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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.de rezolvări. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. 6 . titularizare şi grad.
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
Complementary distribution .2.3.5. Insertion 1. Constituent Phrase 1. Auxiliary verbs 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.Contents: 8 18.104.22.168.
since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. very much. loves. They are just strings. Consequently. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. For instance.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. sequences of the kind her mother very. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. her mother. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). 1.2. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. that is sequences fragmented at random.1. Syntactic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Semantic. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.
Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.4.) 10 . should. must. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.e. we are dealing with a directive (i. be).Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. etc. an order given to an interlocutor).3. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. 1. (Mi-a spus secretul. 1.
Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. 1.) 1. etc.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.5. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. an ‘empty’ there subject. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.6. live. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. for instance. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. Consider. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.
If the given context is the one under (6). syntactic. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt. semantic. whereas (7) is not. How much. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. complementary distribution. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. as the star indicates. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. distribution. Pratice Define and illustrate. he had not yet been able to estimate. pragmatic. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Munt. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. using your own examples: insertion. 12 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.
1. affirmative sentences. Negative vs.7. Full – local negation 2.8. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Conclusion.22.214.171.124.6. Tests for negativity 2. Instances of negation 2.5. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Polarity Items 2. Key terms . Key terms 2.
Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.Positive vs. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Declarative vs. it asserts something. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Negative .2. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . in the sense that it states something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. For instance. in that they do not state anything. This example can be compared to: (2)a. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.) is said to be an assertion.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Consequently.
positive sentence . listen to this./ Don’t do that./ If you like her. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. don’t bother her.assertion . / Come with me.g.interrogative (e. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ We didn’t come here just to talk.positive and declarative secret.other (if –clauses. Did they tell her the secret? ) .g.) . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz./ She can’t wait to read that book.negative (e. comparison. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. They told her the ( e. / She finally admitted. 16 . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.g. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.non-assertion .Nadina VIŞAN .) .
) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2.3. In the case of the sentences under (4). since the negative word not is not present there. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. I met a girl named Susan.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. Susan dislikes her friends. (Nu demult. John is not happy. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. John is unhappy. For example. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. (John e nefericit. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) b. word negation.) 17 . Susan doesn’t like her friends. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.
just like in the case of word negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) c. In other words. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. In other words.) b.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. She was not an unattractive woman. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. these sentences look negative. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. but their meaning tells us a different story. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. since the negative word not is present inside them. where the word 18 . He was not without intelligence. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. I was not a little worried. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.
/ Când a aflat vestea. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. semantic negation./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.e. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Translate the following sentences into English. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.
affirmative sentences. ci doar indecişi. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. Negative vs. / Era el destul de isteţ. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. dar nu în mod special. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. 2. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat.
Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (see subsection 1. (Nu m-am dus acolo. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.). whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. etc. For instance.1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. such as do insertion. (M-am dus acolo. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) (9) I didn’t go there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.
does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / Susan did not get married to Jim. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. 22 . since it is followed by an affirmative question tag.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / She does not hate animals. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / We don’t come here often. incorrect./ They didn’t leave. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative.
not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. which is ungrammatical. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. which does not happen in the case of (18). and they don’t like her either. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. . Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. *and neither do they like her. even the smart ones. and neither do they like her. * and they don’t like her either. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. *not even the smart ones. 3. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. 4.
whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / They caused us no problems. / No problems were caused after all. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / A few of them stayed behind. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. 2. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . they need to refer to these tests of negativity. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.5. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they go skiing in the mountains. In conclusion. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / Few of them stayed behind. / This boy is no good. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / You have never met her.
(Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (27) a . b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-a venit John). (26) I saw nobody. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). I went nowhere.
( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. 26 . I didn’t see any student. / I didn’t ever go to his place. I never went to his place. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. b.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN b. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) c. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) (29) a. I didn’t see anybody.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. no incorporation takes place. All that glitters is not gold. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) b. I didn’t go anywhere. No day passed without me thinking of him.) b. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut nici un student. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not all that glitters is gold.
/ It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. nici măcar din alea scurte./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not one of them came to meet her. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / No one ever listens to her. / I didn’t see anybody. / I saw nobody. rarely.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory.) We seldom watch T. . because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. and we don’t go to the theatre either. seldom. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.4. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / He should not be released. (Nu citesc romane.V. barely. / None of them liked house music. etc. / Not a word fell from her lips. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / Not many women are famous opera composers. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. not even short ones. / I showed him nothing./ They never went there./ They didn’t come to meet her. scarcely.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly.) They barely read any novels.
(Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Never have I met a more horrible person.) b. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. . (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) c. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Few people came to see her.) d. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / Hardly anybody liked him.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I seldom look at her like that. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / I scarcely ever see her.) 28 them.
/ One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. in the sense that the 29 . sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / She could rely on nobody but him./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.) They don’t think that he likes them. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. never trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.
Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. In sentence (37). / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. intention. although not negative in meaning. intend. etc. guess. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.) 30 . She didn’t lift a finger to help me. be likely. be supposed to. believe. sound/feel like. choose. probability.6. the negative meaning is less strong. / He reckoned he would not win her over. barely. / They believe she does not like them. suggest. cannot appear in an affirmative context. advise. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / I expect he won’t come here again.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. want. / I suppose she doesn’t care. imagine.) b. be probable. look like. should be desirable. ought to. suppose.: think. we can very well say something like: (38) a. seem. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. For example. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. 2. appear. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. etc. expect. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. etc.) but also by the existence of certain elements that.
for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. and sentences such as: (39) a. b. are clearly not grammatical. *She likes our chairman at all. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context.*She lifted a finger to help me. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. That is 31 . I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.2. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.
I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) Any more vs. etc. / He arrived before 5. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I somehow like him. too. / Well. / She hardly ever comes here. / I can understand both of these 32 . / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I have already seen him. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Come on. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.) Much vs. / I like you a lot.) Until vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I have some money. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. too. / I eat caviar most of the times. still (I don’t love you any more. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I like it . / Don’t worry. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / They say he once had someone very close. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. you can still do something about it. / Bob is still living at that address. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.).) Hardly ever vs. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. either.) Yet vs.) At all vs. / I still love you) Either vs.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well. too (I don’t like it. some (I haven’t any money.
bat an eye(lid). touch a drop. give a damn/darn. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. hear a peep. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must be telling lies. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. hurt a fly. move a muscle. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. de când cu 33 . Ion nu e prea deştept. nici unuia dintre noi. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană)./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Ajută-mă. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. last a minute. have a care/ friend in the world. crack a smile. Translate into English. flinch. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. lay a finger on someone. say / breathe/ understand a word.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. have/be worth a red cent. / You must pay that fine. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. lift/raise/ stir a finger. sleep a wink. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. turn a hair. mulţumesc. know a single person. / Peter knows some English and so does John. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept./ I can understand all of these ten English words. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. find a trace. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. leave a stone unturned.
nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. but you really should do something about it. / No admittance. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / I had no end of trouble. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / No hands wanted. nu e vina mea. he left the room. / Hotărât lucru. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Nothing succeeds like success. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / He is no end of a fellow. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / No entry.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / No sooner said than done. n-a sunat încă. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. B: Aşi. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / He won’t make old bones. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. budge. As you have noticed from the exercises above. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / No trouble at all. / Not that I care. / Never is a long word. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. Translate into Romanian. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / No man is wise all the time. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. he’s a pig.
/ He is reluctant to ever say anything. 2. N-am văzut pe nimeni. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present.7. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. b) I love asking some funny remarks. as well: 35 . c) He is anxious to say something.Unit two Sentence negation rather). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences./ I saw no one. / I hate making any commitments. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. say it. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. Normally. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API).
) 2. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.8. nu-mi place. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. The second negation is somehow independent. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. nu poezia asta. B: Nu.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. (Nu.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. from a syntactic point of view. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. nu îmi place poezia asta. Key terms. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. I don’t. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. I don’t like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. 36 . Conclusion. B: Not this poem. however.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e. interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .
1.3 Alternative Questions 3. Optional Exercises . Direct vs. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3.3. Key Terms.3.2.2.Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 126.96.36.199.4. Minor Types of Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2 Wh.
) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.1. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.Unit three Questions 3. for a subsequent section. If we try to analyze the examples above.
the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. (2). Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. 48 . due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.g. (3) and (4). and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. pe mama. Pratice Translate the following questions in English.
Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. In the case of indirect questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Likewise. 49 . the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). Since the question is not direct any more. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. in this case. because. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5).
/ He asked me who she is. / He asked me who she was. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. identify the incorrect sentences. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. spune la un moment dat femeia. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. c) Ştii ce. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / I don’t know who she is. / I don’t know whom she fancies. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . ce culoare are pielea. sau mai bine zis. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită.
Unit three Questions 3. being typical of spoken language. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Let us provide 51 . as Quirk shows. the type of answer the respective question requires. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.2. In this case. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.
(you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (who / talk to last night)? 5.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. 3. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (how long / wait for me?) 10.1. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (which / you like best) ? 4. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (you / keep a secret) ? 8.
are said to be positively – oriented. they did. (Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . instead of Negative Polarity ones. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. it has. (Da).Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes.
A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’re still in your pyjamas.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. as in the example: 1. ……………………………. . (speak yet) B: ……. because you always copy everything I do! 5. ……………? (hear her) B: …. but I want to play basketball a little longer.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 4. A: You’ve been learning German for years. (tell me who does it for you) B: …... 3. …….. A: You look down. I’ve still got plenty of time. 2. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. 6. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. 7.. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. A: Your mother is shouting for you.. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. ………………….
how. ……………………………….. what .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . 9. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. 10. . A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 8. which When. A: It’s past your bedtime.. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. I didn’t get home until late last night.2 Wh – questions Wh. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. You could have mentioned it earlier. . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. A: There was a terrible car crash. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.Unit three Questions B: …………………. where.. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 3. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.2.
why ever. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie./ I have French lessons twice a week. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. what ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. I cannot do that.000dollars. / That’s my pen. trying to find places where I resided in life. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. of course. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / There are six students in my class./ She dropped her glasses. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / My new car cost 10. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / David’s car was stolen. / Shirley got married to Ben. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / She lives in the suburbs. (Poppy Z./ We’ve lived here for ten years./ Sara owns two cars. Nearly two hundred years. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often.
Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.2.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.) 57 .3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.
didn’t use he? 11. Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 14. There was a fax for you this morning. You can’t be serious. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Who did left the gate open? 18. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. wasn’t it there? 17. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 10. didn’t use he? 4. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. How far is it the cinema? 3. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. How long is she be spending in America? 8. shall we stay? 7.
paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. How long time does it take to get there? 28. plin de germeni virulenţi. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. isn’t it this? 25. How long have you be lived in London? 26. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Toate vechi. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. That’s your car. deci. să-mi înfrâng frica. uneori disperat. neliniştea infantilă. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. Who did told you about the problem? 31.Unit three Questions 19. deci. Whose it is this book? 32. Pot reveni. ca şi cei ce au fost. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. wasn’t it he? 22. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. will you not? 21. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. That was Jeremy’s brother. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. will you not? 27. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. despre o lume dură. John goes jogging every morning. doesn’t he go? 23. Ani întregi. dacă prin absurd 59 . Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul.
Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. “Spune! striga el. iar proştii. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. umed. Riscul? Ratarea. ghiceam doar unde se află. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. străină priceperii lor. murdar. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . îi ştiu gustul. mă întreb. inactivii. Şi. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. pe sub bolţile din care. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. de atunci. lung. pe care oricum am simţit-o. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. naiv. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. dar şi drumul. neîntrerupt. B. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. laşii. picură apa roşietică. indiferent de risc. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. puturos. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. negru. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba.
când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. didn’t she? . viaţa? Oare e drept. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. orbitor. Tag Questions Tag questions. nu se poate. la urma urmei. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. exclus. golul alb. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.Unit three Questions viaţă. 3. da? (37) Let’s go there. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. will you? (38) She went to Prague. care i-a determinat alegerea.3.3. domnule profesor.1. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door.
au fost cheltuiţi. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. or falling. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. sarcasm. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. the tag is affirmative too. or “comment tags”. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.) A: Oh. (Din păcate. the tag is negative too). since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet.e. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. hasn’t she? (Aha. aren’t they? 62 . reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. it’s all spent. The suggestion is that in this case. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. is it? (Deci. In this way. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. if the host sentence is negative.
/ A few people like her. / I think you don’t like my music. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Let’s eat dinner now. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Don’t leave without me.Unit three Questions (Se mută.…/ Let me know. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Each of us is staying. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. 63 . didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / She left an hour ago. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I may see you tomorrow. / Few people like her. / You will pick me up. / There are a lot of cars on that street. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Tell me. / There is enough food for everyone. / That was your father. / I think you like my music. / The boy often watched his sister. / She has a brother. / I don’t think you like my music. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / They said he liked music. / That’s your car over there. / You will pick me up at 7. / Surely you have enough money. / He has to marry Susan. after all. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / I must go now. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You ought not to smoke. / You have been invited. / I am older than you. / Everyone felt happy about it. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / He hates his wife. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / She used to talk a lot. / The boy never watched his sister. / He simply hates empty words. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer.
did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. or what? 3. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one./ I’m right about this…. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. 5. / He never used to study so hard….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1.. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. using a question tag at the end. He used to play squash. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. So you enjoyed my talk. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam.
2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) B: Chinese? 65 . / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.3.3. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.2. / Grants… 3.1. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.1. Recapitulatory echo questions .Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.
misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.2.2. disbelief.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Închide lumina aia.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.3. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. rather than the repetition.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. consternation. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. If the wh. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. of something just said. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .phrase is fronted.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.
/ I think I’ve found a hair in my soup./ He is interested in blue movies. / We are looking for a pixie. I’ve lost the letter. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. dear. am pierdut scrisoarea./ We are looking for a purse. / He is interested in music.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. intonation is rising. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. whereas with explicatory echo questions.e. which letter do you 67 . rather than did you say. with recapitulatory echo questions. (Vai. / I think I’ve found a solution.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (Uită-te la asta. (i.
does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. she knows about it. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.Nadina VIŞAN 3.4. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.
cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. în general. oameni aşezaţi. şerpoaica. ca să zic aşa. şi care s-a aciuat. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l.– Crezi tu. acuma sporovăiala. pe Condrat de Vica. cumnată Fenia. cu o casă de copii. lui Luca Horobeţ. şi apoi Vica ce zice. în satul nostru. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. nu purta verighetă. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. da. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. Are gust de oameni blânzi. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. lui Chizlinski. lui Stavre Păici. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. după pofte. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. stricata. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. să se încolăcească mai bine. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. Fenio. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. aşa.
Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. roşu şi galben. dar cum se face că a 70 . Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. sau cum o chema. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. L-a scos din geamie. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. De asta erai. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Hogea. deci. abia târându-şi picioarele. sus. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. până la călcâie. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată.
niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.
to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.
3.4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.5.Key Concepts .Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Contents: 74 4.Coordination and Subordination 188.8.131.52.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.
cu repros.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. that elements are coordinated. i. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. where there is no indication other than a comma. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. present) in the sentence. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. reproachfully.e. on the other hand. Example (2). some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.e.1 Syndetic vs. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.Unit four Coordination 4. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. 75 . The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.
vei muri. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. From the previously mentioned examples. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. you will die. 76 . subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure.) (4) If you hit my wife. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.) Such examples. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Conversely.Nadina VIŞAN 4. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.
the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. respectively subordinated constituents. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the second. but presupposed. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. However.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. we need to specify that. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. from a logical & semantic point of view.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.
stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. Then he sat down. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. with enormous solidity. In the second. of cut gray stone. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. Though the castle had vanished.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. John Steinbeck. He moved and made a slopping noise. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. In the first. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. took off his coat and emptied them. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. the houses were beautiful and ancient. His clothes hung to him. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. with formal walks under rows of trees. but the 78 . took off his shoes and emptied them. adorned with cornices. his shoes squished. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. built.
Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. over some of the roughest ground in the country. the higher he went the wetter it grew. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. left the house. and as the way is with Irish mountains. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.
we should be seriously annoyed.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. however distinguished. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. as shown in (9). Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. (G. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. As one can easily notice.3 Sentence vs. yesterday and the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. were to take down the name of every man.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.K.
) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. plays football. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 4. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 3. / Joan plays many games. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 5.Unit four Coordination example (7). our respective examinations. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and even tennis. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 7. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 2. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. yellow and blue. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Our flag is red. / Peter and John played football. John and Mary are ready. / Bob and George are admired by their students. but not John. 10. 8. Her pet kitten is black and white. and I passed. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John is ready and Mary is ready. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 6 John sang and Mary danced. / Peter. 9. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated .
) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. 6. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Activity 4 2.) b.) c. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. John loves and Bill hates cigars. as can be seen in (10b). or deleted.Nadina VIŞAN b. Jane 82 . b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 5. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. 3. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. John writes poetry and Bill prose.
Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 9. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Besides ellipsis. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. the predication buy a pair of shoes. these syntactical processes. 8. i. the so-called Principle of Economy. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. 10. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. than a longer repetitive one.e.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 83 . (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. So. can be reduced by substitution. 7.) The common element. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying.
George and Jane are separated. In certain cases. Translate the following sentences. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. 2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 4. some reason or another. using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane went back to their parents. A citit. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. simple books and magazines for children 3. 3. one or (the) other method. the old men and women 2. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 4. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau.
11.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 8. 6.. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 13. sweet and sour. 8. A pendulum swings ………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.. I need another 100$ ………. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Marks and Spencers. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. After all their adventures.I searched ………. of your proposals later on? 3. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 5. for my wallet. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. only for damage. They get on quite well together. 5.. 2. 7. fish and chips. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 15.… 14. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. Can we discuss the …………. even though they have their little …………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time.. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….. 6. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 12. 16.. . Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 .You gain some things and you lose others. like: salt and pepper. the amount I’ve already saved up. they reached home………. it’s a case of ………… 7. You can’t claim on insurance for ……….
(Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. In fact. b. the expressive function of coordination is. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. etc. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. of course.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.4. 4. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. as in: (17) a. and 86 . For instance. more often than not. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) There are. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Nor sun.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear.
(I-am dat banii.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. where the subordinator is repeated.) c. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. 20 (b)). If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. too): (20) a.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. both … and . o respectau si o indrageau. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.g.) 87 . (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) In certain cases. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) b. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. or . sometimes but. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. etc). and cherished her.
Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. and you’ll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (Imi place si o admir. From this point of view. I admire and like her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.) b. I washed and ironed my pants. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. (O admir si imi place. and hit my wife. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. In this case.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. I like and admire her. if we were to rewrite the example .) b.* I ironed and washed my pants.
) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed). Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) (While Dr. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Brown experiments with humans. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.Unit four Coordination 1. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (If you do that.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. 97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.which are based on coordination .g. as the name suggests it. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.) 101 . This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. e. 5. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. From the functional point of view.
they are still presupposed by the speaker. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. for instance.) 102 . In a way. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. an adverbial item. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. in certain cases. (I-a dat cartea. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). For instance. we associate it with these objects. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. sentences) required by the verb (or. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. by an adjective + preposition. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. for example). We do not presuppose however something like. such as proud of.
has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. Thus. i. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. A second observation. The second example. I am afraid that he won’t come. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. to her) and one extra-item.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. an additional one. related to example (4).) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects.e. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) b. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. 103 . to add something. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. In other words. which is the adverbial willingly. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.
a închis toate ferestrele. make.) 104 . before you decide on what label to stick on an object. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. So. such as want. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. am să mor.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. (Înainte să plece din cameră. like. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. I’ll die. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. etc. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (11) If you don’t marry me.
She came to him of her own will. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. she looked at me sadly. [. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Susan disappeared without saying a word. The book that because they home. 5.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.g. this to whomever wants it. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 3. 6. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Whoever did that was a genius. They came to e. e. 2. After I told her the story. 4.g. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.g.
at our age. 4. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. You suggestion that we should. but he declined. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian.) 106 . As you can see. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 2. was a novelty to Mitzi. 6. WHETHER. 5. FOR. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses.He took an intelligent interest in her. etc. not object. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 3. though it was largely politeness. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. which.
(14) I was afraid of what he might say. when. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. etc. 107 . where. Who did it was John.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. who. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. Where he went is London.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (15) It is John who did it. why. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. which.) (16) a. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) b.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (E de dorit să plece.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. how. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.
these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. etc. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. done from a structural point of view. As you will see. In (18).Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In conclusion. consider the following table.1. Compare. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. which sums up this classification. Unlike complement clauses. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.) (18) She told me this before she left. for instance.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. if. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . before. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. however. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.
surely you cannot sincerely believe. I will go there because I feel like it. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. as. at your young age. 109 . etc. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. for. whether he will come when I feel like it. I will come back such as because. Introduced know e. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. you understand. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.: e.g.g. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. back. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. Dear Ludwig.g.
that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. But she thought that no one would call again. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. Accidental Man) b)1. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. Late that afternoon. she stopped to speak to Monroe. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. he said. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.The day Monroe had died was in May. 2. a tightening in her breathing. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. Too. As she left the house.
2. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. That he loved e.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. However.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. interesting. As you have probably noticed already. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. I told her everything after she arrived. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. 111 .g. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. că e.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. a correspondence can be traced.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g.
In the fourth place. Secondly. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. (Cred că mă place. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. complements.complement. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.. So. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. i. We will come back to that in the next chapter.e.2.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). whenever you identify a wh.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. whereas wh complements are the 112 .1. Thirdly.
I first thought to tell in 113 . The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. a house. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.g. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. because. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. for no matter how she tried. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. their introductory elements (e. and I do not know how things might stand between us. Pratice Consider the following text. after. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. outbuildings. a barn. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. but no idea what to do with them. before. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. c) I am coming home one way or another. She mistrusted her handwriting. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano.
and I have not the will or the energy. it would make you fear to do such again. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. According to a structural criterion. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. these clauses can be complements. because they modify.e. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.4.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return.
însă. Pratice Translate the following.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart.g. Nevasta secera în tăcere. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. look at. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Alţii. interested in. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1.e. think of.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. îşi spuseseră că Anton. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. (…) “Mă. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. după ce că are grâu puţin. 115 . ce o fi având. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. answering the question to whom? So. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. O zbughi înapoi. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. be very careful to use this term correctly. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. etc.
cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. izolate de sat. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. Nici acum. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. întâi. de fapt. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. cât de bolnavă era. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. timp de un ceas.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. Toată lumea înţelesese că. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos.
amânase scrisul. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Iată. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Era bine de ştiut. În realitate. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. deşi cam târziu. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. la Odobeşti. acum sunt desluşiţi. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Pace nu era. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. de pildă. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. la nişte prieteni comuni. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. aşa de oţetit. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. stricau totul. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila.
(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. frate. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.
g. whose. etc. etc). accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.. subject relative clauses. of which.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. 119 . the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.
2. Relative Clause Introducers 6.5.6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 184.108.40.206.3. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Key Concepts . The Co-reference Condition 6.
Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.2. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.1. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. The Co-reference Condition . 121 . The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. 6. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.
(Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. John loves that woman. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. By combining these two clauses. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. 122 .
we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. This way. 123 . The common element woman is present. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent.
I love my husband very much. 7. 4. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. by leaving behind a trace. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I lost the book’s cover. WHO 5. He told Jim everything about his plans. 6. Susan wants to meet Jane.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. None of the students agreed with them. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. John told his friend a story about the king. He’s the author who received the prize. 10. 3. frequently used in written language. The king was just passing by. WHERE 3. WHICH 4. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. They met those students. Any of the students would answer to questions. He liked that book. I bought Jim a book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. therefore in spoken English. too. I introduced him to Jim. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. WHO 124 . The students like their teacher. The students like their teacher. 2. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I had a book. She came to London. 8. This is my husband. I went to London. 5. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. 9.
To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. (Cine strică plateşte. WHOM 10. WHOSE 7. WHOM 6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. . (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. i.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent.e.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. 2. TO 11. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHICH 8. relative clauses are divided into 1. most of them were from England. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.
(Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. these relatives cannot function as attributes. it is covert. unlike in the case of (14). we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. is no longer overtly expressed.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.e.) So. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. Unlike their sisters. in a manner of speaking. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.
) (Mercury. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. este zeul meu favorit. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (22) Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. they define it). and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (Mercur. They can be thus divided into: 1.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. care este zeul negoţului. 127 . (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (Du-te unde pofteşti. who incidentally is the god of commerce. is my favourite god. who is the god of commerce. They only provide supplementary information about it.
i. 8. She. Independent I don’t know what you want. who is a genius. who came to see me. As we were saying. 7.e. 6. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. on whom nobody could depend. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 10. 9.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. They are what 128 . Shakespeare. On the day on which this occurred I was away. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met.This is the village where I spent my youth. this type of relative clauses. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. I have met him where I least expected. restrictive relative clauses. 5. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 2. is a genius. was the one we all welcomed and admired. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. is a great playwright. then it is an attribute. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car.
Consider the following points of discussion: 1. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. When the antecedent has no determiner. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. etc. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. however sad this may be. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. who died a few years ago. a. composed The (Freddie Mercury. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.) 2. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. 6.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. care a murit acum câţiva ani. etc. .
3. ill-tempered.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic).) Pratice Translate the following. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. (Ei apeleaza la mine. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. (Eu. Dintre toate personajele prezente. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. bătrînă morocănoasă.) (28) They come to me. ci o fată a woman. 6. 2. numai eu nu. but a peevish. 7. who neither work nor am anxious.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. dried-up old maid. can see your shortcomings only too well. 130 . prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 5. 4. who am your son. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Mie. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. poftiţi în faţă.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. îţi văd prea bine defectele. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. iritabilă şi uscată. care nu sunt o femeie. care-ţi sunt fiu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă.
heard. . părăsi camera.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. than whom few more can be more crashing. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. (32) service finished late. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. were now in his possession.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.Unit six Relative clauses 6. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. erau acum în posesia lui. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.
(Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.) b. too.1.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.5.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. as can be seen in (36d).) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. 6.) c. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. literary style: (37) a. but it is typical of the formal.) b.) d. The genitive form with which is still in use.
) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Iris Murdoch. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.
al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. by the way.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (45) (46) . … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.) b. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) • states. of which. He is not the man which he used to be. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. animals. … Italy. ships (that can be personified) a.) b. but to a type or a function: a.
pe care o privea direct. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (Nu ştiam ce vor. whom it concerned most closely. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) 135 (47) . the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) b.Unit six Relative clauses b. It is poor what gets the punches.) 6.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. where. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. time. etc.2 Relative Adverbs: when. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. etc. how. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. why. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. France.5. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. reason.) b) dialectal (49) a. while.
(Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.3.) 6. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) 136 . Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) e. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) b. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. The place whither he goes is unknown. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.They left when they decided it was proper to.) c. A system where by a new discovery will arise. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. He went where he had been before. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) When they introduce free relative clauses.5. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. They returned to the land whence they had come.
] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. Moreover. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.
era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. but • in standard language a.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car.4. but they are used very infrequently: as. every. . not any. much. 138 (64) his shoes. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. any.) b.5. I’ll get you such things as you may want.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. Honest man as he was.
) • in dialect a. ăl de fusese in China…) b. This is the same one that/as you had before.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.) c. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. And always on the buttered side. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. It’s the dry weather does it. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. There’s not many as’ll say that. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.) c. Uncle George. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. .
) b. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.
7. It seemed a thing 141 . we all have to come to some terms. Where he was from. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.) c. 5. 6. 2. That which shows God out of me.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. What Inman remembered was this passage. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) b. What I’m saying is. The man who John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.” 4. 3. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. The man that John spoke to is a genius.5. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. The man John spoke to is a genius. makes me a wart and a wen.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.3): (72) a.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. fortifies me. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. This is where we talk money. b.
he had left Ruby high and dry. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. (…) Partly. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 9. 8. who had not witnessed many dawns. 11. Whatever his fate was. 13. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. of living. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. which is a lot. 10. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 142 . b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. though. Oh. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. Ruby said. 12.
care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. un var primar. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. pe linie paterna. cumnatul unui portughez. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. nu prea sarac. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. (Iris Murdoch. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . plutonier. vasnic. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. fiu natural al unui morar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. mort de tanar. al carei strabunic. pirpiriu. Cumnatul meu avea.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa.al lui. poate. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. divortata.
) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.2. insurat de trei ori la rand. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. 144 . She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . I lost the cover of the book. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Everybody listened to that woman. Teatru) 6. c.6. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was a woman. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. By extension. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. This is the book. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. The opposite phenomenon. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. b. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.
4. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 7. no easy answers to which could be offered. has been troubling them forever. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. In the interest of public decency. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 3. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The difference between (76) and (77). 8. 6.Unit six Relative clauses b. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The problem of safe transportation. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 2. 5. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. he requested that the public be excluded. acting again as a genuine pied piper. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 9.
that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. he rarely saw now. 5.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 146 . was now complete. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). as the case is). no matter which.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 4. Irene. His friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.His father’s friends. Activity 9 were now all gone. has been deleted. 6. 3. whose interest he most sincerely shared. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 2. This story. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. They do not function as attributes. 10. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have).
spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Toate sfârşeau. 2. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. himeric. închipuirea. De douazeci de ani. 4. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . Nelu. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pentru alţii. 3. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 6. 5. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 7.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. pentru dumneata bunăoară.
Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. a făcut el. 12. 9. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. 10. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 8. cu surle şi cu tobe.
Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. zise ea cu ochii mari. din care cauză pe Dora. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. trăia larg de tot. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. din direcţia căreia apoi. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. 16. 18. despre care. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Dacă mă lovea. 20. 15. de unde venea şi Marta. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. În spatele lor. fie la teatru. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. deşi atât de aproape.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. apărură. 149 . apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. care era foarte “mondenă”. pe strada Icoanei. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. toată lumea întreba cine e. fie pe stradă. 17. 14. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Avea acum un fel de vertij. roiuri de fetiţe. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. până mai adineauri.
22. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 23. de sus de unde eram. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. Pentru mine însă. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. pe care ea îi admira acum. când au urcat râpa iar. după ce maşina a fost reparată. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. aveau un stil al lor. Pare-se că snobii. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. de mine.Nadina VIŞAN 21. 24. pe care eu nu-l aveam. până în şosea.
by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 .
1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2. That Deletion 7. That Complements as Subjects 220.127.116.11. Key Concepts .18.104.22.168.Clause Shift 7.Topicalization 22.214.171.124.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.4.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 126.96.36.199.2.3.Extraposition 7.1. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.5. That Complements as Direct Objects 188.8.131.52.3.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.2. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2.3.
the clause is extraposed. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. (3) Tell me if you need anything. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. but also of infinitival ones. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). placed in a marginal position. 7.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.1. In other words. 153 . (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. Apart from those introduced by that.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.
Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.
You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 4. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 6. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 3. It appears that no one voted for him. 3. 11. 10. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 7. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 13. It is nice to meet you. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 6. It is no use trying to convince her. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 15. 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 8. 14. 9. 10. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 2. 11. 9. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 5. 4. 2. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 7.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1.
It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 5. 2. 4. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 3. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 2. după porţi. I guess it that he will come back. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. atât 156 . unde se nimerea. în canal. 5. They never expected it that he would come back.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. zice Lionel. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 3. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 2. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. mă ascundeam în grabă.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 6. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 4. sub poduri. 18. în gropi.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill.
vor căuta să o zdruncine. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. 157 . răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. 6. fără să cârteşti. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Spunând cele ce-am spus. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Mi s-a părut chiar că.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. excelentă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. fără îndoială. 5. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. (Nu întotdeauna.” 4. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. 7. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză.
) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Consequently.2. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.) While in the case of extraposition. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. subject clauses are the frequent situation.Nadina VIŞAN 7.1. Pratice Read the following. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. this asymmetry is undone. in the case of topicalization. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. 1. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.
To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. was inconceivable. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. She had always been the slave of chance. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. mere chance would decide. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 5. 8. he felt no spring of interest in her. He was utterly gone. 7. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 6. This was another era. 3. He did not blame Gracie. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. but not now. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 2. even today. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . whether it would finally carry her off. 4. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina.
Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.) 160 . This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.1. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.3. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.
clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. the verb to drive).) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. we obtain.e.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. 161 .Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.
He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 8. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. prime-minister. 7.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 2.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 4. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. who had just returned from Africa. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 3. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 6./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 5. 162 .*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.
) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.Unit seven That complements 7. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .2.
They promised him that he would received a new house. etc. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. predict. deem. state. They believe the man is guilty.) a. deny. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. He announced their engagement. desire.) b.2.) 164 .) b.1. He announced that they were engaged. prefer. explain. promise.Nadina VIŞAN 7. afirm. consider. communicate. (I-au promis o casă nouă. judge. (Cred că omul este vinovat. estimate. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. They believe that the man is guilty. etc. suggest.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.: (25) a.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
In older stages of English. hope =>purpose.) language. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. ibid. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.e. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) 172 .) I like him in that he is smart. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. on condition that. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. for example. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. they lose their meaning. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.
Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. . să o vadă trecând.) b. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) (66) 173 a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. That can be deleted.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) When the structure contains the word such. that we wouldn’t doubt it. He gave an answer such. He gave such an answer as had expected. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.
6) John made it clear that he disagreed.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. He gave an answer such that I had expected. for better or worse. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. ibid.) b.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. they were chained to each other forever. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.) 174 . 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.
He said he had borrowed her money.) b. (69) a.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A prins de veste că ei vin. that he uses a relaxed tone.3.) c. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.1. 175 . (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. He showed he was able to do it.Unit seven That complements 7. He got word they were coming.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. tell). say. for instance.
because that has been deleted. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. they were chained to each other forever. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. they were chained to each other forever. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. I like it that he was here. ibid. bune.Nadina VIŞAN 7.2. *I like it he was here. for better or worse. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.) (De asemenea. rele.3. 7. (Iris Murdoch.3.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.) b. (Îmi place că e aici. for better or worse.
Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. (“Este acolo”. 7) They maintain. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. you want me to believe. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 7. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. simultaneity. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. spuse el. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. he said. which is ungrammatical in English. that they were not too late to leave. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.4. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) 177 .) b)He told me that she was there. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.
vine el.) Future Perfect -----. He told me that she had been there. The Present complement). he said.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. (A spus că.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.) b. (A spus că o să o părăsească. In the example below. până pleacă ea. I will leave her. spuse el. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (“Era acolo”. o să vină el.) b. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . (Am să o părăsesc. (Pâna să plece.) b. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. “She was here”. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. He said he would leave her.
be amazed/concerned. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. show. say.) b. hope.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. With such factive verbs as realize. believe.) 179 . be aware. mention. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. regret. realize it). (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. notice. forget.) On the other hand. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. insist. dream.etc. discover. etc. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. think. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. whisper. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. report. wish.
we notice that general truths. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. feign habits which are not their own. Consider also: (85) a. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) b. She believed that the earth is round. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. 180 . She still believed that the earth was flat. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. (Iris Murdoch. He knew that she thought all men were fools.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. She realized that all men are fools. in tender deference to each other.) b. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.
(Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.Unit seven That complements 2.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. Peter said that John would leave at 5. such as a. 3. 181 .) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) b. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. There are however cases.) In (88). Peter said that John will leave at 5.
d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. But 182 . f) John said that Harry would leave. John said that Harry will leave. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. The time is 3 o’clock. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. Imagine. g) John thought that Harry ran. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. h) John thought that Harry had run. for instance. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided.
c. kingfisher. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. nighthawk. slyness in a fight. Cooper’s hawk. Crows will relish what presents itself. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. love of practical jokes. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. She admired their keenness of wit. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. lack of pridefulness. b. quail. a. 183 . h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. as evidenced by its drear plumage. bluebird. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. whistling swan. lark. jaybird.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Translate the following. geese both grey and white. redtailed hawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow.
He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. And they might just hang him. He died erect. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. in the very act of expiring. he claimed. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. war hero though he was. But as the battle raged around them. He had fought hard through the war. Now here he stood jailed. the young officer. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. with the hammer snapping on empty loads.
object ones up to the attributive function.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. or else. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).Unit seven That complements 7. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. from the very frequent subject. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. on other occasions it has to stay there. 185 . which they share with wh-complements. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. On certain occasions that can be deleted. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).
3. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 4. Unul din ei. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. 2. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Mama. cel mai mare. peste puţin. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Fiind 186 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă.
nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. venind de la avocat. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 9. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. 6. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. de ce constata în sine. 5. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. aşa. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. va pleca din oraş la vie. fericit. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. luminos şi apropiat şi când.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. un vis de acesta 187 . ea. Se mira. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. dacă va mai veni. care îl pândise. Nu ţi-a trecut. 7. cel puţin pentru un timp. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. 8.
urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. 11.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. şi mândria că a biruit. Astfel de va fi. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. fireşte. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. lucrul era înfăptuit. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. liniştit. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. 12. dar şi teama că. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Acesta. încă o dată. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor.
Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. ci numai aşa. Pe toate. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. mai puternic decât oricând. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . 14. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. după cum. să le lămurească pe toate. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. fără o vorbă scrisă. spre Jurubiţa.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.2.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.4.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.9.Key Concepts .1.3.5.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.7.6.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.
(I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important that you should know what you need. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. That you love her is something wonderful. I told her to be more careful in the future. (3) a. It is important for you to know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (2) a.) b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. To love her is something really wonderful.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. I told her that she should be more careful in the future.1. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).) b. 193 . From this perspective. Consider the following: • like that complements.) • like that complements. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. b.
English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. participial clauses. d. as opposed to the finite ones. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. etc. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. moduri nepersonale) By convention. For instance. gerundial clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. the Conditional.e. 2.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.) b. the Gerund. 194 . they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Participle) (i.
the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) c. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) b. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time.) 195 . namely no ending.
8. 4. 10. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. It is vital this factory to be reopened. the criterion of form. 5. 9. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.2. 6. 2. 8. 7.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 3. (7) They saw her leave. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.
(A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. (10) 197 . / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. 2.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. hear. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată.
/ A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. Pratice Translate the following.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. However. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. uncharacteristic for literary English. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. . this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. 3. 198 (11) the universe. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.
so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. as I have already mentioned. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. In other words. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. to use the appropriate technical term. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. Further on. 199 .) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. or the control constructions. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.
) b. It is important for him not to err.) b.) In this situation. namely the agent of the event. (E important ca el să nu greşească. the logical subject.) Object: (18) a. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. So far. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. I hoped for him to be there in time.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. şi creştineşte să ierţi. PRO to forgive divine.) 200 . we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. PRO to err is human. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.
(S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. He stepped aside for her to enter. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . not to the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. Semantically. but the patient of the verb persuade.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).) b. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. him is related to the main clause verb. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. him is not the agent of the infinitive. In other words. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.
from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Likewise.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ I allowed them to come. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ I would love them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ 202 . nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. I hate animals to be tortured. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ She wanted him to leave. \ They tempted him to leave. \ He persuaded her to come.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ She promised him to leave. \ They convinced her to come back. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.
(Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.) In examples (25) and (26). and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. So. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. 203 . Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.) He seems to be a good linguist. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. • Last but not least. \ They did not wish her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. \ They really asked her to come back.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.
/ N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. 204 . / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. which are said to be free. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. hate. To sum up the discussion./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. that is not required by certain verbs. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. seem. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. to meet her. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her.). both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. appear. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. etc. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.
want. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. 8. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. bear. deign. deserve. care to.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. arrange. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. propose./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. hope.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. agree to. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. etc. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. hate.3 The Distribution of PRO . afford. . aspire to. condescend. omit. scheme.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. endeavour. try. contrive. / E greu să îl suporţi. wish. like. etc. venture. presume.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. expect. fail.) 205 friend. dislike. refuse. manage. Compare: (31) a. prefer.) b) verbs such as abide. desire. intend. need. seek (= try). decline. scorn. mean. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. etc.
(Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. conclude.) 8. claim. stand.) 206 .4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. unlikely. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. ask.Nadina VIŞAN b. etc.) b. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. threaten. endeavour. I hate that you should say a thing like this. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. possible.) b. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. however. bear. desirable. suggest. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) b. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. I would like for him to become president of the country. verbs of liking and disliking. be important. forget.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. For all of them to have been killed is.etc.
) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 8.) 207 . (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) b. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 2. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.
I decided for John to represent us. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. but the meaning remains. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. .) b. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) b. the preposition is deleted.) 4. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Direct Objects (39) a.) 208 knowledge.) 5. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Like in the case of that complements.
bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. You’re an idiot to go there. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. etc.) e. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. 6. curious about.) d. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) c.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. He is a bastard to work for.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. The stew is delicious to eat. delicious. She is pretty to look at.) b.: (42) a. This paint is like concrete to work with.
/ E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Ehei.) I’ve never met him./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. you’re a bad driver. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / Pe şleau. to tell you the truth. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. să nu piardă trenul. conduci prost. final or introductory infinitive In this case. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. drept să spun.) Oh.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.
) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. press.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. enable. inform. direct. promise. induce.: (51) a. etc. b. need. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. (49) a.) . nu mai vreau să te vad. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. According to this. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. influence. 8. inspire. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.) b. encourage. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. oblige. urge. swear.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.etc. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.
prevail on. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. elect. vote. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. permit. name. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. etc.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. command.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. count on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. choose./ And now he 212 . etc. depend on. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. order. nominate.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. look to. allow.etc.
7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. seem.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Iris Murdoch.verbs: appear. i. grow. be about to. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Se pare că îi place de el. this construction is lexically governed. happen. (56) She grew to like him in the end. An Accidental Man) 8. 213 (58) (59) .: (55) She appears to like him. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).e. be going to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.etc. (57) He is to come any day now.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. etc. etc.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. come. (O să întârzii/ leşin.
Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.etc. watch. be alleged. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). etc. feel. perceive. .) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.) 8. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. (L-au auzit insultând-o.: (62) They heard him insult her. be rumoured. overhear. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. etc.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. observe. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. be thought. In (57). hear. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. be considered. be reported. that of intention. be claimed.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.
find. believe. remember. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. figure. occasion. judge. prove. discover. recollect.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.) 215 (67) . (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. know. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.) • with a full infinitive: get. (Cred că este un geniu. imagine. presume.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. deem. have. etc. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. consider. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. cause. understand. However.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. picture.
(I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. they had depressed and fuddled him. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. etc. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. prefer. command.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. permit. choose. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. love.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. expect.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. want. he hated anyone to comment 216 .) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. if he himself was out of spirits. Harold. mean. order.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. desire. who wasn’t used to men with moods. wish.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.etc. suffer. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.
A little crossly. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. the herd instinct was very strong in him. to make sure we attended strictly to business. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. he didn’t envy those above it. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. (L. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . Both seemed to him a little unreal. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. He suspected hostility at once. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. so that we might get to the future and have done. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same.P. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. though he tended to look down on those below it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.
Nadina VIŞAN 8. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. From this perspective.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. 218 . we can speak about bare and full infinitives. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. The last criterion. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.
lovit şi umilit. E posibil. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. să-l capete. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. e) Când doi oameni.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. de asemenea. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. un bărbat şi o femeie. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. e important ce întrebări pui. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. Şi tu să fii. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. bunăoară. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. fireşte. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. într-o zi. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. de bună seamă. dar să nu-ţi spună. mai bine219 .
Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. aşa cum îi apăruse el. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.Şt. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. pe care deja o uitase.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. să nu vrea să se şteargă. în parte. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Însă Paul Achim trăise.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. că eşti tânăr. sau. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. d-a lungul gâtului. (B. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. De era vară. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. 220 . Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană.Nadina VIŞAN zis. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în jos. un picior. să traiesc numai cu tusea. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. mai bine de două decenii. Să spui de pildă. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. mai pline de înţeles. încă.Şt. în ploaie. . avusese dreptate. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. în parte. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.Delavrancea. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.
m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. un miros îngrozitor.. orice bucureştean ştie. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. (Al. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. ei.. Într-un cuvânt. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. Mă laud singură. biata Muti. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta.. fie ea şi grăbită. de fapt. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). şi nu un amant. sunt aici cu tot ce am.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. orice-ar fi. o mizerie.. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. deşi. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. nici ca să 221 . prin faţă e coborârea. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. şi prin faţă. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.
Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .
verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles.
2.3.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Gerund 9.2.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.The Verbal Noun 184.108.40.206 Key Concepts . ING Forms and Infinitives 220.127.116.11.The Participle Contents: 224 18.104.22.168.Participial Constructions 22.214.171.124.
The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.) 225 . One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Due to this situation.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.
226 . Susan has come.) More infrequently. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. In (2) the forms come. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. Susan has been killed. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. too: (6) Her eye-lids. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.e. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. i. were closing. (A venit Susan) b. blood-shot and painted. it functions attributively.) As you can see in this second case. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track).) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. been and killed are past participle forms. the past participle can appear after a noun. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.
(Ştiind cine era el. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) b. Arriving here.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. If provoked. I will arrive there on time. o să ajung la timp. (Sosind aici. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. Oh.) d. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. începură să cânte. he will eventually marry her.) c.) c. people should pay attention to high notes.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. Weather permitting. When singing. a lion can attack. o să ajung la timp. leul poate să atace. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. ea o luă la fugă. mother permitting.) b. they started singing.) 227 . God willing. I will arrive there on time. she ran away. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.
(L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. behold.) ii. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) 228 . This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. I found him stealing. (L-am descoperit furând.) b.) b. respectively. He was found stealing.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. hear. watch. notice. smell. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (L-au descoperit că fură. He was found killed by a bullet. (Am simţit-o tremurând. which stands for an adverbial clause. They found him killed by a bullet.
) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. a. send. etc. etc. I must get my hair cut.) • Causative verbs: get. leave. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . etc. have. (A fost văzut plângând. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. I heard it said that men are a bore.) c. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. have. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. etc. start. keep.) • Causative verbs: get . recollect. feel.) b.: a. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. hear.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. confess. she knew herself dismissed.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. He’ll soon get things going. make a. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) • mental perception verbs: remember. recollect.) b. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. set. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. know.) b.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. find. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.: When she heard his words.
(I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English.) • verbs of permission. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) b. command I ordered my bill made out. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. lovit şi plin de sânge. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. He wanted his car fixed immediately. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. / Nu după multă vreme. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . Men like shopping made easy.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.
/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. / My Lord. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.e. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / In any case.2. / Dinny. 231 . / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom.1. Unlike the gerund. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.
I have looked through the fashion magazine. I left. I turned on the light. am plecat. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I was astonished at what I saw. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. People were sleeping in the next room. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . 5.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I left. 6. It had been uprooted by the gale. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. (Văzând acestea. am plecat. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. 7. using either a present participle. She had heard it all before. 2. 3. The tree had fallen across the road. se va opri şi ploaia. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (Desi nu ştia limba. I knew that the murderer was still at large.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 4.She didn’t want to hear the story again.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. the rain will stop.
open. minded (3 times). straight. Dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. Passing under a ladder. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. three. a scorpion bit him. lighted. coloured. wooden. I let the dog out of the room. Tied to the post. fishy. 9. my hands often get very cold. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. haired (twice). b) Headed (5 times). 12. many. red (twice). lion. cornered. roast. 10. empty. They began quarreling about how to divide it. bald. Read the sentences and try to correct them. 4. sharp. shaven. mown. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. quick. They found the treasure.shoulder. 5. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. narrow. broad. 233 . He sat down to his own dinner. stony. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. 8. 9. open. Reading in bed. Riding in the first race. handed. skinned. his horse fell at the last jump. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 8. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Climbing down the tree. the sea was tossing the post up and down. eagle. 6. 2. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. eyed (3 times).Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. covered. I slammed the door of my room. stricken. dark. 10. He fed the dog. 11. cloth. Leaving the cinema. Mother punished me for my mistake. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Barking furiously. one of the eggs broke. 3. 7.Running into the room. drunken. Getting out of bed. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. hearted (twice). The following sentences contain misrelated participles.
are in grave danger of extinction. are sold throughout the world. / Many old people . shrunken. shorn. the same verb is missing twice.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. bounden. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. Whales. rotten. The film. (find) 6. 7. wealth. image. (injure). umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . are having difficulties in making both ends meet. meat. duty. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. plank. were taken to hospital. Translate into English: 1. _______ by S. hidden. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. candle. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. I stared at the canvas for ages. (admire) 5. is expected to be a great hit. / Three people. In the following pairs of sentences. meaning. _______ for a bargain.Spielberg. / Swiss watches./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (produce) 3. _______ my arm. was today taken back to prison. man. (grow) 4.I fell on the ice. (take) 2. deer. The escaped prisoner. b) grass. ill-gotten. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. head. eyes. ________ hiding in a barn._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. stream. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. _______ for their elegance and precision. graven. lead. lamb.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (hunt).
ca şi cum. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. 2. le cocea. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. care le rânduia. când strânsă. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. 4. şi moi. trezit. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. 3. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. legume date prin mai multe ape. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. le fierbea. păsări tăiate. întinse. deodată sufocat. când deschisă. După câtva timp. precum şi foile de plăcintă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Şi sufletul său. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . nesigur şi moale. O umbreluţă. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Şi. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă.
) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.Nadina VIŞAN 9.1. Likewise.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Dacă vezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. According to this criterion. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. crezi. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. 236 .2.2. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. The Gerund 9.
Consider the following table.) b.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) 9. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. gerunds differ from participles. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. His winning and your losing were both surprising. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.2.2. In that. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. Him winning and you losing was surprising.) b.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. That he won and you lost was surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.
In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. as being verbal 238 . (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.) b. Consider (32). This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. It was illegal to grow a beard. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.) Unlike participles. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. *It was illegal growing a beard.) 2. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.
) b. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.3. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.) b. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) 3. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.2. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. Participles vs. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. It’s no good talking to her.) 9.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. as offered in the table below: 239 .
Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles may function adverbials: house. + noun] 1. babies suck their thumb. 2. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. 3. (adverbial of time) 4. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. perfect. forms: continuous . passive ones She was crying. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. (prepositional object clause) 5.
/ Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English.
What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 4. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 242 . Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 11. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 15. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. shooting gallery / shooting star. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 12. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 8. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 2. 14. 7. 5. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 6. 12. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 10. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 3. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. eating habits/ eating people. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 13. He was spotted talking to her. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. crying game / crying woman. 9. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. swimming duck / swimming trunks.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată.
but the presence of a direct object (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. a The absence of an of phrase. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e.3.) The absence of a determiner like the.Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.
This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. In the second situation. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. George’s shooting the attacker. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. if we were to go back to our incomplete table.
very large.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. 245 . Jim left quietly. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / His coming there puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff.
(A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. ING Forms and Infinitives.4. whenever we meet an –ing form. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. for example. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). For instance. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.Nadina VIŞAN 9. However.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. the meaning is different. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. It has been noticed that. Look. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. With the infinitive.
posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. anterior to the verb in the main clause. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. the infinitive is future-oriented.) After looking at this example. On the other hand. containing an infinitive. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.) . The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. having left) is infrequently used in English. (S-a oprit din mâncat.) The first example. future-oriented value of the infinitive). the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.g. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. and the most well-known one. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.
i. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). which means that they are similar in meaning.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. recollect. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) . the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) As you can see. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.e. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.e.
(Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the action is not completed. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. but that’s it.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. In the second example.) .) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. dar asta este.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the petrol tank is not filled yet.
they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) 250 . (Casa trebuie reparată. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. want With [+ human] objects.) b. In the second example.) wedding. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. mean has the sense signify.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) With [. (Casa trebuie reparată. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. the event has not happened yet. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. The house needs repairing. The house needs to be repaired.human] objects. e) need.
Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. my Lord. my Lord.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. (take) down her answer. whereas in the second case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ ‘Tell me. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Lady Corven. Croom (try) (follow) one. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. however appearances were against us. I did ask Mr. it’s overrated. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘In any case. but they went by too quickly. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . gerund or infinitive.
he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. and went out (post) it himself. suddenly. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. Then. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. licked the envelope with passion.’ 252 . But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. I must go back now. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). I just used the word and they fell. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. he addressed the note.’ said Clare.
We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Pratice In the following texts. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Last but not least.Unit nine Ing complements 9. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.5. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Participles mainly function as adverbials. the 253 . The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.
it 254 . It was like a mist.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. but then he saw it billowing up from below. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. their edges crashing inwards. then the noise and the cracking stone. The two sides were moving apart. At first. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. moving up towards his chest. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. someone looking for survivors. The sight of the two children. He looked up towards the daylight. Then he saw movement at his feet. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. hoping he would see somebody up there. She started coughing. down. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the enormous split in the earth. covering the girl’s head. down into God knows where. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. slowly rising in a swirling motion. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. according to the books he read.
I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. Having a French governess. brightening to winter brilliance.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. slanted on to her cheek. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. my dear. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. She finished what jobs there were. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. 255 . and sunlight.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.
ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. În urma slugii. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. închizând ochii. totul se animă deodată. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. cei doi Mamona. 2. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. ucenicul său necredincios. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. mama mea. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Vaucher şi cu mine. Ridicându-se. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. and then went riding with her in the rain. într-o joi.
Şi deodată. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. după cum îi spusese mama. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. auzit şi zadarnic. aşezată cu spatele la noi. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. se duse lânga mama şi. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. la mine. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. pe mama mea părând absentă. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. o sărută pe frunte. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. 3. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. privit. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. pe Vaucher. totul mi se părea cunoscut. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. dar ştiutoare. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. aplecându-se puţin.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. am ştiut şi cine. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. afară ploua în continuare. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Neclintiţi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus.
Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Au coborât din camion încet. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. 5.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu masa lungă de scândură. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu soba. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. dar. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu stiva de lemne. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. camionul a plecat.
Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
6. since I have decided. 3. 11. and this particularly of late. and meet it right here at home. in some way. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. was unclear to Mitzi. he had been advised. 10. 4. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. 12. without profound questioning. 13. this would really hurt. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. I am sorry not to have seen you. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. he had not yet been able to estimate. How this time was to come. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. whereas if she went away she would get none. because of pity. 2. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. apart from his distress for parents. 7. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. to retire early from my employment. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. How much. 5. Having regard to the date of drafting. and that 263 . 9. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. You have been much in my thoughts. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure.
19. 17. I was made say Grace before every dinner. one of the eggs broke. / Before you go on changing the subject. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / In the end. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / Whenever I visited my aunt.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. 14. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 264 . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. looking forward had not yet taken place. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. for attending his sister’s wedding. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. please consider his proposition. even for months. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. he did not come to see her.
of all people. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. a little girl. They rushed into shops. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Tony was a child. Though much in request before her marriage. They hated trying on. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. without discovery. of the quick and wiry. cotton mills at Manchester. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. and it was bound. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. Clare had never come into close contact with those who.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. quite unexpectedly. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. it was said. 265 . she said. Instead of which she had married. Clarissa used to think. her recklessness. She felt as when. centered in London and themselves. Vulgar men did. rather than the hefty type. At country houses she had met them of course. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. (and there he was. to end in some awful tragedy. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Essentially. her old friend Hugh. an open-air person.
de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. De uitat.Rindurile dvs. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. short of the contacts of love. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. astfel. The closer she allowed him to come to her. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. viguros si vesel in felul lui. the more she would be torturing him. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. era un bun sfatuitor. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. to keep abreast of the current. (John Galsworthy . ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. cre s-au nascut lent. si in plus. she professed.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. she was uneasy. nu a facut-o pentru asta. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. but lying in her bath. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Bolnava nu se simtea. indeed. Cind l-a chemat. with all its impatience of restraint. nu puteam sa le uit. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Reading many novels. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. ii faceau bine.Over the River) 2. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. aveam tot mai 266 . Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.
latimea si ascutisul labei. fa-o. Banulescu – ibid. o data sau de doua ori. (St. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Ce a iesit. Milionarule. lungimea picioarelor. cit mai au de trait.) 6. (St. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. mi-am zis. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. (St. Banulescu – ibid. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. se stie. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. are nevoie. poate fi compensata. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. (St. Personal. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Daca tu. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Banulescu – ibid. nu pricep nimic. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Banulescu – ibid. vaazut cindva. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia.) 7. 4.) 267 . printr-o asistenta activa din afara.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste.) 5. pe scaunul lui tare. ca si tine.
2. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. when I was even younger than you. Cambridge. a wounded soldier. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. A story-book romance.. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. to Emmanuel College. Who came home from the war. Who when asked about his memories of the War.P. And had a brother killed in the same battle. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Translate them. for being a renegade. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. my grandfather. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Who was may father. delivered from the holocaust. Could he be blamed. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Who. Arthur Atkinson M. Who told me.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. (. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.
that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. Rachel Williams. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). to whom. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. a moody man. and because – but this is mere speculation. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. deep-set. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. Fabianism.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. he had already engaged himself? 3. 4. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. How 269 .
Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Ion. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. cu taina aceasta. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Cum a ajuns el. om mare. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a trăit el. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. satul. la şcoală. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Ion. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. 270 . uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.
greşeli dintr-astea. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu .Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. din franţuzeşte. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. de mama lor. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. împotriva tuturor. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. singurul lui stăpân. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească.pune totul in discuţie. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. 271 . cu sau fără voie. când voi fi singur. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. L-au derivat cei din teatru. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Când actriţa. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare.
Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. ci un sistem de acomodare. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. A devenit palid. parcă începusem s-o uit. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. traversând. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. uneori şi astăzi chiar. sau ridicole. 4. Am început. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Tot aşa. tânăr şi frumos şi el. dam buzna peste automobile. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. provocându-le. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. pe jumătate prezent. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. 5. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Într-o vreme. 3. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. privindu-mă în ochi. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. nevasta-mea. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. de pildă. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. continuând. 272 . şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. 6.
9. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Am început. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . simţeam că mi se dilată inima. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. că nu m-am gândit la asta. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. E o problemă. 11. De altminteri. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. fireşte. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Dacă nemţii înaintau. să merg întins. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Aş vrea să mă las jos. fără să mă opresc o clipă. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. şi dacă merg întins. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. iar. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 8. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. şi să nu ameţesc. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. ca un acrobat. orice s-ar întâmpla. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face.
trebuia sa le spuna. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . de la obiecte de pret. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. de la proces. eu am venit sa va intreb. Ii venea greu. 274 . dar nu-i spuse si de ce. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. de la lucruri personale. de uimire. Acum isi ferea privirea.. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Uite. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. cu mirare. 13. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. 14. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului.Ma. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. la carti. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie..Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Adica tot trecutul. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 15. In curind. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. nu mai semana. 17. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. nu mai pricepu nimic. la fata locului. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Greu era din partea asta. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. la amintiri. Auzindu-l. La un moment dat. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 16. se uita in jos. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Ilie nu-l asculta. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. dar nu se mai putea. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca.
which was part of his rich outfit. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Nu era nevoie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit.Ce sa fac. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. se indeparta nepasator. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . asa cum facuse pina acum. 19. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Zimbea siret. cum zicea Anghel. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. 20. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. i se paru ca aici e ceva. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Aici era ceva. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. . Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. dar. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. apoi se uitau la Ilie. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. There was even 275 . vorbe asa si-asa.
5. 3. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. to move fast. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. rude woman. But Daisy. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. gave an exclamation.Miller at her hotel. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. He felt then. asked for Mrs. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. to admit that she was a proud. She was one 276 . on this occasion. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. 4. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. He walked a long time. the young lady. at least. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. for the instant. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. paying no attention. resuming her walk. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. a simplification. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. to take his way home on foot. going astray. conversationally.Nadina VIŞAN relief.
Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. smiling and chattering. She appeared. often. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. in radiant loveliness. making Paul stop and look at her. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. Advising with me. 6.Walker. and wondering what the deuce he meant. while residing abroad. make a point. 7. as it were. He left me musing. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. of studying European society. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. as text book. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. as to projected changes. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. Her daughter. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. on the other hand. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. She rustled forward. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. indeed. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. 8. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. in their own phrase. uncomfortably.
could see he was remarkable. with his humorous density. was only half satisfied with this. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. and. though E. which was deliberate. 10. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. 9. or at any rate not heeding. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. and perceived that it must be something important. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. H. wondered what they were talking about. and acute too. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. while Paul. 11.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. H. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. not seeing.’ 278 . Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. was immensely struck with him. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face.
The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. not glancing at him for a moment. as he looked back. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. which was very copious. 13. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . had the power to chain his sympathy. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. appeared to fill his whole childhood. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. But she gave him no chance.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. H. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. 15. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. that the haunting wonder which now. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. 14. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes.
that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. as a general thing. ironically reserved. 18. where the Pearl of Paraguay. dragging herself on her knees. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. that she must be on the contrary. yet 280 . who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. and to H. proudly. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. and there were others. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. 17. disheveled and distracted. At the theatre. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. 16. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. It was very possible she was capricious. The whole establishment.
and lurking within this nebulous design. Their mistakes and illusions. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. *Old. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. on which the damp breath of the streets. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. H. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. with the poor. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. It came over H. 281 . would always be more or less irritating. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. young men were invited. 3. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 19. had blown a certain chill. No one ever listens to her.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. 20. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. didn’t mind. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 2.
I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. her arms held out. I saw her as a vision. 7. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. walking quickly. 11. 282 .Nadina VIŞAN 4. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 5. 10. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 12. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 9. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. I was definitely going to be sick. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. I blundered by. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. 6. striding like a Spartan maid. her shining blue feet twinkling. “Oh. slipped on some steps. c) When I saw her sitting there. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 8. I walked fast. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Either John or he * have got to give in. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. Rachel. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale.
The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer.
Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. 2. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 3. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . where my servant. 5. but that we saw and pitied. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. And then I ventured to add that. 4. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. which was really alarming. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. could cook my meals. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. if they were poor. The old women spoke no English. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. who is a wonderfully handy fellow.
on a house.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. Constituents: how much. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. etc. would really hurt. apart from his distress for parents.g. was anxious = was + anxious. to settle. his. 285 . was informed. he. he had not yet been able to estimate. this. had not been able to estimate. at noon. distress. etc. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much. Constituents: Margaret.apart from his distress = apart from. on Saturday. etc. this would really hurt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. before they left town. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart form his distress for parents. Constituents: He.g. Munt. to pay their annual visit. was anxious.
interrogative. negative/ If you like jazz. – first clause is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. it is assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. which is not assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – non-assertive. interrogative. and is non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. second clause is non-assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ She finally admitted. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. which context is non-assertive. negative/ Come with me. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / If you like her. negative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . Second clause is an imperative. – comparison. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. The sentence is however 286 . interrogative. listen to this.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. don’t bother her.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.. – assertive/ Don’t do that.
/ Hardly interested in the conference. / She does not hate animals. the two brothers dared to protest./ Not long ago. but not more than she does others.but to someone else. but it isn’t Susan. –double negation cancellation. but nothing out of the ordinary. everybody used to travel by coach. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / You have never met 287 . / She does like John.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. he was hardly pleased. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. only irresolute. – they told the truth to somebody else./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ Susan did not get married to Jim . but it wasn’t them./ He was smart enough. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / They didn’t leave./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. – someone hates animals. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ They weren’t really confused. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ He was exceptionally cunning./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. not even this thing. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. – someone did that. / I don’t like her very much./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. – I like somebody else. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ When he learned the news. not even when it’s quiet around. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.
not even part of it? / Not infrequently.Nadina VIŞAN her. did they? / No problems were caused after all. they go skiing in the mountains. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. not even when you were very young..negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. were they? / This boy is no good. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. / This is hardly the 288 . – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.. – negative insertion... *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.. Jim felt rather at a loss for words..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. I could hardly wait to hear the news. – I cannot look him in the eye. / Should they not have told her the truth. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. not even in my dreams.. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.
/ Few people came to see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.. – I never see her./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – You haven’t eaten a thing.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – I almost never look at those paintings.. Activity 8 I shall never. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. when we started our holiday. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. but she also lent him a car. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We seldom receive such generous praise..Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I seldom look at her like that./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / Hardly anybody liked him. never trust a man again./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – Almost nobody liked him. – I don’t often look at her like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.Never shall I trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Not many people came to see her. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.
/ Don’t worry. / Come on. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance./ I expect he won’t come here again. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. –At no time did we leave the office. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – Only on this man could she rely. – They don’t believe she likes them./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – Come on.I don’t like his proposal at all./ Well. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I somewhat like his proposal. / She could rely on nobody but him. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. you can’t do anything about it any more. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – They say he never had anyone very close. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / He reckoned he would not win her over. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – 290 . – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / They say he once had someone very close. you can still do something about it. / They believe she does not like them.. – It isn’t likely that he will help her.
/ She hardly ever comes here. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / You needn’t send her anything. – She almost always comes here. / You must be telling lies. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must pay that fine. too./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – I can’t understand either of these sentences../ Peter knows some English and so does John. 291 . – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / Well. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. either. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. –Alice still lives here./ Bob is still living at that address.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – You can’t be telling lies. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – You should send her something.
/ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. / Please./ Zis si facut./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. It’s no wonder./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ I don’t know a thing about her. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ I don’t know why she’s crying.D. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ Have they rung the bell? No./ He’s a happy man.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. to any of us. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. He isn’t that smart. not yet./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t seen her in years. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. He didn’t move a muscle. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ E un baiat de zahar. give me a hand. Oh. has never studied anywhere. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ 292 ./ Nobody told us a thing./ Nimic de facut. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ You look so tired today. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. / Don’t go on believing him. / Jim is so brave./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. ever since I got this ulcer./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ You took his leaving you very hard. e un magar./ He was a tough man. I haven’t done anything./ They say this Ph./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall.
negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . feebly. no story. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. nothing.’/ Deloc descurajat.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. that I was a decent man. 293 . / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. slowly. for I thought this threatening.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor./ Nu-i nici un deranj. one way or another. We had nothing in common. without too much determination. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. thrown out. parasi camera. I had never had the opportunity to prove. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . no memory. I hadn’t really expected miracles.’ ‘Nici o problema. with the same needs they had. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.
or if you understood what I meant. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. to say the least. on the front seat. Not for a moment had I thought that. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. I admit. the only 294 . It’s not made up of theories and the like. Radu had calmed down. he was sitting beside me. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. good. things you do any moment. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I was sleepy and tired. it’s not words. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. that’s what the world is about. I’d be so happy if it were so. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. • It was my turn to say something. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. your story. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. bad. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. by coming here to the monastery. Your judgement is false. Unfortunately. let alone irritable. We have to judge it as it is. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. You really made me mad. but facts. clear or confusing.. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase.
Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. Look. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. either. precious words. to fight. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. you do as you think fit. or you are lying hidden. as Baciu would have us be. and an inability to act. me. did you ever step up front. • So. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. clears your way. soon we’ll be in town. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. it solves troubles. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. or call the respect of others. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. keep your conscience clean: you have one. But I was just wondering. we are leaving. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. although it was a difficult thing to do. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. me. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. just to please myself. But what about you and Melania. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. I won’t interfere. you can go to Ursu’s. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. and if you like. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. 295 . it’s yours. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. Anyway. too? A gun is power. no matter how huge they are. behind these big. fear might be hiding. keep it squeaky clean. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. it’s your problem.
even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. – incorrect. the sentence is incorrect 3. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.. has not arrived yet – double negation. because before is a positive polarity item 2. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. correlatives are mixed 2.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. But it was not because I had no answer to give. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. has yet arrived -correct 2.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .Negative incorporation 296 . She admires neither Susan nor Jane. or some other woman. will he?. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. The villagers were not very religious.Negative attraction b) 1.. firmly determined not to answer immediately. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.incorrect. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct 3. but they gradually got used to it. . as soon as he delivered it. -correct 3. . Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.
either (NPI). Avea sufletul prea obosit. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. nu era 297 .) Însă era cam târziu. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Her stillness. prea răscolit. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. His spirit was too tired. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. not happy at all (NPI). b) But it was rather (API) late. she couldn’t marry him. (ibid. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Nu putea să se mişte. too troubled. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Ştia că are dreptate. much less ((NPI) for her. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. (ibid. yet. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). her lack of motion would have to do (API). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca.
arăta mai tânără ca oricând. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. (Salman Rushdie. 298 . and not a little unsteadily. he made his way to the screen.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid. şi destul de hotărât. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). if anything (NPI). Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. Ba dimpotrivă. inima îi batea năvalnic. (ibid. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. e) At length. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. she looked younger than ever (NPI). (ibid.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. The Satanic Verses.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. se îndreptă spre paravan. his heart was beating fast. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că.
as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. and probably an administrative headache as well. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Home receded from the prodigal son. h) C. i) What did C. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI).) C. Ce-i pasă lui C. but his father would have none of it (NPI). că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. 299 . îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. (ibid. care if the school were willing to treat him. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. The point was. the gift was useless. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. He wrote to his father refusing the offer.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make.
correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. – indirect question. . 300 . incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.indirect question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
“Now. Fenia. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. to make them lust after her. Stavre Paici. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. keep Condrat away from her. Chizlinski. now she was chatty. do you really think that this vixen. and then what do you 308 . but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Luca Horobet. all godfearing husbands and fathers. they were. she likes to entrance them. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. 2. she didn’t wear a ring. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. the bitch. you are in enough trouble as it is. Vica. yes. Fenia. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. She has an eye for gentle men.
as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. the minister of Tartars and Turks. dragging his feet listlessly. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. a seventy-eight year old lad. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. ankle-long flowered calico.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. have a girlfriend. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . It even takes him a while to go to the window. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. her hair pinned with blue combs. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. with a railway station and a mosque. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. He got him out of his mosque. G. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. 4. The mullah. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. what’s her name. 3. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported.
and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.
Our flag is red. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. yellow and blue.phrasal coordination (in this case.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. Her pet kitten is black and white. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – sentence coordination 2.. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. John is ready and Mary is ready. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.) 9.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.COORDINATION Activity 2 1..sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and I passed. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. John and Mary are ready. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. our respective examinations. – sentence coordination 7. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.
plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. but John does not play football. that method and those. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 10. Activity 4 1. Activity 5 This book and the other. but not John. many guest or few. 6. 3. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words).) Joan plays many games. much satisfaction or little 312 . her idea and John’s. her son and others. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. your work and mine. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. 8. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. We can and will demand payment. 2. 7. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. and even tennis. 9. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. your proposal and his.
each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Few and far between 14. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Spick and span 9. Pros and cons 4. Over and above 13. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party.) 6. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 8. Bread and butter 16. Life and soul 5. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. 4. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Ups and downs 6. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Wear and tear 12. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 7. To and fro 15. Safe and sound 313 . He snapped at him and slapped him. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. 5. Touch and go 10. (I have always fought for progress and always will. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Thick and thin 11. Law and order 8. magazines are only for children. 3. Activity 8 1. The facts and figures 3. but not simple. Swings and roundabouts 7. He read. High and low 2. etc.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building.
– asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 4. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor.symmetric 11. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year.. 8. 9.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. exclusive 15. 10. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 7. – symmetric 2. b. 6. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. inclusive 16. 2. – similar situation 9. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 7. Symmetric 13. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 3. 10. 9. exclusive 17. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. – symmetric. Asymmetric 20. 5. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 4. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 314 . Cathy and David have arrived. Symmetric 21. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 3. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – symmetric. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. My son and heir is safe. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. My son and daughter are twins. 5. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 2. – asymmetric 18. Asymmetric 19. 1. Either the child or the parents are to blame.
There are doctors and doctors. I’ll still finish this paper. thanks for asking. Should he pour water in the basin.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. They came to me. 9. Brother or no brother. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. He went to bed. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 8. By hook or by crook. Jim thought it over for a while. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. it was too small. 14. 4. 3. 7. Not only should you rest 315 . ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Her husband is long dead and buried. We’ll stick together. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. ‘Madam. for better or worse. 15. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 2. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 12. 5. He’s neither fish. clothes and all. 10. (2) 1. 3. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. nor fowl. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 6. 2. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. No drinking and driving. 11.
They hadn’t kept him there too long. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. and then. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. just like when he was thirty. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. he starts lecturing her about life and things. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. and she listens to him. at equal intervals.’ (3) 1. So she’ll listen to him. tense with concentration. he’d leap high. both dead and buried. What do you know? The moment Mrs. This. 316 . then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. so he could leap in pursuit. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Her first husband had been a professor. And. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. as she always does. an important man. Whatever she tried her hand at. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. Mrs. she knows for sure. she started doing a great job. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. their common ground. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. what’s its name. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. You know. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. 2. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. stop dead in his tracks. tense like a bow. without mentioning financial matters. it would work out fine. but he’d come out a cripple.Nadina VIŞAN assured. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. but she blinks in approval.
– Susan. cannot tell.subordinate. – she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.subordinate.subordinate. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as a modifier 3. she looked at me sadly.subordinate. whomever wanted to listen. came. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an object (direct). you. told. – she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . is aware. – she. at me Activity 2: 1. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – obligatory elements: she.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . looked. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2.subordinate.
functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that you are choosing exile . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate. at our age. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. remove our home yet again .complement b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. that we should.subordinate.
adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . direct object/ and seen – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. direct object. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. outbuildings. a barn. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. a house. adjunct (time)/ 319 .
A few days before the war. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ to sit there – complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. without straightening her back. (…) ‘Well. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. subject/ to do such again – complement. (…) He dashed back. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. direct object. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ and done – wh complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . staring at each other. When Anton put the sickle down. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. sickle in hand. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. Activity 5 1.wh complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. But other people. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind.
2. while on other occasions he would show caution. Ana could not stand a trip now. or if he does. For no bold man really falters. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. rather than a real threat. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. but he doesn’t spurn either. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. which he doesn’t rely on completely. 321 . Only he had Ana to think of. you need courage even for this small thing. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. he will turn back and no longer be daring. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Why! He was not of two minds. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. First.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. or other more hidden means. as if they were at his beck and call. but also his sharp nose. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. Not even at this point. 3. while they spoke from miles away. that was for sure.
in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. they would ruin the arrangement. in Odobesti. 4. and on Monday followed another feast). He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. it was the women. 322 . let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. are we getting off again? What is wrong. We were going to drive to a vineyard. and when things didn’t go as planned. although he could have said so earlier. he had postponed writing back. And here’s how this first day looked. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. So.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. by the cars of some of us. to see some mutual friends. without really knowing why. under the silliest of pretexts. But it was not ok. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. In fact. and twice we were requested to get out. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. come on. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. Twice did we get in the car.
which was a pity.free 8. He told her the secret. Activity 3 1. why they all left . on which this occurred . 3. 2. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 11. 8. 6. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. what you want – free/ where you can park your car .restrictive 7. 5. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.She came to London where I went too. 10. This is my husband whom I love very much. like their teacher. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.restrictive 2. most of whom were from England. 7. 10. which was silly of him. 8.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. He is the author who they gave a prize to. who was just passing by. 5. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 7. where I spent my youth . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 3. The students. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. when we first met . These are people who we cannot tell much about. all of whom would answer to his questions. John told his friend a story about the king. You couldn’t join the party. 9. The students like their teacher. where I least expected 323 . who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.restrictive 4. 6. 4. any of whom would answer to questions. Activity 2 1. 4.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1.restrictive 6. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.
Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. When . Where . 5. 3. What – direct object 2. I. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. What I’m saying – subject. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . come up front. Where he was from – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. What Inman remembered – subject. the prince chose Cinderella.adjunct 5.adjunct 10. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. who cannot say a word. You. 4. who think so highly of yourselves. Which – subject 4. what their parents made them. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. however sad . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object.adjunct 11. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Of all the persons there. when .subject 9. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. 2.free Activity 4 1. where we talk money – predicative.When Ada remarked – adjunct.adjunct 6. 7. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.adjunct 3. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.subject 8. where – predicative 7. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .free 9.Nadina VIŞAN . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. Why . which .restrictive 10. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Activity 5 1. Where . Who . 6.
which requires an accusative form. what .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. whatever – predicative 13. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. how .Key To Chapter Six Practice object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what little she knew – direct object. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.
the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . a sergeant. in his turn. a rather tiny looking man. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. got married and had a daughter. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. due to its invariable character. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. who. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose great-grandfather. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. but whose second cousin. having changed quite a number of jobs.
. . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. whose interest he most sincerely shared. he rarely saw now. was now complete. – yes 6.His father’s friends. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. His friends. The problem of safe transportation. – yes. no easy answers to which could be offered.yes 7.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. – no pied piping 327 . no matter which – [pied piped phrase.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.yes 3.obligatory 4. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. . . – no 9. Irene.yes 10. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. This story. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – no 4. with deletion of the noun friends]. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.yes Activity 9 1. – obligatory pied piping 2. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.no 5. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. In the interest of public decency. . he requested that the public be excluded. – yes 2. – no pied piping 5. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. has been troubling them forever. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. were now all gone.obligatory 3. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. .
I am to be envied. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. yours. Everything was ending. 6. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. Only an ugly endless dream remained. 8. For all the four children. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. For twenty years. 328 . for instance. or as of a vast arena. the third born son. In other people’s opinion. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. I did so. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. Nelu. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 2. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . 4. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. 7. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. where two teams battled every day… 5.and he couldn’t thank me enough. irrespective of age and nature. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager.
on Icoanei street. from MR street. where from Marta was coming too. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. staring aimlessly. although she was standing quite close to him. 11. since I don’t really know which my true life is. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. Behind them. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 12. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. He was suffering from dizziness. 14. 329 .Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. barely glittering in the distance. 15. Let me tell you my last conclusion. All that you have read is rubbish. which was why he saw Dora very far away. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. 13. she said. 17. the tram was rattling along. 16.R. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 10. You are newly arrived here. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. leaving streets and houses behind. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. What you’re saying sounds very nice.
330 . 24. But for me. From the vantage point I was in. had a huge house in Bucharest. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. So. If he had hit me. or the many Egyptian dynasties. likes and dislikes. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. She was a woman of means. so optimistic and composed? 19. had a personal style in clothes. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. I could see my woman falling away from me. who prompted everyone on the street. or the clash of stars above. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. day by day. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. 22. While we were poor. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. 20. which I did not posses. after the car was fixed. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. But. While some trees are still green. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 21. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. in her pursuits. I don’t know what might have happened. who only lived once in this world. 23.
subject 7. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 2. – the same as 3. 2. – extraposed. – questionable. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed. subject 9. direct object 3. subject 4. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. for pragmatic reasons 5.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – unextraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – extraposed. 8. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed. – impossible 7. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. object 6. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. direct object 10. – extraposed. 3. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 6. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It appears that no one voted for him.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. 331 . subject 8. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It was suggested that they should meet the President. prepositional object 11. object 5. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.
– grammatical. same as 12. I guess it that he will come back. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. They never expected it that he would come back. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Activity 3: 1. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.. – grammatical. – impossible 11. tense influences the 332 . – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. same as 12. – incorrect.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. . 15. – impossible. idiomatic formula 16. – correct 2.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – impossible.incorrect. 9. It is nice to meet you.grammatical. – same as 12.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. but pragmatically impossible 3. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 10. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. although a bit intricate 2. 17. – the same as 12.grammatical. It is no use trying to convince her. – grammatical. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – impossible. a bit too intricate 5. . 14. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – impossible. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.correct 4. I don’t expect it that he will come back. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. 18. . but pragmatically impossible 4.
behind gates.’ 4. 2. thus. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. – correct 6. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. under bridges. 333 . She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1.incorrect. (Not always. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. 5. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 3.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. in the ditch.’ Lionel says. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. in the pits on the road. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . though. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.
Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.Nadina VIŞAN 6. – the second sentence is questionable. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 3. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 2. It is less ambiguous than the first. By saying this. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. who had just returned from Africa. since the 334 . 7. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. prime-minister.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. who had just returned from Africa. – the first sentence is the better of the two. because it is less ambiguous. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. without trying to protest too much. 4. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. who had just returned from Africa. 8. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Activity 7 1.
although the third one has not undergone clause shift. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. extraposition is obligatory here. 8. 7. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. – both sentences are grammatical. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 6. so there is no need for extraposition. 5. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. The second and third sentences are grammatical. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 335 . – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.
required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – complement 5. – complement 2.adverbial of sequence/result.We discovered that our map has disappeared. – relative 3. – direct object. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.complement 4. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.prepositional object. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. – adverbial of sequence/result.relative Activity 9 1.) complement that clauses.) adverbial of sequence/result. – complement that clause.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. . coordinated. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. .His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. The idea that he had had earned him good money. required by deverbal noun 336 . – prepositional object. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. (Iris Murdoch. (Iris Murdoch. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – relative 5. ibid. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. . His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. for better or worse. – subject. .
you want me to believe. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – that is obligatory.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. that they were not too late to leave. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. f) John said that Harry would leave. that deletion is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.
a. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. c. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – both sentences are grammatical. sequence of tenses is observed 4. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – grammatical sentences. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.
She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . quail. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. present perfect instead of past perfect. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. prepeliţe. cenuşii şi albe. ciocârlii şi şoimi. hawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. – generalization on habits of birds. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. geese both grey and white. present instead of simple past. While the first is possible because of the generalization. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. lark. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky.
Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Crows will relish what presents itself. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. lipsa de vanitate. as evidenced by its drear plumage. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. lack of pridefulness. The generic present is used in this case. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. She admired their keenness of wit. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. love of practical jokes. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. slyness in a fight. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years.
the young officer. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. tânărul ofiţer. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. in the very act of expiring. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Murise în picioare. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. He died erect. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. El căzuse pe spate. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. he claimed. […] During the latter stages of the tale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. But as the battle raged around them. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. He had fought hard through the war. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. tragică şi eroică. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. se ridicase în picioare.
How can I explain? I just felt shy. susţinea el.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. And they might just hang him. war hero though he was. I realized I could not tell him the big news. When the boys saw that mother had left. Now here he stood jailed. to finish my drawing. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. They all had their hands in their pockets. mother went home and I was left alone. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. When he saw me. around seventeen or eighteen years old. deşi era erou de război. the oldest. 342 . şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. – similar situation to the one under (c). He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. One of them. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. A short while later. Activity 13 1. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Luptase din răsputeri în război. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. în închisoare. But when he reached me. Acum stătea aici. they gathered around my desk. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. 2. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. he closed the album.
such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. as if he had been drunk.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. for her vineyard. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot.’ Mr. or fear his rage. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. All his senses were now keen. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. 6. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. brightly and closely. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him.’ 5. or if she would do so again. 4. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.
but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew.Nadina VIŞAN to him. 8. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. And if things were so. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 7. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . 9. The last time when we met here you scared me. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 10. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 11. thinking of him.
He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . where he would run to confess everything. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. more urgently than ever. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. without putting anything in a note.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. towards Jurubita. namely the impatience of this young man. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 12. 13. which secretly drove him. 14. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. We either sell them or we don’t. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind.
/ He was forced to send Tom on the front. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / they saw her leave. grammatical. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 6. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. grammatical 2. – perfect infinitive. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 9. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – infinitive continuous. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. . – infinitive continuous. grammatical 5.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. – simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. grammatical 3. . / He had Mary clean her room. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 7. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. grammatical 10. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. 346 . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.
] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. – Test: They convinced her. you need to try harder. Test: *They did not wish her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: * I would like people. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. – Test: She promised him. / He is believed to have known her 347 . \ I would love [ them to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. – Test: He persuaded her. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / It is not too late for him to learn. – Test: They tempted him. Test: *I allowed them. \ She wanted [him to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I would love them. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / I want to never see you again. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *She wanted him. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: They asked her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ I allowed [them to come.
. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / He is easy to live with. / He is easy to talk to. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. .obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want to tell you what I think of you. not to miss the train. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. I don’t need you or your services.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. Activity 6 Oh. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / Oh. . . / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He is young enough to start again. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / I have a word to tell you. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / I want you to leave my house. / To make a long story short. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.
for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Predicative 4 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.to. Subject. 1 – PRO-to. He suspected hostility at once. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. 349 . Direct object 3 – PRO –to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. he didn’t envy those above it. If he himself was out of spirits. Harold. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods.Accusative + Infinitive. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 1] A little crossly. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Subject. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. 1 – PRO. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. they had depressed and fuddled him. so that we might get to the future and have done. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3].
1 – PRO-to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. 350 . what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. true. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. And you might also be hit and humiliated. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. cautiously. f) The passing time is important. c) Unlike plane trips. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘she’. man and woman. e) When two persons. But when we need to comfort others. One day. PRO controlled by ‘she’. more meaningful. direct object 3 – PRO –to. excitedly. more believable than evidence itself. PRO controlled by ‘me’. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. PRO controlled by ‘him’. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. slowly. or better said. object 2 – PRO –to.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. we seem to forget about our own pain.
to live only with your coughing. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. while swearing to change my way of life. tickled by the trickles of sweat. as he had appeared to him in the rain. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. Moroi says heavily. that you are young. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. for instance. even when this love is hurried. which he had already forgotten. in the street. And I would care for this man so deeply. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. He had not been able to leave Dr. or their talk that night. or. not to want to wipe it off. 351 . not even those parts where he had been half-right.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. h) I want us to go. k) With this considerable dowry. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Stroescu. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. I am indeed praising my own merits. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. If it was summer. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Mrs. S. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. That is it. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. all down our neck. my wish being only to please and serve. And to actually start to believe you are so. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right.
m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. haphazardly. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). or to speak so fast. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. If you will have what I can give you. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. met by squalor and terrible smells. no matter what. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. here I am with all of my own. 352 . every Bucharester knows it. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. poor Muti.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. Well. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. ready to submit to any demand. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. she was suddenly so shocked. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. for that’s the door people get off by.
/ In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. with its lips drawn back. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.. – Attributive past participle. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ She sent him shopping. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). 353 . so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . / They found it thrown in a corner.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. badly beaten and bloodied./ Don’t keep him waiting./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made.
She didn’t want to hear the story again. Attributive present participle. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . he sat down to his own dinner. 7. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. a rug caught her foot and she fell. they began quarreling about how to divide it. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. 8. having been uprooted by the gale. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 6. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 2. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. The tree had fallen across the road. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Turning on the light. Having looked through the fashion magazine. 10. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – Attributive present participle. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Activity 4 1. 9. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I slammed the door of my room./ Running into the room. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 4. sitting taut between her father and her sister. having heard it all before. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 3. Having fed the dog. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Sleeping in the next room.Running into the room. Finding the treasure. 5. – As she was running into the room. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. I was astonished at what I saw.
4. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. sharp-eyed/minded. stony-hearted. red-handed. 355 . – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 8. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. I often get very cold hands. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 7. I let it out of the room. Reading in bed. 6. Passing under a ladder. the sea was tossing it up and down. – As he left the cinema. I let the dog out of the room. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Climbing down the tree. fishy-eyed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – When I read in bed. – As I was passing under a ladder. Barking furiously. Dropped by parachute. wooden-headed. Getting out of bed. – As he was tied to the post. 11. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. a scorpion bit him. Activity 5 Fair-haired. a pot of paint fell on my head. Riding in the first race. he was bit by a scorpion. Leaving the cinema. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Tied to the post. one of the eggs broke. his horse fell at the last jump. a pot of paint fell on my head. his horse fell at the last jump. open-minded. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 9.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. a scorpion bit him. many-coloured. – As he was getting out of bed. my hands often get very cold. the sea was tossing the post up and down. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As he was climbing down the tree. three-coloured. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. bald-headed. 3. / Climbing down the tree. / Getting out of bed. 10. 2. – As the dog was barking furiously. lion-hearted. cloth-covered./ Reading in bed. my hands often get very cold. – As he was riding in the first race. broad-shouldered. narrow-minded. 12. he broke one of the eggs. empty-headed. 5. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. one of the eggs broke.
are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (grow) 4.Spielberg. found hiding in a barn. eagle-eyed. injuring my arm. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. The escaped prisoner. produced by S. ill-gotten wealth. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Activity 7 1. mown grass. rotten plank. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. graven image. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. Activity 8 1. open-hearted. shorn lamb. 356 . are in grave danger of extinction. shrunken stream. Whales. / Three people. hidden meaning. was today taken back to prison. dark-skinned. The film.I fell on the ice.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. shaven head./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (injure). is expected to be a great hit. (produce) 3. (hunt). / Many old people. admired for their elegance and precision. hunting for a bargain. bounden duty. lighted candle. straight-shouldered. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. injured when their car crashed on the M1. stricken deer. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (admire) 5. roast meat. / Swiss watches. (find) 6. drunken man. sunken eyes. (take) 2. are sold throughout the world. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. I stared at the canvas for ages. were taken to hospital. 7.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.
then put up. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. 2. flat and soft. its scales scraped off by the knife. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. 357 . thrown in the pots. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the fish. bake them. 4. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. and the puffed pastry beds. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. seeking some promised land. the carved chicken. He felt close to his father. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. suddenly suffocated. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. now taken down. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. And his soul. in charge of his house and lands. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. boil them. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. streaked with yellow veins of fat. and moreover. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. yet left them room to sway free. hovering uncertain and soft. After a while. he were struggling for breath. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the twice rinsed vegetables. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. So. he started peering anxiously around as if. A parasol. 3. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. sprinkled with sticky flour.
/ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I told him not to bother putting things back. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. – Accusative + participle 3./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / I am sorry for being so late. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. He smiled to hear her talking in that way.gerund 5. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. . / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. he left the store without buying a thing. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. – participle (attribute) 2. Activity 10 1. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. – gerund (subject) 4.
The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. preceded by preposition). He was spotted talking to her. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. 8. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – Nominative + participle 13. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. – gerund (attribute. possessive ING (predicative) 7. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs.participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – gerund (half or full. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. . – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs.
has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. however appearances were against us. take down her answer. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. I did ask Mr.’ 360 . adjective. my Lord. Lady Corven. – gerund (full. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. adjective. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – verbal noun (has adjective). gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. – gerund or verbal noun. but they went by too quickly. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (has determiner. Croom to try to follow one.. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.verbal noun (has determiner. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. hold up his pen and speak. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.’ ‘Tell me.
only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. Then. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. suddenly. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ 361 . I just used the word and they fell. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ said Clare.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. ‘I do hate asking for things. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. he addressed the note. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. I must go back now.’ said Clare. I spend all my time hunting a job. my Lord. it’s overrated. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. and went out to post it himself.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.
adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute. slowly rising (participle. direct object) towards him.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. elliptical here. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. hoping (participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. (participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. village which is burning). …while their edges were crashing inwards). the enormous split in the earth. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. attribute. direct object). Then he saw movement at his feet. after verb of perception.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute) in a swirling motion. then the noise and the cracking stone. following the verb ‘remember’. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. someone looking for survivors (participle. attribute. It was like a mist. Has a complex subject) in the hole. down into God knows where. the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute. The collapsing shops (participle. down. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) from below. attribute). attribute). adverbial of time. At first. The sight of the two children. The two sides were moving apart. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. He looked up towards the daylight. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. slightly 362 . First the crack snaking (half gerund.
adverbial of reason). has ‘of’ phrase). prepositional object. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. etc. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.). direct object) that his two young people were listening too. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. covering (participle. moving up (participle.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. early. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. one. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there.e. direct object). you. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. i. according to the books he read. my dear. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .
Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. and sunlight. reluctant or not. adverbial of reason). the two Mamonas. preceded by preposition. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and then went riding (participle. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. examining (participle. attribute) to winter brilliance. and everything got suddenly animated. and not only in my imagination or theirs. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. mother. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. Vaucher and I. Young Mamona left the room without a word. attribute) stopped dead. Standing up. brightening (participle. adverbial of manner). they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. She finished what jobs there were. Having a French governess (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. So. for Dornford was busy on an important case. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. which beckoned to 364 . preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). And. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. attribute) a sudden whoop. we were all gathered in that room. a door was opened and as a servant entered. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. slanted on to her cheek. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1.
who was sitting with eyes half-closed. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. about sparing no effort. And. 2. Entering our house on a Thursday. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. to Vaucher. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. So when Old Mamona came in. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. and to Young Mamona. Vaucher might have known that too. for anyway. and ended his life in the year 1821. he found us sitting each in his place. sitting in his puddle. I knew who it would be. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. he went to mother and. her back towards us. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. let alone greet us or say something.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. too. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. and smelling so hard of rain. without taking his sack off his shoulders. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. to me. as mother had ordered him. closing my eyes. He cast us a swift glance. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. killed by Young Mamona. his disloyal apprentice. who knows. in the year 1812. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. each carrying a wooden box. 3. he looked like someone who did. bending a little. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. Not so unimaginable though. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. And then. 4. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. about concentrating all our resources. kissed her forehead.
the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. as an afterthought. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. everything seemed familiar. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. stove. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. wood pile. And all around them was the great field 366 . as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. of taking notes and rewriting them. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. 5. futile. already seen and heard. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. each pausing before jumping down. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. barrack. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. And suddenly. They got off the truck slowly. But. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. long board table.
367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The next thing was to go to the well.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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