NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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de rezolvări. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. 6 . titularizare şi grad. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

3.1.5.2. Insertion 1. Auxiliary verbs 1.4. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Constituent Phrase 1.Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Complementary distribution .

Consequently.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. sequences of the kind her mother very. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Semantic. loves.2. that is sequences fragmented at random. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . They are just strings. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. 1. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. very much. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Syntactic.1. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. her mother.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. For instance.

1. 1. etc. (Mi-a spus secretul.3.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.e. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. be). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. we are dealing with a directive (i.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.) 10 .4. an order given to an interlocutor). should. must. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.

5.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. an ‘empty’ there subject. etc. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. live. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. for instance. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Consider.) 1. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. 1.6. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.

This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. whereas (7) is not. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. he had not yet been able to estimate. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. using your own examples: insertion. distribution. complementary distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Pratice Define and illustrate. semantic. How much. Munt. If the given context is the one under (6). Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. this would really hurt. syntactic. pragmatic. 12 . as the star indicates. both (8) and (9) are correct structures.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that.

to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 .

4.2. Key terms 2. affirmative sentences.2.1.3. Instances of negation 2.5. Negative vs.6.7.8. Conclusion. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Polarity Items 2. Key terms . Full – local negation 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Tests for negativity 2.

The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a.2. For instance. it asserts something. Consequently. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Positive vs. in the sense that it states something.) is said to be an assertion.) b. Negative . in that they do not state anything. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Unit two Sentence negation 2. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.Declarative vs. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.

negative (e.assertion . don’t bother her.g.) . comparison.positive and declarative secret.interrogative (e.non-assertion .Nadina VIŞAN . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. 16 .g. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection./ She can’t wait to read that book./ We didn’t come here just to talk./ If you like her. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) ./ Don’t do that.g. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. Did they tell her the secret? ) .positive sentence .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. listen to this. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.other (if –clauses. / Come with me. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. They told her the ( e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.) . / She finally admitted.

Unit two Sentence negation 2. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. word negation.) 17 . since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the negative word not is not present there. Susan dislikes her friends. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. For example. John is not happy.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is unhappy. (John e nefericit. Susan doesn’t like her friends.) b. I met a girl named Susan. In the case of the sentences under (4). (Nu demult. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.) b.

(Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. just like in the case of word negation. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) b. In other words. where the word 18 .) c. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. I was not a little worried. but their meaning tells us a different story. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. In other words. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. She was not an unattractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. more precisely the phrase it is part of. He was not without intelligence. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. these sentences look negative. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. since the negative word not is present inside them.

without intelligence. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning.e. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. Translate the following sentences into English. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / Când a aflat vestea./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or .

This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. dar nu în mod special. 2. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. Negative vs. ci doar indecişi. affirmative sentences. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune.

etc. (M-am dus acolo. For instance. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.). Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).1.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. (see subsection 1. such as do insertion. (Nu m-am dus acolo. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.

incorrect. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. 22 . since it is followed by an affirmative question tag.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / I don’t like her very much. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / She does not hate animals. / We don’t come here often./ They didn’t leave. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / Susan did not get married to Jim. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends.

) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. *and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. and they don’t like her either. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. * and they don’t like her either. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Example (14) is syntactically negative. not even the smart ones.Unit two Sentence negation 2. and neither do they like her. which does not happen in the case of (18). *not even the smart ones. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which is ungrammatical. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. 3. even the smart ones. 4. .

whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / A few of them stayed behind. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / They caused us no problems. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. they go skiing in the mountains. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / You have never met her. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.5. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / No problems were caused after all. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / This boy is no good. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / Few of them stayed behind. In conclusion. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.

(N-am văzut pe nimeni). b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . Susan could not go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. I went nowhere. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (26) I saw nobody. (N-a venit John). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (27) a . This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English.

) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. 26 .Nadina VIŞAN b. I didn’t see anybody. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) b. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I didn’t go anywhere. All that glitters is not gold. no incorporation takes place. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not all that glitters is gold.) b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. No day passed without me thinking of him. I never went to his place.) c. b.) (29) a. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. / I didn’t ever go to his place. (N-am văzut nici un student. I didn’t see any student. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.

/ I showed him nothing. and we don’t go to the theatre either. seldom. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. (Nu citesc romane. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. rarely. nici măcar din alea scurte. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.) We seldom watch T. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / Not one of them came to meet her.4./ They didn’t come to meet her. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / None of them liked house music. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / Not a word fell from her lips. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / I didn’t see anybody. not even short ones./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. etc.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. scarcely. .V. / I saw nobody. / He should not be released.) They barely read any novels. / No one ever listens to her. barely./ They never went there. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly.

şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Few people came to see her. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. Never have I met a more horrible person.) b.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Hardly anybody liked him. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) c.) 28 them.) d. / I scarcely ever see her. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. . (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I seldom look at her like that. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. which triggers inversion): (35) a. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.

sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / You must on no account touch this machinery. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / I didn’t leave the office at any time.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ We seldom receive such generous praise. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. never trust a man again. in the sense that the 29 .Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never.) They don’t think that he likes them. / She could rely on nobody but him. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.

be supposed to. we can very well say something like: (38) a. cannot appear in an affirmative context. be probable. advise.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. guess.) b.: think. believe.) 30 . suppose. / I expect he won’t come here again. etc. ought to. For example. 2. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / They believe she does not like them. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. appear. etc. seem. choose. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / I suppose she doesn’t care. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. In sentence (37). intend. / He reckoned he would not win her over. expect. the negative meaning is less strong. etc. imagine. intention. want. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. be likely. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. probability. look like. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. barely. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. sound/feel like.6. suggest. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. should be desirable. although not negative in meaning.

The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. and sentences such as: (39) a. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. *She likes our chairman at all. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. are clearly not grammatical. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. That is 31 .2.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. b. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context.*She lifted a finger to help me. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.

/ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / Well.) Hardly ever vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. too (I don’t like it. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / I like you a lot. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. still (I don’t love you any more.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I have some money. / I can understand both of these 32 .) Much vs. / I eat caviar most of the times.) Until vs. / She hardly ever comes here. / I somewhat like his proposal. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. etc. / I somehow like him. / Don’t worry. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.) Yet vs. too. / They say he once had someone very close. a lot (I don’t like you much. / Well.) Any more vs. / He arrived before 5. some (I haven’t any money. too. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. you can still do something about it. either.). / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I still love you) Either vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I like it . / Bob is still living at that address. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / Come on.) At all vs. / I have already seen him. / You needn’t send her anything.

/ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must pay that fine. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. mulţumesc. have a care/ friend in the world. / Peter knows some English and so does John. lay a finger on someone./ I can understand all of these ten English words. sleep a wink. flinch. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. have/be worth a red cent. hurt a fly. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. turn a hair. find a trace. / Ajută-mă. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. nici unuia dintre noi. see/ feel/ remember a thing. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). move a muscle. bat an eye(lid). / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. say / breathe/ understand a word. last a minute. leave a stone unturned. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. crack a smile. Translate into English. de când cu 33 . touch a drop. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. hear a peep. give a damn/darn. / You must be telling lies. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. know a single person.

/ Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Never is a long word. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / He won’t make old bones. Translate into Romanian. but you really should do something about it. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / No hands wanted. As you have noticed from the exercises above. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. B: Aşi. nu e vina mea. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / No trouble at all. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / No entry. / No sooner said than done. / No man is wise all the time. he’s a pig. he left the room. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. budge. / Hotărât lucru. / No admittance. / I had no end of trouble. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Nothing succeeds like success. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Not that I care. / He is no end of a fellow. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-a sunat încă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta.

which is not the case of the sentence under (45). as well: 35 . In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). b) I love asking some funny remarks. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. 2. say it./ I saw no one. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API).) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. c) He is anxious to say something. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Normally. / I hate making any commitments. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.7. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.Unit two Sentence negation rather).

it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. B: Nu. nu-mi place. however. (Nu. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. B: Not this poem. Conclusion. from a syntactic point of view. I don’t.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. 36 .8.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. The second negation is somehow independent.) 2. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. nu îmi place poezia asta. nu poezia asta. Key terms. I don’t like this poem.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. interrogation).e.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .

Optional Exercises . Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3.2.2.2. Minor Types of Questions 3.Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3.4.3.1 Tag Questions 3.3.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Key Terms. Direct vs.2 Wh.2 Echo Questions 3.1.3.

Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . focusing on direct questions mainly. If we try to analyze the examples above. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.Unit three Questions 3.1. for a subsequent section. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.

due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Pratice Translate the following questions in English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.g. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. pe mama. (3) and (4). However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. (2). 48 . the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.

Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. 49 . indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions).Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. Since the question is not direct any more. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). in this case. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. Likewise. In the case of indirect questions. because. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5).

/ He asked me who she is. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I don’t know who she is. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / He asked me who she was. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. sau mai bine zis. ce culoare are pielea. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . identify the incorrect sentences. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / I don’t know whom she fancies. spune la un moment dat femeia. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. c) Ştii ce. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are.

Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Let us provide 51 .2. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. as Quirk shows. the type of answer the respective question requires. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. In this case. being typical of spoken language.Unit three Questions 3.

(you / keep a secret) ? 8. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (how long / wait for me?) 10. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (who / talk to last night)? 5. 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.1.2. (which / you like best) ? 4. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .

A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. instead of Negative Polarity ones. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. they did. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . are said to be positively – oriented.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da). it has.

2.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. because you always copy everything I do! 5. 3. A: What a lovely hairdo! ………………….? (a mean thing to do) 54 . A: You look down. 6. A: Your mother is shouting for you. . 7.. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. …………………. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. (speak yet) B: ……. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: She had her tenants evicted. as in the example: 1.. ……. A: You’ve been learning German for years. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. ……………………………. 4. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.. I’ve still got plenty of time. ……………? (hear her) B: …. but I want to play basketball a little longer.

2 Wh – questions Wh. 10. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.. 9. where. how..questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .2. which When. . What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . A: There was a terrible car crash. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. . 8. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. what . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. I didn’t get home until late last night. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. You could have mentioned it earlier. .Unit three Questions B: ………………….. ………………………………. 3. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. A: It’s past your bedtime.

Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. trying to find places where I resided in life. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / There are six students in my class. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / She lives in the suburbs. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. Nearly two hundred years. what ever.000dollars. / My new car cost 10. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / That’s my pen. (Poppy Z. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 ./ I have French lessons twice a week. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. of course. I cannot do that. / Shirley got married to Ben. / David’s car was stolen. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / Kay’s gone out shopping. why ever./ We’ve lived here for ten years. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ Sara owns two cars./ She dropped her glasses. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often.

) 57 . (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.3. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.2.

didn’t use he? 11. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. didn’t use he? 4. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. He used to work in a bank. He used to work in a bank. There was a fax for you this morning. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. How far is it the cinema? 10. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. You can’t be serious. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 7. wasn’t it there? 17. How long is she be spending in America? 8. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. How far is it the cinema? 3. Who did left the gate open? 18. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Let’s stay for another few days.

How long have you be lived in London? 26. wasn’t it he? 22. isn’t it this? 25. ca şi cei ce au fost. John goes jogging every morning. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. dacă prin absurd 59 . n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Ani întregi. will you not? 27. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. neliniştea infantilă. deci. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. despre o lume dură. Pot reveni. doesn’t he go? 23. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut.Unit three Questions 19. plin de germeni virulenţi. Toate vechi. That was Jeremy’s brother. să-mi înfrâng frica. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. That’s your car. uneori disperat. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. Who did told you about the problem? 31. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. deci. will you not? 21. Whose it is this book? 32.

Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. laşii. Riscul? Ratarea. străină priceperii lor. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. iar proştii. naiv. umed. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. indiferent de risc. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. dar şi drumul. Şi. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. lung. puturos. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. îi ştiu gustul. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. picură apa roşietică. pe care oricum am simţit-o. neîntrerupt. “Spune! striga el. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. de atunci. negru. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. murdar. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. inactivii. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. pe sub bolţile din care. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. B. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. mă întreb. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. ghiceam doar unde se află.

viaţa? Oare e drept. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. orbitor. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. Tag Questions Tag questions. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. da? (37) Let’s go there. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. will you? (38) She went to Prague.3. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. 3. didn’t she? .3. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. golul alb.1. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. care i-a determinat alegerea. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. la urma urmei. domnule profesor. nu se poate.Unit three Questions viaţă. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. exclus.

hasn’t she? (Aha. is it? (Deci. or “comment tags”. (Din păcate. The suggestion is that in this case. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. au fost cheltuiţi. the tag is negative too). aren’t they? 62 . In this way.e. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i.) A: Oh. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. or falling. if the host sentence is negative. the tag is affirmative too. au fost cheltuiţi. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. sarcasm. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. it’s all spent. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states.

/ That was your father.…/ Let me know. / I may see you tomorrow. / Few people like her. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / There is enough food for everyone. / Let’s eat dinner now. / The boy often watched his sister. / You ought not to smoke. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / He simply hates empty words. / Surely you have enough money. / I must go now. / You have been invited. / Each of us is staying. / I don’t think you like my music. / She has a brother. / He has to marry Susan. / I may not see you tomorrow. / I think you don’t like my music. / You will pick me up.Unit three Questions (Se mută. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / They said he liked music. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Don’t leave without me. after all. / A few people like her. / You will pick me up at 7. / He hates his wife. / That’s your car over there. / I think you like my music. / She used to talk a lot. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / I am older than you. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / The boy never watched his sister. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Everyone felt happy about it. / She left an hour ago. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Activity 12 He will be on time. 63 . / I am dressed smartly enough. / Tell me.

/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. 5. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / He never used to study so hard…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. So you enjoyed my talk. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . or what? 3.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one./ I’m right about this…. He used to play squash.

1.3.2.3.1. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. Recapitulatory echo questions . / Grants… 3. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.2.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.) B: Chinese? 65 .) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.

of something just said. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Închide lumina aia. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. consternation.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. rather than the repetition. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. If the wh.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.3.2.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. disbelief.phrase is fronted.

which letter do you 67 . / He is interested in music. (i. with recapitulatory echo questions.e. (Vai. / We are looking for a pixie. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. rather than did you say.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. intonation is rising. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. I’ve lost the letter. / I think I’ve found a solution.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen./ He is interested in blue movies. am pierdut scrisoarea. (Uită-te la asta.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. whereas with explicatory echo questions./ We are looking for a purse. dear. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.

does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. she knows about it. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.Nadina VIŞAN 3.4. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.

acuma sporovăiala. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. şerpoaica. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . oameni aşezaţi. aşa. lui Luca Horobeţ. stricata. după pofte. ca să zic aşa. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. lui Chizlinski. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. pe Condrat de Vica. cu o casă de copii. în satul nostru. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. că tot trebuie să plece pe front.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. şi apoi Vica ce zice. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei.– Crezi tu. să se încolăcească mai bine. nu purta verighetă. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. şi care s-a aciuat. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. în general. Fenio. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. cumnată Fenia. da. Are gust de oameni blânzi. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. lui Stavre Păici.

pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. abia târându-şi picioarele. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. deci. dar cum se face că a 70 . curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. De asta erai. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. sau cum o chema. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. până la călcâie. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. L-a scos din geamie. roşu şi galben. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. sus. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Hogea. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri.

furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . se vede prea bine.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Coordination and Subordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.1.2.Contents: 74 4.6.Key Concepts .3.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.5.4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.

(S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. reproachfully. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. Example (2). that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.1 Syndetic vs. i. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. cu repros.Unit four Coordination 4.e. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. 75 . that elements are coordinated. present) in the sentence. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. on the other hand. where there is no indication other than a comma. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e.

vei muri. Conversely. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN 4. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.) (4) If you hit my wife. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.) Such examples. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. From the previously mentioned examples. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. 76 . you will die.

(John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. However.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . from a logical & semantic point of view. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. respectively subordinated constituents. but presupposed. we need to specify that. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. the second.

His clothes hung to him. his shoes squished. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. adorned with cornices. with enormous solidity. the houses were beautiful and ancient. but the 78 . Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. In the second. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. with formal walks under rows of trees. He moved and made a slopping noise. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. John Steinbeck. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. Then he sat down. of cut gray stone. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. built. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Though the castle had vanished. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. took off his shoes and emptied them. In the first. took off his coat and emptied them.

until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Cecil Woocham – Smith. the higher he went the wetter it grew. left the house. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and as the way is with Irish mountains.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. over some of the roughest ground in the country. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking.

Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. were to take down the name of every man. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. as shown in (9). this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . however distinguished. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. we should be seriously annoyed.3 Sentence vs.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (G. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. As one can easily notice.K. yesterday and the day before yesterday. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.

and I passed. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 3. but not John. 4. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / Peter and John played football. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 5. / Joan plays many games. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 10. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . / Bob and George are admired by their students.Unit four Coordination example (7). John and Mary are ready. / Peter. 7. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 9. plays football. Activity 2 sentences: 1. John is ready and Mary is ready. 8. and even tennis.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. our respective examinations. 2. Our flag is red. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. yellow and blue.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Her pet kitten is black and white. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis.

b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Activity 4 2. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 3. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Jane 82 . as can be seen in (10b).) c. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. or deleted. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. 6. John writes poetry and Bill prose. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) b. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.Nadina VIŞAN b. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. 5. John loves and Bill hates cigars. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend.

) The common element. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Besides ellipsis. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. the predication buy a pair of shoes.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. the so-called Principle of Economy. 83 . than a longer repetitive one. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. these syntactical processes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 8. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. i.e. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. can be reduced by substitution. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. 9. 10. So. 7.

the old men and women 2. 3. A citit. 2. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 4. George and Jane went back to their parents. George and Jane are separated. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. simple books and magazines for children 3. Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. using reduced structures: 1. one or (the) other method. some reason or another. In certain cases. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 4.

. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. of your proposals later on? 3. 8.. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. After all their adventures.. A pendulum swings ………. 6. the amount I’ve already saved up. for my wallet. it’s a case of ………… 7. they reached home………. fish and chips. only for damage. .Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.You gain some things and you lose others. 5. 15. 12. 13. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 6. 7. 11. 5. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. even though they have their little …………. Can we discuss the ………….I searched ………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.… 14. I need another 100$ ………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . They get on quite well together. Marks and Spencers.. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 2. 16. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. You can’t claim on insurance for ……….. 8. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. sweet and sour. like: salt and pepper. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases.

) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. and 86 . 4. of course. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. Nor sun. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. more often than not. etc. In fact. For instance. b. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) There are. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. the expressive function of coordination is. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.4. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. as in: (17) a. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.

(S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.) c. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) In certain cases. and cherished her. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. both … and . dar nu am fost multumit de asta. where the subordinator is repeated.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.g.) 87 . etc). sometimes but.) b. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. too): (20) a. 20 (b)).) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. or .Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. o respectau si o indrageau. (I-am dat banii. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.

(O admir si imi place. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. From this point of view. I like and admire her. and hit my wife. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (Imi place si o admir. I admire and like her.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. and you’ll die. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I washed and ironed my pants. if we were to rewrite the example .) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . In this case.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.* I ironed and washed my pants.

) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.Unit four Coordination 1. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. (If you do that. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) (While Dr. Brown experiments with humans. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. he failed).

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.

turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.which are based on coordination .) 101 . (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.g. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. 5. e.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. From the functional point of view. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. as the name suggests it. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.

) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. for instance. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. We do not presuppose however something like. they are still presupposed by the speaker. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. sentences) required by the verb (or.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. In a way. in certain cases.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. we associate it with these objects. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. (I-a dat cartea. for example). (7) He willingly gave the book to her. For instance.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. an adverbial item. such as proud of. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly.) 102 . by an adjective + preposition.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.

an additional one. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. 103 . I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. which is the adverbial willingly. I am afraid that he won’t come. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. i. to add something. related to example (4). has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. to her) and one extra-item. The second example. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.e.) b.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. In other words. A second observation. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. Thus.

I’ll die. (Înainte să plece din cameră. So. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. am să mor. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) (11) If you don’t marry me. like.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. etc. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. make. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. a închis toate ferestrele. such as want.) 104 .Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.

3. 6. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.g. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 4. Susan disappeared without saying a word.g. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. 2. e. [. this to whomever wants it. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. They came to e. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. I cannot tell you what I heard about you.She came to him of her own will. The book that because they home.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. 5. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Whoever did that was a genius. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . she looked at me sadly. After I told her the story.

was a novelty to Mitzi.He took an intelligent interest in her.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. FOR. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 4. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. at our age. WHETHER. 6. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 5. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 2. not object. but he declined. which. You suggestion that we should. As you can see. etc. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. 3. though it was largely politeness.) 106 . in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. stating their function: Activity 2 1. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.

(Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. (E de dorit să plece.) (16) a.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. etc. Where he went is London.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (15) It is John who did it. why.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. which. Who did it was John.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. where.) b. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. when. how.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. who. 107 .) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.

the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. before. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. which sums up this classification. As you will see. for instance. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . In (18). the categories are reduced to only three in this case. Compare. etc. however. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.) (18) She told me this before she left. consider the following table. Unlike complement clauses. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. In conclusion. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. if.1. done from a structural point of view.

Dear Ludwig. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. for.g.: e. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. you understand. after. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Introduced know e. 109 . surely you cannot sincerely believe. back. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. etc.g.g. I will go there because I feel like it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. at your young age. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. whether he will come when I feel like it. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. I will come back such as because. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. as.

2.The day Monroe had died was in May. Accidental Man) b)1. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. But she thought that no one would call again. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. Too. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. a tightening in her breathing. As she left the house. Late that afternoon. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. he said. she stopped to speak to Monroe. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.

obligatory] ADJUNCTS.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. că e.g. As you have probably noticed already. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g. interesting. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. a correspondence can be traced. However. That he loved e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.2.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. I told her everything after she arrived. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. 111 . Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.

This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.e. (Cred că mă place. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.. i. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. Thirdly.complement. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Secondly. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. complements. We will come back to that in the next chapter. whereas wh complements are the 112 . This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. In the fourth place.2. So.1. whenever you identify a wh.

She mistrusted her handwriting.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.g. Pratice Consider the following text. after. I first thought to tell in 113 . It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. a barn. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. a house. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. their introductory elements (e. because. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. c) I am coming home one way or another. for no matter how she tried. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. outbuildings. before. but no idea what to do with them.

According to a structural criterion. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. because they modify. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). it would make you fear to do such again. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.e. these clauses can be complements. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. and I have not the will or the energy. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.4. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.

Alţii. O zbughi înapoi. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. think of. be very careful to use this term correctly. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba.g. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. interested in. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. look at. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.e. 115 . după ce că are grâu puţin. answering the question to whom? So. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. ce o fi având. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. (…) “Mă. însă. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. Nevasta secera în tăcere. Pratice Translate the following.

şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. timp de un ceas. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Nici acum. întâi. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. de fapt. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Toată lumea înţelesese că. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. cât de bolnavă era. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. izolate de sat. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep.

Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. stricau totul. de pildă. deşi cam târziu. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. aşa de oţetit. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Pace nu era. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. amânase scrisul. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Iată. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. la Odobeşti. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. acum sunt desluşiţi. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. În realitate. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. la nişte prieteni comuni. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila.

frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 .

119 . etc. subject relative clauses. whose.g. of which.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc). the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.

4. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.3.1.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.7.6.5. Key Concepts . Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.2. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.

6. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.Unit six Relative clauses 6. The Co-reference Condition . The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. 121 .1. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.2. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.

Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. By combining these two clauses. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. John loves that woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. 122 . (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves.

Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The common element woman is present. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. This way. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. John offered flowers to that woman. 123 . I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed.

Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. He’s the author who received the prize. The students like their teacher. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. He liked that book.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. frequently used in written language. John told his friend a story about the king. This is my husband. 10. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. 3. 8. I bought Jim a book. I introduced him to Jim. too. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. Susan wants to meet Jane. I lost the book’s cover. Any of the students would answer to questions. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 2. None of the students agreed with them. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. WHERE 3. WHO 124 . The students like their teacher. 9. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 6. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. by leaving behind a trace. They met those students. 5. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO 5. therefore in spoken English. WHICH 4. He told Jim everything about his plans. I love my husband very much. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 4. She came to London. I had a book. The king was just passing by. 7. I went to London.

that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. . most of them were from England. i. (Cine strică plateşte. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. 2. WHICH 8. WHOSE 7. relative clauses are divided into 1. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. WHOM 10. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. TO 11.e. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHOM 6.

where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Cel care strică plăteşte. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. Unlike their sisters. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. is no longer overtly expressed.) So. it is covert. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.e. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. in a manner of speaking. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. unlike in the case of (14).

care este zeul negoţului. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it.) (Mercury. they define it). is my favourite god. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. They can be thus divided into: 1. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. este zeul meu favorit. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who is the god of commerce. (Du-te unde pofteşti. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Mercur. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. 127 . who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (22) Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.

who is a genius. 7. On the day on which this occurred I was away. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). then it is an attribute. I have met him where I least expected. 9.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 10. Independent I don’t know what you want. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 2. She. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. i. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. is a genius. on whom nobody could depend. As we were saying. 5. is a great playwright. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.This is the village where I spent my youth. this type of relative clauses.e. who came to see me. 6. 8. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. Shakespeare. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. They are what 128 . restrictive relative clauses. was the one we all welcomed and admired.

(Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. etc. however sad this may be. etc. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. . a. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. When the antecedent has no determiner.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.) 2. care a murit acum câţiva ani. who died a few years ago. 6.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. composed The (Freddie Mercury.

care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. poftiţi în faţă. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. but a peevish. iritabilă şi uscată. can see your shortcomings only too well. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 2. ci o fată a woman. 3.) (28) They come to me. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Dintre toate personajele prezente. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine.) Pratice Translate the following. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. (Ei apeleaza la mine. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. (Eu. ill-tempered. care-ţi sunt fiu. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. bătrînă morocănoasă. who am your son.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 130 .) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). dried-up old maid. numai eu nu. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 7. 4. 6. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. who neither work nor am anxious. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. 5. Mie. care nu sunt o femeie.

each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. părăsi camera. than whom few more can be more crashing. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. . (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. were now in his possession.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. heard.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. (32) service finished late. erau acum în posesia lui.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.

The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) d. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. as can be seen in (36d). The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.1. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The genitive form with which is still in use. but it is typical of the formal. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. too.5.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) b.) b. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) c. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. literary style: (37) a.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. 6. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.

) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. (Iris Murdoch. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.

Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (45) (46) . (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. by the way. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. … Italy. of which. ships (that can be personified) a.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) b.) • states.) b. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. animals. He is not the man which he used to be. but to a type or a function: a.

their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. while.) b) dialectal (49) a. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. where. how. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.2 Relative Adverbs: when. reason. France.) 135 (47) .) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.Unit six Relative clauses b. Poland is the place where Christine was born. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. (Nu ştiam ce vor. time.5. whom it concerned most closely. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. etc. why. etc. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) 6. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. It is poor what gets the punches. pe care o privea direct.

(Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b.) 6.5. A system where by a new discovery will arise. no antecedents are required: (52) a.3. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.They left when they decided it was proper to. He went where he had been before. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. They returned to the land whence they had come.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. The place whither he goes is unknown. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) b.) 136 . (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) When they introduce free relative clauses. This is the place wherefrom they came. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) c. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) e.) b.

Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .

Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. . I’ll get you such things as you may want. any.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. not any. every. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. but they are used very infrequently: as.) b.4. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. but • in standard language a. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. 138 (64) his shoes.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.5.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. much. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. Honest man as he was.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.

who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. Uncle George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. This is the same one that/as you had before. There’s not many as’ll say that. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. And always on the buttered side. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. .) c.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English.) c. ăl de fusese in China…) b. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.) • in dialect a. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. It’s the dry weather does it.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.

(Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.

5. we all have to come to some terms. 5.) c. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 3. It seemed a thing 141 . 2. 7. Where he was from. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. fortifies me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. The man John spoke to is a genius.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. makes me a wart and a wen. 6. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. That which shows God out of me. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man who John spoke to is a genius. What Inman remembered was this passage.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. What I’m saying is. This is where we talk money.” 4. The man that John spoke to is a genius. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.3): (72) a.) b.

Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. though. (…) Partly. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. Whatever his fate was. The rudeness of eating. who had not witnessed many dawns. 11. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. he had left Ruby high and dry. Ruby said. of living. 8. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 12.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. 13. which is a lot. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 10. 9. 142 . that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Oh.

divortata. (Iris Murdoch. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa.al lui. pe linie paterna. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. nu prea sarac. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carei strabunic. Cumnatul meu avea. pirpiriu. un var primar. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. fiu natural al unui morar. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. vasnic. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. plutonier. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. cumnatul unui portughez. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . poate. dar care avea un var de-al doilea.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. mort de tanar.

where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. insurat de trei ori la rand. Teatru) 6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . 144 . regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.2. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. I lost the cover of the book. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. b. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Everybody listened to that woman. By extension.6. She was a woman. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. The opposite phenomenon. c.

The difference between (76) and (77). The problem of safe transportation. has been troubling them forever. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 4. he requested that the public be excluded. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. acting again as a genuine pied piper. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 9. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 6.Unit six Relative clauses b. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. no easy answers to which could be offered. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 8. 3. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 2. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 5. In the interest of public decency. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 7. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.

Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 146 . knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. 10. 5. he rarely saw now. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 2. His friends. Irene. 3. was now complete.His father’s friends. This story. 4. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Activity 9 were now all gone. as the case is). including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). no matter which. They do not function as attributes. whose interest he most sincerely shared. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. has been deleted.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 6.

2. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. De douazeci de ani. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Pentru alţii. 4. închipuirea. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. 5. himeric. Toate sfârşeau. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Nelu. 3. 6. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 7. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri.

nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 8. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. cu surle şi cu tobe. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. a făcut el. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. 10. 12. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 9.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. nici în searbăda mea versiune.

pe strada Icoanei. 17. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. Dacă mă lovea. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. de unde venea şi Marta. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. roiuri de fetiţe. fie la teatru. 14. din direcţia căreia apoi. 18. care era foarte “mondenă”.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. În spatele lor. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 16. apărură. 149 . printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. toată lumea întreba cine e. 20. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. trăia larg de tot. din care cauză pe Dora. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. deşi atât de aproape. 15. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. fie pe stradă. zise ea cu ochii mari. Avea acum un fel de vertij. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. despre care. dinspre Maria Rosetti. până mai adineauri. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac.

Nadina VIŞAN 21. pe care eu nu-l aveam. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. după ce maşina a fost reparată. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. până în şosea. când au urcat râpa iar. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. Pare-se că snobii. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război) 150 . de sus de unde eram. 24. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. 22. Pentru mine însă. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. pe care ea îi admira acum. de mine. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. 23. aveau un stil al lor. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă.

by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 .

That Deletion 7.3.3.3.1.2.2.7.2.2.2.Extraposition 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.5.3.1. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.3.1.Topicalization 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.4. Key Concepts .2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.1.2.1.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.Clause Shift 7.3.5.6.1. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.4.1.

In other words. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. but also of infinitival ones.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. (3) Tell me if you need anything.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. placed in a marginal position.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. the clause is extraposed. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.1. 153 .) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. Apart from those introduced by that. 7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.

) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .

12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 11. 2. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It will be soon announced when you can leave.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 14. It appears that no one voted for him. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 9. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 6. 7. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 11. It is nice to meet you. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 4. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 10. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 2. 10. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 13. 5. 3. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 8. 8. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 4. 7. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 9. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 6. 15. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It is no use trying to convince her. It so happens that I know the secret cipher.

She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 18.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 3. 2. 5. mă ascundeam în grabă. 6. sub poduri. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. zice Lionel. 2. They never expected it that he would come back. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. în canal. 4. 2. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 3.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 5.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. I guess it that he will come back. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. unde se nimerea. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 4. după porţi. 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. atât 156 . Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. în gropi.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.

cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. 7. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. 6. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 5. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. 157 . Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Spunând cele ce-am spus. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. excelentă. fără îndoială. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale.” 4. fără să cârteşti. (Nu întotdeauna. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. vor căuta să o zdruncine.

Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. subject clauses are the frequent situation.) While in the case of extraposition.1. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. this asymmetry is undone. 1. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.2. Pratice Read the following. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Consequently. in the case of topicalization.

That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 8. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 5. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. This was another era. 3. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . but not now. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 2. even today. mere chance would decide. 7. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. She had always been the slave of chance. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. was inconceivable. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 6. 4. he felt no spring of interest in her. He did not blame Gracie. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. He was utterly gone. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. whether it would finally carry her off.

A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.1. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.3. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.

It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. the verb to drive). we obtain. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. 161 .Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.e. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.

4. 6. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. 5. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7. who had just returned from Africa. 8.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 3. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. prime-minister.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 2. 162 .*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. who had just returned from Africa. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa.

(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.Unit seven That complements 7.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.

communicate. They promised him that he would received a new house. They believe that the man is guilty.2. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. state. etc.: (25) a.) b. deny. They believe the man is guilty.) a.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. predict.1. explain.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. deem. afirm. consider. He announced that they were engaged. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) b. prefer. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) 164 . These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. desire. (I-au promis o casă nouă. promise. judge. He announced their engagement. estimate. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. etc. suggest. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
165

(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
166

(36)

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That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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That complements

b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

171

ibid. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. hope =>purpose. on condition that. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. for example.) 172 . similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. In older stages of English. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.e. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) language. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. they lose their meaning. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.) I like him in that he is smart.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.

(Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) b. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. He gave an answer such. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. He gave such an answer as had expected. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. .) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) b. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) When the structure contains the word such. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. să o vadă trecând. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) (66) 173 a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. That can be deleted. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.

) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. for better or worse. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. ibid. ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) b.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.We discovered that our map has disappeared.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. (Iris Murdoch.) 174 . 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.

) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. 175 .3 ‘That Deletion 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. for instance.) b. (69) a.1. He said he had borrowed her money. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. say. (A prins de veste că ei vin. He got word they were coming.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. that he uses a relaxed tone. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. He showed he was able to do it. tell).3. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.) c.Unit seven That complements 7. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.

Nadina VIŞAN 7. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. they were chained to each other forever. because that has been deleted. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. ibid.) b. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.2.) (De asemenea.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. for better or worse.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. 7. they were chained to each other forever. for better or worse. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. (Iris Murdoch. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . rele. bune. I like it that he was here. *I like it he was here.3.

(“Este acolo”. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. which is ungrammatical in English.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. simultaneity. 7) They maintain. that they were not too late to leave. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 7. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.) 177 . (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. spuse el. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. he said.4. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.) b)He told me that she was there. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. you want me to believe.

He said he would leave her. “She was here”.) b. (A spus că. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . He said he would have arrived by the time she left. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.) b. He told me that she had been there.) Future Perfect -----. (Pâna să plece. vine el.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. (“Era acolo”. (Am să o părăsesc. he said.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (A spus că o să o părăsească. I will leave her. spuse el. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. The Present complement). o să vină el. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.) b.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. până pleacă ea. In the example below.

Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. etc. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.) 179 .Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause.etc.) On the other hand. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) b. wish. regret. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. forget. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. be amazed/concerned. insist. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. notice. believe.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. realize it). be aware. report. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. whisper. say. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. discover. show. hope. mention. think. With such factive verbs as realize. dream. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees.

She realized that all men are fools. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. feign habits which are not their own. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. we notice that general truths.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. in tender deference to each other.) b.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. cu un respect tandru reciproc. He knew that she thought all men were fools. (Iris Murdoch. 180 . (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) b. She still believed that the earth was flat. She believed that the earth is round.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. Consider also: (85) a.

(Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. 181 .) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) In (88). She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) b.) b.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. such as a. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.Unit seven That complements 2. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. 3. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. There are however cases. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Peter said that John will leave at 5.

e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. for instance. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. The time is 3 o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. But 182 . c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. d) John said that Harry was leaving. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Imagine. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. g) John thought that Harry ran. John said that Harry will leave. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.

bluebird. quail.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. lark. love of practical jokes. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. as evidenced by its drear plumage. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. jaybird. redtailed hawk. whistling swan. a. slyness in a fight. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She admired their keenness of wit. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. nighthawk. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Crows will relish what presents itself. lack of pridefulness. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. b. 183 . which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Cooper’s hawk. c. geese both grey and white. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. Translate the following. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. kingfisher.

As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. war hero though he was. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. He died erect. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. […] During the latter stages of the tale. And they might just hang him. the young officer. Now here he stood jailed. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 .Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. he claimed. He had fought hard through the war. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. But as the battle raged around them. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. in the very act of expiring.

on other occasions it has to stay there.Unit seven That complements 7. which they share with wh-complements. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). On certain occasions that can be deleted. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. or else.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. from the very frequent subject. object ones up to the attributive function. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. 185 . adjective or by a de-verbal noun. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function.

Mama. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Unul din ei. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Când au văzut că mama a plecat.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. cel mai mare. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Fiind 186 . s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. neconvenabil şi primejdios. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. peste puţin. 4. 2.

Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. va pleca din oraş la vie. care îl pândise. Nu ţi-a trecut. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. venind de la avocat. de ce constata în sine. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. 8. 5. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. un vis de acesta 187 . dacă va mai veni. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 6. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. ea. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. cel puţin pentru un timp. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 9. aşa. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Se mira. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. fericit. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 7. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că.

fireşte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 .(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. 11. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. – La ceea ce mă gândesc.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Astfel de va fi. încă o dată. Acesta. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. liniştit. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. dar şi teama că. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. lucrul era înfăptuit. şi mândria că a biruit. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. 12.

mai puternic decât oricând. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. spre Jurubiţa. 14. fără o vorbă scrisă.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Pe toate. să le lămurească pe toate. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. după cum. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. ci numai aşa. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

6.4.7.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.8.1.Key Concepts .Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.5.2.3.9.8.

(I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).) b. b.) b. From this perspective. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). Consider the following: • like that complements. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. It is important that you should know what you need. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. That you love her is something wonderful. It is important for you to know what you need. I told her to be more careful in the future. (2) a. To love her is something really wonderful. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.1.) • like that complements. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. 193 . There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (3) a. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.

the Gerund. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. the Conditional. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. 2. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. d.e. participial clauses. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. etc. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. For instance. 194 . as opposed to the finite ones. the Participle) (i.) b.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. gerundial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.

They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. namely no ending.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) c.) 195 . To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.

8. the criterion of form. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 9. (7) They saw her leave. 5. 10. 3. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.2. 2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 4. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 7. 8. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .

) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. (10) 197 . 2. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. hear. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.

/ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. However. 198 (11) the universe. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. 3. Pratice Translate the following.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. uncharacteristic for literary English. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. . although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.

Further on. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. 199 . we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. In other words. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. or the control constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. as I have already mentioned. to use the appropriate technical term. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.Unit eight Infinitive complements because.

) Object: (18) a. It is important for him not to err.) 200 . That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. So far. I hoped for him to be there in time. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to err is human. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. namely the agent of the event. (E important ca el să nu greşească. the logical subject. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. PRO to forgive divine. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.) b. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. şi creştineşte să ierţi. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) b.) In this situation.

In other words. not to the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but the patient of the verb persuade.) b. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. him is related to the main clause verb.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). him is not the agent of the infinitive. He stepped aside for her to enter. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .

\ They tempted him to leave. \ She promised him to leave. \ She wanted him to leave. \ 202 . from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ I would love them to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ He persuaded her to come. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. I hate animals to be tortured. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ I allowed them to come. Likewise. \ They convinced her to come back. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction.

Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. So. \ They did not wish her to come back. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.) In examples (25) and (26). so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb.) He seems to be a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. • Last but not least. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. 203 . This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. \ They really asked her to come back.

which are said to be free.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. that is not required by certain verbs. seem. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. 204 . appear. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. to meet her. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. with special semantic and syntactic properties. etc. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei.). bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. To sum up the discussion. hate. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.

prefer. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death.) 205 friend. omit. endeavour. desire. fail. . (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. afford. presume. etc.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. like.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. hate. seek (= try). want. wish. condescend. manage. care to. deign. decline. bear. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei.3 The Distribution of PRO . propose. agree to. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury.) b) verbs such as abide. scorn. Compare: (31) a. venture. scheme. arrange. refuse. etc. 8. try. expect.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. dislike./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. deserve. mean. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. intend. contrive. need. aspire to. hope. / E greu să îl suporţi. etc.

I hate that you should say a thing like this. desirable.) b.etc. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.) 206 . Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) b. I would like for him to become president of the country.Nadina VIŞAN b. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. be important. endeavour. unlikely. claim. etc. suggest. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. stand. bear. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. conclude. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.) b. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. verbs of liking and disliking. possible. ask.) 8.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. however. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. threaten. For all of them to have been killed is. forget.

(A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 207 . (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) 8. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) b. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) 2. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.

this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) 4. the preposition is deleted. Direct Objects (39) a. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. I decided for John to represent us. but the meaning remains.Nadina VIŞAN 3. . Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.) 5. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) b. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b.) 208 knowledge. Like in the case of that complements. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.

This paint is like concrete to work with. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) c. curious about. The stew is delicious to eat.) d. 6. delicious. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. She is pretty to look at.: (42) a.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. etc.) e. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. He is a bastard to work for. You’re an idiot to go there.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.

să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.) I’ve never met him./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. drept să spun. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.) Oh. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. final or introductory infinitive In this case. you’re a bad driver. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. să nu piardă trenul. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. conduci prost.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / Ehei. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. to tell you the truth. / Pe şleau.

(L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. oblige. enable. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. (49) a. encourage. induce.) . inspire. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. promise. 8. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. inform. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. need. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. direct. etc. According to this.: (51) a. b.etc.) b. influence. nu mai vreau să te vad.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. press. swear.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. urge. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.

: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. order.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. name. depend on. etc. look to.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. prevail on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. allow./ And now he 212 .etc. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. command. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. count on.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. choose. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. permit. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. nominate.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. elect. vote.

An Accidental Man) 8. etc. seem. grow.e. this construction is lexically governed. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.etc. happen.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. come. (56) She grew to like him in the end.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. be going to. 213 (58) (59) .: (55) She appears to like him. (57) He is to come any day now.verbs: appear. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. etc. (Iris Murdoch. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (Se pare că îi place de el. be about to. i.

Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). that of intention.etc.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be thought. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). watch. feel. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. be alleged. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.) 8. hear.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. be considered. etc. overhear. observe. be claimed. be reported. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. .: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.: (62) They heard him insult her. etc. In (57). perceive. be rumoured.

judge. understand. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. believe. (Cred că este un geniu.) 215 (67) . figure. prove. have. deem. discover. consider. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. However. know. remember. recollect.: (68) I believe him to be a genius.) • with a full infinitive: get.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. picture. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. presume. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. cause. imagine. find. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. occasion. etc.

Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. love.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. they had depressed and fuddled him. order. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.etc. permit. mean. who wasn’t used to men with moods. wish. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. desire. command. he hated anyone to comment 216 . Harold.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. choose. expect. prefer.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. etc. suffer.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. want. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.

and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. so that we might get to the future and have done. the herd instinct was very strong in him. he didn’t envy those above it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. He suspected hostility at once. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . A little crossly. Both seemed to him a little unreal. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. (L. though he tended to look down on those below it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.P.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. to make sure we attended strictly to business. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it.

we can speak about bare and full infinitives. From this perspective. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The last criterion. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.Nadina VIŞAN 8. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. 218 .

dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. mai bine219 . dar să nu-ţi spună. E posibil. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. de asemenea. lovit şi umilit. Şi tu să fii. într-o zi. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. fireşte. e important ce întrebări pui. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. de bună seamă. un bărbat şi o femeie. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. să-l capete.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. e) Când doi oameni. bunăoară. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie.

pe care deja o uitase. ca să nu şi-o amintească. mai bine de două decenii. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte.Nadina VIŞAN zis. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să traiesc numai cu tusea. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. mai pline de înţeles. De era vară. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.Şt.Delavrancea.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. d-a lungul gâtului. aşa cum îi apăruse el. în parte. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. în ploaie.Şt. un picior. (B. că eşti tânăr. în parte.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. . Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. 220 . Însă Paul Achim trăise. sau. în jos. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. să nu vrea să se şteargă. avusese dreptate. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Să spui de pildă. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. încă. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea.

un miros îngrozitor. prin faţă e coborârea. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. o mizerie. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. ei. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. şi nu un amant. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. şi prin faţă. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. orice-ar fi.. fie ea şi grăbită. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. deşi. sunt aici cu tot ce am. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. (Al.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. nici ca să 221 . fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. orice bucureştean ştie. biata Muti. Într-un cuvânt. de fapt..Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu.. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. Mă laud singură.

ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare. în realitate. niciodată ea nu i le pune.

verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.

2.4.2.3.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.5 Key Concepts .2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.1.2.The Gerund 9.Participial Constructions 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.1.The Verbal Noun 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1.2.3.9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.2.1.

The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Due to this situation. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Let us start with the Participle: 9. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. (Susan doarme. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.1.) 225 . Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.1.

Susan has been killed. (A venit Susan) b. In (2) the forms come. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). 226 . i. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. the past participle can appear after a noun. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. it functions attributively.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) As you can see in this second case. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. blood-shot and painted. Susan has come. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. too: (6) Her eye-lids. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.) More infrequently.e. been and killed are past participle forms. were closing.

(adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) d. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. a lion can attack. I will arrive there on time. he will eventually marry her. Arriving here. Oh.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. people should pay attention to high notes. I will arrive there on time.) 227 .) b.) c. ea o luă la fugă. God willing. Weather permitting. mother permitting. o să ajung la timp. (Ştiind cine era el. If provoked. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. When singing. o să ajung la timp.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) c. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. începură să cânte. (Sosind aici. they started singing.) b. leul poate să atace. she ran away. Knowing who the guy was.

The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) ii. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. smell. (Am simţit-o tremurând.) b.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. He was found killed by a bullet. respectively. He was found stealing. (L-au descoperit că fură. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. notice. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. hear. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. watch. behold.) 228 .) b. (L-am descoperit furând. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. They found him killed by a bullet. I found him stealing.

(Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. confess. recollect. (A fost văzut plângând. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. feel. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. she knew herself dismissed. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. etc.) c. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . I heard it said that men are a bore. set. etc. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. have. etc.) b. keep.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. make a. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.) • Causative verbs: get. He’ll soon get things going. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. find. a.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. know.) • mental perception verbs: remember. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. etc. send. start. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. I must get my hair cut. hear. recollect. leave.) • Causative verbs: get .: a.: When she heard his words.) b. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. have.) b.

/ A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. He wanted his car fixed immediately. / Nu după multă vreme./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.) b./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. Men like shopping made easy./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • verbs of permission. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. lovit şi plin de sânge./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. command I ordered my bill made out. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.

/ My Lord. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. sitting taut between her father and her sister.e. / In any case. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever.2.1. / Dinny. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. 231 . Unlike the gerund. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. with its lips drawn back. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.

I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. the rain will stop. 6. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. People were sleeping in the next room.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I knew that the murderer was still at large. (Desi nu ştia limba. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. She had heard it all before. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (Văzând acestea. using either a present participle.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. am plecat. I left. The tree had fallen across the road. se va opri şi ploaia.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I turned on the light. 4. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . 7. 3. I have looked through the fashion magazine. I left.She didn’t want to hear the story again. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. It had been uprooted by the gale. I was astonished at what I saw. 2. am plecat. 5.

eyed (3 times). fishy. mown. 9. roast. many. They found the treasure. my hands often get very cold. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. red (twice). Getting out of bed. stricken.Running into the room. lighted. stony. his horse fell at the last jump. 12. 6. a scorpion bit him. cornered. Mother punished me for my mistake. quick. 11. minded (3 times).Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. eagle. cloth. a pot of paint fell on my head. He sat down to his own dinner. 8. 8. I let the dog out of the room. handed. Barking furiously. straight. 9. 4. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Dropped by parachute. drunken. 2. shaven. 233 . broad. He fed the dog. 5. a rug caught her foot and she fell. empty. the sea was tossing the post up and down. hearted (twice). one of the eggs broke. Riding in the first race. bald. They began quarreling about how to divide it. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 10. skinned. 7. 3. open. haired (twice). sharp. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. covered. wooden.shoulder. b) Headed (5 times). Read the sentences and try to correct them. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. open. Climbing down the tree. lion. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Leaving the cinema. dark. Reading in bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. three. narrow. 10. I slammed the door of my room. Tied to the post. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Passing under a ladder.

(produce) 3. rotten. (find) 6. _______ for a bargain. _______ by S. b) grass. image. ________ hiding in a barn._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. The film. / Three people. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. was today taken back to prison. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. man. 7. bounden. _____ when their car crashed on the M1.I fell on the ice. (hunt). The escaped prisoner. duty. is expected to be a great hit. plank. are in grave danger of extinction. lead. / Swiss watches. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Whales. wealth.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Many old people . eyes. (admire) 5. shrunken. are sold throughout the world. I stared at the canvas for ages. were taken to hospital. _______ for their elegance and precision. meat. the same verb is missing twice.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. (take) 2. head. (injure). / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. In the following pairs of sentences. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. ill-gotten./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. graven. meaning. _______ my arm. shorn. deer. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. Translate into English: 1. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (grow) 4. lamb.Spielberg. stream. candle. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. hidden.

Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. deodată sufocat. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. Şi. întinse. După câtva timp. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. nesigur şi moale. care le rânduia. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. legume date prin mai multe ape. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. când strânsă. 3. trezit. 2. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. le fierbea. şi moi. păsări tăiate. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. precum şi foile de plăcintă. când deschisă. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. ca şi cum. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. 4. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. O umbreluţă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. Şi sufletul său. le cocea. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile.

one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.Nadina VIŞAN 9.2. (Dacă vezi.1.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. Likewise. According to this criterion. The Gerund 9. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. 236 .2. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. crezi.

2. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. That he won and you lost was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.) b. Consider the following table. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. gerunds differ from participles. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . His winning and your losing were both surprising. Him winning and you losing was surprising. In that. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.) b.) 9. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.

An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.) b. *It was illegal growing a beard. as being verbal 238 .) 2. Consider (32).Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. It was illegal to grow a beard. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) Unlike participles.

(proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. Participles vs. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.2. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) b.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.) 3. It’s no good talking to her. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. Just like in the case of noun phrases. as offered in the table below: 239 .) b.) 9. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.

forms: continuous . Participles may function adverbials: house. babies suck their thumb. passive ones She was crying. + noun] 1. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . (prepositional object clause) 5. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. 2. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. perfect. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. (adverbial of time) 4.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. 3. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping.

/ Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic.

înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 10. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 15. 242 . He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. He was spotted talking to her. 7. 13. 12. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. Gambling is his favourite pastime. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 4. eating habits/ eating people. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. shooting gallery / shooting star. 5. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 12. 14. 8. 3. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 9. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 6. crying game / crying woman. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 11. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 2. He smiled to hear her talking in that way.

The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.e.3.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. but the presence of a direct object (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. a The absence of an of phrase. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.) The absence of a determiner like the.

the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. George’s shooting the attacker. In the second situation. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. These are features that normally characterize any noun. Thus. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. How can we tell? In the first case.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.

+ noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / His coming there puzzled her.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ His sudden coming puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. very large. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. 245 . Jim left quietly. the sheriff./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.

whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . For instance. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. Look. It has been noticed that. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. whenever we meet an –ing form. However. for example. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.4. ING Forms and Infinitives.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. With the infinitive. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). the meaning is different. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.

This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. having left) is infrequently used in English. containing an infinitive.) After looking at this example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. On the other hand. anterior to the verb in the main clause.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) The first example. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. future-oriented value of the infinitive). Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. and the most well-known one. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. (S-a oprit din mâncat. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.g.) . (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented.

This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. which means that they are similar in meaning. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) As you can see.) . She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. i. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.e. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. recollect.e.

) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the petrol tank is not filled yet.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. In the second example. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) . dar asta este. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. but that’s it. the action is not completed. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.

The house needs to be repaired. mean has the sense signify. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. want With [+ human] objects. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Casa trebuie reparată.) b. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) With [. (Casa trebuie reparată. The house needs repairing.human] objects. the event has not happened yet. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) 250 . it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. e) need. In the second example.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) wedding.

And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. I did ask Mr. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. (take) down her answer.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . gerund or infinitive. my Lord. but they went by too quickly. Lady Corven. whereas in the second case.’ ‘Tell me. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Croom (try) (follow) one. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. it’s overrated. however appearances were against us. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘In any case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. my Lord. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.

’ said Clare. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. Then.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. and went out (post) it himself. suddenly. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. I just used the word and they fell. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. he addressed the note.’ 252 . But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. I must go back now. licked the envelope with passion.

The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Participles mainly function as adverbials.5. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. the 253 . The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Last but not least. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.

Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. moving up towards his chest. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. hoping he would see somebody up there. The two sides were moving apart. down into God knows where. covering the girl’s head. He looked up towards the daylight. She started coughing. down. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The sight of the two children. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. it 254 . but then he saw it billowing up from below. then the noise and the cracking stone. Then he saw movement at his feet. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. according to the books he read. the enormous split in the earth. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. their edges crashing inwards. slowly rising in a swirling motion. It was like a mist. someone looking for survivors. At first. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.

Having a French governess. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. She finished what jobs there were. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. 255 . whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. slanted on to her cheek. brightening to winter brilliance. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. my dear. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.

totul se animă deodată. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. într-o joi. cei doi Mamona. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. 2. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Vaucher şi cu mine. În urma slugii. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. and then went riding with her in the rain. mama mea. închizând ochii. Ridicându-se. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. ucenicul său necredincios. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea.

afară ploua în continuare. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. auzit şi zadarnic. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. privit. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. totul mi se părea cunoscut. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. se duse lânga mama şi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. aşezată cu spatele la noi. dar ştiutoare. am ştiut şi cine. la mine. după cum îi spusese mama. aplecându-se puţin. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Şi deodată. Neclintiţi. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. pe mama mea părând absentă. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . o sărută pe frunte. pe Vaucher. 3. Ne-a privit o clipa şi.

şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. dar. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. 5. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu stiva de lemne. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Au coborât din camion încet. camionul a plecat. cu tot cu baraca. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu soba. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul.

259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. he had not yet been able to estimate. 4. 9. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 12. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. and that 263 . 7. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. since I have decided. How this time was to come. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. in some way. he had been advised. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 2. 11. How much. 10. and meet it right here at home. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. You have been much in my thoughts. was unclear to Mitzi. 5. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. because of pity. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. and this particularly of late. without profound questioning. Having regard to the date of drafting. 3. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. whereas if she went away she would get none. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. this would really hurt. I am sorry not to have seen you. 6. apart from his distress for parents. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 13.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. to retire early from my employment.

18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / In the end. / Before you go on changing the subject. for attending his sister’s wedding. 264 . 17. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. please consider his proposition. he did not come to see her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. looking forward had not yet taken place. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 19. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 14. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. even for months. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. one of the eggs broke. / Whenever I visited my aunt.

motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. They rushed into shops. Though much in request before her marriage. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Vulgar men did. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. At country houses she had met them of course. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Tony was a child.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. an open-air person. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. centered in London and themselves. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Essentially. it was said. She felt as when. rather than the hefty type. her old friend Hugh. and it was bound. Clarissa used to think. (and there he was. her recklessness. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. to end in some awful tragedy. a little girl. without discovery. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Instead of which she had married. 265 . of the quick and wiry. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. They hated trying on. of all people. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. she said. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. cotton mills at Manchester. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. quite unexpectedly. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes.

Bolnava nu se simtea. Reading many novels. viguros si vesel in felul lui. the more she would be torturing him. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. she professed. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. short of the contacts of love. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground.Rindurile dvs.Over the River) 2. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. she was uneasy. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. nu a facut-o pentru asta. indeed. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Cind l-a chemat. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. era un bun sfatuitor. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. (John Galsworthy . It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. cre s-au nascut lent. to keep abreast of the current. with all its impatience of restraint. nu puteam sa le uit. The closer she allowed him to come to her.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. si in plus. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. De uitat. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. astfel. but lying in her bath. ii faceau bine. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. aveam tot mai 266 .

) 6. Milionarule. (St. Ce a iesit. Banulescu – ibid.) 7. Banulescu – ibid. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. A fost gasit plingind in urlete.) 267 . se stie. (St. Banulescu – ibid. Banulescu – ibid. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. lungimea picioarelor. are nevoie. vaazut cindva. nu pricep nimic. mi-am zis. (St. fa-o. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. pe scaunul lui tare. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Daca tu. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. latimea si ascutisul labei. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Personal. 4. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. (St. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. o data sau de doua ori. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.) 5.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. ca si tine. poate fi compensata. cit mai au de trait.

Who came home from the war. my grandfather. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. when I was even younger than you. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . A story-book romance. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. delivered from the holocaust.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who was may father. 2. Cambridge. Who told me. Translate them. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.P. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Ernest Richard Atkinson.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. to Emmanuel College. Who. Could he be blamed. (. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And had a brother killed in the same battle. for being a renegade. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Arthur Atkinson M... that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. a wounded soldier. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.

He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. Fabianism. a moody man. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. he had already engaged himself? 3. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. to whom. 4. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. and because – but this is mere speculation. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. deep-set. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. Rachel Williams. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. How 269 . for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London.

Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Ion. om mare. 270 . ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. cu taina aceasta. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Ion. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum a ajuns el. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. satul. la şcoală. Cum a trăit el. Cum au tăcut ei. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute.

cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. de mama lor. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. 271 . Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. împotriva tuturor. Când actriţa. greşeli dintr-astea. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui.pune totul in discuţie. cu sau fără voie. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. din franţuzeşte.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. L-au derivat cei din teatru. singurul lui stăpân. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. când voi fi singur. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă.

Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. 3. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. fostă prietenă din copilărie. e îndrăgostită de un actor. traversând. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. provocându-le. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. 4. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. 272 . asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. continuând. ci un sistem de acomodare. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. privindu-mă în ochi. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. dam buzna peste automobile. A devenit palid. 5. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Tot aşa. Am început. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. parcă începusem s-o uit. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 6. sau ridicole. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. pe jumătate prezent. Într-o vreme. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. de pildă. nevasta-mea.

Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. 8. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. fireşte. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. că nu m-am gândit la asta. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. Aş vrea să mă las jos. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. iar. ca un acrobat. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 .Unit ten Revision exercises 7. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. 11. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Am început. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. să merg întins. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. şi să nu ameţesc. De altminteri. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. E o problemă. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Dacă nemţii înaintau. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. orice s-ar întâmpla. 9. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. şi dacă merg întins.

16. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. nu trebuie sa va suparati. de la obiecte de pret. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. nu mai semana. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. la carti. cu mirare. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Ilie nu-l asculta. trebuia sa le spuna. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. de la lucruri personale. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. eu am venit sa va intreb. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie.. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. se uita in jos. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Ii venea greu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Uite. la fata locului. Acum isi ferea privirea. de la proces. dar nu se mai putea. 15. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. de uimire. nu mai pricepu nimic. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Auzindu-l. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. 274 . spuse el cu un glas ciudat. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului.. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Greu era din partea asta. Adica tot trecutul. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca.Ma. 17. 13. la amintiri. La un moment dat. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. In curind. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 14. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu.

asa cum facuse pina acum. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. . 19. There was even 275 . dar. cum zicea Anghel. apoi se uitau la Ilie. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. which was part of his rich outfit. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. i se paru ca aici e ceva. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience.Ce sa fac. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. vorbe asa si-asa. Zimbea siret. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. 20. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Aici era ceva. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. se indeparta nepasator. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Nu era nevoie. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic.Unit ten Revision exercises 18.

He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. gave an exclamation. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. paying no attention. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. asked for Mrs. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. on this occasion.Miller at her hotel. 3. going astray. She was one 276 . and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. But Daisy. 5. the young lady. at least. He felt then. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. 4. resuming her walk. rude woman. to take his way home on foot. conversationally. for the instant.Nadina VIŞAN relief. to move fast.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. a simplification. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. He walked a long time. to admit that she was a proud.

8. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. and wondering what the deuce he meant. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to.Walker. 7. as text book. in radiant loveliness. 6. indeed. make a point. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. on the other hand. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. uncomfortably. She appeared. as it were. while residing abroad. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. She rustled forward. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. in their own phrase. as to projected changes. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. Her daughter. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. of studying European society. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. making Paul stop and look at her. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. often. He left me musing. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. smiling and chattering. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. Advising with me.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who.

for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. with his humorous density.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. was only half satisfied with this. while Paul. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us.’ 278 . by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. 9. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. which was deliberate. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. The agent became a very familiar type to H. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. and acute too. 11. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. wondered what they were talking about. was immensely struck with him. 10. H. H. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. though E. not seeing. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. or at any rate not heeding. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. could see he was remarkable. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. and perceived that it must be something important.

had the power to chain his sympathy. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 15. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . as he looked back. But she gave him no chance. which was very copious. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. appeared to fill his whole childhood. 14. 13. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. that the haunting wonder which now. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. H. not glancing at him for a moment.

dragging herself on her knees. It was very possible she was capricious. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. proudly. 17. ironically reserved. and there were others. and to H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. 18. where the Pearl of Paraguay. as a general thing. disheveled and distracted. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. The whole establishment. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. At the theatre. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. yet 280 . so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. that she must be on the contrary. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. 16. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. H.

281 . No one ever listens to her. *Old. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. with the poor. would always be more or less irritating. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. on which the damp breath of the streets. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Their mistakes and illusions. young men were invited. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. 20.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 19. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. had blown a certain chill. 3. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. didn’t mind. H. 2. and lurking within this nebulous design. It came over H.

I walked fast. c) When I saw her sitting there. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. I blundered by. I saw her as a vision. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 11. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget.Nadina VIŞAN 4. “Oh. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 9. Either John or he * have got to give in. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. 282 . 8. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 7. 5. 6. Rachel. 12. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. her shining blue feet twinkling. slipped on some steps. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. her arms held out. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 10. striding like a Spartan maid. I was definitely going to be sick. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. walking quickly.

The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10.

I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. which was really alarming. 3. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 5. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. 4. where my servant. if they were poor. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. could cook my meals. but that we saw and pitied. 2. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . And then I ventured to add that.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. The old women spoke no English.

his. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e.apart from his distress = apart from. before they left town. How much. apart from his distress for parents. Munt. this would really hurt. to settle. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious. etc. apart form his distress for parents. at noon.g. was anxious = was + anxious. would really hurt. on Saturday. on a house. 285 . he.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc. distress. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. had not been able to estimate. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. Constituents: Margaret. Constituents: how much. Constituents: He.g. to pay their annual visit. was informed. this. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. etc.

./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.. negative/ Come with me. – non-assertive. / If you like her. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted. – assertive/ Don’t do that.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. which is not assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. don’t bother her. – first clause is an ifclause. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. which context is non-assertive. negative.. The sentence is however 286 . Second clause is an imperative. second clause is non-assertive. – first clause is non-assertive. – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. interrogative.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. interrogative. listen to this. and is non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. interrogative. – comparison.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . it is assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.

/ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ He was exceptionally cunning. / She does like John./ Hardly interested in the conference. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / I don’t like her very much. but nothing out of the ordinary. but it isn’t Susan. but it wasn’t them. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. the two brothers dared to protest./ They weren’t really confused./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / They didn’t leave./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / She does not hate animals. only irresolute. / He wasn’t unusually bright. not even when it’s quiet around. – I like somebody else. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. – they told the truth to somebody else. not even this thing./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. – someone did that. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. – someone hates animals.but to someone else. –double negation cancellation. he was hardly pleased. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but not more than she does others./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ Not long ago. / You have never met 287 ./ He was smart enough. everybody used to travel by coach./ When he learned the news.

/ I haven’t ever seen such a thing. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody... they go skiing in the mountains..negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even in my dreams. / Should they not have told her the truth. not even when you were very young. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – negative insertion. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret... *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.Nadina VIŞAN her. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor..negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.. / This is hardly the 288 .negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. I could hardly wait to hear the news. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. were they? / This boy is no good.

– Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger../ We seldom receive such generous praise. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Almost nobody liked him.Never shall I trust a man again. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. when we started our holiday.. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. Activity 8 I shall never. / I seldom look at her like that. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / Few people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – I never see her. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – I almost never look at those paintings../ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Not many people came to see her. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. but she also lent him a car. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You haven’t eaten a thing. never trust a man again.

– We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – They don’t believe she likes them. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. you can’t do anything about it any more.I don’t like his proposal at all. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / She could rely on nobody but him. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / He reckoned he would not win her over./ Well. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / You must on no account touch this machinery. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / They say he once had someone very close. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / Don’t worry. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim./ I somewhat like his proposal. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. – 290 . – I don’t expect he will come here again. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – Only on this man could she rely. – Come on./ I expect he won’t come here again.. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. you can still do something about it./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / They believe she does not like them. / Come on.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. –At no time did we leave the office. – It isn’t likely that he will help her./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Nowhere could the keys be found.

– I can’t understand any of these ten English words. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. 291 . – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – Well her husband has always been a good person. / You must pay that fine./ I can understand all of these ten English words./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must be telling lies. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. too. – You can’t be telling lies. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / Well. – I feel much better for having had a holiday./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / She hardly ever comes here. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – You should send her something.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Bob is still living at that address. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer../ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. –Alice still lives here. either. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. / You needn’t send her anything./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – She almost always comes here. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.

It’s no wonder./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / Don’t go on believing him. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. Oh. He didn’t move a muscle. has never studied anywhere./ Zis si facut. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. e un magar. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ 292 ./ They say this Ph. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Nu spune nu niciodata. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Have they rung the bell? No./ I don’t know why she’s crying. / He can’t have done a thing like that. to any of us. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ N-are nici cap nici coada. / Please./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ I don’t know a thing about her. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Norocul la noroc trage./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. He isn’t that smart./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru.D. I haven’t done anything./ E un baiat de zahar. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ You look so tired today. I haven’t seen her in years. not yet./ Nimic de facut. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ He was a tough man./ He’s a happy man. give me a hand. / Jim is so brave. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Nobody told us a thing. ever since I got this ulcer. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. His opinion isn’t worth a cent.

without too much determination. that I was a decent man.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. 293 . no story. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. for I thought this threatening. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. We had nothing in common./ Nu-i nici un deranj. slowly. no memory./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. nothing. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. thrown out. one way or another. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .’ ‘Nici o problema.’/ Deloc descurajat. with the same needs they had. I hadn’t really expected miracles. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. feebly. I had never had the opportunity to prove./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . parasi camera. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.

your story. to say the least. but facts. I’d be so happy if it were so.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. he immediately answered me patronizingly. Not for a moment had I thought that. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. the only 294 . Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. bad. I admit. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. good. clear or confusing. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. by coming here to the monastery. things you do any moment. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. not as we would like it to be or some other way. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. It’s not made up of theories and the like. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. it’s not words.. he was sitting beside me. You really made me mad. Radu had calmed down. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. let alone irritable. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. on the front seat. We have to judge it as it is. I was sleepy and tired. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. • It was my turn to say something. Unfortunately. that’s what the world is about. or if you understood what I meant. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. Your judgement is false.

soon we’ll be in town. precious words. did you ever step up front. you do as you think fit. either. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. no matter how huge they are. keep your conscience clean: you have one. and if you like. and an inability to act. fear might be hiding. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. it’s your problem. as Baciu would have us be. But what about you and Melania. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. we are leaving. me. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. you can go to Ursu’s. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. clears your way. 295 . Anyway. although it was a difficult thing to do. Look. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. just to please myself. behind these big. But I was just wondering. keep it squeaky clean. • So. to fight. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. or call the respect of others. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. too? A gun is power. it solves troubles. me. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. or you are lying hidden. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. I won’t interfere. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. it’s yours.

correct 3. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems ..incorrect. -correct 3. firmly determined not to answer immediately. .Negative incorporation 296 . has yet arrived -correct 2. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. because before is a positive polarity item 2. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. – incorrect. But it was not because I had no answer to give.. but they gradually got used to it. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. the sentence is incorrect 3. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. or some other woman. will he?.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. has not arrived yet – double negation. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. The villagers were not very religious. as soon as he delivered it. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. correlatives are mixed 2.Negative attraction b) 1.

much less ((NPI) for her. His spirit was too tired. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI).) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. (ibid. Avea sufletul prea obosit. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. too troubled. Ştia că are dreptate. Nu putea să se mişte. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. she couldn’t marry him. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. her lack of motion would have to do (API). either (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. nu era 297 . incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. prea răscolit. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. b) But it was rather (API) late. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. (ibid.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Her stillness. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. not happy at all (NPI). He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. yet.) Însă era cam târziu.

cu atât mai puţin pentru ea.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. he made his way to the screen.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. The Satanic Verses. inima îi batea năvalnic. se îndreptă spre paravan. she looked younger than ever (NPI).) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. e) At length. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. (ibid. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (Salman Rushdie. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. his heart was beating fast. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. if anything (NPI). I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. and not a little unsteadily. şi destul de hotărât. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). Ba dimpotrivă. 298 . g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.

It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Ce-i pasă lui C. the gift was useless. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. The point was. Home receded from the prodigal son. and probably an administrative headache as well. care if the school were willing to treat him. but his father would have none of it (NPI). 299 . Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă.) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. i) What did C. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. (ibid. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea.

correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination.indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. .

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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Fenia. all godfearing husbands and fathers. you are in enough trouble as it is. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. the bitch. Vica. now she was chatty. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. and then what do you 308 . they were. 2. keep Condrat away from her. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. I didn’t know where she was leading me to.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. to make them lust after her. she likes to entrance them. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. “Now. yes. Fenia. She has an eye for gentle men. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. she didn’t wear a ring. do you really think that this vixen. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Chizlinski. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Stavre Paici. Luca Horobet. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca.

He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. dragging his feet listlessly. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the minister of Tartars and Turks. what’s her name. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. You said: “Doesn’t this guy.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. have a girlfriend. It even takes him a while to go to the window. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. a seventy-eight year old lad. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. 3. with a railway station and a mosque. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. The mullah. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. G. He got him out of his mosque. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. her hair pinned with blue combs. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. ankle-long flowered calico. 4.

Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.

COORDINATION Activity 2 1. Her pet kitten is black and white.. Our flag is red. – sentence coordination 2. John is ready and Mary is ready. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.) 9. – similar situation 10.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. yellow and blue.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. our respective examinations. and I passed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination 7. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. John and Mary are ready.phrasal coordination (in this case. John and Mary are the newly married couple.

3. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 7. 10. your proposal and his. her son and others. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. plays football. 6. her idea and John’s. much satisfaction or little 312 . and even tennis. that method and those. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. but not John. many guest or few. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 2. 9. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). We can and will demand payment. 8. your work and mine. Activity 4 1. 5.) Joan plays many games. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. but John does not play football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Activity 5 This book and the other.

Wear and tear 12. Swings and roundabouts 7. He snapped at him and slapped him. Few and far between 14. 3. Activity 8 1. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Thick and thin 11. Pros and cons 4.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Safe and sound 313 . I have always fought and will fight for progress. High and low 2. The facts and figures 3. Law and order 8. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. but not simple. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. 4. Ups and downs 6. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Life and soul 5.) 6. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. magazines are only for children. Spick and span 9. He read. Bread and butter 16. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Over and above 13. (I have always fought for progress and always will. To and fro 15. 7. 8. 5. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Touch and go 10. etc. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1.

There is a table and some chairs in the room. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 8. – symmetric 2. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. – asymmetric 18. 2. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 9. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 6. b. 314 . Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 2. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – symmetric. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. inclusive 16. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric 10.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 10. 5. 1. Symmetric 21. 3. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. exclusive 15. My son and heir is safe. 10. exclusive 17. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 5.. 6. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Asymmetric 19. – symmetric. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 3. 7. Asymmetric 20. My son and daughter are twins. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – symmetric. Cathy and David have arrived. 9. 4. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 7. Either the child or the parents are to blame. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year.symmetric 11. Symmetric 13. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. Asymmetric – temporal sequence.

Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 8. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. Her husband is long dead and buried. for better or worse. (2) 1. There are doctors and doctors. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 15. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. ‘Madam. clothes and all. He went to bed. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 3. it was too small. 14. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. He’s neither fish. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. By hook or by crook. thanks for asking. No drinking and driving. 7. 10. 3. 12. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. Jim thought it over for a while. nor fowl. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 6. Brother or no brother. Not only should you rest 315 . 11. I’ll still finish this paper. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 4. We’ll stick together. They came to me. 2. 9.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 2. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. 5. Should he pour water in the basin.

Her first husband had been a professor. tense with concentration. They hadn’t kept him there too long. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. he’d leap high. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. so he’d gone down and died in no time. What do you know? The moment Mrs. it would work out fine. but she blinks in approval. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. she started doing a great job. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere.Nadina VIŞAN assured. This. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. without mentioning financial matters. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison.’ (3) 1. an important man. And. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. 2. So she’ll listen to him. tense like a bow. You know. 316 . Mrs. so he could leap in pursuit. and then. stop dead in his tracks. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. just like when he was thirty. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. and she listens to him. as she always does. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. he starts lecturing her about life and things. she knows for sure. at equal intervals. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. but he’d come out a cripple. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Whatever she tried her hand at. their common ground. both dead and buried. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. what’s its name.

– obligatory elements: I. – obligatory elements: she. – she. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as a modifier 3. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an object (direct). – she. – Susan. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2. cannot tell.subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. you.subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. came. whomever wanted to listen. about her problems at home After I told her the story. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.subordinate. is aware. told. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . – she.subordinate. she looked at me sadly.subordinate. looked. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .

Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate.subordinate.complement b) 1. since the main verb is think of something) 5. that we should. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. at our age.subordinate. that you are choosing exile . functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN 4. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. remove our home yet again .

prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. a house. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. a barn. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. but no idea – relative that complement.complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement.

He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. direct object. that kept her constantly tense and grim.wh complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly.A few days before the war. direct object/ to sit there – complement. staring at each other. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . subject/ to do such again – complement. without straightening her back. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. (…) ‘Well. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. Activity 5 1. sickle in hand. But other people. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. When Anton put the sickle down. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.

he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. rather than a real threat. Not even at this point. For no bold man really falters. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. 3. while they spoke from miles away. but also his sharp nose. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. that was for sure. you need courage even for this small thing. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. he will turn back and no longer be daring.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. or if he does. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Why! He was not of two minds. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. while on other occasions he would show caution. First. as if they were at his beck and call. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Ana could not stand a trip now. 321 . 2. but he doesn’t spurn either. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Only he had Ana to think of. or other more hidden means.

4. he had postponed writing back. it was the women. 322 . come on. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. So. they would ruin the arrangement. to see some mutual friends. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. and when things didn’t go as planned. are we getting off again? What is wrong. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. under the silliest of pretexts. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. We were going to drive to a vineyard. In fact. And here’s how this first day looked. and twice we were requested to get out. although he could have said so earlier. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. in Odobesti. Twice did we get in the car. and on Monday followed another feast). not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. But it was not ok. without really knowing why. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. by the cars of some of us.

which was silly of him. Activity 3 1. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 9. 10. any of whom would answer to questions. 5. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. on which this occurred . The students. 4. all of whom would answer to his questions. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.restrictive 7. most of whom were from England. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. Activity 2 1. 7. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. The students like their teacher. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.She came to London where I went too. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. where I spent my youth . 10. He is the author who they gave a prize to. like their teacher. when we first met . 11. 3. 4. where I least expected 323 . who was just passing by.free 8. 8.restrictive 4. This is my husband whom I love very much. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. which was a pity. 7. You couldn’t join the party. 2. 5.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE .restrictive 6.restrictive 2. John told his friend a story about the king. 6.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. He told her the secret. 3. 6. I bought Jim a book that he liked. why they all left . 8. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. These are people who we cannot tell much about.

subject 9.adjunct 6. 7. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. You. however sad . This isn’t the Bucharest I know. where we talk money – predicative. who cannot say a word. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Where . about why man was born to die – prepositional object. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.free 9.When Ada remarked – adjunct. 2. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. come up front. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. which . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.restrictive 10. who think so highly of yourselves. what their parents made them.adjunct 5.free Activity 4 1. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. When . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. 6. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Of all the persons there.adjunct 11. What – direct object 2. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Activity 5 1.subject 8. Who . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .adjunct 3. where – predicative 7.Nadina VIŞAN . the prince chose Cinderella. I. Where . Which – subject 4. 5. Why . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. What I’m saying – subject. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.adjunct 10. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when . What Inman remembered – subject. 4. was very displeased with the situation. Where he was from – adjunct. 3.

the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. what little she knew – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. which requires an accusative form.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . – which is ungrammatical due to the [. how . which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what .whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. whatever – predicative 13. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.

got married and had a daughter. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. having changed quite a number of jobs. due to its invariable character. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. a rather tiny looking man. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose great-grandfather. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. but whose second cousin. a sergeant. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . in his turn. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition.

Irene.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. no easy answers to which could be offered. The problem of safe transportation. This story.obligatory 3. was now complete. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. . . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.yes 3. – no pied piping 327 . has been troubling them forever. His friends. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. he requested that the public be excluded.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. were now all gone. .obligatory 4. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. – yes 2. – no 9. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.yes Activity 9 1.yes 7. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.yes 10. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. – no pied piping 5. he rarely saw now. – obligatory pied piping 2.no 5. . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. – no 4.His father’s friends. – yes 6. . with deletion of the noun friends]. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. whose interest he most sincerely shared. In the interest of public decency. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – yes. . .

which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 7. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. Nelu. For twenty years. Only an ugly endless dream remained. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. yours. 328 .and he couldn’t thank me enough. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 4. the third born son. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. I did so. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. irrespective of age and nature. or as of a vast arena. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 2. In other people’s opinion. 8. Everything was ending. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. where two teams battled every day… 5. For all the four children. I am to be envied. 3. for instance.

I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. although she was standing quite close to him. where from Marta was coming too. staring aimlessly.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. What you’re saying sounds very nice. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. which was why he saw Dora very far away. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 13. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. the tram was rattling along. 15. You are newly arrived here. she said. All that you have read is rubbish. 11. Behind them. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. on Icoanei street. 10. leaving streets and houses behind. from MR street. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. He was suffering from dizziness. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. barely glittering in the distance. 17. 16. 14. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 12. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 329 .R. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. Let me tell you my last conclusion. since I don’t really know which my true life is.

I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. had a personal style in clothes. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. 23. likes and dislikes. or the clash of stars above. 20. But for me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. While some trees are still green. 22. so optimistic and composed? 19. day by day. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. From the vantage point I was in. If he had hit me. She was a woman of means. While we were poor. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. had a huge house in Bucharest. or the many Egyptian dynasties. 21. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. I could see my woman falling away from me. who prompted everyone on the street. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. I don’t know what might have happened. But. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. after the car was fixed. 24.Nadina VIŞAN 18. which I did not posses. So. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. in her pursuits. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. who only lived once in this world. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 330 .

object 5. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. It was suggested that they should meet the President. for pragmatic reasons 5. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. subject 9. – extraposed. subject 8. – extraposed. 6. – the same as 3. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . 3. 2. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. subject 4. object 6. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. – extraposed. – questionable. It appears that no one voted for him.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – extraposed. – impossible 7. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. direct object 10. direct object 3. 331 . – unextraposed. prepositional object 11. 8. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. subject 7. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. subject 2. – extraposed. – extraposed.

14. . 17. Activity 3: 1. It is no use trying to convince her. although a bit intricate 2. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. idiomatic formula 16. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. same as 12.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. same as 12.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. They never expected it that he would come back. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.grammatical. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – grammatical. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 15. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. a bit too intricate 5.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. but pragmatically impossible 3. .It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible. – incorrect. – same as 12. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you..incorrect. same as 12. – grammatical. – the same as 12. 18. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – impossible. 9. – grammatical. – impossible 11. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. .grammatical. 10. – correct 2. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – impossible. It is nice to meet you. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. I guess it that he will come back. tense influences the 332 . Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – impossible. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. but pragmatically impossible 4.correct 4.

I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. – correct 6. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 2. 333 . I hurriedly hid wherever I could.incorrect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. 5. in the ditch. thus. though. in the pits on the road. behind gates.’ Lionel says. 3. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.’ 4. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. (Not always. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. under bridges. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.

It is less ambiguous than the first. who had just returned from Africa. – the first sentence is the better of the two. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. By saying this. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. 4. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. because it is less ambiguous.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. without trying to protest too much. 7. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 8. 3. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. since the 334 . who had just returned from Africa. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations.Nadina VIŞAN 6. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. – the second sentence is questionable. 2. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Activity 7 1.

/*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. extraposition is obligatory here. 8. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 335 . 6. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 7. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 5. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. so there is no need for extraposition. – both sentences are grammatical. although the third one has not undergone clause shift.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. The second and third sentences are grammatical.

required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. . – complement 2. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – direct object.complement 4.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – complement that clause.prepositional object.We discovered that our map has disappeared. ibid. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – complement 5. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – prepositional object. – relative 3. ibid.) adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.) complement that clauses.relative Activity 9 1. . – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.adverbial of sequence/result. – adverbial of sequence/result. for better or worse. – subject. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. coordinated. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch. – relative 5. . . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. required by deverbal noun 336 . The idea that he had had earned him good money. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. they were chained to each other forever.

– that is obligatory. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. you want me to believe. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. that deletion is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. f) John said that Harry would leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that is obligatory. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. that they were not too late to leave. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.

– a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – grammatical sentences. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – both sentences are grammatical. a. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . c. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. sequence of tenses is observed 4. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b.

All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. lark. present perfect instead of past perfect. hawk. – generalization on habits of birds. prepeliţe. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. quail. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. ciocârlii şi şoimi. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. While the first is possible because of the generalization.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. geese both grey and white. cenuşii şi albe. present instead of simple past. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here.

He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. lack of pridefulness. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . love of practical jokes. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. as evidenced by its drear plumage. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Crows will relish what presents itself. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. lipsa de vanitate. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. The generic present is used in this case. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. slyness in a fight. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. She admired their keenness of wit. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects.

iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. in the very act of expiring. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. tânărul ofiţer. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. tragică şi eroică. El căzuse pe spate. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. the young officer. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. se ridicase în picioare. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. He had fought hard through the war. Murise în picioare. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. But as the battle raged around them. […] During the latter stages of the tale. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. he claimed. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. He died erect.

342 . and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. A short while later. I realized I could not tell him the big news. And they might just hang him. susţinea el. One of them. Acum stătea aici. around seventeen or eighteen years old. în închisoare. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Activity 13 1. 2. the oldest. When he saw me. to finish my drawing. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Luptase din răsputeri în război. deşi era erou de război. They all had their hands in their pockets. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. – similar situation to the one under (c). which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Now here he stood jailed. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). he closed the album. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. mother went home and I was left alone. they gathered around my desk. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. How can I explain? I just felt shy. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. When the boys saw that mother had left. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. But when he reached me. war hero though he was.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg.

which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. 6. or if she would do so again. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. as if he had been drunk. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. or fear his rage. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.’ Mr. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . brightly and closely. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. All his senses were now keen. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. 4. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her.’ 5. for her vineyard.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3.

don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 8.Nadina VIŞAN to him. The last time when we met here you scared me. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 10. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. thinking of him. 9. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . 11. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. 7. And if things were so. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. he would achieve his goal and be a victor.

and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. 14. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. where he would run to confess everything. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 13. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. We either sell them or we don’t. which secretly drove him. towards Jurubita. namely the impatience of this young man. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. more urgently than ever. 12. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. without putting anything in a note. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession.

/ He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 3. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. – simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. grammatical 10. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. 9.. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 5. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. grammatical 6.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. . It is vital this factory to be reopened. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. – simple infinitive. 346 . It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 7. grammatical. – infinitive continuous. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. / they saw her leave. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical 2. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. . – infinitive continuous. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. – simple infinitive.simple infinitive. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – perfect infinitive.

] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. – Test: They convinced her. / It is not too late for him to learn. Test: *I would love them. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. you need to try harder. / He is believed to have known her 347 . – Test: They tempted him. \ They tempted him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They asked her. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. Test: *I allowed them. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I want to never see you again. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I would love [ them to come. \ She promised him PRO to leave. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: * I would like people. \ I allowed [them to come. Test: *They did not wish her.

/ He is young enough to start again. not to miss the train. / He is hard to stand. . / I have never known how to behave in her presence. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / I want you to leave my house. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. . . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / Oh. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / He is easy to talk to. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb 348 .Nadina VIŞAN for years. / I want to tell you what I think of you. I don’t need you or your services.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. Activity 6 Oh. / He is easy to live with. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / To make a long story short. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. . / I have a word to tell you. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.

349 . The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Both seemed to him a little unreal. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Subject. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. He suspected hostility at once. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. 1] A little crossly. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. the herd instinct was very strong in him.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2].to. Harold. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. If he himself was out of spirits.Accusative + Infinitive. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. they had depressed and fuddled him. who wasn’t used to men with moods. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Predicative 4 . In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. he didn’t envy those above it. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. so that we might get to the future and have done. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Subject. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 1 – PRO-to. 1 – PRO.

true. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. c) Unlike plane trips. we seem to forget about our own pain. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. PRO controlled by ‘him’. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. excitedly. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. more meaningful. But when we need to comfort others. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. PRO controlled by ‘she’. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. man and woman. 1 – PRO-to. e) When two persons. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. more believable than evidence itself. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. direct object 3 – PRO –to. cautiously. slowly. f) The passing time is important. One day. PRO controlled by ‘she’. object 2 – PRO –to. 350 . but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. And you might also be hit and humiliated. PRO controlled by ‘me’. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. or better said.

Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. not to want to wipe it off. He had not been able to leave Dr. or their talk that night. as he had appeared to him in the rain. while swearing to change my way of life. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. for instance. That is it. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. I am indeed praising my own merits. If it was summer. or. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. And to actually start to believe you are so. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. in the street. not even those parts where he had been half-right. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. to live only with your coughing. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. And I would care for this man so deeply. all down our neck. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. which he had already forgotten. h) I want us to go. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. k) With this considerable dowry. Stroescu. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Moroi says heavily. 351 . Would you like me to look at you transfixed. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Mrs. tickled by the trickles of sweat. that you are young. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. my wish being only to please and serve. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. even when this love is hurried. S. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love.

she was suddenly so shocked. no matter what. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. every Bucharester knows it. poor Muti. ready to submit to any demand. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. here I am with all of my own. for that’s the door people get off by. met by squalor and terrible smells. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. haphazardly. 352 . they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. If you will have what I can give you. Well. or to speak so fast.Nadina VIŞAN In a word.

/ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him..ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . 353 . as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ He went to have a tooth pulled. badly beaten and bloodied./ Don’t keep him waiting./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. with its lips drawn back. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. / They found it thrown in a corner. – Attributive past participle. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ She sent him shopping. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.

a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having fed the dog. – Attributive present participle. Finding the treasure. The tree had fallen across the road. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. – As she was running into the room. sitting taut between her father and her sister. having heard it all before. 8. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 5. Turning on the light. 3. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 9. a rug caught her foot and she fell. I was astonished at what I saw. Knowing that the murderer was still at large.She didn’t want to hear the story again. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Sleeping in the next room. 7. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Activity 4 1. I slammed the door of my room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. having been uprooted by the gale. 10. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Attributive present participle. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. he sat down to his own dinner. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. 2.Running into the room./ Running into the room. Having looked through the fashion magazine. 4.

a scorpion bit him. Riding in the first race.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Tied to the post. / Getting out of bed. Barking furiously. – As he was getting out of bed. 6. red-handed. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. he was bit by a scorpion. Getting out of bed. 7. narrow-minded. the sea was tossing it up and down. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 11. 355 . Passing under a ladder. Dropped by parachute. I let the dog out of the room. – As he was riding in the first race. Activity 5 Fair-haired. I often get very cold hands. open-minded. – As he was climbing down the tree. 3. 8. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As I was passing under a ladder. his horse fell at the last jump. – As he was tied to the post. empty-headed. 9. 4. 5. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him./ Reading in bed. cloth-covered. – As he left the cinema. an idea suddenly occurred to me. my hands often get very cold. one of the eggs broke. lion-hearted. I let it out of the room. his horse fell at the last jump. Reading in bed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. Leaving the cinema. Climbing down the tree. wooden-headed. – When I read in bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. three-coloured. fishy-eyed. many-coloured. stony-hearted. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. bald-headed. 12. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. my hands often get very cold. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. broad-shouldered. 2. he broke one of the eggs. one of the eggs broke. a scorpion bit him. sharp-eyed/minded. – As the dog was barking furiously. 10. / Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. a pot of paint fell on my head.

injured when their car crashed on the M1. (injure). / Many old people. / Swiss watches. (produce) 3. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. were taken to hospital. drunken man. Activity 7 1. injuring my arm.I fell on the ice. / Three people. hidden meaning. (take) 2. (find) 6. graven image. admired for their elegance and precision. was today taken back to prison. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. roast meat. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. dark-skinned. rotten plank. stricken deer. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. found hiding in a barn.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. open-hearted. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. are in grave danger of extinction. (hunt). Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears.Spielberg. hunting for a bargain. are sold throughout the world. mown grass. eagle-eyed./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. bounden duty. shrunken stream. The escaped prisoner. The film. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (admire) 5. 7. lighted candle. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. shorn lamb. produced by S. 356 . ill-gotten wealth. sunken eyes. I stared at the canvas for ages. shaven head. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. (grow) 4. Activity 8 1. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. is expected to be a great hit. Whales. straight-shouldered.

he were struggling for breath. the twice rinsed vegetables. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. 4. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. streaked with yellow veins of fat. boil them. the carved chicken. thrown in the pots. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. hovering uncertain and soft. He felt close to his father. 3. its scales scraped off by the knife. yet left them room to sway free. in charge of his house and lands. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. the fish. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. and the puffed pastry beds. So. then put up. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. bake them. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. After a while. and moreover. now taken down. 357 . flat and soft. And his soul. suddenly suffocated. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. sprinkled with sticky flour. 2. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. seeking some promised land. A parasol. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. he started peering anxiously around as if. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp.

/ The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. he left the store without buying a thing. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. – participle (attribute) 2./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. ./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. – gerund (subject) 4. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys.gerund 5. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. Gambling is his favourite pastime. – Accusative + participle 3. Activity 10 1. / I am sorry for being so late. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places.

The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. 8. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He was spotted talking to her. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – gerund (half or full. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. preceded by preposition). – gerund (prepositional object) 15.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. – gerund (attribute. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. .participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14.

why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. take down her answer. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. adjective. – gerund or verbal noun. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.verbal noun (has determiner.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – verbal noun (has adjective). – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. – gerund (full. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Croom to try to follow one.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – verbal noun (has determiner. my Lord. adjective. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.’ 360 . we had done nothing to be ashamed of. however appearances were against us. Lady Corven. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.’ ‘Tell me. hold up his pen and speak.. but they went by too quickly. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.

my Lord. I spend all my time hunting a job. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.’ said Clare. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. ‘I do hate asking for things.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. Then. licked the envelope with passion. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. he addressed the note. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. it’s overrated. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I must go back now. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ 361 .’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. I just used the word and they fell.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. and went out to post it himself. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. suddenly.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.

attribute) in a swirling motion. (participle. down. Has a complex subject) in the hole. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. It was like a mist. First the crack snaking (half gerund. At first. functions as direct object) and then the ground. attribute. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. The collapsing shops (participle. attribute). following the verb ‘remember’. hoping (participle. attribute. slightly 362 .’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. the enormous split in the earth. attribute. The sight of the two children.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. then the noise and the cracking stone. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute. He looked up towards the daylight. Then he saw movement at his feet. …while their edges were crashing inwards). someone looking for survivors (participle. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. elliptical here. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. down into God knows where. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object). direct object) towards him. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. attribute). adverbial of time. slowly rising (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. after verb of perception. the very earth opening up (half gerund. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) from below. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. gerund. village which is burning). The two sides were moving apart. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund.

early.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. covering (participle. i. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. my dear. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. etc. one. has ‘of’ phrase). It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of reason). has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. prepositional object. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.e. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. according to the books he read. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. you. direct object). She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund.).Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. moving up (participle.

and then went riding (participle. She finished what jobs there were. reluctant or not. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. attribute) to winter brilliance. preceded by preposition. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. brightening (participle. Standing up. Having a French governess (participle. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. adverbial of manner). Vaucher and I. the two Mamonas. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. examining (participle. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. a door was opened and as a servant entered. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. adverbial of reason). waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and not only in my imagination or theirs. mother. adverbial of manner). preceded by preposition. So. and sunlight. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. attribute) stopped dead. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and everything got suddenly animated.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. which beckoned to 364 . we were all gathered in that room. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. And. for Dornford was busy on an important case. Young Mamona left the room without a word. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. attribute) a sudden whoop.

He cast us a swift glance. about sparing no effort. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. 3. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. he found us sitting each in his place. kissed her forehead. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. and to Young Mamona.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. to Vaucher. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . bending a little. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. her back towards us. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. he looked like someone who did. and smelling so hard of rain. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. 4. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. his disloyal apprentice. Entering our house on a Thursday. without taking his sack off his shoulders. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. each carrying a wooden box. to me. he went to mother and. sitting in his puddle. as mother had ordered him. and ended his life in the year 1821. Vaucher might have known that too. in the year 1812. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. So when Old Mamona came in. And. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. Not so unimaginable though. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. I knew who it would be. killed by Young Mamona. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. closing my eyes. for anyway. And then. let alone greet us or say something. about concentrating all our resources. 2. too. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. who knows.

stove. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. And suddenly. wood pile. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. long board table. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. already seen and heard. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. everything seemed familiar. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. And all around them was the great field 366 . barrack. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. as an afterthought. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. futile. They got off the truck slowly. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. each pausing before jumping down. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. of taking notes and rewriting them. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. But. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. 5. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it.

The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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