. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. They found the treasure. stricken. lighted. Leaving the cinema. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 9. Passing under a ladder. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 3. empty. skinned. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. drunken. 4. Read the sentences and try to correct them. stony. He fed the dog. broad. an idea suddenly occurred to me. wooden. Riding in the first race. Mother punished me for my mistake. Climbing down the tree. dark.

wealth. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. (find) 6. deer. bounden. image. Whales. candle./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. shrunken. graven. meat.Spielberg. Translate into English: 1. ________ hiding in a barn. lamb. eyes. shorn. The escaped prisoner. b) grass. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. duty. _______ my arm. / Swiss watches. The film. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (hunt). plank. are sold throughout the world. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. was today taken back to prison. In the following pairs of sentences. man. meaning. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (admire) 5. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Many old people . ill-gotten. were taken to hospital. _______ for a bargain. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . (grow) 4. lead._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. _______ for their elegance and precision. (take) 2. I stared at the canvas for ages.I fell on the ice. head. / Three people. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (injure). 7. (produce) 3. is expected to be a great hit. rotten.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are in grave danger of extinction. _______ by S. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. stream. the same verb is missing twice. hidden.

Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. 4. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. şi moi. le cocea. ca şi cum. Şi sufletul său. 3. deodată sufocat. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. legume date prin mai multe ape. Şi. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. păsări tăiate. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. când strânsă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. nesigur şi moale. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. 2. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. O umbreluţă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. trezit. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. când deschisă. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . le fierbea. care le rânduia. După câtva timp. întinse. precum şi foile de plăcintă. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite.

(Dacă vezi.1. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. crezi. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.Nadina VIŞAN 9. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.2. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. Likewise. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. 236 . the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. According to this criterion. The Gerund 9.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.2.

[+ verb] Participles [+ verb. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) b. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Him winning and you losing was surprising. Consider the following table. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.2. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) 9. In that.) b. gerunds differ from participles.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.2. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . That he won and you lost was surprising. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.

This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. It was illegal to grow a beard. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. *It was illegal growing a beard. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.) Unlike participles.) 2. Consider (32). gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. as being verbal 238 . A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) b. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul.

) b.2. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.) b. as offered in the table below: 239 . Participles vs. It’s no good talking to her. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.3. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) 9. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.) 3.

Participles may function adverbials: house. perfect. (prepositional object clause) 5. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. + noun] 1. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. babies suck their thumb. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. passive ones She was crying. 2. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. (adverbial of time) 4. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . forms: continuous . may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. 3.

/ Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat.

She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 7. 242 . boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 4. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 2. 14. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 8. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. eating habits/ eating people. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 12. 3. 12. 10. crying game / crying woman. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 15. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 6. shooting gallery / shooting star. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 11. 9. 13. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He was spotted talking to her. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 5. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough.

e. a The absence of an of phrase.) The absence of a determiner like the. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. but the presence of a direct object (i.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.

The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. George’s shooting the attacker.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. These are features that normally characterize any noun. In the second situation.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. Thus. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. How can we tell? In the first case.

This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. very large. the sheriff. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Jim left quietly. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / His coming there puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. 245 .

) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.4. For instance. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. With the infinitive. whenever we meet an –ing form. the meaning is different. Look. ING Forms and Infinitives. It has been noticed that. for example. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.Nadina VIŞAN 9. However.

is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. and the most well-known one. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. anterior to the verb in the main clause. (S-a oprit din mâncat.) .) The first example. the infinitive is future-oriented. having left) is infrequently used in English. containing an infinitive.) After looking at this example. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. On the other hand. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.g. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.

) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) . both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). recollect. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.) As you can see. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. i.e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. which means that they are similar in meaning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.

Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. In the second example. the action is not completed. dar asta este.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) . însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. but that’s it. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.

it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. mean has the sense signify.) With [.) wedding. (Casa trebuie reparată.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Casa trebuie reparată. want With [+ human] objects.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.human] objects.) b. The house needs repairing.) 250 . In the second example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. the event has not happened yet. The house needs to be repaired. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. e) need.

Croom (try) (follow) one. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘In any case. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. Lady Corven. whereas in the second case. gerund or infinitive. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. I did ask Mr.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. however appearances were against us. my Lord. my Lord. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ ‘Tell me. (take) down her answer.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. but they went by too quickly. it’s overrated.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. (hold) up his pen and (speak).

I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ said Clare. I just used the word and they fell.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. Then. I must go back now.’ 252 . There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). ‘I do hate (ask) for things. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. licked the envelope with passion. and went out (post) it himself. he addressed the note.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. suddenly. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.

Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.5. the 253 . identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Last but not least. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Participles mainly function as adverbials.

The sight of the two children. then the noise and the cracking stone. it 254 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. moving up towards his chest. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. down into God knows where. She started coughing. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. It was like a mist. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. slowly rising in a swirling motion. but then he saw it billowing up from below. The two sides were moving apart. covering the girl’s head. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. their edges crashing inwards. according to the books he read.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. hoping he would see somebody up there. the enormous split in the earth. someone looking for survivors. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. down. At first. Then he saw movement at his feet. He looked up towards the daylight.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. She finished what jobs there were. slanted on to her cheek. brightening to winter brilliance.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. for Dornford was busy on an important case. 255 . they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Having a French governess. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.

ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. În urma slugii. ucenicul său necredincios. cei doi Mamona. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. într-o joi. totul se animă deodată. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. and then went riding with her in the rain. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Aşa că vrând-nevrând.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. închizând ochii. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. 2. Ridicându-se. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Vaucher şi cu mine. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. mama mea.

pe Vaucher.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. pe mama mea părând absentă. Şi deodată. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. aşezată cu spatele la noi. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. după cum îi spusese mama. totul mi se părea cunoscut. afară ploua în continuare. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. aplecându-se puţin. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. se duse lânga mama şi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. privit. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. dar ştiutoare. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. 3. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. auzit şi zadarnic. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. am ştiut şi cine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. o sărută pe frunte. la mine. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. Neclintiţi.

După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu soba. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. Au coborât din camion încet. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. camionul a plecat. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. dar. 5. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu stiva de lemne. cu tot cu baraca.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată.

Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. 259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 4. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 6. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 11. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. this would really hurt. 10. 9. he had been advised. 5. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. since I have decided. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. was unclear to Mitzi. How this time was to come. You have been much in my thoughts. 13. he had not yet been able to estimate. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. to retire early from my employment. 12. How much. and that 263 . Having regard to the date of drafting. whereas if she went away she would get none. in some way. 7. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. and meet it right here at home. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. apart from his distress for parents. 3. and this particularly of late. 2. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. because of pity.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. I am sorry not to have seen you. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. without profound questioning.

looking forward had not yet taken place. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. 14. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. even for months. I was made say Grace before every dinner. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / Whenever I visited my aunt. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / Before you go on changing the subject. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. he did not come to see her. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. one of the eggs broke. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 19. 17. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. for attending his sister’s wedding. please consider his proposition. 264 . / In the end. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes.

Clarissa used to think. 265 . Though much in request before her marriage. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. centered in London and themselves. of all people. her old friend Hugh. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Essentially. Tony was a child. Instead of which she had married. rather than the hefty type. her recklessness.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. (and there he was. They rushed into shops. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. to end in some awful tragedy. of the quick and wiry. Vulgar men did. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. she said. cotton mills at Manchester. an open-air person. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. without discovery. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. quite unexpectedly. it was said. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . At country houses she had met them of course. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. She felt as when. and it was bound. They hated trying on. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. a little girl.

sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. but lying in her bath. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. she professed. ii faceau bine. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. indeed. to keep abreast of the current.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. De uitat. (John Galsworthy . Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. with all its impatience of restraint. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. Cind l-a chemat. The closer she allowed him to come to her.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. astfel.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. viguros si vesel in felul lui. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister.Rindurile dvs. cre s-au nascut lent. era un bun sfatuitor. Reading many novels. si in plus.Over the River) 2. short of the contacts of love. she was uneasy. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Bolnava nu se simtea. nu a facut-o pentru asta. the more she would be torturing him. nu puteam sa le uit. aveam tot mai 266 . il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.

latimea si ascutisul labei. (St. vaazut cindva. mi-am zis. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 7. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Banulescu – ibid. nu pricep nimic. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. ca si tine. (St.) 6. Banulescu – ibid.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. fa-o. Milionarule. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.) 5. are nevoie. cit mai au de trait. pe scaunul lui tare. lungimea picioarelor. Personal. 4. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. se stie. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. (St. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. poate fi compensata. Banulescu – ibid.) 267 . Daca tu. Banulescu – ibid. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Ce a iesit. (St. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. o data sau de doua ori. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului.

Could he be blamed. Who told me. my grandfather. a wounded soldier. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. And had a brother killed in the same battle. for being a renegade. Translate them. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Who.. to Emmanuel College. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Who when asked about his memories of the War.P. Who came home from the war. Cambridge. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.. (. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. when I was even younger than you. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Ernest Richard Atkinson. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Arthur Atkinson M. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. delivered from the holocaust. Who was may father. A story-book romance.

4. to whom. How 269 . he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). deep-set. and because – but this is mere speculation. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. Rachel Williams.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. he had already engaged himself? 3. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. a moody man. Fabianism. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows.

Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. satul. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum a trăit el. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum au tăcut ei. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. om mare. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Ion. 270 . How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. la şcoală. Ion. Cum a ajuns el. cu taina aceasta. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer.

Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. singurul lui stăpân. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. când voi fi singur. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu .pune totul in discuţie. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. din franţuzeşte. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Când actriţa. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. 271 . greşeli dintr-astea. de mama lor. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. împotriva tuturor. cu sau fără voie. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună.

Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. parcă începusem s-o uit. privindu-mă în ochi. continuând. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. nevasta-mea. sau ridicole. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. de pildă. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. dam buzna peste automobile. 3. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Într-o vreme. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. provocându-le. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Tot aşa. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. 4. traversând. 6. 5. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Am început. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. 272 . Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. pe jumătate prezent. A devenit palid. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. tânăr şi frumos şi el. ci un sistem de acomodare. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile.

De altminteri. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 8. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. ca un acrobat. Am început. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. şi dacă merg întins. că nu m-am gândit la asta. Aş vrea să mă las jos. 9. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. 11. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. să merg întins. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. Dacă nemţii înaintau. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. şi să nu ameţesc. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. E o problemă. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. orice s-ar întâmpla. fără să mă opresc o clipă. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. iar. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. fireşte.

Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Acum isi ferea privirea. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. nu mai pricepu nimic. Uite.Ma. Auzindu-l. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. de la proces. 14. Adica tot trecutul. Ilie nu-l asculta. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. de la lucruri personale. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. eu am venit sa va intreb. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. 17. de uimire. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. trebuia sa le spuna. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. cu mirare. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. de la obiecte de pret. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. 16. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. nu trebuie sa va suparati. 274 . acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . dar nu se mai putea. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo.. 15. La un moment dat. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. dar nu-i spuse si de ce.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. la carti. la fata locului. Ii venea greu. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. In curind. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. la amintiri. parca i-ar fi fost frica. 13. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git.. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Greu era din partea asta. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. se uita in jos. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. nu mai semana.

vorbe asa si-asa.Ce sa fac. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. asa cum facuse pina acum. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. There was even 275 . dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. 20. cum zicea Anghel. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. apoi se uitau la Ilie. Zimbea siret. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Aici era ceva. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Nu era nevoie. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. which was part of his rich outfit. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. dar. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». se indeparta nepasator. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. i se paru ca aici e ceva. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. 19. .

paying no attention. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. conversationally. 4. going astray. a simplification. to move fast. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. resuming her walk. rude woman. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. to take his way home on foot.Nadina VIŞAN relief. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. 5. 3. the young lady. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. to admit that she was a proud. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. He walked a long time. asked for Mrs. on this occasion. But Daisy. She was one 276 . He felt then.Miller at her hotel. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. for the instant. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. at least.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. gave an exclamation.

Advising with me. 7. He left me musing. as it were. 8. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. 6. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . uncomfortably. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. smiling and chattering. while residing abroad. on the other hand. in their own phrase. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. as text book. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. make a point. She appeared. indeed. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. as to projected changes. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. She rustled forward. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. Her daughter. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. and wondering what the deuce he meant. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. of studying European society.Walker. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. often. in radiant loveliness. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. making Paul stop and look at her. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease.

it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. and acute too. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. though E. 10.’ 278 . that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. not seeing. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. was immensely struck with him. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. or at any rate not heeding. 9.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. H. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. while Paul. H. 11.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. could see he was remarkable. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. and perceived that it must be something important. The agent became a very familiar type to H. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. was only half satisfied with this. H. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. wondered what they were talking about. with his humorous density. which was deliberate. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. and. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust.

Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. 14. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. 13. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. which was very copious. not glancing at him for a moment. 15. as he looked back. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. But she gave him no chance. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. that the haunting wonder which now. H. appeared to fill his whole childhood. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. had the power to chain his sympathy. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking.

was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. ironically reserved. H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. that she must be on the contrary. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. The whole establishment. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. and to H. dragging herself on her knees. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. yet 280 . At the theatre. 18. as a general thing. 17. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. where the Pearl of Paraguay. and there were others. It was very possible she was capricious. proudly. disheveled and distracted. 16. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being.

281 . 19. 2. didn’t mind. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. *Old. would always be more or less irritating. 3. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. young men were invited. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 20. on which the damp breath of the streets. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. had blown a certain chill. It came over H./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. with the poor. H.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. Their mistakes and illusions. and lurking within this nebulous design. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. No one ever listens to her.

9. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I was definitely going to be sick. 8. 7. her shining blue feet twinkling. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I blundered by. 12. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. slipped on some steps. Rachel. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 11. 282 . That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. walking quickly. 10. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. c) When I saw her sitting there. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. I walked fast. striding like a Spartan maid. 5. her arms held out. 6.Nadina VIŞAN 4. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. “Oh./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I saw her as a vision. Either John or he * have got to give in. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister.

Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7.

Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. could cook my meals. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. where my servant. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. but that we saw and pitied. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. if they were poor. And then I ventured to add that. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. which was really alarming. 3. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. The old women spoke no English. 5. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. 4. 2.

on a house. etc. etc. his. Constituents: He.g. on Saturday. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. this. 285 . had not been able to estimate.apart from his distress = apart from. apart form his distress for parents. etc. was anxious. How much. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. to settle.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. apart from his distress for parents. would really hurt. at noon.g. was anxious = was + anxious. distress. Constituents: Margaret. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. he. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. he had not yet been able to estimate. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. was informed. Munt. Constituents: how much. before they left town. this would really hurt. to pay their annual visit.

– it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. Second clause is an imperative. – non-assertive../ She finally admitted. – first clause is non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. which is not assertive. The sentence is however 286 . – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). / If you like her. negative. interrogative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. which context is non-assertive. don’t bother her. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz.. it is assertive. and is non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. interrogative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.. – comparison. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. – assertive/ Don’t do that. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. listen to this. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. interrogative. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – non-assertive. negative/ Come with me.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. second clause is non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.

/ He was exceptionally cunning./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ Hardly interested in the conference./ They weren’t really confused./ Not long ago. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday.but to someone else. only irresolute. but nothing out of the ordinary. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. – they told the truth to somebody else./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / They didn’t leave. but it isn’t Susan./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. – someone hates animals. everybody used to travel by coach. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. the two brothers dared to protest. not even this thing. but it wasn’t them./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / I don’t like her very much. – someone did that./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. he was hardly pleased./ When he learned the news. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ He was smart enough. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but not more than she does others. – I like somebody else. –double negation cancellation. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / She does like John. / She does not hate animals. not even when it’s quiet around. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / You have never met 287 .

were they? / This boy is no good. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. not even in my dreams. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. – negative insertion.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers...negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / Should they not have told her the truth. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. I could hardly wait to hear the news..negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. / This is hardly the 288 . *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even when you were very young. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody...negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. they go skiing in the mountains. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.Nadina VIŞAN her. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.

/ You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Few people came to see her. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / I seldom look at her like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Never shall I trust a man again. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Almost nobody liked him. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. but she also lent him a car./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow..Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – You haven’t eaten a thing. Activity 8 I shall never. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – I almost never look at those paintings. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Not many people came to see her. never trust a man again. / Hardly anybody liked him... – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – I never see her./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. when we started our holiday. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.

/ We will see them again somewhere sometime. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / He reckoned he would not win her over. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. you can’t do anything about it any more. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – They don’t believe she likes them. / They say he once had someone very close. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care./ I somewhat like his proposal. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – They say he never had anyone very close. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. –At no time did we leave the office. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ Well. – 290 . – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. you can still do something about it. – Only on this man could she rely. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – Come on. / They believe she does not like them. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / She could rely on nobody but him../ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Don’t worry.I don’t like his proposal at all./ I expect he won’t come here again. / Come on.

either. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. 291 . – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / She hardly ever comes here. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself../ I can understand all of these ten English words. – You can’t be telling lies./ Peter knows some English and so does John. too. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – She almost always comes here. –Alice still lives here. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / You must pay that fine. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – You should send her something. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must be telling lies.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam./ Bob is still living at that address. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives.

/ He was a tough man./ Have they rung the bell? No. give me a hand./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. I haven’t seen her in years. Oh./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Zis si facut.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ 292 ./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. / Don’t go on believing him. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. / Jim is so brave. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ E un baiat de zahar./ He’s a happy man. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not.D./ They say this Ph. ever since I got this ulcer. / Please. He didn’t move a muscle./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ You look so tired today./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Nobody told us a thing. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ Nimic de facut. He isn’t that smart. It’s no wonder. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. not yet./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. has never studied anywhere. I haven’t done anything. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. to any of us. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. e un magar./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Nu spune nu niciodata.

negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . parasi camera./ Nu-i nici un deranj. with the same needs they had. slowly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.’/ Deloc descurajat. no story. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. no memory. that I was a decent man.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. one way or another. We had nothing in common. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. I hadn’t really expected miracles./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. thrown out. 293 . for I thought this threatening. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. feebly. without too much determination. I had never had the opportunity to prove. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. nothing.’ ‘Nici o problema.

good. your story. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. to say the least. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. Unfortunately. Radu had calmed down.. or if you understood what I meant. on the front seat. • It was my turn to say something. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. bad. I admit. Not for a moment had I thought that. he immediately answered me patronizingly. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. the only 294 . I’d be so happy if it were so. It’s not made up of theories and the like. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. that’s what the world is about. things you do any moment. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. but facts. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. he was sitting beside me. clear or confusing. You really made me mad. it’s not words. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. let alone irritable. by coming here to the monastery. Your judgement is false. I was sleepy and tired. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. We have to judge it as it is. not as we would like it to be or some other way.

Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. although it was a difficult thing to do. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. keep your conscience clean: you have one. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. did you ever step up front. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. either. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. But what about you and Melania. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. as Baciu would have us be. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. or you are lying hidden. me. just to please myself. me. and if you like. it’s your problem. behind these big. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. I won’t interfere. Look. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. Anyway. no matter how huge they are. it solves troubles. clears your way. precious words. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. soon we’ll be in town. fear might be hiding. you do as you think fit. you can go to Ursu’s. 295 . to fight. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. it’s yours. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. • So. too? A gun is power. keep it squeaky clean. we are leaving. But I was just wondering. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. and an inability to act. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. or call the respect of others. your opponent would fear you and with good reason.

Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . But it was not because I had no answer to give. . they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. has not arrived yet – double negation. correlatives are mixed 2. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. but they gradually got used to it.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .Negative attraction b) 1. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. the sentence is incorrect 3. .Negative incorporation 296 . as soon as he delivered it. -correct 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. The villagers were not very religious. or some other woman. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.. will he?. has yet arrived -correct 2. – incorrect. because before is a positive polarity item 2.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .incorrect. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. firmly determined not to answer immediately. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.correct 3. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.

ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Her stillness. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. either (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. too troubled.) Însă era cam târziu. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. not happy at all (NPI). She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. Ştia că are dreptate. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Avea sufletul prea obosit. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. (ibid. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). b) But it was rather (API) late. she couldn’t marry him. much less ((NPI) for her. (ibid. Nu putea să se mişte. yet. nu era 297 . prea răscolit. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. His spirit was too tired.

there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. and not a little unsteadily. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. The Satanic Verses. (Salman Rushdie. arăta mai tânără ca oricând.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. she looked younger than ever (NPI).) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. se îndreptă spre paravan. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). if anything (NPI). he made his way to the screen. his heart was beating fast. (ibid.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Ba dimpotrivă. şi destul de hotărât. 298 . Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. inima îi batea năvalnic. (ibid. e) At length.

told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare.) C. the gift was useless. but his father would have none of it (NPI). îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). h) C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. 299 . Ce-i pasă lui C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. (ibid. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. care if the school were willing to treat him. i) What did C. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. and probably an administrative headache as well. Home receded from the prodigal son. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. The point was. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare.

correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. – indirect question. correct. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. . 300 . incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. “Now. they were. she likes to entrance them. now she was chatty. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. all godfearing husbands and fathers. do you really think that this vixen. Stavre Paici. She has an eye for gentle men. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. to make them lust after her. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. she didn’t wear a ring. Fenia. Fenia. keep Condrat away from her. 2. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. and then what do you 308 . you are in enough trouble as it is. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Chizlinski. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. Vica. Luca Horobet. yes. the bitch.

dragging his feet listlessly. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. what’s her name. The mullah. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. 3. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. her hair pinned with blue combs. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. have a girlfriend. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. a seventy-eight year old lad. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. 4. It even takes him a while to go to the window. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. ankle-long flowered calico. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. G. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. He got him out of his mosque. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . with a railway station and a mosque. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. the minister of Tartars and Turks.

But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.

the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. Her pet kitten is black and white. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. yellow and blue. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – sentence coordination 2. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. Our flag is red. John and Mary are ready. John and Mary are the newly married couple.) 9. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – similar situation 10.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .. – sentence coordination 7.. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . John is ready and Mary is ready. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. and I passed.phrasal coordination (in this case. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. our respective examinations.

– ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 9. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 10. your work and mine. much satisfaction or little 312 . many guest or few. 8. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students.) Joan plays many games. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. her son and others. Activity 4 1. 5. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. that method and those. 7. your proposal and his. her idea and John’s. but John does not play football. 3.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 6. Activity 5 This book and the other. 2. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). We can and will demand payment. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. and even tennis. but not John. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. plays football.

Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. 5. Life and soul 5. but not simple. Wear and tear 12. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 4. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. etc. Ups and downs 6. Activity 8 1. Spick and span 9. Touch and go 10. Thick and thin 11. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Pros and cons 4. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. The facts and figures 3. Over and above 13. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Few and far between 14. 3. 7. He read. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. He snapped at him and slapped him. High and low 2. To and fro 15. 8. Bread and butter 16. Safe and sound 313 . It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Swings and roundabouts 7. magazines are only for children. Law and order 8.) 6. I have always fought and will fight for progress. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. (I have always fought for progress and always will. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party.

6. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. – asymmetric 18. cause-effect Activity 10 1. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 9. Symmetric 21. Asymmetric 19. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. My son and heir is safe. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 4. 10. – similar situation 9. 8. Asymmetric 20. b. – symmetric 2. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 5. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 7. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Either the child or the parents are to blame. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 8. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. inclusive 16. 314 . – symmetric. – symmetric. Not John but his two sons are to blame.symmetric 11. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. Symmetric 13. 2. – symmetric 10. 5. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. My son and daughter are twins. 1. 4. – symmetric. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5.. exclusive 15. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 3. 10. 6. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. exclusive 17. 2. 3. 9. 7. Cathy and David have arrived.

I’ll still finish this paper. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. They came to me. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 11. 3. Not only should you rest 315 . or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 2. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. ‘Madam. Brother or no brother. Jim thought it over for a while. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 6. 9. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. He’s neither fish. 4. for better or worse. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. 14. 5. it was too small. 12. 8. clothes and all. Should he pour water in the basin. By hook or by crook.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. (2) 1. nor fowl. He went to bed. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. There are doctors and doctors. 7. 10. thanks for asking. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. Her husband is long dead and buried. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 15. No drinking and driving. We’ll stick together. 2.

whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. and then. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. Her first husband had been a professor. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. so he could leap in pursuit. What do you know? The moment Mrs. tense like a bow. And. Mrs. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. what’s its name. both dead and buried. 2. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. an important man. just like when he was thirty. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. he starts lecturing her about life and things. tense with concentration. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. their common ground. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. she knows for sure. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. she started doing a great job. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. but she blinks in approval. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. So she’ll listen to him. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth.’ (3) 1. as she always does. You know. This. They hadn’t kept him there too long. but he’d come out a cripple. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. From time to time she will launch a helping question. and she listens to him. stop dead in his tracks. he’d leap high. Whatever she tried her hand at. without mentioning financial matters. so he’d gone down and died in no time. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs.Nadina VIŞAN assured. 316 . at equal intervals. it would work out fine.

of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. – she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. – Susan.subordinate. she looked at me sadly. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . about her problems at home After I told her the story.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. came. cannot tell. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. functioning as an object (direct). you.subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . looked. – obligatory elements: she. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – she. told. – she.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.subordinate. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . is aware. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an adjunct 2. at me Activity 2: 1. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as a modifier 3.

functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. remove our home yet again . that you are choosing exile .subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that we should. at our age.subordinate.complement b) 1.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.

direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement.complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. a house. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . but no idea – relative that complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. a barn. outbuildings. direct object. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement.

adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. direct object. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. staring at each other. direct object/ and done – wh complement. (…) He dashed back. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. When Anton put the sickle down. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ to sit there – complement. But other people. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. (…) ‘Well. Activity 5 1.wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.A few days before the war. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. without straightening her back. sickle in hand. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man.

Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. but he doesn’t spurn either. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. while they spoke from miles away. rather than a real threat. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Why! He was not of two minds. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. 321 . Not even at this point. you need courage even for this small thing. Only he had Ana to think of. 3. 2. while on other occasions he would show caution. that was for sure. or if he does. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. For no bold man really falters.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. which he doesn’t rely on completely. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. First. but also his sharp nose. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Ana could not stand a trip now. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. as if they were at his beck and call. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. or other more hidden means. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila.

In fact. in Odobesti. and on Monday followed another feast). who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. And here’s how this first day looked. 4. by the cars of some of us. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. although he could have said so earlier. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. 322 . come on. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. under the silliest of pretexts. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. and when things didn’t go as planned. it was the women. Twice did we get in the car. to see some mutual friends. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. We were going to drive to a vineyard. and twice we were requested to get out. without really knowing why. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. are we getting off again? What is wrong. So. But it was not ok. they would ruin the arrangement. he had postponed writing back.

7.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . any of whom would answer to questions. which was silly of him. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. You couldn’t join the party. 10. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.restrictive 4. 10. why they all left .restrictive 6. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. where I spent my youth . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 5. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 11. He is the author who they gave a prize to. on which this occurred . all of whom would answer to his questions. Activity 3 1. 9. most of whom were from England. 4. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. John told his friend a story about the king. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 2. 8. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. where I least expected 323 . which was a pity. These are people who we cannot tell much about. when we first met . 3. 5. 4. The students like their teacher. 6. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. like their teacher. 6. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 7.restrictive 7. 3. Activity 2 1. The students. who was just passing by.restrictive 2. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2.free 8. He told her the secret. This is my husband whom I love very much. 8. Who are you writing this letter to? 9.She came to London where I went too. They met those students none of whom agreed with them.

All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Which – subject 4. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.subject 8. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative.free Activity 4 1. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Activity 5 1.When Ada remarked – adjunct. What I’m saying – subject. which . what their parents made them. come up front. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. Where . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. 6. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Why . where we talk money – predicative.adjunct 10. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. where – predicative 7.free 9. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. who cannot say a word. Of all the persons there you had to choose me.adjunct 5.Nadina VIŞAN . 3. was very displeased with the situation. 5. You. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. the prince chose Cinderella. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. 7. What – direct object 2. When . Of all the persons there. Where . however sad . 2. I.adjunct 11. who think so highly of yourselves. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.adjunct 3.subject 9. 4. when .restrictive 10.adjunct 6. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Where he was from – adjunct. Who . What Inman remembered – subject. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.

what . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . whatever – predicative 13. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].Key To Chapter Six Practice object. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.attribute 12. what little she knew – direct object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. which requires an accusative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. how .

who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. got married and had a daughter. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. due to its invariable character. whose great-grandfather. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . in his turn. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. having changed quite a number of jobs. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. a sergeant. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who. a rather tiny looking man. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. but whose second cousin.

– obligatory pied piping 2.obligatory 4.yes Activity 9 1. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – no 9.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.yes 10. . – yes 6. – no 4. – no pied piping 327 . with deletion of the noun friends]. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – yes. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. he rarely saw now. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. he requested that the public be excluded. were now all gone.yes 7. In the interest of public decency. . no matter which – [pied piped phrase.obligatory 3. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. This story. . The problem of safe transportation. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. . knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.no 5. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. – yes 2. . whose interest he most sincerely shared. Irene. was now complete. . She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.yes 3. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. His friends.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1.His father’s friends. no easy answers to which could be offered. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. . – no pied piping 5. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. has been troubling them forever.

For all the four children. yours. 328 . or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. Nelu. the third born son. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 3. Everything was ending. For twenty years. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. I am to be envied. for instance. Only an ugly endless dream remained. 7. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 2. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. In other people’s opinion. 4. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 8.and he couldn’t thank me enough. 6. or as of a vast arena. I did so. where two teams battled every day… 5. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. irrespective of age and nature.

amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 12. since I don’t really know which my true life is. on Icoanei street. 15. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity.R.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. which was why he saw Dora very far away. barely glittering in the distance. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. He was suffering from dizziness. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 17. leaving streets and houses behind. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. 329 . If any of your qualities were to persuade them. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 11. Behind them. You are newly arrived here. where from Marta was coming too. 10. she said. although she was standing quite close to him. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. from MR street. 13. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. staring aimlessly. All that you have read is rubbish. the tram was rattling along. 16. 14. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. Let me tell you my last conclusion.

But. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. day by day. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. I don’t know what might have happened. who prompted everyone on the street. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. She was a woman of means. While some trees are still green. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 21. so optimistic and composed? 19. after the car was fixed. or the clash of stars above. From the vantage point I was in. 22. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. or the many Egyptian dynasties.Nadina VIŞAN 18. 24. 23. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. While we were poor. I could see my woman falling away from me. likes and dislikes. had a huge house in Bucharest. 20. had a personal style in clothes. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. in her pursuits. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. So. which I did not posses. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. But for me. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 330 . who only lived once in this world. If he had hit me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was.

for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. – extraposed. 3. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. – questionable. subject 2. object 6.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. – the same as 3. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. subject 8. It was suggested that they should meet the President. subject 9. – extraposed. – unextraposed. 2. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed. 6. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. direct object 10. prepositional object 11. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. object 5. subject 7. subject 4. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – impossible 7. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. direct object 3. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . 8. – extraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. 331 .

incorrect. – correct 2. 15. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.grammatical. . That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – same as 12. – grammatical. – grammatical. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible. but pragmatically impossible 3. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. Activity 3: 1. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible 4. a bit too intricate 5. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – impossible. 17.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 9. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. They never expected it that he would come back. 14. – grammatical. . – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. although a bit intricate 2. – the same as 12. same as 12. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. I guess it that he will come back. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.. tense influences the 332 . 10. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. same as 12. 18.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – impossible. idiomatic formula 16. – impossible. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. I don’t expect it that he will come back.correct 4. It is nice to meet you. It is no use trying to convince her. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. . – incorrect.grammatical. – impossible 11.

I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. (Not always.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.incorrect. 333 . She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 5. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. 3. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. in the ditch.’ Lionel says. under bridges. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. behind gates. in the pits on the road. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 2. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. though. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can.’ 4. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. – correct 6. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. thus. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).

– the first sentence is the better of the two. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. 8. 3. because it is less ambiguous. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. Activity 7 1. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. It is less ambiguous than the first. 7. prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. since the 334 . 2. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. without trying to protest too much. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 4.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. – the second sentence is questionable. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. By saying this. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. who had just returned from Africa. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.Nadina VIŞAN 6. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa.

although the third one has not undergone clause shift. extraposition is obligatory here. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 5. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. 335 ./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 7. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. so there is no need for extraposition. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. – both sentences are grammatical./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. The second and third sentences are grammatical. 8. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 6. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.

– relative 3.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – prepositional object. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. The idea that he had had earned him good money. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. required by deverbal noun 336 . .complement 4. – complement 2. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – complement 5. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. . they were chained to each other forever. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.We discovered that our map has disappeared. . extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – adverbial of sequence/result. – complement that clause.prepositional object. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – subject. – relative 5. coordinated. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.) adverbial of sequence/result. ibid. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers.relative Activity 9 1. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (Iris Murdoch. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) complement that clauses.adverbial of sequence/result. ibid. – direct object.

d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. you want me to believe. – that is obligatory. that deletion is obligatory. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. that they were not too late to leave. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. h) John thought that Harry had run. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.

/ b) John said that his car is out of gas. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – grammatical sentences. c. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . b. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. a. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – both sentences are grammatical. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas.

Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. quail. cenuşii şi albe. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. prepeliţe. While the first is possible because of the generalization.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. geese both grey and white. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. present instead of simple past. present perfect instead of past perfect. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. ciocârlii şi şoimi. – generalization on habits of birds. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. lark.

Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. as evidenced by its drear plumage. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. lipsa de vanitate. lack of pridefulness. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. love of practical jokes. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. slyness in a fight.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Crows will relish what presents itself. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. The generic present is used in this case. She admired their keenness of wit. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 .

Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He died erect. se ridicase în picioare. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. tânărul ofiţer. But as the battle raged around them. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . He had fought hard through the war. he claimed. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Murise în picioare. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. in the very act of expiring. the young officer. El căzuse pe spate. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. […] During the latter stages of the tale.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. tragică şi eroică. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe.

When he saw me. And they might just hang him.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. în închisoare. they gathered around my desk. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). A short while later. – similar situation to the one under (c). the oldest. When the boys saw that mother had left. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. deşi era erou de război. susţinea el. One of them. he closed the album. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Luptase din răsputeri în război. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. mother went home and I was left alone. They all had their hands in their pockets. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. I realized I could not tell him the big news. But when he reached me. How can I explain? I just felt shy. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. Activity 13 1. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Now here he stood jailed. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. 342 . şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. 2. to finish my drawing. Acum stătea aici. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. war hero though he was.

in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. 6. for her vineyard. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. All his senses were now keen. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.’ 5. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot.’ Mr. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. brightly and closely. 4. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. as if he had been drunk. or if she would do so again. or fear his rage. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long.

7. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. And if things were so. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. thinking of him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. claiming you had no ambition for the future. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 11. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 9. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. 8.Nadina VIŞAN to him. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. The last time when we met here you scared me. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. 10.

Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. namely the impatience of this young man. 12. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. more urgently than ever. which secretly drove him. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. 14. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. without putting anything in a note. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. towards Jurubita. 13. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. We either sell them or we don’t. where he would run to confess everything. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty.

– ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / they saw her leave. 9. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 5. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – infinitive continuous. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 6. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. . / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. – simple infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school.simple infinitive. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. – simple infinitive. / He had Mary clean her room. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 3. grammatical 2. 346 . grammatical 10. – simple infinitive. – perfect infinitive. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. .. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – infinitive continuous. grammatical. grammatical 7. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .

– Test: He persuaded her. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. Test: *I allowed them. \ I would love [ them to come. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / I want to never see you again. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: * I would like people. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ I allowed [them to come. you need to try harder. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. Test: *I would love them. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. – Test: They tempted him. / It is not too late for him to learn. – Test: They asked her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *They did not wish her. – Test: They convinced her. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / He is believed to have known her 347 . \ They really asked her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive.

/ You are to blame that the factory exploded. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He is young enough to start again. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. . / He is easy to talk to. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is easy to live with.Nadina VIŞAN for years. I don’t need you or your services. . / I have a word to tell you.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want to tell you what I think of you. / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. not to miss the train. Activity 6 Oh. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / Oh. / He is hard to stand. .

Direct object 3 – PRO –to. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Subject. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. they had depressed and fuddled him. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. so that we might get to the future and have done. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].to. he didn’t envy those above it.Accusative + Infinitive. He suspected hostility at once. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Predicative 4 . The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. 349 . coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Harold. 1] A little crossly. 1 – PRO-to. Subject. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. 1 – PRO. If he himself was out of spirits. extraposed 2 – PRO-to.

object 2 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. true. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. cautiously. And you might also be hit and humiliated. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. excitedly. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. PRO controlled by ‘she’. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. One day.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. PRO controlled by ‘me’. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. f) The passing time is important. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. But when we need to comfort others. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. man and woman. or better said. more meaningful. more believable than evidence itself. slowly. 350 . PRO controlled by ‘him’. e) When two persons. c) Unlike plane trips. 1 – PRO-to. we seem to forget about our own pain. direct object 3 – PRO –to. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you.

These people invited us… and the man is your boss. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. for instance. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. to live only with your coughing. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. or their talk that night. even when this love is hurried. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. not to want to wipe it off. not even those parts where he had been half-right. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Moroi says heavily.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. And to actually start to believe you are so. which he had already forgotten. He had not been able to leave Dr. my wish being only to please and serve. That is it. h) I want us to go. Stroescu. If it was summer. Mrs. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. while swearing to change my way of life. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. all down our neck. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. 351 . tickled by the trickles of sweat. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. S. I am indeed praising my own merits. in the street. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. or. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. as he had appeared to him in the rain. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. that you are young. k) With this considerable dowry. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. And I would care for this man so deeply.

she was suddenly so shocked. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. met by squalor and terrible smells. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). here I am with all of my own. every Bucharester knows it. no matter what.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. poor Muti. haphazardly. ready to submit to any demand. If you will have what I can give you. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. or to speak so fast. for that’s the door people get off by. Well. 352 . I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved.

Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. 353 . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Don’t keep him waiting. / They found it thrown in a corner. badly beaten and bloodied.. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother./ She sent him shopping. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Attributive past participle./ He went to have a tooth pulled.

you gave instructions to have your wife watched. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 10. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. 8. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 5.Running into the room. Turning on the light. I slammed the door of my room. I was astonished at what I saw. Finding the treasure. – As she was running into the room. sitting taut between her father and her sister. The tree had fallen across the road. they began quarreling about how to divide it. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Having looked through the fashion magazine. having heard it all before. 2. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Accusative + present participle / In any case. having been uprooted by the gale. 6. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Sleeping in the next room. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Activity 4 1./ Running into the room. – Attributive present participle. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. he sat down to his own dinner. 3. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Attributive present participle. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 .She didn’t want to hear the story again. 9. 4. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Having fed the dog. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 7. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord.

– When I read in bed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. bald-headed. Leaving the cinema. fishy-eyed. 5. a pot of paint fell on my head. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. the sea was tossing it up and down. 8. a pot of paint fell on my head. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. I let the dog out of the room. Reading in bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. an idea suddenly occurred to me. one of the eggs broke. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Climbing down the tree. Getting out of bed. empty-headed. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. – As the dog was barking furiously. 6. broad-shouldered. narrow-minded. – As he left the cinema. 11. his horse fell at the last jump./ Reading in bed. a scorpion bit him. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. / Getting out of bed. sharp-eyed/minded. Passing under a ladder. 7. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 12. wooden-headed. a scorpion bit him. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Riding in the first race. – As he was climbing down the tree. he was bit by a scorpion. my hands often get very cold. he broke one of the eggs. open-minded. I often get very cold hands. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. one of the eggs broke. Activity 5 Fair-haired.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. – As I was passing under a ladder. Barking furiously. I let it out of the room. his horse fell at the last jump. Dropped by parachute. many-coloured. my hands often get very cold. – As he was getting out of bed. – As he was riding in the first race. the sea was tossing the post up and down. red-handed. 9. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he was tied to the post. three-coloured. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Tied to the post. 4. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 10. stony-hearted. 355 . 2. 3. cloth-covered. lion-hearted. / Climbing down the tree.

Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. hunting for a bargain. found hiding in a barn. produced by S. shorn lamb. / Many old people. (hunt). / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. hidden meaning. Whales. bounden duty. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. I stared at the canvas for ages. 356 . / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. The escaped prisoner.Spielberg. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (admire) 5. Activity 7 1. roast meat. Activity 8 1. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. is expected to be a great hit. stricken deer. was today taken back to prison. eagle-eyed./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. were taken to hospital. lighted candle. / Swiss watches. injured when their car crashed on the M1. (find) 6. (grow) 4. injuring my arm.I fell on the ice.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (take) 2. open-hearted. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. mown grass. dark-skinned. admired for their elegance and precision. (injure). ill-gotten wealth. shaven head. The film. shrunken stream. (produce) 3. are sold throughout the world. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. are in grave danger of extinction. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. 7. straight-shouldered. / Three people. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. sunken eyes. rotten plank. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. graven image. drunken man.

flat and soft.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. A parasol. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. After a while. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. suddenly suffocated. thrown in the pots. seeking some promised land. and the puffed pastry beds. he were struggling for breath. bake them. 357 . with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. the carved chicken. And his soul. now taken down. sprinkled with sticky flour. streaked with yellow veins of fat. He felt close to his father. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the twice rinsed vegetables. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. 3. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. in charge of his house and lands. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. yet left them room to sway free. 4. boil them. 2. its scales scraped off by the knife. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. then put up. So. and moreover. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. the fish. hovering uncertain and soft. he started peering anxiously around as if.

/ They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture.gerund 5. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. – Accusative + participle 3. / After annoying the shop-assistant./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / I am sorry for being so late. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. Gambling is his favourite pastime. Activity 10 1. / I told him not to bother putting things back. he left the store without buying a thing. . / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. – participle (attribute) 2. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. – gerund (subject) 4.

I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. . participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. He was spotted talking to her. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – gerund (half or full.participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. preceded by preposition).possessive ING (direct object) 9. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. 8. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – Accusative ING (predicative) 6.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me.

Croom to try to follow one. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Lady Corven. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. my Lord. – gerund (full.verbal noun (has determiner. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.’ 360 . I did ask Mr.’ ‘Tell me. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. adjective. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. however appearances were against us.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. adjective.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. but they went by too quickly. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – verbal noun (has adjective). – verbal noun (has determiner. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. take down her answer. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. – gerund or verbal noun.. hold up his pen and speak.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.

the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. ‘I do hate asking for things.’ said Clare. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. my Lord. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. suddenly. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. I spend all my time hunting a job. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ said Clare.’ 361 . it’s overrated. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. I must go back now. he addressed the note. licked the envelope with passion. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. and went out to post it himself. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. Then. I just used the word and they fell.

direct object). gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. functions as direct object) and then the ground. attribute). l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. adverbial of time. elliptical here. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. He looked up towards the daylight. village which is burning). The sight of the two children. attribute. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. attribute. attribute.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. the very earth opening up (half gerund. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. At first. down into God knows where. …while their edges were crashing inwards). someone looking for survivors (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. attribute. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. after verb of perception. direct object) towards him. attribute) in a swirling motion. The collapsing shops (participle. It was like a mist. The two sides were moving apart. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. hoping (participle. (participle. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. following the verb ‘remember’. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) from below. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. slightly 362 . attribute). slowly rising (participle. the enormous split in the earth. Has a complex subject) in the hole. down. First the crack snaking (half gerund.

the chief occupation of the people of these islands. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. according to the books he read. you. moving up (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. adverbial of reason). has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. i. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. my dear. direct object). etc.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. one. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head.). direct object) that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun.e. covering (participle. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. has ‘of’ phrase). early. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund.

for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Young Mamona left the room without a word. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. and then went riding (participle. adverbial of reason). waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. She finished what jobs there were. Having a French governess (participle. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. Standing up. slanted on to her cheek. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. reluctant or not. Vaucher and I. which beckoned to 364 . making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. mother. So. we were all gathered in that room. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. examining (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. and sunlight. preceded by preposition.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. And. adverbial of manner). brightening (participle. and everything got suddenly animated. and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) a sudden whoop. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). the two Mamonas. attribute) to winter brilliance. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. attribute) stopped dead.

mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. for anyway. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. kissed her forehead. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. 2. sitting in his puddle. Vaucher might have known that too. Not so unimaginable though. about sparing no effort. bending a little. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. He cast us a swift glance. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. he found us sitting each in his place. And. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. let alone greet us or say something. her back towards us. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. and to Young Mamona. his disloyal apprentice. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. he looked like someone who did. each carrying a wooden box. And then. killed by Young Mamona. without taking his sack off his shoulders. to me. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. 3. about concentrating all our resources. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . I knew who it would be. to Vaucher. closing my eyes. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. in the year 1812. So when Old Mamona came in. he went to mother and. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. Entering our house on a Thursday. and smelling so hard of rain. as mother had ordered him. 4. too.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. who knows. and ended his life in the year 1821.

of taking notes and rewriting them. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. And all around them was the great field 366 . After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. futile. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. They got off the truck slowly. wood pile. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. each pausing before jumping down. everything seemed familiar. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. 5. as an afterthought. And suddenly. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. stove. long board table. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. barrack. But. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. already seen and heard.

The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The next thing was to go to the well. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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