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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
1.Contents: 8 1.2. Complementary distribution . Auxiliary verbs 1.5. Insertion 1. Constituent Phrase 1.3. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.6.4. The Distribution of an Element 1.
since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Syntactic.1. very much. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sequences of the kind her mother very. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Consequently. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. Semantic.2. that is sequences fragmented at random. 1. They are just strings. loves. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. For instance.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. her mother.
1.) 10 . (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).e. an order given to an interlocutor). we are dealing with a directive (i. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. must. (Mi-a spus secretul. 1. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.3. should.4. etc. be).
) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. Consider.5.) 1.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. for instance. an ‘empty’ there subject. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. etc. live. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. 1. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.6.
as the star indicates. Munt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. Pratice Define and illustrate. 12 . How much. semantic. this would really hurt. he had not yet been able to estimate. pragmatic. syntactic. distribution. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). both (8) and (9) are correct structures.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. whereas (7) is not. using your own examples: insertion. complementary distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see.
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.
3. affirmative sentences.6.4. Conclusion.2. Full – local negation 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Polarity Items 2.5.2. Key terms 2. Negative vs.8.1.7. Key terms . Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Instances of negation 2. Tests for negativity 2.
Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Consequently.Positive vs. in that they do not state anything. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. in the sense that it states something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . For instance. Negative . it asserts something. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.Unit two Sentence negation 2.2.) is said to be an assertion. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .Declarative vs.) b.
They told her the ( e. / She finally admitted.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. / Come with me./ We didn’t come here just to talk. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.assertion . Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.interrogative (e. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. listen to this. comparison.) .positive and declarative secret.positive sentence .g. Did they tell her the secret? ) .other (if –clauses./ She can’t wait to read that book.Nadina VIŞAN . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.non-assertion ./ Don’t do that. 16 . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.) .g. don’t bother her.g./ If you like her.negative (e.
since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) b. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) 17 . (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. In the case of the sentences under (4). There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. For example. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. John is not happy. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.Unit two Sentence negation 2. since the negative word not is not present there. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. John is unhappy. word negation.3. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (John nu e fericit) (4) a.) b. (Nu demult. (John e nefericit. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. I met a girl named Susan.
more precisely the phrase it is part of. since the negative word not is present inside them. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. just like in the case of word negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. In other words. but their meaning tells us a different story.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. these sentences look negative. where the word 18 . He was not without intelligence.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.) c. I was not a little worried.) b. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. She was not an unattractive woman.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. In other words. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation.
/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / Când a aflat vestea. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i.e./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. without intelligence. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. semantic negation.
Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . 2. Negative vs. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.4. / Era el destul de isteţ. dar nu în mod special. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. affirmative sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. ci doar indecişi. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune.
1.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. (Nu m-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. For instance. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.). (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). such as do insertion.) (9) I didn’t go there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. (see subsection 1. (M-am dus acolo. etc.
/ She does not hate animals./ They didn’t leave. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / I don’t like her very much. incorrect. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / Susan did not get married to Jim. 22 . / We don’t come here often. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei.
as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. 4. *not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. 3. even the smart ones. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. and they don’t like her either. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). Example (14) is syntactically negative. not even the smart ones. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. .) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which is ungrammatical.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. and neither do they like her. *and neither do they like her. * and they don’t like her either.
/ I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / They caused us no problems. / This boy is no good. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . they need to refer to these tests of negativity. By applying these tests to the sentence in question.5. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Few of them stayed behind. / No problems were caused after all. 2. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / A few of them stayed behind. / You have never met her. they go skiing in the mountains. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. In conclusion. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.
(27) a . (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-a venit John). Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (26) I saw nobody. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. I went nowhere.
I didn’t go anywhere. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) b. 26 . (N-am văzut pe nimeni. b. I never went to his place.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. (N-am văzut nici un student.) (29) a. / I didn’t ever go to his place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not all that glitters is gold. All that glitters is not gold.Nadina VIŞAN b. no incorporation takes place.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.) b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. No day passed without me thinking of him. I didn’t see any student.) c.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I didn’t see anybody.
/ They never went there. not even short ones.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / None of them liked house music.) We seldom watch T. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / She said not a word when I spoke to her./ They didn’t come to meet her. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. etc. / No one ever listens to her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / I showed him nothing.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. barely. / He should not be released. . negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. and we don’t go to the theatre either.) They barely read any novels. / I saw nobody. scarcely. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. rarely. / Not a word fell from her lips. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / I didn’t see anybody. / Not one of them came to meet her.V. seldom. / Not many women are famous opera composers.4. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. nici măcar din alea scurte. (Nu citesc romane.
(Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Never have I met a more horrible person. / I scarcely ever see her.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / Few people came to see her. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / Hardly anybody liked him. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.) c. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei.) d. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I seldom look at her like that. .) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) 28 them.) b. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.
/ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never.) They don’t think that he likes them. As you can see from the translation of these examples. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / She could rely on nobody but him. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. never trust a man again. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / You must on no account touch this machinery. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. in the sense that the 29 . / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow./ We seldom receive such generous praise. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.
be likely. etc. ought to. suggest. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. suppose. / They believe she does not like them. In sentence (37). does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. etc. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. want. we can very well say something like: (38) a. the negative meaning is less strong. For example. look like. although not negative in meaning. probability. etc.6. seem.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. should be desirable.: think. expect. / I expect he won’t come here again. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. 2. / He reckoned he would not win her over. guess. believe. intend. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. appear. imagine. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. be probable. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. intention. cannot appear in an affirmative context.) but also by the existence of certain elements that.) 30 . sound/feel like.) b. advise. be supposed to. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. choose. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / I suppose she doesn’t care. barely.
*She lifted a finger to help me. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.2. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. *She likes our chairman at all. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. That is 31 . They are not usable in an affirmative environment. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. and sentences such as: (39) a. b. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. are clearly not grammatical. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context.
a lot (I don’t like you much. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I still love you) Either vs. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I can understand both of these 32 . etc. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. either. already (I haven’t seen him yet. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I like you a lot. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / She hardly ever comes here. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / Well. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Bob is still living at that address. too (I don’t like it. / Well. too. / They say he once had someone very close.) Yet vs. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. still (I don’t love you any more. / He arrived before 5.) Until vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.) Any more vs. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. some (I haven’t any money. / Come on. / I like it . / I have already seen him.) Much vs. / I have some money.). / I somehow like him. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / You needn’t send her anything. you can still do something about it.) Hardly ever vs.) At all vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. too. / Don’t worry. / I eat caviar most of the times.
/ Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. touch a drop./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. know a single person. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. say / breathe/ understand a word. lift/raise/ stir a finger. sleep a wink. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. have/be worth a red cent. hurt a fly. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. leave a stone unturned. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). see/ feel/ remember a thing./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. de când cu 33 . find a trace. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. bat an eye(lid). flinch. give a damn/darn. crack a smile. / You must be telling lies. hear a peep. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. have a care/ friend in the world.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. mulţumesc. nici unuia dintre noi. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. turn a hair. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. lay a finger on someone. last a minute. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. move a muscle. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. Translate into English. / You must pay that fine. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Ajută-mă.
/ Not that I care. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. he left the room. / Nothing succeeds like success. / No admittance. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. Translate into Romanian. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. but you really should do something about it. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Never is a long word. / No man is wise all the time. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / I had no end of trouble. budge. he’s a pig. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / He is no end of a fellow. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / No sooner said than done. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / No entry. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. n-a sunat încă. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. încercând să prindă criminalul. B: Aşi. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / No trouble at all. nu e vina mea. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / He won’t make old bones. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Hotărât lucru. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No hands wanted. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare.
Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). N-am văzut pe nimeni. say it. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. c) He is anxious to say something./ I saw no one. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. 2. as well: 35 . d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API).Unit two Sentence negation rather). b) I love asking some funny remarks. / I hate making any commitments. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.7. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Normally.
I don’t like this poem. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.) 2. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. nu poezia asta. I don’t. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.) The example above is a sample of Standard English.8. Conclusion. B: Nu. nu îmi place poezia asta. (Nu. Key terms. B: Not this poem.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. 36 . The second negation is somehow independent. from a syntactic point of view. however. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. nu-mi place. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e. interrogation). 45 .THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.
Direct vs.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 18.104.22.168.3 Alternative Questions 3. Optional Exercises .2 Wh. Key Terms. Minor Types of Questions 22.214.171.124.2 Echo Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.4.Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.2.
) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . for a subsequent section.1. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. focusing on direct questions mainly. If we try to analyze the examples above.Unit three Questions 3. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.
sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary.g. pe mama. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. (3) and (4). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. 48 . However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (2).
in this case. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. because. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Since the question is not direct any more. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. Likewise. In the case of indirect questions. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). 49 .
d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. sau mai bine zis. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I don’t know who she is. / He asked me who she is. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / He asked me who she was. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. spune la un moment dat femeia. c) Ştii ce. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. ce culoare are pielea. identify the incorrect sentences. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi.
2. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Let us provide 51 .Unit three Questions 3. being typical of spoken language.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. as Quirk shows.
(you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (how long / wait for me?) 10. (who / talk to last night)? 5.1. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. 3.2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (what time / shops close today) ? 7.
are said to be positively – oriented. (Da). it has. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. instead of Negative Polarity ones. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. they did. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . (Da).
A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: Your mother is shouting for you.. ……………? (hear her) B: …. ……………………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: She had her tenants evicted.. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. because you always copy everything I do! 5. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. (tell me who does it for you) B: …... 4. 6. 7. as in the example: 1. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. 2. …….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . I’ve still got plenty of time. (speak yet) B: ……. A: You’ve been learning German for years.. 3. …………………. . but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. A: You look down. A: You’re still in your pyjamas.
where.. which When. .Unit three Questions B: …………………. A: There was a terrible car crash.. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . 8. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. I didn’t get home until late last night. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 9. what .2 Wh – questions Wh. You could have mentioned it earlier. how.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. . . 3.. ………………………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .2. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. 10. A: It’s past your bedtime.
(Poppy Z./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.000dollars. / There are six students in my class. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city./ Sara owns two cars./ I have French lessons twice a week. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. what ever. / She lives in the suburbs. I cannot do that. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. Nearly two hundred years. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are./ She dropped her glasses. of course. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / Shirley got married to Ben. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . trying to find places where I resided in life. / My new car cost 10. why ever. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / That’s my pen.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / David’s car was stolen.
(A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 .2.
How long is she be spending in America? 15. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. didn’t use he? 11. Let’s stay for another few days. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. How far is it the cinema? 3. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. can you be? 58 . wasn’t it there? 17.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. There was a fax for you this morning. How far is it the cinema? 10. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. You can’t be serious. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. didn’t use he? 4. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Who did left the gate open? 18. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. shall we stay? 14. He used to work in a bank. shall we stay? 7.
Unit three Questions 19. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. ca şi cei ce au fost. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. isn’t it this? 25. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Toate vechi. plin de germeni virulenţi. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. deci. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. John goes jogging every morning. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. dacă prin absurd 59 . Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. neliniştea infantilă. How long time does it take to get there? 28. deci. despre o lume dură. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Pot reveni. How long have you be lived in London? 26. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Who did told you about the problem? 31. That’s your car. wasn’t it he? 22. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. să-mi înfrâng frica. doesn’t he go? 23. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. uneori disperat. will you not? 27. That was Jeremy’s brother. Ani întregi. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Whose it is this book? 32. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. will you not? 21.
Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. naiv. Riscul? Ratarea. dar şi drumul. puturos. negru. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. neîntrerupt. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Şi. picură apa roşietică. străină priceperii lor. pe sub bolţile din care. murdar. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. ghiceam doar unde se află. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. iar proştii. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. umed. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. laşii. indiferent de risc. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . B. de atunci. pe care oricum am simţit-o. inactivii. “Spune! striga el. mă întreb. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. îi ştiu gustul.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. lung.
când nu-i pot face nici un bine. la urma urmei. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. will you? (38) She went to Prague. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. Tag Questions Tag questions. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. da? (37) Let’s go there. domnule profesor. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. care i-a determinat alegerea. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. didn’t she? .Unit three Questions viaţă. golul alb.3. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. exclus. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. 3. viaţa? Oare e drept.3. orbitor. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.1.
au fost cheltuiţi. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. au fost cheltuiţi. is it? (Deci. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. (Din păcate. sarcasm. or “comment tags”. the tag is affirmative too. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. or falling.e.) A: Oh. The suggestion is that in this case. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. it’s all spent. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. aren’t they? 62 . hasn’t she? (Aha. In this way. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. the tag is negative too).Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host sentence is negative. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet.
/ There are a lot of cars on that street. / The boy often watched his sister. / She left an hour ago. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / Let’s eat dinner now. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. 63 . / She used to talk a lot. / You ought not to smoke.…/ Let me know. / Everyone felt happy about it. / You will pick me up. / Surely you have enough money. / I think you don’t like my music. / He simply hates empty words. / He hates his wife. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / He has to marry Susan. / I may see you tomorrow. / That’s your car over there. / The boy never watched his sister. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / You have been invited. / Few people like her. / I don’t think you like my music. / I must go now. / I think you like my music. / I may not see you tomorrow. / There is enough food for everyone. / She has a brother. / Tell me. / You will pick me up at 7. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / That was your father. / Don’t leave without me. / A few people like her. / They said he liked music. after all. / Each of us is staying. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I am older than you. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I am dressed smartly enough. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. …/ Ann can’t speak French.
Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . using a question tag at the end./ I’m right about this…. 5. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. So you enjoyed my talk. or what? 3. / He never used to study so hard…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. He used to play squash. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4.. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.
/ Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.3.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.1.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.) B: Chinese? 65 .questions which repeat part or all of the message.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. Recapitulatory echo questions .3.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.1. / Grants… 3. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.
Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. If the wh.2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. of something just said. (Închide lumina aia.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.3.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. disbelief.phrase is fronted. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. consternation. rather than the repetition. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .2.
(Uită-te la asta./ He is interested in blue movies. / We are looking for a pixie.e. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. rather than did you say. / He is interested in music. whereas with explicatory echo questions. I’ve lost the letter.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. (Vai. which letter do you 67 . with recapitulatory echo questions. dear. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. intonation is rising. (i. am pierdut scrisoarea. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean./ We are looking for a purse. / I think I’ve found a solution.
4. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.Nadina VIŞAN 3. she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.
da. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu.– Crezi tu. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . stricata. nu purta verighetă. şi apoi Vica ce zice. Are gust de oameni blânzi. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. cumnată Fenia. după pofte. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. lui Luca Horobeţ.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. aşa. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. în satul nostru. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. cu o casă de copii. pe Condrat de Vica. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. oameni aşezaţi. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. şi care s-a aciuat. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. Fenio. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. lui Chizlinski. ca să zic aşa. în general. lui Stavre Păici. să se încolăcească mai bine. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. acuma sporovăiala. şerpoaica. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. că iepuşoara asta de Vica.
până la călcâie. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. dar cum se face că a 70 . pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. L-a scos din geamie. Hogea. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. abia târându-şi picioarele. sau cum o chema. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. deci. De asta erai. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. roşu şi galben. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. sus.
furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
5.Key Concepts .1.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.6.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.2.4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.
1 Syndetic vs. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. present) in the sentence. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.Unit four Coordination 4. reproachfully. on the other hand. 75 . i. where there is no indication other than a comma. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.e. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.e. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. Example (2).) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. that elements are coordinated.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. cu repros.
where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. Conversely. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. you will die. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.) (4) If you hit my wife. 76 . (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. From the previously mentioned examples. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN 4.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.) Such examples. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. vei muri.
However. we need to specify that.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. respectively subordinated constituents. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. from a logical & semantic point of view.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. the second. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. but presupposed.
His clothes hung to him. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. In the first. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. built. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. but the 78 . How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. with enormous solidity. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. John Steinbeck. Though the castle had vanished. He moved and made a slopping noise. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. with formal walks under rows of trees. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. Then he sat down. adorned with cornices. of cut gray stone. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. took off his coat and emptied them. In the second. the houses were beautiful and ancient. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. his shoes squished.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. took off his shoes and emptied them.
Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. left the house. over some of the roughest ground in the country. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. and as the way is with Irish mountains. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. the higher he went the wetter it grew.
) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.3 Sentence vs.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (G.K. we should be seriously annoyed. As one can easily notice. however distinguished. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. as shown in (9). were to take down the name of every man. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. yesterday and the day before yesterday. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .
/ Peter. Her pet kitten is black and white. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Unit four Coordination example (7). Pratice Distinguish coordination. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. but not John. yellow and blue. / Bob and George are admired by their students. John is ready and Mary is ready. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. and I passed. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and even tennis. / Peter and John played football. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 7. 5. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John and Mary are ready. 2. plays football.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 6 John sang and Mary danced. our respective examinations. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 8. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 9. 10. / John both composed the music and wrote the words.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 4. 3. Our flag is red. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. / Joan plays many games.
b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. 6. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Activity 4 2. Jane 82 .) c. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out.) b. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. John writes poetry and Bill prose. as can be seen in (10b). The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. 5. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. or deleted. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.Nadina VIŞAN b. 3.
Besides ellipsis. the so-called Principle of Economy. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. i. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.e.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself.) The common element. the predication buy a pair of shoes. these syntactical processes. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. So. 8. 9. 10. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. 7. can be reduced by substitution. than a longer repetitive one. 83 .
3. 2. A citit. 4. 4. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. George and Jane went back to their parents. using reduced structures: 1. some reason or another. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. the old men and women 2. Translate the following sentences. In certain cases. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. George and Jane are separated. one or (the) other method.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. simple books and magazines for children 3. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 .
I need another 100$ ……….… 14. 2. 8. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………..Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.. 5. fish and chips. sweet and sour.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. After all their adventures. . They get on quite well together. 15. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.You gain some things and you lose others. like: salt and pepper. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 11. for my wallet. Can we discuss the …………. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. the amount I’ve already saved up. A pendulum swings ………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 5. 16. 7. 6. they reached home………. only for damage. 12.I searched ……….. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 8. 13. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. it’s a case of ………… 7. even though they have their little …………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. Marks and Spencers. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. of your proposals later on? 3.. 6..
and 86 . b. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. 4. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. more often than not. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. as in: (17) a.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. For instance.4. the expressive function of coordination is. In fact. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. etc.) There are. Nor sun. of course. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.
(S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) c. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. where the subordinator is repeated. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. too): (20) a. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) b. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. sometimes but. or .Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. both … and .) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. o respectau si o indrageau. etc). (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. 20 (b)).) In certain cases.g. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. and cherished her.) 87 . (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. (I-am dat banii.
) b.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. and hit my wife. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.* I ironed and washed my pants. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. In this case. I washed and ironed my pants.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. I admire and like her. (O admir si imi place. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. if we were to rewrite the example . I like and admire her. (Imi place si o admir.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. and you’ll die. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. From this point of view. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b.
Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . Brown experiments with humans. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) (While Dr. (If you do that. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. he failed).) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Dr.Unit four Coordination 1.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. 97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.4 Key Concepts .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.
the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. e.which are based on coordination .) 101 . From the functional point of view. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.g. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. as the name suggests it. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. 5. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.
such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. for example).) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. such as proud of. we associate it with these objects. For instance. In a way. an adverbial item. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. We do not presuppose however something like.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects.) 102 . sentences) required by the verb (or. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. by an adjective + preposition.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. for instance. in certain cases. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. they are still presupposed by the speaker. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (I-a dat cartea.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.
The term comes from the verb to adjoin.) b. 103 . We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. In other words.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. to her) and one extra-item. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. to add something. an additional one. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. Thus. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. I am afraid that he won’t come.e. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. A second observation. related to example (4). and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. which is the adverbial willingly. The second example. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. i. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.
we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. I’ll die. am să mor. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. So. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. such as want.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) 104 . (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (11) If you don’t marry me. like.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. a închis toate ferestrele. make. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. etc. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb.
2.g. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . she looked at me sadly. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. [. Whoever did that was a genius. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 4.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. After I told her the story.g. this to whomever wants it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. e. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. They came to e. 6.She came to him of her own will. 5. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 3. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. The book that because they home.
FOR. stating their function: Activity 2 1. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. which.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. 2. was a novelty to Mitzi. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 4. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland.) 106 . Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. not object. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. at our age. etc. 6. As you can see. 3. 5. though it was largely politeness. WHETHER. You suggestion that we should. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. but he declined. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God.He took an intelligent interest in her. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5.
how.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. 107 . Where he went is London. (15) It is John who did it. why. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. when. etc. Who did it was John. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. who. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) (16) a.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (E de dorit să plece.) b.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. which. where.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.
Compare. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. As you will see. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. if.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. for instance. which sums up this classification. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. Unlike complement clauses. In (18). and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. before. however. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.) (18) She told me this before she left.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. consider the following table. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. etc. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . the categories are reduced to only three in this case. done from a structural point of view. In conclusion.1.
back. you understand. at your young age. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. for. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.g. Dear Ludwig.: e. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. 109 .g. I will come back such as because. whether he will come when I feel like it. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. after. Introduced know e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I will go there because I feel like it. surely you cannot sincerely believe.g. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. etc. as. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little.
The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. he said. but he asked her to wake him when she returned.The day Monroe had died was in May. But she thought that no one would call again. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. she stopped to speak to Monroe. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Too. a tightening in her breathing. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. As she left the house. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. 2.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. Late that afternoon. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. Accidental Man) b)1.
I told her everything after she arrived. interesting.g.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. As you have probably noticed already.g.g. That he loved e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. a correspondence can be traced.g.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. că e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. 111 .obligatory] ADJUNCTS.2.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. However. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.
Secondly. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.1.2. whenever you identify a wh.e. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. complements. So.complement. (Cred că mă place. In the fourth place. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. We will come back to that in the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. i.. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Thirdly. whereas wh complements are the 112 .) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.
after. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. for no matter how she tried. I first thought to tell in 113 . a barn.g. but no idea what to do with them. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. before. because. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Pratice Consider the following text. their introductory elements (e. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. c) I am coming home one way or another. a house. and I do not know how things might stand between us. She mistrusted her handwriting. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. outbuildings. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship.
because they modify. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. it would make you fear to do such again. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.e. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. According to a structural criterion. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function.4. these clauses can be complements. and I have not the will or the energy. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective).
answering the question to whom? So. interested in. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. O zbughi înapoi. ce o fi având. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. însă. Pratice Translate the following. look at. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită.e. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Nevasta secera în tăcere.g. îşi spuseseră că Anton. be very careful to use this term correctly. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. think of. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. 115 . • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. Alţii.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. după ce că are grâu puţin. (…) “Mă. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. etc.
şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. timp de un ceas. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. izolate de sat. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Toată lumea înţelesese că. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. de fapt. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. cât de bolnavă era. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. întâi. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Nici acum. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul.
stricau totul. la Odobeşti. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . de pildă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Pace nu era. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. aşa de oţetit. Iată. la nişte prieteni comuni. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. În realitate. amânase scrisul. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. deşi cam târziu. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. acum sunt desluşiţi. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Era bine de ştiut.
întâia noapte de război) 118 . frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. of which.g. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. whose. etc). accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses. 119 . etc.
126.96.36.199.5. Key Concepts . Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.6.3. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.1.
a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.2.Unit six Relative clauses 6. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.1. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). 121 . (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. 6. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. The Co-reference Condition .
Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. By combining these two clauses.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. John loves that woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. 122 .
we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. This way. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The common element woman is present. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. 123 . The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.
10. John told his friend a story about the king. I went to London. He liked that book. The students like their teacher. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. WHERE 3. WHICH 4. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. therefore in spoken English. The king was just passing by. I love my husband very much. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. None of the students agreed with them. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. 3. frequently used in written language. I lost the book’s cover.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. He’s the author who received the prize. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 9. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. too. I bought Jim a book. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. I had a book. They met those students. 6. He told Jim everything about his plans. She came to London. 2. 7. WHO 124 . whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. I introduced him to Jim. WHO 5. 8. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. The students like their teacher. Susan wants to meet Jane. 5. by leaving behind a trace. This is my husband. 4. Any of the students would answer to questions.
(Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. i. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. most of them were from England. WHICH 8. WHOM 6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. 2. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. (Cine strică plateşte.e.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.Unit six Relative clauses 6. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. TO 11. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHOSE 7. . whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 10. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.
as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. is no longer overtly expressed. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) So. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. Unlike their sisters.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.e.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . only their antecedent is no longer expressed. it is covert.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. unlike in the case of (14). in a manner of speaking. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. (Cel care strică plăteşte.
They only provide supplementary information about it. care este zeul negoţului. is my favourite god. 127 . este zeul meu favorit. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Mercury. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. they define it). (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (22) Mercury. (Du-te unde pofteşti. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Mercur. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. who is the god of commerce. who incidentally is the god of commerce.
Independent I don’t know what you want. is a great playwright. 6. She. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 9. this type of relative clauses. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. who came to see me. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. restrictive relative clauses. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. is a genius. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 2.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 8. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. I have met him where I least expected. on whom nobody could depend. Shakespeare. 5. then it is an attribute.e. i. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 7.This is the village where I spent my youth. who is a genius. As we were saying. They are what 128 . 10.
(Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. etc. etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. composed The (Freddie Mercury. however sad this may be.) 2. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. When the antecedent has no determiner.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. care a murit acum câţiva ani.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. . 6. who died a few years ago. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. a. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.
7. ill-tempered. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. who am your son. care nu sunt o femeie. but a peevish. can see your shortcomings only too well. bătrînă morocănoasă. 4. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. iritabilă şi uscată. (Ei apeleaza la mine. Dintre toate personajele prezente. who neither work nor am anxious. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. poftiţi în faţă. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva.) Pratice Translate the following. care-ţi sunt fiu. numai eu nu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 2. ci o fată a woman.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. 6. 5.) (28) They come to me.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 3. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. dried-up old maid. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Mie. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. (Eu. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. 130 .
some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. were now in his possession. părăsi camera. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. . heard.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. erau acum în posesia lui.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. than whom few more can be more crashing. (32) service finished late. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.Unit six Relative clauses 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.
too. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. 6.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .) d. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) c. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. but it is typical of the formal. as can be seen in (36d). The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) b.1. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The genitive form with which is still in use. literary style: (37) a. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.5. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.
which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Iris Murdoch.
… Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. of which. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (45) (46) .) b.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) b. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. He is not the man which he used to be. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) • states. … Italy. animals. ships (that can be personified) a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. but to a type or a function: a. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.
etc. etc. pe care o privea direct. It is poor what gets the punches. why.5. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. how. whom it concerned most closely. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) b) dialectal (49) a. while.2 Relative Adverbs: when. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. reason. where. France. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) 135 (47) . time. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. Poland is the place where Christine was born.Unit six Relative clauses b. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Nu ştiam ce vor. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches.) b. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) 6. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b.
) b. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) 136 . They returned to the land whence they had come. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. He went where he had been before. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.They left when they decided it was proper to.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) b. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) b.5. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) When they introduce free relative clauses.) c. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) e. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) 6. no antecedents are required: (52) a.3.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.
the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . Moreover.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.
) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. not any. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. any. but they are used very infrequently: as.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.) b.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.4. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. .Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. much. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. every.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. but • in standard language a. Honest man as he was. 138 (64) his shoes.5.
who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. This is the same one that/as you had before.) • in dialect a.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti.) c. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. ăl de fusese in China…) b. him as was in China … (Uncle George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. And always on the buttered side. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. It’s the dry weather does it. . There is no one of us but wishes to help you.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. Uncle George.) c. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.
) b. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.
When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. we all have to come to some terms. The man that John spoke to is a genius.) b.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. What I’m saying is. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 2. What Inman remembered was this passage. fortifies me. 6. 5. This is where we talk money. The man John spoke to is a genius.5. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. That which shows God out of me. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. makes me a wart and a wen. b.3): (72) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 3. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.) c. It seemed a thing 141 .” 4. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. 7. The man who John spoke to is a genius. Where he was from. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.
g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. of living. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 13. The rudeness of eating. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 11. who had not witnessed many dawns. 10. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 8. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. which is a lot. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. though. he had left Ruby high and dry. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. Oh. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Whatever his fate was. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. (…) Partly. 142 . Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Ruby said. 12. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 9. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.
fiu natural al unui morar.al lui.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. (Iris Murdoch. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. poate. un var primar. vasnic. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. cumnatul unui portughez. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. una din nepoatele unui inginer. mort de tanar. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. nu prea sarac. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carei strabunic. pe linie paterna. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. Cumnatul meu avea. pirpiriu. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. plutonier. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. divortata.
Everybody listened to that woman. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. This is the book. insurat de trei ori la rand. 144 . where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence.2. By extension.6. The opposite phenomenon. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. I lost the cover of the book. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. Teatru) 6. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. c.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. b. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. She was a woman.
In the interest of public decency. 8. The problem of safe transportation. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 3. 9. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. The difference between (76) and (77). This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. has been troubling them forever.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. he requested that the public be excluded. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 4. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. no easy answers to which could be offered. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. acting again as a genuine pied piper. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. 7. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.Unit six Relative clauses b. 6. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 5. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 2.
knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. His friends.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Activity 9 were now all gone. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). They do not function as attributes. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.His father’s friends. 6. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 2. 10. as the case is). 3. This story. 4. Irene. he rarely saw now. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 5. has been deleted. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 146 . whose interest he most sincerely shared. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. was now complete. no matter which.
2. 3. Pentru alţii. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 7. Nelu. Toate sfârşeau. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. himeric. 5. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. pentru dumneata bunăoară. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. închipuirea. 6. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. sunt vrednic de invidiat. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). De douazeci de ani. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 4.
cu surle şi cu tobe. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. 12. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. a făcut el. 9. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. 8. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. 10. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. nici în searbăda mea versiune.
20. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. din care cauză pe Dora. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. din direcţia căreia apoi. 15. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. apărură. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. fie pe stradă. toată lumea întreba cine e. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. zise ea cu ochii mari. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. 149 . care era foarte “mondenă”. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. În spatele lor. până mai adineauri. despre care. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. dinspre Maria Rosetti. de unde venea şi Marta. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. fie la teatru. roiuri de fetiţe. trăia larg de tot. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 18.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. 14. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. 16. 17. Avea acum un fel de vertij. pe strada Icoanei. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. deşi atât de aproape. Dacă mă lovea. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă.
când au urcat râpa iar. Pentru mine însă. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. până în şosea. de sus de unde eram. Pare-se că snobii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. întâia noapte de război) 150 . alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care ea îi admira acum. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. 24. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. de mine. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. pe care eu nu-l aveam.Nadina VIŞAN 21. 23. după ce maşina a fost reparată. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. aveau un stil al lor. 22. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei.
Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.
2.2.3. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2. That Deletion 7.4. Key Concepts . The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.Extraposition 7.3.1. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.7.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 18.104.22.168. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3.1. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.Clause Shift 7.1. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.Topicalization 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.
1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.1. In other words. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. placed in a marginal position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. the clause is extraposed. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. 7.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. but also of infinitival ones. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. Apart from those introduced by that.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. 153 .
) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.
6. 10. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 4. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 3. 2. 13. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is no use trying to convince her. 8.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 10. 7. It appears that no one voted for him. 3. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 7. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It is nice to meet you. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 8. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 11. 4. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 5.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 14. 6. 9. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 15. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 9. 11. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 2.
I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. sub poduri. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 2. atât 156 . zice Lionel.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 18.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 4. mă ascundeam în grabă. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 3. 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. unde se nimerea. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. They never expected it that he would come back. 4. 2. I guess it that he will come back. 5. 5. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. în gropi. în canal.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 3. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 2.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. după porţi. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 6.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.
hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. 157 . 6. fără să cârteşti. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 5. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. (Nu întotdeauna. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Mi s-a părut chiar că. excelentă. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Spunând cele ce-am spus. vor căuta să o zdruncine. fără îndoială. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 7.” 4. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos.
No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .2. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Pratice Read the following. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. this asymmetry is undone.1. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. 1.) While in the case of extraposition. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Consequently. in the case of topicalization.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. subject clauses are the frequent situation.Nadina VIŞAN 7.
That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . but not now. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 6. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. This was another era. he felt no spring of interest in her. 8. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. mere chance would decide.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. whether it would finally carry her off. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 7. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. was inconceivable. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. 3. She had always been the slave of chance. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 4. He did not blame Gracie. 2. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. He was utterly gone. 5. even today.
This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.) 160 . (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.3. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.1.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.
161 .Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. the verb to drive). (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. we obtain.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.e. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.
3. who had just returned from Africa.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 4.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 8. 5. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 7./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. who had just returned from Africa. 162 .He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. who had just returned from Africa.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 2. prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 6.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.
163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .
(Şi-a anunţat logodna. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. explain.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. They believe that the man is guilty. (I-au promis o casă nouă. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat. judge. deem. He announced their engagement. predict.) b.: (25) a. suggest.2. estimate. communicate. He announced that they were engaged.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.) 164 . consider.) a.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. prefer. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. promise.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. They believe the man is guilty. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. afirm. etc.Nadina VIŞAN 7. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. desire. etc.) b.1. state. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. deny.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. for example. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.) language. hope =>purpose. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) 172 . they lose their meaning. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.e. ibid.) I like him in that he is smart. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. In older stages of English.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. on condition that. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.
that we wouldn’t doubt it. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) b. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He gave an answer such. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. He gave such an answer as had expected.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. .) (66) 173 a.) When the structure contains the word such. That can be deleted. să o vadă trecând. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.
2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. they were chained to each other forever. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.We discovered that our map has disappeared. ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) 174 .) b. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.
When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) c.1.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.3. He got word they were coming. (69) a. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. that he uses a relaxed tone. He said he had borrowed her money. say. tell). He showed he was able to do it. for instance.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. 175 . (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.Unit seven That complements 7.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) b. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.
‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.) b.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. *I like it he was here. because that has been deleted. I like it that he was here. 7. for better or worse. ibid.) (De asemenea. they were chained to each other forever.3. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. bune. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.Nadina VIŞAN 7. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever. rele. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.2.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. (Iris Murdoch. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .
The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (“Este acolo”.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) b)He told me that she was there. which is ungrammatical in English. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.4. spuse el. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. you want me to believe. simultaneity. 7. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. 7) They maintain. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. that they were not too late to leave. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. he said.) 177 . 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.
(Pâna să plece. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . o să vină el. The Present complement).) b. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. He said he would leave her. (A spus că. In the example below. (Am să o părăsesc.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. vine el. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) b. he said. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. I will leave her.) b. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (A spus că o să o părăsească. “She was here”.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (“Era acolo”.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. spuse el. He told me that she had been there.) Future Perfect -----. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. până pleacă ea.
say. report. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. whisper. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. show. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. realize it). Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. think. mention. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. be aware. believe.etc. wish. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. forget.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) 179 . regret. etc. be amazed/concerned. insist. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) On the other hand. With such factive verbs as realize. discover. dream. hope. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. notice. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) b.
) b. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. in tender deference to each other. feign habits which are not their own. She believed that the earth is round. Consider also: (85) a. (Iris Murdoch. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. cu un respect tandru reciproc. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. we notice that general truths. He knew that she thought all men were fools.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. 180 . simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She realized that all men are fools.
181 . the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. There are however cases.) In (88). She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.Unit seven That complements 2. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.) b.) b. Peter said that John would leave at 5. 3. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. such as a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Peter said that John will leave at 5.
for instance. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. h) John thought that Harry had run. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. But 182 . b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) John said that Harry is leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. John said that Harry will leave. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. Imagine. The time is 3 o’clock. g) John thought that Harry ran. f) John said that Harry would leave. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.
jaybird. c. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. kingfisher. John told Mary that she should bake a pie.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Crows will relish what presents itself. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Cooper’s hawk. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. She admired their keenness of wit. slyness in a fight. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. love of practical jokes. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. geese both grey and white. Translate the following. a. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. redtailed hawk. lack of pridefulness. nighthawk. b. 183 . as evidenced by its drear plumage. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. quail. bluebird. whistling swan.
in the very act of expiring. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. the young officer. Now here he stood jailed. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. war hero though he was. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. But as the battle raged around them. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He had fought hard through the war. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. And they might just hang him. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. he claimed. […] During the latter stages of the tale.
adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).Unit seven That complements 7. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). On certain occasions that can be deleted. 185 . adjective or by a de-verbal noun. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. from the very frequent subject. object ones up to the attributive function. or else. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). on other occasions it has to stay there.
Mama.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. neconvenabil şi primejdios. peste puţin. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. 2. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. 4. 3. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Unul din ei. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. cel mai mare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Fiind 186 .
nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 6. un vis de acesta 187 . Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. luminos şi apropiat şi când. va pleca din oraş la vie. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. fericit. cel puţin pentru un timp. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Nu ţi-a trecut. 7. aşa. venind de la avocat. de ce constata în sine. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Se mira. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 5. 8. 9. care îl pândise. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. ea. dacă va mai veni.
aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. 11. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. încă o dată. dar şi teama că.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. fireşte. Acesta. Astfel de va fi. şi mândria că a biruit. lucrul era înfăptuit. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. 12. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. liniştit. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare.
Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să le lămurească pe toate. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. după cum. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. spre Jurubiţa. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . ci numai aşa. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. mai puternic decât oricând. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. 14. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. fără o vorbă scrisă. Pe toate.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.5.Key Concepts .A Classification of Infinitives 8.8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.1.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.2.4.Verbs of Obligatory Control 22.214.171.124.6.7.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.
Consider the following: • like that complements.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). It is important that you should know what you need. (3) a. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important for you to know what you need. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (2) a. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her that she should be more careful in the future.) • like that complements.) b. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). From this perspective. 193 . infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. To love her is something really wonderful. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) b.1. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. That you love her is something wonderful.
when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. the Conditional. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. d. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. moduri nepersonale) By convention. the Gerund.) b. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. For instance.e. 194 . is the fact that they do not have temporal features. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. 2. participial clauses. gerundial clauses. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. etc.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. the Participle) (i. as opposed to the finite ones.
the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) c.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.) 195 . The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) b. namely no ending. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.
It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. (7) They saw her leave. 8. the criterion of form. 3. 5. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 4. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 7.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 6. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 8. 10. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.2. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 2. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.
the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. (10) 197 . 2. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. hear.
However. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. Pratice Translate the following. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. 3.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. .) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. uncharacteristic for literary English. 198 (11) the universe./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.
as I have already mentioned. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. or the control constructions. 199 . that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. to use the appropriate technical term. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. Further on.
So far. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. şi creştineşte să ierţi. I hoped for him to be there in time. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. PRO to forgive divine. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to err is human. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) In this situation. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) b.) 200 .) Object: (18) a. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. It is important for him not to err. the logical subject.) b. namely the agent of the event. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction.
Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. In other words. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. but the patient of the verb persuade. He stepped aside for her to enter.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). not to the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. Semantically.) b. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. him is related to the main clause verb.
since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ I allowed them to come. \ They convinced her to come back. \ She wanted him to leave. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ 202 . from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ I would love them to come. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. I hate animals to be tortured. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Likewise.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ He persuaded her to come. \ She promised him to leave. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. \ They tempted him to leave.
203 . This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. • Last but not least.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. So. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist.) In examples (25) and (26). this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. \ They really asked her to come back. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive.
both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. that is not required by certain verbs. 204 . The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. etc. Pratice Translate the following sentences. To sum up the discussion. which are said to be free. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. to meet her. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.).Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. seem. hate. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. with special semantic and syntactic properties. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. appear.
/ E greu să îl suporţi. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. venture. . bear. desire.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. care to. refuse. scheme. dislike. wish. arrange. aspire to. etc. try. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. decline. 8. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. omit. presume. mean. seek (= try). aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. deserve. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. manage.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. need. Compare: (31) a. condescend. scorn. hope. etc. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. etc. prefer.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.) b) verbs such as abide. endeavour. agree to. contrive. like. deign.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. want. afford. propose.3 The Distribution of PRO ./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. expect. fail. hate.) 205 friend. intend.
(Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. endeavour. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. stand. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. conclude. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. possible. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. suggest. ask. unlikely.) b.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. etc. threaten. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.etc. bear.) b.) 8. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. claim.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. forget.) 206 .) b. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. desirable. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.Nadina VIŞAN b.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. I would like for him to become president of the country. verbs of liking and disliking. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. be important. however. For all of them to have been killed is.
5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) b.) 2. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.) 8. Predicative Clauses (39) a. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 207 . Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.
(Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 4. but the meaning remains.) b.) 208 knowledge. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 5.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Like in the case of that complements. the preposition is deleted. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. Direct Objects (39) a. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.Nadina VIŞAN 3. . (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. I decided for John to represent us. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.
This paint is like concrete to work with. He is a bastard to work for. You’re an idiot to go there. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. 6.) c. delicious. curious about.) c) adverbial of result 209 .) e. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. She is pretty to look at. etc.) d. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.: (42) a. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. The stew is delicious to eat.
nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. you’re a bad driver. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . conduci prost. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Pe şleau. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. to tell you the truth. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament.) Oh. drept să spun. / Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. final or introductory infinitive In this case. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. să nu piardă trenul. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.) I’ve never met him. (final) (Nu-l cunosc.
/ Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. enable. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.) . inform. direct.) b. influence.: (51) a. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. induce. 8. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. (49) a. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. press. urge. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.etc. oblige. b. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. promise. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. inspire. need. encourage.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. nu mai vreau să te vad. According to this.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. swear. etc. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.
which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. look to. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.etc. vote. etc. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. name. elect. depend on. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. permit.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. nominate. count on.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. order. prevail on.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. etc. choose. allow./ And now he 212 . command.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.
(Iris Murdoch. this construction is lexically governed. seem.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. grow.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. 213 (58) (59) . (57) He is to come any day now. etc.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.: (55) She appears to like him.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Se pare că îi place de el.e. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.verbs: appear. (56) She grew to like him in the end. be about to.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. be going to. (O să întârzii/ leşin. happen. etc.etc. An Accidental Man) 8. i. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. come.
etc. (L-au auzit insultând-o. perceive.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. overhear. be reported. observe. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. be alleged. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. that of intention.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be rumoured. In (57). (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. watch. etc. be claimed. feel.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. be thought. hear. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). hence there is no control situation whatsoever. .Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).: (62) They heard him insult her.) 8. be considered. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. etc.
imagine. figure. deem. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.) 215 (67) . remember.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. However. occasion. etc. believe. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. picture. recollect. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities.) • with a full infinitive: get. have. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. presume.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. understand. prove. know. cause. find. discover. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. judge. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. consider.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. (Cred că este un geniu.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.
) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. expect. Harold. wish.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. they had depressed and fuddled him.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. suffer. desire. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. order. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. command. love.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. if he himself was out of spirits. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. want. prefer. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. etc. choose.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. he hated anyone to comment 216 . permit. mean. who wasn’t used to men with moods.etc.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.
(L. A little crossly.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. though he tended to look down on those below it.P. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. Both seemed to him a little unreal. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. he didn’t envy those above it. He suspected hostility at once. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. to make sure we attended strictly to business. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. so that we might get to the future and have done. the herd instinct was very strong in him. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.
9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. From this perspective. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. The last criterion. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. 218 .Nadina VIŞAN 8. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.
pare că uităm propria noastră durere. un bărbat şi o femeie. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. fireşte.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. mai bine219 . sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. lovit şi umilit. într-o zi. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. Şi tu să fii. să-l capete. bunăoară. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. de bună seamă. e) Când doi oameni. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. de asemenea. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. e important ce întrebări pui. E posibil. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. dar să nu-ţi spună.
Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. De era vară. (B. mai pline de înţeles. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. Însă Paul Achim trăise. d-a lungul gâtului. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală.Şt. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. 220 . dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. să nu vrea să se şteargă.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. încă. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. un picior.Şt. pe care deja o uitase. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. sau. mai bine de două decenii. în ploaie. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Să spui de pildă. ca să nu şi-o amintească.Nadina VIŞAN zis. în jos. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. avusese dreptate. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. aşa cum îi apăruse el. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. în parte. că eşti tânăr.Delavrancea. . cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. în parte.
ei. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. fie ea şi grăbită. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. un miros îngrozitor. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte... Mă laud singură. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. de fapt. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. o mizerie. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. deşi. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. prin faţă e coborârea. biata Muti. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. orice-ar fi. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji.. (Al. şi prin faţă. şi nu un amant. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia.. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. sunt aici cu tot ce am.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. Într-un cuvânt. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. orice bucureştean ştie. nici ca să 221 .
Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . în realitate. parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.
126.96.36.199.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.The Verbal Noun 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Participial Constructions 188.8.131.52.9.The Gerund 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 184.108.40.206.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.1.5 Key Concepts .2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.3.
1. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Due to this situation. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1.) 225 . The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. (Susan doarme. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.
the past participle can appear after a noun. too: (6) Her eye-lids. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.) More infrequently. (A venit Susan) b. 226 . Susan has come. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. blood-shot and painted. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. Susan has been killed.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.e. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. were closing. been and killed are past participle forms. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.) As you can see in this second case. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. it functions attributively. In (2) the forms come. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. i.
) b. people should pay attention to high notes. leul poate să atace. they started singing. When singing. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. (Sosind aici.) c. Weather permitting. o să ajung la timp. I will arrive there on time. Oh. he will eventually marry her. începură să cânte. Knowing who the guy was.) 227 . Arriving here. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (Ştiind cine era el.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) c. If provoked. she ran away. mother permitting. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) d. God willing. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. a lion can attack.) b.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. I will arrive there on time. ea o luă la fugă.
watch. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (Am simţit-o tremurând.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. notice. which stands for an adverbial clause. He was found stealing. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. He was found killed by a bullet. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.) b. respectively. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. smell. behold. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. They found him killed by a bullet.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) 228 . (L-au descoperit că fură. I found him stealing. hear.) ii. (L-am descoperit furând. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.
(O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. etc. a.) b. I must get my hair cut. I heard it said that men are a bore. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) b. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.) b.) • Causative verbs: get. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. leave. recollect.: a. have.) c. etc. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. confess. know. start. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. keep.: When she heard his words.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. make a. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . etc. she knew herself dismissed. feel. find. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) • Causative verbs: get . hear. He’ll soon get things going. set. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. etc.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. send. have. (A fost văzut plângând.) • mental perception verbs: remember. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.
) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. lovit şi plin de sânge. Men like shopping made easy. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. He wanted his car fixed immediately. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. command I ordered my bill made out. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul.) • verbs of permission. / Nu după multă vreme. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) b./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu./ L-a trimis la cumpărături.
Nominative or Accusative + Participle). as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. 231 . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.2. with its lips drawn back. / In any case. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / Dinny. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.e. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / My Lord. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial.1. Unlike the gerund.
I was astonished at what I saw. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. It had been uprooted by the gale.She didn’t want to hear the story again.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. 6. am plecat. People were sleeping in the next room. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Văzând acestea. I left. I knew that the murderer was still at large. se va opri şi ploaia. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . she enjoyed her trip to Spain. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 2. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 4. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I turned on the light. 5. The tree had fallen across the road. I left. 3.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. She had heard it all before. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. the rain will stop. (Desi nu ştia limba. using either a present participle. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 7. am plecat.
6. three. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. quick. drunken. red (twice). roast. lighted. hearted (twice). I let the dog out of the room. Read the sentences and try to correct them. sharp. narrow. haired (twice). the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Tied to the post. 9. covered. stricken. empty. Dropped by parachute. straight. open. cloth. his horse fell at the last jump. Getting out of bed. cornered. handed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. broad. 7. Riding in the first race. fishy. 10. Barking furiously. mown. 12. b) Headed (5 times). 2. open. lion. stony. a pot of paint fell on my head.Running into the room. 4. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. a rug caught her foot and she fell. He fed the dog. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 5. coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. the sea was tossing the post up and down. They began quarreling about how to divide it. 3. 8. many. 233 . 8. one of the eggs broke. eagle. 9. He sat down to his own dinner. Reading in bed. shaven. wooden. skinned. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. dark. Leaving the cinema. minded (3 times). Mother punished me for my mistake. bald. Passing under a ladder. 11. eyed (3 times). How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. I slammed the door of my room. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair.shoulder. my hands often get very cold. a scorpion bit him. Climbing down the tree. 10. They found the treasure.
(find) 6. man. (grow) 4. (produce) 3. is expected to be a great hit. (hunt). graven.I fell on the ice. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (injure). umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . Translate into English: 1. were taken to hospital. ________ hiding in a barn._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. b) grass. was today taken back to prison. bounden. In the following pairs of sentences. meat.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. lead. _______ my arm. Whales. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. / Three people. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. eyes. (take) 2. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. rotten. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. are in grave danger of extinction. (admire) 5. deer. hidden. ill-gotten.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / Many old people . wealth. the same verb is missing twice./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. shorn. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. _______ for a bargain. candle. The escaped prisoner. _______ by S. plank. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. 7. duty. meaning. lamb. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. image. / Swiss watches. _______ for their elegance and precision.Spielberg. I stared at the canvas for ages. stream. are sold throughout the world. shrunken. The film. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. head.
destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. 2. precum şi foile de plăcintă. 3. nesigur şi moale. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. trezit. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. şi moi. care le rânduia. legume date prin mai multe ape. le fierbea. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. păsări tăiate. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Şi sufletul său. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. După câtva timp. O umbreluţă. când deschisă. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. deodată sufocat. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. întinse. 4. când strânsă. Şi. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. le cocea. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. ca şi cum. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi.
Nadina VIŞAN 9.2.1. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.2. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. crezi. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. The Gerund 9. 236 . the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. According to this criterion. Likewise. (Dacă vezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.
) b. Consider the following table. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.2. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. In that.2. That he won and you lost was surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. His winning and your losing were both surprising. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. Him winning and you losing was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.) 9. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) b. gerunds differ from participles. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.
(L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. as being verbal 238 . A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) Unlike participles. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised.) 2. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.) b. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. It was illegal to grow a beard. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. *It was illegal growing a beard. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. Consider (32).
gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.2. It’s no good talking to her.3. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) 3. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. as offered in the table below: 239 . (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. Just like in the case of noun phrases. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.) 9. Participles vs.) b. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) b. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.
Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (adverbial of time) 4. babies suck their thumb. forms: continuous . Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. + noun] 1. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. passive ones She was crying. 3. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. 2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may function adverbials: house.
a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou.
He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 14. 13. shooting gallery / shooting star. 12. eating habits/ eating people.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 7. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He was spotted talking to her. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 9. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 5. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 10. 4. 15. 12. 242 . 11. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 6. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 8. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 2. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. crying game / crying woman. 3.
a The absence of an of phrase.3. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.e.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.Unit nine Ing complements 9. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. but the presence of a direct object (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.
the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. In the second situation. These are features that normally characterize any noun. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. How can we tell? In the first case. George’s shooting the attacker. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . if we were to go back to our incomplete table.
Jim left quietly. 245 . / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ His sudden coming puzzled her. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. very large. / His coming there puzzled her.
we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. the meaning is different. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. It has been noticed that. Look. ING Forms and Infinitives. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 .Nadina VIŞAN 9. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. for example.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. For instance. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.4. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. However. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. With the infinitive. whenever we meet an –ing form.
suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. containing an infinitive. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. (S-a oprit din mâncat. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.) . future-oriented value of the infinitive). On the other hand. anterior to the verb in the main clause. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.g.) The first example. having left) is infrequently used in English. and the most well-known one.) After looking at this example.
(Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). i. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. which means that they are similar in meaning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.e. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).e. recollect.) As you can see. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian.) . She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.
but that’s it. dar asta este. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) . (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. the action is not completed. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. In the second example.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.
want With [+ human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) wedding. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. (Casa trebuie reparată.) With [. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. In the second example. the event has not happened yet. mean has the sense signify. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. The house needs to be repaired.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. The house needs repairing. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.human] objects. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) b. e) need.) 250 .
only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. I did ask Mr. however appearances were against us. Croom (try) (follow) one. gerund or infinitive. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. Lady Corven. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. whereas in the second case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. it’s overrated. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .’ ‘Tell me. but they went by too quickly. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.’ ‘In any case. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. my Lord. my Lord. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. (take) down her answer. (hold) up his pen and (speak).
But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. licked the envelope with passion.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ said Clare. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.’ 252 . suddenly. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare. and went out (post) it himself. I just used the word and they fell. Then. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I must go back now. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). ‘I do hate (ask) for things. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. he addressed the note.
Participles mainly function as adverbials.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. Last but not least. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. the 253 . There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.5. Pratice In the following texts.
he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. someone looking for survivors. slowly rising in a swirling motion. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. hoping he would see somebody up there. covering the girl’s head. down into God knows where. He looked up towards the daylight. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. the enormous split in the earth. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. then the noise and the cracking stone. Then he saw movement at his feet. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. it 254 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. The sight of the two children. but then he saw it billowing up from below. their edges crashing inwards. according to the books he read. The two sides were moving apart. It was like a mist. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. She started coughing. At first. down. moving up towards his chest. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the chief occupation of the people of these islands.
She finished what jobs there were. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. 255 . the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. brightening to winter brilliance. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. my dear. for Dornford was busy on an important case. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. Having a French governess. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. slanted on to her cheek.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.
frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Ridicându-se. mama mea. 2. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. ucenicul său necredincios. cei doi Mamona. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. totul se animă deodată. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. În urma slugii. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Vaucher şi cu mine. într-o joi. and then went riding with her in the rain. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Aşa că vrând-nevrând.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. închizând ochii.
să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. la mine. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. aşezată cu spatele la noi. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. auzit şi zadarnic. privit. am ştiut şi cine. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. 3. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. o sărută pe frunte. pe Vaucher. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. dar ştiutoare. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. Neclintiţi. după cum îi spusese mama. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. se duse lânga mama şi. Şi deodată. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . totul mi se părea cunoscut. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. afară ploua în continuare. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. pe mama mea părând absentă. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. aplecându-se puţin.
Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. şi cu soba. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. 5. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. camionul a plecat. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. Au coborât din camion încet. dar. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau.
Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
2. and that 263 . without profound questioning.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. How this time was to come. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. 10. Having regard to the date of drafting. because of pity. 5. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. he had not yet been able to estimate. and this particularly of late. 12. and meet it right here at home. to retire early from my employment. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. he had been advised. 6. whereas if she went away she would get none. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 4. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 3. was unclear to Mitzi. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 9. You have been much in my thoughts. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 13. How much. this would really hurt. 7. in some way. 11. apart from his distress for parents. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. I am sorry not to have seen you. since I have decided. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers.
the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. please consider his proposition. one of the eggs broke. for attending his sister’s wedding. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 264 . I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / Before you go on changing the subject. 17. / In the end. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 14. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. he did not come to see her. / I would very much like walking out in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / Whenever I visited my aunt. looking forward had not yet taken place. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 19. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. even for months. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes.
of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. Clarissa used to think. it was said. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. without discovery. They hated trying on. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. centered in London and themselves. to end in some awful tragedy. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. (and there he was. Instead of which she had married. At country houses she had met them of course. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. They rushed into shops. her recklessness. Though much in request before her marriage. a little girl. and it was bound. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. her old friend Hugh. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. an open-air person. Vulgar men did. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . She felt as when. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. 265 . Tony was a child. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. rather than the hefty type. Essentially. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. of the quick and wiry. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. cotton mills at Manchester. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. quite unexpectedly. she said. of all people.
sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Reading many novels. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. she was uneasy.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. nu a facut-o pentru asta. cre s-au nascut lent. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. nu puteam sa le uit. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita.Rindurile dvs. Bolnava nu se simtea. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. The closer she allowed him to come to her. but lying in her bath. to keep abreast of the current. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. De uitat. astfel. with all its impatience of restraint.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. si in plus. Cind l-a chemat. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. indeed. aveam tot mai 266 . she professed.Over the River) 2. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. era un bun sfatuitor. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. the more she would be torturing him. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. short of the contacts of love. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. (John Galsworthy . Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. ii faceau bine. viguros si vesel in felul lui.
nu pricep nimic. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Ce a iesit. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. (St. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. are nevoie. Banulescu – ibid. fa-o. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii.) 5. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. latimea si ascutisul labei. Banulescu – ibid. vaazut cindva. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. mi-am zis. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Milionarule. se stie. (St.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Personal. lungimea picioarelor. pe scaunul lui tare. (St. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. poate fi compensata.) 7. Banulescu – ibid. Banulescu – ibid. ca si tine. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. o data sau de doua ori. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Daca tu. (St.) 6. cit mai au de trait. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.) 267 .
.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Cambridge. Who. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man.P. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Translate them. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. (. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who when asked about his memories of the War. when I was even younger than you. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Arthur Atkinson M. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. A story-book romance.. delivered from the holocaust. 2. for being a renegade. to Emmanuel College. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who was may father. Who came home from the war. a wounded soldier. my grandfather.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Could he be blamed. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Who told me. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.
That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. he had already engaged himself? 3. to whom. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. deep-set. a moody man. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. Fabianism. Rachel Williams. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for flirting with ideas (European socialism.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. and because – but this is mere speculation. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). 4. How 269 . that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.
fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. la şcoală. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum a trăit el. 270 . ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. cu taina aceasta.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a ajuns el. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. satul. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Ion. om mare. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Ion.
paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . Când actriţa. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. din franţuzeşte. de mama lor. când voi fi singur. greşeli dintr-astea. împotriva tuturor. L-au derivat cei din teatru. 271 . ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cu sau fără voie.pune totul in discuţie.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. singurul lui stăpân. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”.
care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Tot aşa. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. continuând. 4. traversând. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. parcă începusem s-o uit. Era să am din cauza asta un duel.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. pe jumătate prezent. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. 6. Într-o vreme. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. nevasta-mea. dam buzna peste automobile. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Am început. A devenit palid. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. fostă prietenă din copilărie. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. 5. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. 3. sau ridicole. ci un sistem de acomodare. uneori şi astăzi chiar. de pildă. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. privindu-mă în ochi. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. 272 . provocându-le.
De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. 11. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. De altminteri. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Dacă nemţii înaintau. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . că nu m-am gândit la asta. E o problemă. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Aş vrea să mă las jos. şi să nu ameţesc. 9. orice s-ar întâmpla. iar. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. şi dacă merg întins. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Am început. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. fireşte. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. fără să mă opresc o clipă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. 8. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. ca un acrobat. să merg întins. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu.
Auzindu-l. 16. nu mai pricepu nimic. 14. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. la carti. de la proces. se uita in jos. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . cu mirare.. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Ii venea greu. spuse el cu un glas ciudat.Ma. 13.. 15. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Greu era din partea asta. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. La un moment dat. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. eu am venit sa va intreb. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. 17. Acum isi ferea privirea. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Adica tot trecutul. nu trebuie sa va suparati. 274 . de uimire. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. la amintiri. de la obiecte de pret. nu mai semana. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. de la lucruri personale. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. la fata locului. dar nu se mai putea. In curind. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. trebuia sa le spuna. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Uite. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Ilie nu-l asculta.
se indeparta nepasator. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. i se paru ca aici e ceva.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. cum zicea Anghel. which was part of his rich outfit. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ».Ce sa fac. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Aici era ceva. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. dar. 19. Nu era nevoie. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Zimbea siret. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. There was even 275 . care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. vorbe asa si-asa. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. asa cum facuse pina acum. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. . apoi se uitau la Ilie. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. 20.
5.Nadina VIŞAN relief.Miller at her hotel. a simplification. He walked a long time. He felt then. for the instant. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. paying no attention. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. to take his way home on foot. gave an exclamation. to move fast. But Daisy. She was one 276 . at least. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. going astray. on this occasion. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. 4. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. 3. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. asked for Mrs. rude woman. to admit that she was a proud. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. the young lady. resuming her walk. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. conversationally. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done.
indeed. as text book. of studying European society. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. on the other hand. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. uncomfortably. 8. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. She appeared. Her daughter. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . and wondering what the deuce he meant. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. but strangely cold and shy and sombre.Walker. as it were. She rustled forward. as to projected changes. in radiant loveliness. smiling and chattering. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. 7. make a point. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. making Paul stop and look at her. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. in their own phrase. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. Advising with me. while residing abroad. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. often. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. He left me musing. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. 6. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal.
I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and acute too. 11. H. was immensely struck with him. 9. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. not seeing. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. or at any rate not heeding. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. was only half satisfied with this.’ 278 .Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. could see he was remarkable. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. with his humorous density. though E. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. H. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. while Paul. and perceived that it must be something important. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. which was deliberate. H. and. The agent became a very familiar type to H. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. 10. wondered what they were talking about. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler.
At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. which was very copious. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. why his question had broken out at that particular moment.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. appeared to fill his whole childhood. 14. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. H. 13. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. as he looked back. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. that the haunting wonder which now. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . had the power to chain his sympathy. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. 15. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. But she gave him no chance. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. not glancing at him for a moment. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used.
had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. At the theatre. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. and there were others. proudly. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. H. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. that she must be on the contrary. where the Pearl of Paraguay. 17. 18. dragging herself on her knees. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. and to H. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. 16. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. It was very possible she was capricious. as a general thing. yet 280 .Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. ironically reserved. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. disheveled and distracted. The whole establishment.
Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. It came over H. H. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. had blown a certain chill. 2. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 20. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. didn’t mind./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. would always be more or less irritating. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 281 . Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. on which the damp breath of the streets. 3. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. No one ever listens to her. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. with the poor. 19. young men were invited. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. and lurking within this nebulous design. *Old. Their mistakes and illusions.
I walked fast. 6. Rachel. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. Either John or he * have got to give in. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 7. “Oh. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 282 . the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. slipped on some steps. walking quickly. 8. striding like a Spartan maid. I was definitely going to be sick. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. 5. 10./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 9. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 12. I blundered by. her shining blue feet twinkling. c) When I saw her sitting there. her arms held out. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 11. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I saw her as a vision. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure.
Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.
analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. could cook my meals. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 3. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 2. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. but that we saw and pitied. 4. if they were poor. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. The old women spoke no English. where my servant. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. 5. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. which was really alarming. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . And then I ventured to add that.
was informed. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. before they left town. etc. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. was anxious.g. 285 . Constituents: He. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. he. to pay their annual visit. was anxious = was + anxious. distress. Munt. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. at noon. his. to settle. this. Constituents: how much. etc. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. etc. apart from his distress for parents.apart from his distress = apart from. on Saturday. he had not yet been able to estimate. How much. had not been able to estimate.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1.g. Constituents: Margaret. on a house. apart form his distress for parents. would really hurt. this would really hurt.
The sentence is however 286 . – non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ She finally admitted. interrogative.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – first clause is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. / If you like her. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). which is not assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. negative/ If you like jazz. – non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.. – assertive/ Don’t do that. Second clause is an imperative. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. don’t bother her. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive..semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. negative. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. second clause is non-assertive. interrogative. interrogative. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. and is non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. listen to this.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – comparison. it is assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. negative/ Come with me.
Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / He wasn’t unusually bright. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. but nothing out of the ordinary. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / She does not hate animals. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. – I like somebody else./ They weren’t really confused. not even this thing.but to someone else./ When he learned the news./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. only irresolute. everybody used to travel by coach. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / I don’t like her very much. / You have never met 287 ./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. but it isn’t Susan. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / They didn’t leave. not even when it’s quiet around./ Not long ago./ He was smart enough. the two brothers dared to protest./ Hardly interested in the conference. – someone hates animals. but not more than she does others. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. – they told the truth to somebody else. –double negation cancellation./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. he was hardly pleased. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ Susan did not get married to Jim . – someone did that./ He was exceptionally cunning. but it wasn’t them. / She does like John.
/ This is hardly the 288 . * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. they go skiing in the mountains. Jim felt rather at a loss for words..negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. – negative insertion.. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.. not even in my dreams.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.Nadina VIŞAN her... Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.. were they? / This boy is no good. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. not even when you were very young.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. I could hardly wait to hear the news. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.
Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way../ We seldom receive such generous praise. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – I almost never look at those paintings. – Not many people came to see her.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. never trust a man again. when we started our holiday...Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / Hardly anybody liked him. – I never see her./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Almost nobody liked him. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – You haven’t eaten a thing.Never shall I trust a man again. Activity 8 I shall never. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I seldom look at her like that. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. but she also lent him a car. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / Few people came to see her.
/ You must on no account touch this machinery. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime.I don’t like his proposal at all. / Don’t worry. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / They say he once had someone very close. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Come on. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain./ Well. / He reckoned he would not win her over. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ I expect he won’t come here again. – They don’t believe she likes them. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / Come on. you can still do something about it. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Only on this man could she rely. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet../ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / She could rely on nobody but him. –At no time did we leave the office./ I somewhat like his proposal. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – 290 . does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – On no account must you touch this machinery. you can’t do anything about it any more. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / They believe she does not like them. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time.
either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. –Alice still lives here./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Bob is still living at that address.. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – You can’t be telling lies. – You should send her something./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must pay that fine. – Well her husband has always been a good person. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. either. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. / You must be telling lies. too. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – She almost always comes here. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / She hardly ever comes here. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Well. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / You needn’t send her anything./ Peter knows some English and so does John. 291 ./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.
not yet./ You look so tired today. has never studied anywhere. / Jim is so brave./ 292 ./ Norocul la noroc trage. He isn’t that smart. / Don’t go on believing him./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ I don’t know why she’s crying.D. I haven’t done anything. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ E un baiat de zahar./ He’s a happy man. e un magar. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ They say this Ph. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. / Please. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ Nimic de facut./ Have they rung the bell? No./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. ever since I got this ulcer./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ You took his leaving you very hard./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ He was a tough man. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. to any of us. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ Zis si facut./ Nobody told us a thing./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. I haven’t seen her in years. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. Oh. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ I don’t know a thing about her. He didn’t move a muscle. give me a hand./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. It’s no wonder.
thrown out. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind.’/ Deloc descurajat./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. I had never had the opportunity to prove. one way or another. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . slowly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. parasi camera. nothing. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. I hadn’t really expected miracles./ Nu-i nici un deranj. 293 ./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. feebly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . no memory. for I thought this threatening. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. no story. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.’ ‘Nici o problema. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . that I was a decent man. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. We had nothing in common. with the same needs they had. without too much determination.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.
In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. We have to judge it as it is. that’s what the world is about. I admit. not as we would like it to be or some other way. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. it’s not words. Unfortunately. on the front seat. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. he immediately answered me patronizingly. Radu had calmed down. • It was my turn to say something. or if you understood what I meant. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. your story. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. things you do any moment. but facts. clear or confusing. he was sitting beside me. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. to say the least. I was sleepy and tired. Not for a moment had I thought that. I find it hard to understand where you are at”.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. It’s not made up of theories and the like.. by coming here to the monastery. You really made me mad. let alone irritable. good. bad. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. the only 294 . I’d be so happy if it were so. Your judgement is false. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be.
behind these big. Look. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. you can go to Ursu’s. 295 . a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. Anyway. or you are lying hidden. we are leaving. But I was just wondering. fear might be hiding. keep your conscience clean: you have one. me. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. or call the respect of others. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. too? A gun is power. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. soon we’ll be in town. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. to fight. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. clears your way. did you ever step up front. and if you like. you do as you think fit. me. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. it’s your problem. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. just to please myself. • So. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. precious words. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. either. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. although it was a difficult thing to do. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. it solves troubles. no matter how huge they are. I won’t interfere. as Baciu would have us be. and an inability to act. But what about you and Melania. it’s yours. keep it squeaky clean.
incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. But it was not because I had no answer to give. . has yet arrived -correct 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. has not arrived yet – double negation.. – incorrect. because before is a positive polarity item 2. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. or some other woman. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. firmly determined not to answer immediately. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. will he?.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .Negative incorporation 296 . but they gradually got used to it. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . The villagers were not very religious. correlatives are mixed 2. . have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .incorrect.Negative attraction b) 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. the sentence is incorrect 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. as soon as he delivered it.correct 3.. -correct 3.
prea răscolit. (ibid. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. much less ((NPI) for her. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. not happy at all (NPI). Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. b) But it was rather (API) late. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. she couldn’t marry him.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. her lack of motion would have to do (API). too troubled. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Nu putea să se mişte. yet. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. Avea sufletul prea obosit. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. His spirit was too tired. Her stillness. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. nu era 297 . Ştia că are dreptate. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. (ibid.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. either (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir.
cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. she looked younger than ever (NPI). arăta mai tânără ca oricând. (ibid. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. e) At length. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. he made his way to the screen. his heart was beating fast.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. se îndreptă spre paravan. (ibid. (Salman Rushdie. Ba dimpotrivă.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. The Satanic Verses. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. and not a little unsteadily. şi destul de hotărât. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). inima îi batea năvalnic.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. (ibid. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. if anything (NPI). 298 .
că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. but his father would have none of it (NPI). ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. and probably an administrative headache as well. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Ce-i pasă lui C. h) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Home receded from the prodigal son. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. care if the school were willing to treat him. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare.) C. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. The point was. the gift was useless. i) What did C. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. 299 . (ibid. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru.
Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. . correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.indirect question. 300 . correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct. – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
the bitch. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. she likes to entrance them. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. now she was chatty. you are in enough trouble as it is. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. and then what do you 308 . Luca Horobet. she didn’t wear a ring. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. Fenia. keep Condrat away from her. do you really think that this vixen. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. to make them lust after her. Vica. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. Fenia. She has an eye for gentle men. they were. Stavre Paici. yes. 2. “Now. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Chizlinski. all godfearing husbands and fathers. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia.
For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. with a railway station and a mosque. It even takes him a while to go to the window. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. G.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. He got him out of his mosque. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. the minister of Tartars and Turks. a seventy-eight year old lad. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. dragging his feet listlessly. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. what’s her name.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. ankle-long flowered calico. 4. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. 3. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. her hair pinned with blue combs. The mullah. have a girlfriend. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow.
for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic.
Her pet kitten is black and white. – similar situation 10.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. John is ready and Mary is ready. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. yellow and blue. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.phrasal coordination (in this case. John and Mary are ready.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.. John and Mary are the newly married couple.) 9. Our flag is red. – sentence coordination 7. our respective examinations. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – sentence coordination 2. and I passed.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.
10. 6. her son and others. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. much satisfaction or little 312 .Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 8. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. your proposal and his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. but John does not play football. Activity 4 1. 5. her idea and John’s. 2. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. We can and will demand payment. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 9.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. and even tennis. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 7. that method and those. 3. Activity 5 This book and the other. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune.) Joan plays many games. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. many guest or few. but not John. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. plays football. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan.
Swings and roundabouts 7. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Over and above 13.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Touch and go 10. To and fro 15. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Bread and butter 16. Few and far between 14. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Activity 8 1. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. but not simple. magazines are only for children. Law and order 8. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Ups and downs 6. Pros and cons 4. Thick and thin 11. Wear and tear 12. Life and soul 5. Spick and span 9. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. etc. He read. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. 3. High and low 2. 8. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. 4. Safe and sound 313 . The facts and figures 3. 7.) 6. He snapped at him and slapped him. 5. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary.
Symmetric 13. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 2. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 6. 2. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Not John but his two sons are to blame. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 9. – symmetric. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: temporal sequence.There is a table and some chairs in the room. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – symmetric 10. exclusive 15. There are some chairs and a table in the room. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 6. – symmetric. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – symmetric. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. b. inclusive 16. Asymmetric 19. My son and heir is safe. Cathy and David have arrived. Asymmetric 20. 4. 1. 7. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 8.. 9. 10. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 8. 7. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 4. 10. 3. exclusive 17. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5.symmetric 11. 314 . Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – symmetric 2. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – asymmetric 18. 5. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. My son and daughter are twins. 3. Symmetric 21. 5. Asymmetric – temporal sequence.
I hope my letter finds you alive and well. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 12. clothes and all. By hook or by crook. They came to me. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. He went to bed. 11. 2. Her husband is long dead and buried. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. Should he pour water in the basin. There are doctors and doctors. Not only should you rest 315 .Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 6. 10. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 4. 8. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. Brother or no brother. He’s neither fish. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Jim thought it over for a while. We’ll stick together. 9.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 7. 2. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. thanks for asking. 5. No drinking and driving. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. I’ll still finish this paper. nor fowl. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 14. it was too small. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 3. 15. ‘Madam. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 3. (2) 1. for better or worse. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine.
he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. And. what’s its name. This. They hadn’t kept him there too long. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. From time to time she will launch a helping question. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. Whatever she tried her hand at. but he’d come out a cripple. so he could leap in pursuit. so he’d gone down and died in no time. it would work out fine. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. 2. at equal intervals.Nadina VIŞAN assured. Mrs. she knows for sure. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. What do you know? The moment Mrs. without mentioning financial matters. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. but she blinks in approval. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. and she listens to him. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. their common ground. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. he’d leap high. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. an important man. You know. just like when he was thirty. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. Her first husband had been a professor. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. as she always does. tense like a bow. 316 .’ (3) 1. tense with concentration. she started doing a great job. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. and then. he starts lecturing her about life and things. both dead and buried. So she’ll listen to him. stop dead in his tracks. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands.
of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. about her problems at home After I told her the story. at me Activity 2: 1.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . cannot tell.subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. whomever wanted to listen. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. looked. is aware. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . came. functioning as an object (direct). that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. you. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – she. – Susan. – she. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2. told.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. functioning as a modifier 3. she looked at me sadly. – she.subordinate.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .subordinate. – obligatory elements: she.
remove our home yet again . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that you are choosing exile .complement b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. at our age.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. that we should. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate.
a barn. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. outbuildings. a house. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement.
who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. without straightening her back. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. staring at each other. His wife was reaping the wheat silently.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement.wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. sickle in hand.A few days before the war. subject/ to do such again – complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. But other people. Activity 5 1. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object. direct object/ to sit there – complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ and done – wh complement. (…) He dashed back. (…) ‘Well. that kept her constantly tense and grim. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. When Anton put the sickle down. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement.
In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. while on other occasions he would show caution. which he doesn’t rely on completely. 321 . it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. as if they were at his beck and call.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Not even at this point. Ana could not stand a trip now. rather than a real threat. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. 3. Only he had Ana to think of. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. but also his sharp nose. Why! He was not of two minds. or other more hidden means. you need courage even for this small thing. he will turn back and no longer be daring. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. but he doesn’t spurn either. that was for sure. while they spoke from miles away. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. 2. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. or if he does. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. First. For no bold man really falters.
We were going to drive to a vineyard.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. and twice we were requested to get out. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. come on. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. although he could have said so earlier. without really knowing why. are we getting off again? What is wrong. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. he had postponed writing back. But it was not ok. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. they would ruin the arrangement. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. So. In fact. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. and on Monday followed another feast). 322 . Twice did we get in the car. to see some mutual friends. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. 4. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. by the cars of some of us. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. and when things didn’t go as planned. under the silliest of pretexts. And here’s how this first day looked. in Odobesti. it was the women.
10. who was just passing by. 8. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. Activity 2 1. when we first met . He is the author who they gave a prize to. 5. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.She came to London where I went too. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 8. He told her the secret. Activity 3 1. why they all left . John told his friend a story about the king. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 6. all of whom would answer to his questions. This is my husband whom I love very much. I bought Jim a book that he liked. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 3. 7. The students like their teacher. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. where I least expected 323 . on which this occurred . 11. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. which was a pity. most of whom were from England. any of whom would answer to questions. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 4. like their teacher. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 6. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. You couldn’t join the party. 2.restrictive 4. 3.restrictive 2. 10. where I spent my youth . 4. 7. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.restrictive 7.restrictive 6. The students. 5. 9. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. which was silly of him.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.free 8.
the prince chose Cinderella. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who cannot say a word. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. come up front. What – direct object 2.subject 8. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. You.adjunct 5. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. Why . I. What Inman remembered – subject. which . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.free Activity 4 1. 6. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. When . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . what their parents made them. Activity 5 1.adjunct 10. Which – subject 4. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.adjunct 3. who think so highly of yourselves. Where . Who . Where . What I’m saying – subject.subject 9. Where he was from – adjunct. where we talk money – predicative.Nadina VIŞAN . When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative.restrictive 10.adjunct 6. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. when . 7. 2. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. where – predicative 7. 5.free 9. Of all the persons there. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative.When Ada remarked – adjunct. 4. however sad . was very displeased with the situation. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.adjunct 11. 3.
whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which requires an accusative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. whatever – predicative 13. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. what .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. which is ungrammatical due to the[. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what little she knew – direct object.
and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. due to its invariable character. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a sergeant. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. in his turn. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. got married and had a daughter. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. having changed quite a number of jobs. but whose second cousin. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose great-grandfather. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. a rather tiny looking man. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin.
His friends. whose interest he most sincerely shared. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. – no pied piping 327 . he rarely saw now. – yes. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.obligatory 4.His father’s friends.yes Activity 9 1. .yes 3. . – no 9. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.yes 7.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. . no easy answers to which could be offered. was now complete. were now all gone.no 5. This story.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.obligatory 3. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.yes 10. – yes 6. . he requested that the public be excluded. with deletion of the noun friends]. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – no pied piping 5. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. The problem of safe transportation. – yes 2. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Irene. – no 4. – obligatory pied piping 2. In the interest of public decency. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. has been troubling them forever. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. . .
But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. Only an ugly endless dream remained. I did so. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . for instance. In other people’s opinion. For twenty years. 3. irrespective of age and nature. 328 . He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. Everything was ending. For all the four children. the third born son. 6. 8. yours. I am to be envied. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town.and he couldn’t thank me enough. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. where two teams battled every day… 5. 7. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. Nelu. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. or as of a vast arena. 2. 4.
12. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. leaving streets and houses behind. barely glittering in the distance. All that you have read is rubbish. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 17. she said. from MR street. 11. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. the tram was rattling along. on Icoanei street. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. He was suffering from dizziness. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. where from Marta was coming too. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. You are newly arrived here. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 10. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 15. since I don’t really know which my true life is. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 16.R. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. Behind them. staring aimlessly. 329 . although she was standing quite close to him. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 13. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 14.
I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. 330 . While some trees are still green. While we were poor. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. after the car was fixed. who prompted everyone on the street. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. who only lived once in this world. 23. But. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. or the many Egyptian dynasties. had a huge house in Bucharest. If he had hit me. 20.Nadina VIŞAN 18. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. day by day. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. She was a woman of means. so optimistic and composed? 19. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. From the vantage point I was in. But for me. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 21. 24. So. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. I could see my woman falling away from me. had a personal style in clothes. likes and dislikes. 22. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. or the clash of stars above. I don’t know what might have happened. which I did not posses. in her pursuits.
– extraposed. subject 9. – questionable. object 6. – extraposed. – impossible 7. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 2. subject 8. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. direct object 3. subject 2. – unextraposed. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. subject 7. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed. – extraposed. 6. object 5. It will be soon announced when you can leave.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – extraposed.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – extraposed. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It appears that no one voted for him. for pragmatic reasons 5.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 331 . Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. direct object 10. – the same as 3. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 3. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. 8. subject 4. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.
I guess it that he will come back. tense influences the 332 . That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. . I don’t expect it that he will come back. although a bit intricate 2. Activity 3: 1. a bit too intricate 5. . They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. but pragmatically impossible 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. same as 12. idiomatic formula 16. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – the same as 12. – impossible 11. – grammatical. – impossible. It is nice to meet you.grammatical. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – grammatical. – impossible. – grammatical. 17.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. same as 12. You know it only too well that he will not marry you.incorrect. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 14. 15. 9. same as 12.. 10. – impossible.correct 4. – impossible. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 18. They never expected it that he would come back.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It is no use trying to convince her. but pragmatically impossible 4. – same as 12. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. . – incorrect. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.grammatical. – correct 2.
333 . in the ditch. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ Lionel says. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. under bridges. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. 3.’ 4. though. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. in the pits on the road. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 2. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.incorrect. 5. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. thus. (Not always. behind gates. – correct 6. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.
As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. 2. who had just returned from Africa. 8. who had just returned from Africa. It is less ambiguous than the first. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. – the first sentence is the better of the two. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence is questionable. 7. Activity 7 1. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.Nadina VIŞAN 6. because it is less ambiguous. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. prime-minister. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. since the 334 . for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. By saying this. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 4. 3. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. without trying to protest too much. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations.
The second and third sentences are grammatical. – both sentences are grammatical. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 5. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. so there is no need for extraposition. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 6. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. extraposition is obligatory here. 335 ./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. 8. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.) complement that clauses. coordinated. ibid.relative Activity 9 1. – complement that clause. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.We discovered that our map has disappeared.adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 3. required by deverbal noun 336 . – relative 5. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. (Iris Murdoch. – subject. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.) adverbial of sequence/result. for better or worse. – complement 2. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. The idea that he had had earned him good money.complement 4. – complement 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. . Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. they were chained to each other forever. . His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – prepositional object. . – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.prepositional object. – direct object. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin.
b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. that deletion is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 .(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – that is obligatory. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. you want me to believe. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. f) John said that Harry would leave.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. that they were not too late to leave. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.
– both sentences are grammatical. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. sequence of tenses is observed 4. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. a.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . c. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. b. – grammatical sentences. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 6.
Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. present instead of simple past. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. – generalization on habits of birds. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. cenuşii şi albe. ciocârlii şi şoimi. quail. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. While the first is possible because of the generalization. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. lark. hawk. present perfect instead of past perfect. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. geese both grey and white. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. prepeliţe. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .
a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. lipsa de vanitate. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. The generic present is used in this case. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. love of practical jokes. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. slyness in a fight. as evidenced by its drear plumage. She admired their keenness of wit. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Crows will relish what presents itself. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. lack of pridefulness.
Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. He died erect. he claimed. But as the battle raged around them. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. the young officer. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He had fought hard through the war. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. tânărul ofiţer. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. tragică şi eroică. in the very act of expiring. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Murise în picioare. se ridicase în picioare. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. El căzuse pe spate. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile.
And they might just hang him. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. But when he reached me. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. A short while later. When he saw me. 342 . Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Luptase din răsputeri în război. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. I realized I could not tell him the big news. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. they gathered around my desk. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. How can I explain? I just felt shy. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Now here he stood jailed. 2. to finish my drawing. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. When the boys saw that mother had left. One of them. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. mother went home and I was left alone. he closed the album. the oldest. – similar situation to the one under (c). war hero though he was. susţinea el. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. în închisoare. Acum stătea aici. Activity 13 1. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. deşi era erou de război. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). They all had their hands in their pockets.
as if he had been drunk. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. 6. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. or fear his rage. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. 4. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. brightly and closely. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. for her vineyard. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. All his senses were now keen. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.’ 5. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. or if she would do so again.’ Mr.
If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. The last time when we met here you scared me. 8. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted.Nadina VIŞAN to him. claiming you had no ambition for the future. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. 10. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. 7. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. thinking of him. 11. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 9. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. And if things were so.
towards Jurubita. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. which secretly drove him. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. 14.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 12. 13. namely the impatience of this young man. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. where he would run to confess everything. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. more urgently than ever. without putting anything in a note. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. We either sell them or we don’t. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind.
/ they saw her leave. .simple infinitive. 9. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. grammatical 5. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – simple infinitive.. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 7. grammatical 2. – infinitive continuous. – infinitive continuous. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is vital this factory to be reopened. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. grammatical 3. grammatical 6.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. – simple infinitive. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 346 .INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – perfect infinitive. grammatical 10. / He had Mary clean her room. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical. – simple infinitive. .
Test: *She wanted him. \ They really asked her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I allowed [them to come. / I want to never see you again. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / It is not too late for him to learn. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: He persuaded her. – Test: She promised him. \ She wanted [him to leave. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. Test: * I would like people. Test: *They would have hated her. Test: *I would love them. Test: *I allowed them. – Test: They tempted him. \ I would love [ them to come. Test: *They did not wish her. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. – Test: They asked her.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ They did not wish [her to come back. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. you need to try harder. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They would have hated [her to come back.
/ I want you to leave my house. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / He is easy to live with. / He is easy to talk to. / He is young enough to start again. / I want to tell you what I think of you.obligatory subject control verb 348 . not to miss the train. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / He is hard to stand.Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. . / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. . – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. Activity 6 Oh. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. .obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / Oh. I don’t need you or your services.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / To make a long story short.
Subject. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Harold. He suspected hostility at once. he didn’t envy those above it. Predicative 4 . Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. If he himself was out of spirits. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. 1] A little crossly. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.Accusative + Infinitive. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. so that we might get to the future and have done. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Subject. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. who wasn’t used to men with moods. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. 349 . [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. 1 – PRO. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. the herd instinct was very strong in him. they had depressed and fuddled him. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive.
but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. But when we need to comfort others. direct object 3 – PRO –to.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. PRO controlled by ‘him’. f) The passing time is important. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. more believable than evidence itself. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. more meaningful. or better said. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. cautiously. And you might also be hit and humiliated. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. we seem to forget about our own pain. e) When two persons. PRO controlled by ‘she’. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. 1 – PRO-to. man and woman. PRO controlled by ‘me’. object 2 – PRO –to. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. 350 . as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. slowly. true. One day. PRO controlled by ‘she’. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. excitedly. c) Unlike plane trips. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.
And to actually start to believe you are so. And I would care for this man so deeply. k) With this considerable dowry. tickled by the trickles of sweat. or. That is it. for instance. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. I am indeed praising my own merits. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. in the street. that you are young. 351 . not even those parts where he had been half-right. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. Moroi says heavily. S. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. to live only with your coughing. while swearing to change my way of life. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. He had not been able to leave Dr. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. If it was summer. all down our neck. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. which he had already forgotten. even when this love is hurried. my wish being only to please and serve.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. as he had appeared to him in the rain. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. or their talk that night. not to want to wipe it off. Mrs. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. h) I want us to go. Stroescu. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone.
every Bucharester knows it. here I am with all of my own. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. she was suddenly so shocked. If you will have what I can give you. no matter what. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. haphazardly. met by squalor and terrible smells. 352 . l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. or to speak so fast. ready to submit to any demand. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. Well. for that’s the door people get off by.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. poor Muti.
/ They found it thrown in a corner. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ She sent him shopping. – Attributive past participle.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. 353 . Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. with its lips drawn back./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Don’t keep him waiting. badly beaten and bloodied. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.
Attributive present participle. having heard it all before. 2. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. 4. Turning on the light. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. – As she was running into the room. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. having been uprooted by the gale. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.Running into the room. Accusative + present participle / In any case. sitting taut between her father and her sister. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 8. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 6. Activity 4 1. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. Finding the treasure. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. he sat down to his own dinner. 5. Sleeping in the next room. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 3. 9. – Attributive present participle. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I was astonished at what I saw. they began quarreling about how to divide it. Having looked through the fashion magazine. Having fed the dog. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. The tree had fallen across the road.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. I slammed the door of my room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 10.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 7. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny./ Running into the room.
3. Dropped by parachute. 11. a pot of paint fell on my head. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – When I read in bed. many-coloured. – As he left the cinema. Getting out of bed. one of the eggs broke. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. wooden-headed. Tied to the post. broad-shouldered. a scorpion bit him. 2. a pot of paint fell on my head. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. I let the dog out of the room. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Barking furiously. 5. his horse fell at the last jump. three-coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. my hands often get very cold. – As the dog was barking furiously.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 10. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. sharp-eyed/minded. 4. I often get very cold hands. Passing under a ladder. narrow-minded. 12. his horse fell at the last jump. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. my hands often get very cold. cloth-covered. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Leaving the cinema. bald-headed. Riding in the first race. 9. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Activity 5 Fair-haired. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. he broke one of the eggs. lion-hearted. 6. Reading in bed. he was bit by a scorpion. the sea was tossing the post up and down. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities./ Reading in bed. the sea was tossing it up and down. 355 . a scorpion bit him. red-handed. / Getting out of bed. 8. open-minded. – As he was tied to the post. Climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. / Climbing down the tree. – As I was passing under a ladder. 7. stony-hearted. fishy-eyed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. empty-headed. – As he was getting out of bed. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. I let it out of the room. – As he was riding in the first race. – As he was climbing down the tree.
stricken deer. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. are sold throughout the world. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / Swiss watches. admired for their elegance and precision. (grow) 4. The escaped prisoner. rotten plank. Activity 8 1. (admire) 5. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. were taken to hospital.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. shaven head. 7. / Three people. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. was today taken back to prison. bounden duty.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. open-hearted. shrunken stream. shorn lamb. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. hunting for a bargain. Activity 7 1. roast meat. injuring my arm. injured when their car crashed on the M1. hidden meaning. (take) 2. (hunt). (find) 6. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (injure). finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. sunken eyes.I fell on the ice. are in grave danger of extinction. is expected to be a great hit. The film. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (produce) 3. dark-skinned. found hiding in a barn. produced by S. I stared at the canvas for ages.Spielberg. / Many old people. Whales. eagle-eyed. lighted candle. drunken man./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. 356 . / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. ill-gotten wealth. graven image. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. straight-shouldered. mown grass.
with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. seeking some promised land. 3. and moreover. hovering uncertain and soft. 4. sprinkled with sticky flour. now taken down. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. boil them. the twice rinsed vegetables. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. suddenly suffocated. then put up. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. the fish. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. 2. bake them. A parasol. and the puffed pastry beds. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. streaked with yellow veins of fat. yet left them room to sway free. And his soul. he were struggling for breath. in charge of his house and lands. 357 . a strange thrill shot through Bubi. he started peering anxiously around as if. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. He felt close to his father. the carved chicken. So. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. flat and soft. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. After a while. thrown in the pots. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. its scales scraped off by the knife.
/ After annoying the shop-assistant. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / I am sorry for being so late. – Accusative + participle 3. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. – participle (attribute) 2. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / I told him not to bother putting things back./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine.gerund 5. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. . / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. Activity 10 1. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. – gerund (subject) 4. Gambling is his favourite pastime./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. he left the store without buying a thing. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 .
possessive ING (direct object) 9. He was spotted talking to her. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – gerund (attribute. – gerund (half or full. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. .Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. 8.participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. possessive ING (predicative) 7. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – Nominative + participle 13. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. preceded by preposition). participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.
’ 360 . but they went by too quickly.. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – gerund or verbal noun. I did ask Mr.verbal noun (has determiner. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. take down her answer. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. hold up his pen and speak.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has adjective).’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.’ ‘Tell me. adjective. – gerund (full. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Croom to try to follow one. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. adjective. however appearances were against us.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Lady Corven. my Lord. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.
the sisters started about eleven o’clock. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. I must go back now.’ 361 . Then.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. it’s overrated.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. my Lord. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. licked the envelope with passion.’ said Clare. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. suddenly. I spend all my time hunting a job. and went out to post it himself.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. I just used the word and they fell. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. he addressed the note.’ said Clare. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. ‘I do hate asking for things. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.
then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) towards him. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. …while their edges were crashing inwards). down. attribute.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. First the crack snaking (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. At first. attribute. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. The two sides were moving apart. attribute). gerund. The collapsing shops (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. down into God knows where. slowly rising (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. attribute. attribute. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. village which is burning). direct object) from below. Then he saw movement at his feet. the enormous split in the earth. elliptical here. slightly 362 . stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. adverbial of time. (participle. attribute). direct object). the very earth opening up (half gerund. after verb of perception. attribute) in a swirling motion. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. He looked up towards the daylight. It was like a mist. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. The sight of the two children. Has a complex subject) in the hole. hoping (participle.
my dear. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. etc. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. according to the books he read. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. early. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun.e. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. covering (participle.). preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. adverbial of reason). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. one. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . i. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. moving up (participle. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. has ‘of’ phrase). you. prepositional object.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. direct object).
for Dornford was busy on an important case. adverbial of manner). And. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. preceded by preposition. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. So. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. Having a French governess (participle. mother. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. and everything got suddenly animated. Standing up. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. attribute) to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. we were all gathered in that room. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. Vaucher and I. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. and not only in my imagination or theirs. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner). attribute) stopped dead.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. preceded by preposition. examining (participle. She finished what jobs there were. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. and then went riding (participle. brightening (participle. and sunlight. adverbial of reason). a door was opened and as a servant entered. reluctant or not. the two Mamonas.
Vaucher might have known that too. for anyway. let alone greet us or say something. to Vaucher. he looked like someone who did. her back towards us. 3. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . kissed her forehead. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. who knows. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. about sparing no effort. each carrying a wooden box. And. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. and ended his life in the year 1821. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. and smelling so hard of rain.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. in the year 1812. without taking his sack off his shoulders. he went to mother and. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. closing my eyes. He cast us a swift glance. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. So when Old Mamona came in. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. to me. Entering our house on a Thursday. sitting in his puddle. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. 2. too. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. he found us sitting each in his place. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. I knew who it would be. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. and to Young Mamona. 4. And then. killed by Young Mamona. his disloyal apprentice. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. bending a little. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. about concentrating all our resources. Not so unimaginable though. as mother had ordered him.
When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. long board table. And all around them was the great field 366 . 5. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. wood pile. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. as an afterthought. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. barrack. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. everything seemed familiar. of taking notes and rewriting them. They got off the truck slowly. stove. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. already seen and heard.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. futile. And suddenly. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. But. each pausing before jumping down.
The next thing was to go to the well. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 .
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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