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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.de rezolvări. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. 6 . Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
4.Contents: 8 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Auxiliary verbs 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Insertion 220.127.116.11. Constituent Phrase 1. Complementary distribution .5.
Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. loves. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Syntactic. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. 1. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. her mother. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. very much. that is sequences fragmented at random.1. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).2.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. For instance. They are just strings. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Semantic. Consequently. sequences of the kind her mother very.
semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. we are dealing with a directive (i. an order given to an interlocutor). An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.) 10 .Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. (Mi-a spus secretul. 1. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.e. should.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. be). must. etc. 1.4. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).3. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.
the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. live. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. for instance.) 1. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .5. etc. Consider. an ‘empty’ there subject. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.6. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. 1. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.
complementary distribution. How much. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. this would really hurt. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. semantic. pragmatic. Pratice Define and illustrate. as the star indicates. distribution. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. he had not yet been able to estimate. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. whereas (7) is not. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. syntactic. Munt. 12 . If the given context is the one under (6). using your own examples: insertion. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.
to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.
7.8. Full – local negation 2.3.4. Negative vs.5.6. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. affirmative sentences. Instances of negation 2. Key terms 2.1. Key terms .2. Polarity Items 2. Tests for negativity 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Conclusion.2.
Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.Declarative vs.) b. in that they do not state anything. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .) is said to be an assertion. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. it asserts something. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a.2. in the sense that it states something. Consequently. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Negative .Unit two Sentence negation 2.Positive vs. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. For instance.
Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .) .Nadina VIŞAN . comparison. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.g.negative (e.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.g. 16 .other (if –clauses.non-assertion .) .positive sentence . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens./ If you like her. They told her the ( e.interrogative (e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. don’t bother her.g./ She can’t wait to read that book.positive and declarative secret.assertion ./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / She finally admitted./ Don’t do that. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. listen to this. Did they tell her the secret? ) . / Come with me. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.
Susan dislikes her friends. word negation. (Nu demult. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). John is unhappy.3.) b.) 17 . For example. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. John is not happy. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. I met a girl named Susan.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John e nefericit. Susan doesn’t like her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. In the case of the sentences under (4). A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. since the negative word not is not present there.
but their meaning tells us a different story. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words.) b. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. where the word 18 . I was not a little worried. since the negative word not is present inside them. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. these sentences look negative. more precisely the phrase it is part of.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.) c. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. just like in the case of word negation. He was not without intelligence. She was not an unattractive woman. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.
/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. without intelligence. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative).e. Translate the following sentences into English. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / Când a aflat vestea./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă.
/ Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. dar nu neobişnuit. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. Negative vs. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Era el destul de isteţ. 2.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat.4. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. ci doar indecişi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. affirmative sentences. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu în mod special. / Nu erau nelămuriţi.
Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (M-am dus acolo. (Nu m-am dus acolo. (see subsection 1. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .). For instance.1.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. such as do insertion. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. etc.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.
/ Susan was not bitten by a dog. / Susan did not get married to Jim. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag./ They didn’t leave. 22 . The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. incorrect. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / We don’t come here often. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / I don’t like her very much. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends.
(Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. *not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. *and neither do they like her. 3. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. * and they don’t like her either. which is ungrammatical. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. and neither do they like her. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. 4. not even the smart ones. . and they don’t like her either. which does not happen in the case of (18).
/ No problems were caused after all. In conclusion. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. 2. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / They caused us no problems. / This boy is no good. / Few of them stayed behind. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. they go skiing in the mountains. / You have never met her. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.5. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Not always a witty interlocutor. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / A few of them stayed behind. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. they need to refer to these tests of negativity.
A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (27) a . (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-am văzut pe nimeni). a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-a venit John).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (26) I saw nobody. I went nowhere.
(N-am văzut nici un student. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. / I didn’t ever go to his place. No day passed without me thinking of him. I never went to his place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All that glitters is not gold. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. Not all that glitters is gold. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.Nadina VIŞAN b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) b.) c. I didn’t see anybody. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. I didn’t go anywhere. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. no incorporation takes place.) b. 26 . ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) (29) a. I didn’t see any student. b. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.
/ Not one of them came to meet her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. .) They barely read any novels. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. rarely./ They never went there. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / None of them liked house music. nici măcar din alea scurte. (Nu citesc romane. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. not even short ones.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / I showed him nothing./ They didn’t come to meet her.V. scarcely. / He should not be released.) We seldom watch T. / Not many women are famous opera composers.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / No one ever listens to her.4. / I saw nobody. / Not a word fell from her lips. / I didn’t see anybody. and we don’t go to the theatre either. etc. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. barely. seldom.
) b. Not for the world would I do such a thing. . / I seldom look at her like that. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. Never have I met a more horrible person. / Hardly anybody liked him. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) d. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) c. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / Few people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / I scarcely ever see her. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) 28 them.
(Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. in the sense that the 29 . The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. As you can see from the translation of these examples.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. never trust a man again.) They don’t think that he likes them. / She could rely on nobody but him. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.
Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. intend. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. suggest.: think. etc. / I suppose she doesn’t care. For example. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. should be desirable. be likely. be probable. expect. etc. 2. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. we can very well say something like: (38) a. intention. imagine. In sentence (37). look like. seem. want. cannot appear in an affirmative context. barely.) 30 .6. advise. guess. the negative meaning is less strong. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. be supposed to. ought to.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / They believe she does not like them. / I expect he won’t come here again. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. believe.) b. etc. probability.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. although not negative in meaning. sound/feel like. / He reckoned he would not win her over. choose. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. appear. suppose.
for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. b. are clearly not grammatical. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.*She lifted a finger to help me. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. *She likes our chairman at all. That is 31 . It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. and sentences such as: (39) a. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context.2. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity.
too. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) Much vs. too. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. still (I don’t love you any more. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.) Yet vs.) Any more vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. too (I don’t like it. / Well. / Bob is still living at that address.) Hardly ever vs. / She hardly ever comes here.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / He arrived before 5. some (I haven’t any money. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I have some money. / Come on. / I can understand both of these 32 . / Don’t worry. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. you can still do something about it.). etc.) Until vs. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I eat caviar most of the times. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I like you a lot. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. either. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / They say he once had someone very close. / I have already seen him. / I like it . / I still love you) Either vs. / You needn’t send her anything.) At all vs. / Well. / I somehow like him. already (I haven’t seen him yet. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. a lot (I don’t like you much.
/ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. crack a smile. mulţumesc. have a care/ friend in the world. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must pay that fine. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. move a muscle. see/ feel/ remember a thing. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. hurt a fly. bat an eye(lid). / Ajută-mă. sleep a wink.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. hear a peep. have/be worth a red cent. nici unuia dintre noi. last a minute. know a single person. Ion nu e prea deştept. flinch. lay a finger on someone. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. turn a hair. lift/raise/ stir a finger. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. say / breathe/ understand a word. give a damn/darn. find a trace. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. / You must be telling lies. / Peter knows some English and so does John. touch a drop. Translate into English. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. de când cu 33 . n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). leave a stone unturned. / I nearly always have to clean it myself.
/ Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. încercând să prindă criminalul. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Not that I care. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / No man is wise all the time. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / He won’t make old bones. but you really should do something about it. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. he left the room. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / No trouble at all. / No entry. / He is no end of a fellow. n-a sunat încă. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. nu e vina mea. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. he’s a pig. Translate into Romanian. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Hotărât lucru. / Never is a long word. / Nothing succeeds like success. / I had no end of trouble. / No sooner said than done. / No admittance. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. budge. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / No hands wanted. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. B: Aşi. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui.
Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API).7. / I hate making any commitments. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). b) I love asking some funny remarks. 2. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen./ I saw no one. as well: 35 . c) He is anxious to say something.Unit two Sentence negation rather). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. N-am văzut pe nimeni. say it. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Normally. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it.
Key terms. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.8. nu poezia asta. I don’t like this poem. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. B: Not this poem. I don’t. nu îmi place poezia asta. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. however.) 2. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. 36 . nu-mi place.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. The second negation is somehow independent. from a syntactic point of view. B: Nu. (Nu. Conclusion.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 . interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e.
2 Echo Questions 3. Optional Exercises . Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2 Wh.3. Key Terms.Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3.2.1 Tag Questions 3. Direct vs.3.1 Yes/No Questions 18.104.22.168.3.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.3.4. Minor Types of Questions 3.
focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. If we try to analyze the examples above. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.Unit three Questions 3. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. for a subsequent section.1.
all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.g. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. pe mama. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. (2). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). 48 . by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. (3) and (4).
indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Since the question is not direct any more. because. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. 49 . Likewise. In the case of indirect questions. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. in this case.
paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. sau mai bine zis. spune la un moment dat femeia.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / He asked me who she is. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. / I don’t know who she is. / I don’t know whom she fancies. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. c) Ştii ce. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . identify the incorrect sentences. / He asked me who she was. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. ce culoare are pielea. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on.
Unit three Questions 3. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Let us provide 51 . being typical of spoken language. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.2.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. as Quirk shows. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.
(you / hear from her these days) ? 6. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (which / you like best) ? 4.2. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.1. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (who / talk to last night)? 5.
they did. it has. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. are said to be positively – oriented. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da). that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da). instead of Negative Polarity ones.
A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. A: You’ve been learning German for years. (speak yet) B: …….... 2.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . A: She had her tenants evicted.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. ……. A: Your mother is shouting for you. I’ve still got plenty of time. but I want to play basketball a little longer. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. . because you always copy everything I do! 5. A: You look down. 4. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 7. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. ……………? (hear her) B: …. as in the example: 1.. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. ………………….. ……………………………. 6. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3.
A: There was a terrible car crash. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. which When. how. 8.2. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. .Unit three Questions B: …………………. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . 3... On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .2 Wh – questions Wh. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….. 9. . what . She’s got a reputation for being heartless. A: It’s past your bedtime.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. where. You could have mentioned it earlier. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. ………………………………. I didn’t get home until late last night. 10.
There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ She dropped her glasses. (Poppy Z. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie./ I have French lessons twice a week. why ever. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / Kay’s gone out shopping. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. trying to find places where I resided in life. / There are six students in my class. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / Shirley got married to Ben.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans./ Sara owns two cars. / David’s car was stolen. I cannot do that. / She lives in the suburbs./ We’ve lived here for ten years. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / That’s my pen.000dollars. of course. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. Nearly two hundred years. what ever. / My new car cost 10. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / It’s nearly seven o’clock.
3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.) 57 . (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2.
shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 3. You can’t be serious. How far is it the cinema? 10. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Let’s stay for another few days. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. can you be? 58 . didn’t use he? 11. Who did left the gate open? 18. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. shall we stay? 7. How long is she be spending in America? 8. He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. wasn’t it there? 17. How long is she be spending in America? 15.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. didn’t use he? 4. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. He used to work in a bank. There was a fax for you this morning.
deci. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. How long time does it take to get there? 28.Unit three Questions 19. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Ani întregi. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. să-mi înfrâng frica. will you not? 27. wasn’t it he? 22. Whose it is this book? 32. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. John goes jogging every morning. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. deci. Pot reveni. That was Jeremy’s brother. will you not? 21. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Toate vechi. plin de germeni virulenţi. despre o lume dură. ca şi cei ce au fost. That’s your car. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. uneori disperat. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. dacă prin absurd 59 . isn’t it this? 25. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. doesn’t he go? 23. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. neliniştea infantilă. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. Don’t forget to take some spare socks.
Şi. de atunci. umed. laşii. neîntrerupt. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. indiferent de risc. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. murdar. negru. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. mă întreb. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. lung. iar proştii. pe sub bolţile din care. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. naiv. puturos. inactivii. dar şi drumul. B. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. ghiceam doar unde se află. îi ştiu gustul. străină priceperii lor. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. picură apa roşietică. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. pe care oricum am simţit-o. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. “Spune! striga el.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Riscul? Ratarea.
da? (37) Let’s go there. orbitor.1. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. Tag Questions Tag questions. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English.3. will you? (38) She went to Prague.Unit three Questions viaţă. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. didn’t she? . absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. domnule profesor. golul alb. exclus.3. la urma urmei. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. viaţa? Oare e drept. 3. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate. care i-a determinat alegerea.
(Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. the tag is affirmative too. In this way. if the host sentence is negative.e.) A: Oh. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. or falling. sarcasm. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. aren’t they? 62 . (Din păcate. hasn’t she? (Aha. The suggestion is that in this case. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. or “comment tags”. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. is it? (Deci. it’s all spent. the tag is negative too).
/ I am dressed smartly enough.…/ Let me know. / Few people like her. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Surely you have enough money. / I may see you tomorrow. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / A few people like her. / You ought not to smoke. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / I think you like my music. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / He hates his wife. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / That was your father. 63 . / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / She used to talk a lot. / He simply hates empty words. / They said he liked music. / You have been invited. / That’s your car over there. / I must go now. / You will pick me up. / Tell me. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / I don’t think you like my music. / Don’t leave without me. / She has a brother. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Each of us is staying. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You will pick me up at 7. / I think you don’t like my music. / She left an hour ago. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I am older than you. / He has to marry Susan. / The boy often watched his sister. / There is enough food for everyone.Unit three Questions (Se mută. after all. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / The boy never watched his sister.
b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. 5. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.. or what? 3. So you enjoyed my talk. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. / He never used to study so hard…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. He used to play squash./ I’m right about this…. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. using a question tag at the end.
2.2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.3. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.1. / Grants… 3. Recapitulatory echo questions . Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.questions which repeat part or all of the message.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.3. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) B: Chinese? 65 .1. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.
(Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.3. of something just said. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.phrase is fronted. disbelief.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. If the wh.2. rather than the repetition. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Închide lumina aia. consternation. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.2. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.
) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. am pierdut scrisoarea. / He is interested in music. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. I’ve lost the letter./ We are looking for a purse. which letter do you 67 . with recapitulatory echo questions./ He is interested in blue movies. (i. (Vai. dear. (Uită-te la asta. / I think I’ve found a solution. intonation is rising.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.e. / We are looking for a pixie. rather than did you say. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. whereas with explicatory echo questions.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.
she knows about it.4. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.
oameni aşezaţi. şerpoaica. şi apoi Vica ce zice. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. ca să zic aşa. Are gust de oameni blânzi.– Crezi tu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. şi care s-a aciuat. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. cu o casă de copii. Fenio.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. lui Stavre Păici. nu purta verighetă. să se încolăcească mai bine. în satul nostru. cumnată Fenia. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. acuma sporovăiala. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. pe Condrat de Vica. lui Chizlinski. stricata. după pofte. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. lui Luca Horobeţ. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . aşa. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. da. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. în general. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie.
Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Hogea. până la călcâie.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. abia târându-şi picioarele. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. sus. roşu şi galben. L-a scos din geamie. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. deci. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. sau cum o chema. De asta erai. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. dar cum se face că a 70 . de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii.
se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.
to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.
Coordinating Conjunctions 4.3.Coordination and Subordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 22.214.171.124.4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.6.Key Concepts .Contents: 74 4.
(S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. on the other hand.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. cu repros. reproachfully. Example (2). where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.e. where there is no indication other than a comma. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. that elements are coordinated. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. 75 . We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. present) in the sentence.Unit four Coordination 4.e. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. i.1 Syndetic vs.
led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Conversely. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. you will die. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. From the previously mentioned examples.) (4) If you hit my wife. 76 .2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.) Such examples. vei muri. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.Nadina VIŞAN 4.
The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. the second. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. However. but presupposed. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. we need to specify that. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . from a logical & semantic point of view. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. respectively subordinated constituents.
His clothes hung to him.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. Though the castle had vanished. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. He moved and made a slopping noise. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. with formal walks under rows of trees. but the 78 . with enormous solidity. took off his shoes and emptied them. In the second. Then he sat down. took off his coat and emptied them. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. the houses were beautiful and ancient. his shoes squished. adorned with cornices. John Steinbeck. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. built. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. In the first. of cut gray stone. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description.
curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. the higher he went the wetter it grew.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . and as the way is with Irish mountains. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. left the house. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone.
as shown in (9).K. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. As one can easily notice. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. yesterday and the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. we should be seriously annoyed.3 Sentence vs. (G. however distinguished. were to take down the name of every man. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.
John and Mary are ready. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 4.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Her pet kitten is black and white. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 8. / Joan plays many games. 9. 7. Our flag is red. plays football. 10. John and Mary are the newly married couple. yellow and blue. and even tennis.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. 6 John sang and Mary danced. / Peter and John played football. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. but not John. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 2.Unit four Coordination example (7). Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. our respective examinations. 5. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . John is ready and Mary is ready. and I passed. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 3. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. / Peter. Pratice Distinguish coordination. / John both composed the music and wrote the words.
John loves and Bill hates cigars. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. 6. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. 5. Jane 82 . b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. or deleted. Activity 4 2. as can be seen in (10b). *John poetry and Bill writes prose. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. 3.) b. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.) c.Nadina VIŞAN b. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.
Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.) The common element. than a longer repetitive one. i. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 10. can be reduced by substitution. the so-called Principle of Economy.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 8. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. the predication buy a pair of shoes. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. these syntactical processes. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. 83 . Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. Besides ellipsis. 7. 9.e. So. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.
S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. A citit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . Translate the following sentences. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. 4. In certain cases. 2. 4. George and Jane are separated. using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane went back to their parents. simple books and magazines for children 3. one or (the) other method. 3. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. some reason or another. the old men and women 2.
10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 8...… 14. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 8. sweet and sour. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.You gain some things and you lose others.. only for damage.. They get on quite well together. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. even though they have their little …………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. it’s a case of ………… 7. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. I need another 100$ ………. 2. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 7. 11. 5. like: salt and pepper. 6. the amount I’ve already saved up.. for my wallet. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 13. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. A pendulum swings ………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.. 16. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 12. Can we discuss the …………. of your proposals later on? 3. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. Marks and Spencers. After all their adventures.I searched ………. 5. fish and chips. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 6. . 15. they reached home……….
such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.) There are. 4. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. In fact.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. more often than not. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Nor sun. For instance. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. of course. b. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. the expressive function of coordination is. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. as in: (17) a. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.4. etc. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. and 86 .
or .) 87 . I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. and cherished her.g.) b. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. where the subordinator is repeated. sometimes but. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. 20 (b)).) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) c. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (I-am dat banii. both … and . etc). too): (20) a.) In certain cases. o respectau si o indrageau. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.
* I ironed and washed my pants. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. (Imi place si o admir. if we were to rewrite the example . I admire and like her. I like and admire her. (O admir si imi place.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. In this case.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.) b. and hit my wife. and you’ll die. I washed and ironed my pants. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . From this point of view.
) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. (If you do that. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. Brown experiments with humans. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. Dr. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.) (While Dr. he failed).Unit four Coordination 1.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. 97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.
If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.which are based on coordination . Unlike in the case of compound sentences . e. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. as the name suggests it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. 5. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. From the functional point of view.g. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.) 101 .
by an adjective + preposition.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. such as proud of. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. an adverbial item. in certain cases. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. sentences) required by the verb (or.) 102 . They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. they are still presupposed by the speaker. for example). For instance. (I-a dat cartea. we associate it with these objects. We do not presuppose however something like.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. for instance. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. In a way.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).
to add something. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. which is the adverbial willingly. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. Thus. In other words. 103 . has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. an additional one. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. related to example (4).) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects.) b. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The second example.e. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. I am afraid that he won’t come. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. i. A second observation. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. to her) and one extra-item.
I’ll die.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Înainte să plece din cameră. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. make.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele. So. like. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) 104 . The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. etc.) (11) If you don’t marry me. such as want. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. am să mor.
g. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. After I told her the story.g. The book that because they home. 6. Susan disappeared without saying a word. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Whoever did that was a genius. 4.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. this to whomever wants it. 5. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. she looked at me sadly. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 3. [.She came to him of her own will. 2. They came to e. e.
3. which.) 106 . The Romanian term is translated by object in English. but he declined. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. FOR. 2. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland.He took an intelligent interest in her. etc. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 4. 6. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. was a novelty to Mitzi. As you can see. You suggestion that we should. 5. at our age. though it was largely politeness. WHETHER. not object. stating their function: Activity 2 1.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.
) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) (16) a.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. why. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. 107 . (15) It is John who did it. Who did it was John. (E de dorit să plece. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. when.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. which.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. where. who.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. Where he went is London.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. etc. how.) b. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.
In (18). before. As you will see. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. Compare. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. In conclusion. etc. consider the following table.1. done from a structural point of view. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . if. however. Unlike complement clauses. for instance.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.) (18) She told me this before she left. which sums up this classification. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.
g.g. you understand. whether he will come when I feel like it. after. 109 . that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. as. etc. Dear Ludwig. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I will go there because I feel like it.: e. back. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I will come back such as because. for. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. surely you cannot sincerely believe. Introduced know e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. at your young age.
As she left the house. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . a tightening in her breathing.The day Monroe had died was in May. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. Too. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. But she thought that no one would call again. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. he said. she stopped to speak to Monroe. 2. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. Accidental Man) b)1. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Late that afternoon.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening.
since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. I told her everything after she arrived.g. As you have probably noticed already.g.g.g. However.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. interesting.2. That he loved e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. a correspondence can be traced. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. 111 .obligatory] ADJUNCTS. că e.g. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.
complements. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. (Cred că mă place. whenever you identify a wh. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.e. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.2. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. whereas wh complements are the 112 .1. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. Thirdly..Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Secondly. i. So. In the fourth place.complement. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. We will come back to that in the next chapter.
The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. Pratice Consider the following text. their introductory elements (e. and I do not know how things might stand between us. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. I first thought to tell in 113 . but no idea what to do with them. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. c) I am coming home one way or another. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce.g. because. a house. before. outbuildings. a barn. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. She mistrusted her handwriting. for no matter how she tried.
4. According to a structural criterion. it would make you fear to do such again. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). and I have not the will or the energy. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.e. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. because they modify. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . these clauses can be complements.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return.
Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. be very careful to use this term correctly. (…) “Mă. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. ce o fi având. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. după ce că are grâu puţin. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. 115 . Alţii. look at.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. îşi spuseseră că Anton. think of.g. answering the question to whom? So. etc. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. interested in. Nevasta secera în tăcere. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Pratice Translate the following. O zbughi înapoi.e. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. însă.
nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. timp de un ceas. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. izolate de sat. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. întâi. Toată lumea înţelesese că. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. cât de bolnavă era. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Nici acum. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. de fapt. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3.
deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. aşa de oţetit. rămâne totul baltă şi pace.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. la nişte prieteni comuni. Iată. Pace nu era. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. la Odobeşti. deşi cam târziu. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. de pildă. Era bine de ştiut. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. amânase scrisul. stricau totul. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. În realitate. acum sunt desluşiţi. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat.
întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar.
whose.g. etc). the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. subject relative clauses.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. of which. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc. 119 .
1.5. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 126.96.36.199.2. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.3.6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Key Concepts . Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.
b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.Unit six Relative clauses 6. 121 . We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The Co-reference Condition .) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.2.1. 6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.
Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. 122 . we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. John loves that woman. By combining these two clauses. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.
But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. 123 . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . The common element woman is present. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. This way. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. John offered flowers to that woman. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause.
John told his friend a story about the king. I had a book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. 6. He liked that book. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. She came to London. 7. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 8. I lost the book’s cover. Any of the students would answer to questions. therefore in spoken English. The king was just passing by. WHERE 3. 4. I love my husband very much. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. He told Jim everything about his plans. None of the students agreed with them. by leaving behind a trace. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. too. I introduced him to Jim. 2. I went to London. The students like their teacher. WHICH 4. The students like their teacher. 10. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. WHO 124 . Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. frequently used in written language. 5. WHO 5. They met those students. I bought Jim a book. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. 9. This is my husband. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 3. Susan wants to meet Jane. He’s the author who received the prize.
i. . dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.e. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. TO 11. relative clauses are divided into 1. (Cine strică plateşte. 2.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. WHOM 6.Unit six Relative clauses 6. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. most of them were from England. WHOSE 7. WHOM 10.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHICH 8.
) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. is no longer overtly expressed.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) So. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. it is covert. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. Unlike their sisters. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . these relatives cannot function as attributes. unlike in the case of (14).e. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. in a manner of speaking. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.
They only provide supplementary information about it. (Du-te unde pofteşti. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. care este zeul negoţului.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. este zeul meu favorit. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. who incidentally is the god of commerce. (Mercur. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. is my favourite god. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. they define it).) (22) Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. 127 . They can be thus divided into: 1. who is the god of commerce.
is a genius. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. is a great playwright. i. on whom nobody could depend. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man.e. Independent I don’t know what you want. As we were saying.This is the village where I spent my youth. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. 2. 6. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. then it is an attribute. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. On the day on which this occurred I was away. 10. 5. Shakespeare.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. restrictive relative clauses. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 8. who is a genius. They are what 128 . 7. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 9. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. I have met him where I least expected. She. who came to see me. this type of relative clauses.
) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.) 2.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. a. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. When the antecedent has no determiner. etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. . etc. care a murit acum câţiva ani. 6. however sad this may be. composed The (Freddie Mercury. who died a few years ago.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.
(Eu. Mie. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. who neither work nor am anxious. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. ill-tempered. iritabilă şi uscată. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 4.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.) Pratice Translate the following. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. (Ei apeleaza la mine. 2. Dintre toate personajele prezente. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. who am your son.) (28) They come to me. numai eu nu. dried-up old maid. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. can see your shortcomings only too well. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 5. care-ţi sunt fiu. but a peevish. 7. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. bătrînă morocănoasă. care nu sunt o femeie. poftiţi în faţă.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. 130 . 3. 6. ci o fată a woman.
) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. erau acum în posesia lui.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. . şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.Unit six Relative clauses 6. than whom few more can be more crashing. (32) service finished late.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. were now in his possession. heard. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. părăsi camera. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.
1. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.) b. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The genitive form with which is still in use. but it is typical of the formal. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. 6. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. literary style: (37) a.) b. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. too. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. as can be seen in (36d). The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) c. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .) d.5.
An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.
(Nu mai este omul care era odată. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. (45) (46) . This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. by the way.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. ships (that can be personified) a.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.) • states.) b. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. … Italy.) b. but to a type or a function: a. animals. of which. He is not the man which he used to be. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.
2 Relative Adverbs: when. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) 135 (47) .) b) dialectal (49) a. why. pe care o privea direct. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. whom it concerned most closely. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. while. etc. etc. It is poor what gets the punches. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.) b. reason.5. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. where. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. Poland is the place where Christine was born.Unit six Relative clauses b. time. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. how. France. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. (Nu ştiam ce vor.) 6. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.
) e. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) When they introduce free relative clauses. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.3.) b. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) 136 . Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. He went where he had been before.5. no antecedents are required: (52) a.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) b. They returned to the land whence they had come. This is the place wherefrom they came.) c. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.They left when they decided it was proper to.) 6.
the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. Moreover.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .
much. any. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. 138 (64) his shoes. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.5. Honest man as he was. but • in standard language a.) b.4. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. but they are used very infrequently: as. .Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. not any.
This is the same one that/as you had before.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. There’s not many as’ll say that.) • in dialect a. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. . Uncle George. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. ăl de fusese in China…) b. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. It’s the dry weather does it. him as was in China … (Uncle George. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) c. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.) c. And always on the buttered side.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.
For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) 140 .) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.
What I’m saying is. makes me a wart and a wen. Where he was from. 6. The man John spoke to is a genius.3): (72) a. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.5. we all have to come to some terms. The man who John spoke to is a genius. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 2.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. That which shows God out of me.” 4. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. fortifies me.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. b.) c. 7. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.) b. What Inman remembered was this passage. 3. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. This is where we talk money. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 5. It seemed a thing 141 .
Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. 9. who had not witnessed many dawns. Whatever his fate was. The rudeness of eating. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 11. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 8. which is a lot. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 10. (…) Partly. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 142 . of living. 13.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. though. 12. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. he had left Ruby high and dry. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. Oh. Ruby said. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good.
purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. fiu natural al unui morar. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. plutonier. divortata. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. un var primar. Cumnatul meu avea. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. cumnatul unui portughez. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. vasnic. pe linie paterna. (Iris Murdoch. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. nu prea sarac. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . pirpiriu. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carei strabunic. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. una din nepoatele unui inginer.al lui. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. mort de tanar. poate. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started.
b. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. 144 . This is the book. The opposite phenomenon.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. insurat de trei ori la rand. Teatru) 6. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.6. I lost the cover of the book. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. By extension. c.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. She was a woman. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. Everybody listened to that woman. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5.2.
Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. no easy answers to which could be offered. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. he requested that the public be excluded. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The difference between (76) and (77). 6. 7. 8. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. In the interest of public decency. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. 5. 3. 2. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 4. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 9. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. acting again as a genuine pied piper.Unit six Relative clauses b. has been troubling them forever. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The problem of safe transportation. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover.
knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. has been deleted. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. whose interest he most sincerely shared. Irene. 10. 6.His father’s friends. 2. 5. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 3. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. His friends. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). no matter which. 4. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. he rarely saw now.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Activity 9 were now all gone. 146 . They do not function as attributes. as the case is). The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. was now complete. This story.
Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. sunt vrednic de invidiat. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Toate sfârşeau. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 7. Nelu. 3. 2. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. De douazeci de ani. 6.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. himeric. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. 4. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. închipuirea. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Pentru alţii. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 5.
Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. nici în searbăda mea versiune. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. 8. 9. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. 10. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. cu surle şi cu tobe. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. a făcut el. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 12. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.
Dacă mă lovea. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 149 . căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. fie la teatru. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 16. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. despre care. 20. fie pe stradă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. 17. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. din direcţia căreia apoi. pe strada Icoanei. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. din care cauză pe Dora. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. deşi atât de aproape. de unde venea şi Marta. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Avea acum un fel de vertij. până mai adineauri. 14. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. toată lumea întreba cine e. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. care era foarte “mondenă”. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 18. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. dinspre Maria Rosetti. roiuri de fetiţe. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. apărură. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. trăia larg de tot. zise ea cu ochii mari. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. În spatele lor. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 15.
Nadina VIŞAN 21. 22. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. până în şosea. de sus de unde eram. Pentru mine însă. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. pe care ea îi admira acum. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. 23. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. Pare-se că snobii. 24. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. după ce maşina a fost reparată. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. pe care eu nu-l aveam. când au urcat râpa iar. de mine. aveau un stil al lor. întâia noapte de război) 150 . (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene.
by stating their syntactic function. 151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.
Topicalization 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 188.8.131.52. That Complements as Direct Objects 184.108.40.206.2.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.2.7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 220.127.116.11.Clause Shift 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2.Extraposition 7.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.2. That Deletion 18.104.22.168.4.5. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.5. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.1. That Complements as Subjects 22.214.171.124. Key Concepts . The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.1.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3.
(2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. Apart from those introduced by that.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. 153 . (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. In other words.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. (3) Tell me if you need anything. 7. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. but also of infinitival ones.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. the clause is extraposed. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. placed in a marginal position.
) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .
3. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 10. 10. 3. 11. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 2. 6. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 2. 8. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It appears that no one voted for him. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 13.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 4. 8. 9. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 4. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 5. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 11. 6. 7. It is nice to meet you. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 7. It is no use trying to convince her. 14.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 9. 15.
Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. unde se nimerea. atât 156 . în canal. 2. I guess it that he will come back. 4.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 3. 6. 2. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 4. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 5. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. în gropi. 18. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. zice Lionel. They never expected it that he would come back. 3. mă ascundeam în grabă. după porţi. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. sub poduri. 3. 5.
răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. cu ceea ce ţi se dă.” 4. 6. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. 157 . Spunând cele ce-am spus. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. (Nu întotdeauna. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. excelentă. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. fără îndoială. vor căuta să o zdruncine. fără să cârteşti. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. 5.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. 7. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi.
) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Consequently. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.1. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.) While in the case of extraposition. 1. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. this asymmetry is undone.2. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. subject clauses are the frequent situation.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. in the case of topicalization. Pratice Read the following.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.
even today. 2. 5. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. was inconceivable. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 3. She had always been the slave of chance. 8. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. He was utterly gone. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 4. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. mere chance would decide. whether it would finally carry her off. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. he felt no spring of interest in her. 7. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 6. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. This was another era. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. but not now. He did not blame Gracie. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina.
) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.3. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.
(17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. 161 . by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. the verb to drive). we obtain. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.e.
8. prime-minister./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa. 3.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 162 .They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 7. who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 4.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 5. 6. 2.
) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.2.Unit seven That complements 7. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.
) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. etc. desire. promise.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.) 164 . etc. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. He announced their engagement.Nadina VIŞAN 7. consider.1. (I-au promis o casă nouă. They believe the man is guilty. deny. They promised him that he would received a new house.) a.) b.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.2.: (25) a. predict. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. explain. prefer. (Cred că omul este vinovat. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. afirm. deem. judge. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. state.) b. He announced that they were engaged. estimate. communicate. suggest. They believe that the man is guilty.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
… now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.e. on condition that. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) language.) 172 . cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) I like him in that he is smart. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. they lose their meaning. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. for example. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. hope =>purpose. ibid. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. In older stages of English.
His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) b. He gave an answer such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) (66) 173 a. să o vadă trecând. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. . He gave such an answer as had expected. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. That can be deleted.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. that we wouldn’t doubt it. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) When the structure contains the word such.
) b. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. ibid. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) 174 . (Iris Murdoch. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. He gave an answer such that I had expected.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. (Iris Murdoch. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.
say.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) b. that he uses a relaxed tone. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. He said he had borrowed her money.) c.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. He showed he was able to do it.3. 175 .3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. (A prins de veste că ei vin. tell). for instance. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (69) a. He got word they were coming. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.Unit seven That complements 7. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.
In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.3. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. rele. *I like it he was here. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . they were chained to each other forever. I like it that he was here.) (De asemenea.) b.2. for better or worse. because that has been deleted. ibid. bune.Nadina VIŞAN 7. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.3. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.3.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse. 7. (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.
4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 7. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 7) They maintain.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.) 177 . thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. (“Este acolo”.) b)He told me that she was there. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. he said. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. simultaneity. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. which is ungrammatical in English. you want me to believe. spuse el. that they were not too late to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo.
) Future Perfect -----.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. He told me that she had been there. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. o să vină el. spuse el. până pleacă ea. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) b. vine el. (Pâna să plece. I will leave her. He said he would leave her. In the example below. he said. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. “She was here”.) b. The Present complement). (“Era acolo”. (Am să o părăsesc. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (A spus că.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) b. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.
forget. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. whisper. dream. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. show. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) 179 . (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. hope. realize it). report. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. believe.etc. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. regret. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. discover. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. be amazed/concerned. be aware. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. say. notice.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. With such factive verbs as realize.) On the other hand.) b. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. wish. insist. etc. think. mention.
He knew that she thought all men were fools. She realized that all men are fools. Consider also: (85) a. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. feign habits which are not their own. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. She still believed that the earth was flat. in tender deference to each other.) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Iris Murdoch. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. we notice that general truths. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She believed that the earth is round. 180 .) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) b. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.
Unit seven That complements 2. such as a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. There are however cases. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.) In (88).) b. Peter said that John will leave at 5. 181 . (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. 3. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.
c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Imagine. g) John thought that Harry ran. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. for instance. The time is 3 o’clock. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. But 182 . d) John said that Harry was leaving.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) John said that Harry is leaving. f) John said that Harry would leave. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.
She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a. Crows will relish what presents itself. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. bluebird. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. whistling swan. nighthawk. b. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lack of pridefulness. jaybird. She admired their keenness of wit. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Translate the following. love of practical jokes. Cooper’s hawk.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. redtailed hawk. quail. lark. kingfisher. c. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. 183 . geese both grey and white. slyness in a fight. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she should bake a pie.
in the very act of expiring. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. He had fought hard through the war. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Now here he stood jailed. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But as the battle raged around them. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. […] During the latter stages of the tale. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. the young officer. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. he claimed. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. He died erect. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. war hero though he was. And they might just hang him. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.
That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. or else. on other occasions it has to stay there. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. from the very frequent subject. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). On certain occasions that can be deleted.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb.Unit seven That complements 7. which they share with wh-complements. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). 185 . object ones up to the attributive function.
Fiind 186 . a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Mama. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. peste puţin. 2. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Unul din ei. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. neconvenabil şi primejdios.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 4. cel mai mare. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui.
7.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. cel puţin pentru un timp. Se mira. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. de ce constata în sine. 8. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. aşa. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. venind de la avocat. luminos şi apropiat şi când. care îl pândise. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. 6. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. va pleca din oraş la vie. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. dacă va mai veni. fericit. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. un vis de acesta 187 . Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Nu ţi-a trecut. ea. 9. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. 5. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise.
urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. 12. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. şi mândria că a biruit. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. încă o dată. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Acesta. 11. fireşte. lucrul era înfăptuit. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. liniştit. Astfel de va fi. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . dar şi teama că.
14. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Pe toate. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. după cum. mai puternic decât oricând. fără o vorbă scrisă. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. ci numai aşa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să le lămurească pe toate. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. spre Jurubiţa.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
8.4.2.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.7.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.8.Key Concepts .6.1.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.5.9.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.3.
That you love her is something wonderful.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.) b. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (2) a. I told her to be more careful in the future. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. From this perspective. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.) b. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).1. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). Consider the following: • like that complements. 193 . infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) • like that complements. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. It is important for you to know what you need. (3) a. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important that you should know what you need. To love her is something really wonderful.
(Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. 2. the Gerund. etc.) b. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. For instance. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. d. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. as opposed to the finite ones. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Participle) (i. participial clauses. the Conditional. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart.e. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. 194 . moduri nepersonale) By convention.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. gerundial clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a.
(Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) c. namely no ending. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.) 195 . the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.
according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 9. (7) They saw her leave. 5.2. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 10. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 3. 7. 8. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . It is vital this factory to be reopened. 6. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. the criterion of form.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 2. 8. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 4.
2. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. hear. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (10) 197 . (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.
(Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. . / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. Pratice Translate the following. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. uncharacteristic for literary English.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. 198 (11) the universe. However. 3. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.
since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. or the control constructions. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. 199 . as I have already mentioned. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. In other words. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. Further on. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. to use the appropriate technical term.
(A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. It is important for him not to err. şi creştineşte să ierţi. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. namely the agent of the event.) In this situation. I hoped for him to be there in time. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. PRO to err is human. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. PRO to forgive divine.) b. (E important ca el să nu greşească. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.) 200 . the logical subject. So far.
The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . him is related to the main clause verb. but the patient of the verb persuade. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. not to the infinitive. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. him is not the agent of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. He stepped aside for her to enter.) b.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (Cred că este un lingvist competent. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.
(Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ 202 . This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. I hate animals to be tortured.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ She promised him to leave. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. Likewise. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ I would love them to come. \ They convinced her to come back. \ She wanted him to leave. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ He persuaded her to come. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ I allowed them to come.
) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. • Last but not least. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. \ They really asked her to come back. So. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. \ They did not wish her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.) He seems to be a good linguist. 203 . it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) In examples (25) and (26). and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.
/ Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. Pratice Translate the following sentences./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. appear. that is not required by certain verbs. which are said to be free. To sum up the discussion. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. hate. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. 204 . / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her.). with special semantic and syntactic properties. seem. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. to meet her. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. etc. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă.
contrive.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. seek (= try). presume. deign. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. wish. scorn. omit. prefer. expect. hate. 8. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. dislike. propose. intend. endeavour. venture.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. arrange.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.) b) verbs such as abide./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. scheme. etc. deserve. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. try. manage. afford. care to. etc. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.3 The Distribution of PRO . condescend. / E greu să îl suporţi. like. . desire. want. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. decline. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. agree to.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.) 205 friend. Compare: (31) a. etc. refuse. need. bear. hope.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. aspire to. fail. mean.
claim.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. endeavour.) b. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. conclude.) 206 . possible.) b. etc. stand. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. threaten.Nadina VIŞAN b. I hate that you should say a thing like this. desirable. verbs of liking and disliking. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) 8. forget.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. suggest. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. be important. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. For all of them to have been killed is. unlikely. ask. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. I would like for him to become president of the country. bear. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. however. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.etc.) b. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.
The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) 8. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) b. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) 2. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 207 . The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.
) 208 knowledge. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.) b.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. .Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. but the meaning remains. I decided for John to represent us. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 4. the preposition is deleted.) 5. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Like in the case of that complements. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Direct Objects (39) a. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.
(Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) d. delicious. He is a bastard to work for. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. The stew is delicious to eat.) c.: (42) a.) c) adverbial of result 209 . She is pretty to look at. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. 6.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. This paint is like concrete to work with.) e. You’re an idiot to go there.) b. etc. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. curious about.
Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. să nu piardă trenul. drept să spun.) I’ve never met him. you’re a bad driver. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. final or introductory infinitive In this case. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. to tell you the truth. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 .) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / Pe şleau. (final) (Nu-l cunosc./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. conduci prost.) Oh. / Ehei.
(I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) b. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. etc.) . / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. oblige. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. According to this. 8.etc. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. need. nu mai vreau să te vad. influence. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. promise.: (51) a. encourage. b.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. enable.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. inspire. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. induce. (49) a. direct. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. inform. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. urge. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. press. swear.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.
order.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.etc. prevail on. choose.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. permit. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. depend on. command. look to. nominate. etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. name. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. etc. vote.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. count on. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. elect. allow./ And now he 212 .
etc.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. be about to.: (55) She appears to like him. this construction is lexically governed.e.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (56) She grew to like him in the end. i. (Iris Murdoch. (Se pare că îi place de el. happen.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. be going to. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. 213 (58) (59) .) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. seem. grow. (57) He is to come any day now.verbs: appear. etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.etc. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). come.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. An Accidental Man) 8.
(L-au auzit insultând-o. etc. be thought. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be alleged. watch. perceive. feel. be reported. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be considered.: (62) They heard him insult her. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. etc. In (57). be rumoured.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. . is well supported by the syntactical analysis. hear.etc.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. observe.) 8. be claimed. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. that of intention. overhear.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.
recollect. etc. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. understand.) • with a full infinitive: get. picture. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. (Cred că este un geniu. believe. have.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. know.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. presume.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. cause. imagine. deem. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. discover. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.) 215 (67) . (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. consider. prove. occasion. find.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. However. judge. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. remember. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. figure.
mean. if he himself was out of spirits. prefer.etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. order. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. want. who wasn’t used to men with moods. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. Harold.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. they had depressed and fuddled him.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. command. choose. wish. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. expect.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. etc. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. desire. love. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. permit. suffer.
b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. A little crossly. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .P. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. though he tended to look down on those below it. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. so that we might get to the future and have done. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. he didn’t envy those above it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. Both seemed to him a little unreal. the herd instinct was very strong in him.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. to make sure we attended strictly to business. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. (L. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. He suspected hostility at once.
we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. 218 . is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view.Nadina VIŞAN 8. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The last criterion. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. From this perspective.
(Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. e important ce întrebări pui. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. fireşte. dar să nu-ţi spună.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. într-o zi. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. e) Când doi oameni. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. un bărbat şi o femeie. lovit şi umilit. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. bunăoară. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. E posibil. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. de bună seamă. mai bine219 . să-l capete. Şi tu să fii. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. de asemenea. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă.
De era vară.Nadina VIŞAN zis. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. sau. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. aşa cum îi apăruse el. d-a lungul gâtului. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns.Şt. în jos. Însă Paul Achim trăise. că eşti tânăr. pe care deja o uitase. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. să nu vrea să se şteargă. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. încă. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. avusese dreptate. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.Delavrancea. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. (B. în ploaie.Şt. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. mai pline de înţeles. în parte. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. în parte. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. Să spui de pildă. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. . 220 . cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. un picior. mai bine de două decenii. să traiesc numai cu tusea.
vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. fie ea şi grăbită. şi nu un amant. deşi. Într-un cuvânt. o mizerie.. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ei.. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. (Al.. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. de fapt. orice-ar fi. şi prin faţă. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. un miros îngrozitor. biata Muti. sunt aici cu tot ce am. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. prin faţă e coborârea.. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. orice bucureştean ştie. nici ca să 221 . Mă laud singură. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.
niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. parcă la întâmplare. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate.
verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.
Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Verbal Noun 126.96.36.199.2.The Gerund 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 188.8.131.52 Key Concepts .184.108.40.206.2.2.3.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2.Participial Constructions 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.
The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.) 225 . we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Due to this situation.1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1.
(Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. it functions attributively. Susan has been killed. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.e. 226 . i.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.) More infrequently. blood-shot and painted. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. were closing. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track).) As you can see in this second case. Susan has come. (A venit Susan) b. been and killed are past participle forms. too: (6) Her eye-lids. In (2) the forms come. the past participle can appear after a noun. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.
începură să cânte. (Ştiind cine era el.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. people should pay attention to high notes. ea o luă la fugă. Weather permitting. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. (Sosind aici. o să ajung la timp. Oh. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) 227 . When singing. mother permitting. I will arrive there on time.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. If provoked. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. o să ajung la timp.) c. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. he will eventually marry her. Arriving here.) d.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. God willing. I will arrive there on time.) c. a lion can attack. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. they started singing. Knowing who the guy was. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) b. leul poate să atace.) b. she ran away.
(L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found killed by a bullet. respectively.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Am simţit-o tremurând. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) 228 .Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. hear. (L-am descoperit furând. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. He was found stealing. I found him stealing. smell. They found him killed by a bullet. behold. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. watch. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) ii. which stands for an adverbial clause.) b. notice.) b. (L-au descoperit că fură.
(L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. confess.: a.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. find.) • Causative verbs: get.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. set. make a. I heard it said that men are a bore. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. have. know.) c.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . have. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. a. hear. He’ll soon get things going. she knew herself dismissed. send.) • Causative verbs: get . recollect.: When she heard his words. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (A fost văzut plângând. etc. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) b. I must get my hair cut. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.) b. etc. keep. leave. etc. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. recollect.) b. feel. etc. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. start.
) b. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) • verbs of permission. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. lovit şi plin de sânge.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . / Nu după multă vreme. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. command I ordered my bill made out. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. Men like shopping made easy.
you gave instructions to have your wife watched. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever.e. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.2. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / Dinny. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. 231 . The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / My Lord. with its lips drawn back. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Unlike the gerund. sitting taut between her father and her sister. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.1. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / In any case. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.
5. the rain will stop. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. The tree had fallen across the road. 2. am plecat. 4. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 3. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. se va opri şi ploaia. I have looked through the fashion magazine.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 7. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. She had heard it all before. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I left. using either a present participle. I turned on the light.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. People were sleeping in the next room. I left.She didn’t want to hear the story again.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. (Văzând acestea. I was astonished at what I saw. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (Desi nu ştia limba. 6. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . It had been uprooted by the gale. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. am plecat.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.
lion. my hands often get very cold. coloured. a rug caught her foot and she fell. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. hearted (twice). broad. three. stony. open.Running into the room. Barking furiously. 12. 5. mown. 9. shaven. stricken. They found the treasure. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. b) Headed (5 times). minded (3 times). Climbing down the tree. red (twice). 233 . 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. straight. bald. dark. 10. drunken. a pot of paint fell on my head. Tied to the post. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 4. Getting out of bed.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 10. He sat down to his own dinner. Mother punished me for my mistake. eagle. wooden. 8. a scorpion bit him. his horse fell at the last jump. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 7. 8. He fed the dog. Read the sentences and try to correct them. roast. empty. Riding in the first race. Dropped by parachute. lighted. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. 3.shoulder. 11. handed. quick. open. cloth. Reading in bed. sharp. haired (twice). skinned. many. an idea suddenly occurred to me. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 2. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. fishy. 6. cornered. narrow. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Leaving the cinema. one of the eggs broke. Passing under a ladder. I let the dog out of the room. They began quarreling about how to divide it. covered. 9. eyed (3 times). I slammed the door of my room.
eyes. meaning. Translate into English: 1. 7. lead. ill-gotten._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. plank. _______ my arm. ________ hiding in a barn. lamb. / Three people. In the following pairs of sentences.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. meat. b) grass. rotten. _______ for their elegance and precision.I fell on the ice. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 .Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. shorn. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. were taken to hospital. _______ for a bargain. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. are in grave danger of extinction. man. is expected to be a great hit. stream. deer. (hunt). Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (find) 6. wealth.Spielberg. _______ by S. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. (take) 2. duty. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. are sold throughout the world. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. candle. The escaped prisoner. was today taken back to prison. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. (produce) 3. The film. (grow) 4. I stared at the canvas for ages. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Whales. head. hidden. image. graven. the same verb is missing twice. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. shrunken. (injure)./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Swiss watches. (admire) 5. bounden. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. / Many old people .
şi moi. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. După câtva timp. când strânsă. le cocea. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. O umbreluţă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. nesigur şi moale. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. ca şi cum. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. deodată sufocat. trezit. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. precum şi foile de plăcintă. care le rânduia. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. Şi sufletul său. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. 2. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. 3. păsări tăiate. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. 4. când deschisă. întinse. Şi. legume date prin mai multe ape. le fierbea.
Likewise. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.2. crezi.1. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. According to this criterion. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. (Dacă vezi. The Gerund 9. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.2. 236 .Nadina VIŞAN 9.
just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.2. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. His winning and your losing were both surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.2.) 9. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. In that.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. That he won and you lost was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. gerunds differ from participles. Him winning and you losing was surprising. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) b.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.) b. Consider the following table.
which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised.) 2. *It was illegal growing a beard.) b. It was illegal to grow a beard. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. as being verbal 238 . (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. Consider (32). (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) Unlike participles. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.
2. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.3. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. Just like in the case of noun phrases. It’s no good talking to her. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. as offered in the table below: 239 . He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) b. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) b. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Participles vs. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) 9. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.) 3.
as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. 3. + noun] 1. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. babies suck their thumb. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. (adverbial of time) 4. 2. perfect. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participles may function adverbials: house. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . forms: continuous . Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. passive ones She was crying. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home.
/ Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou.
4. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 8. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 9. 5. shooting gallery / shooting star. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 13. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 3. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 12. swimming duck / swimming trunks. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He was spotted talking to her. 14. 11. 10. 15. 242 . 2. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 6.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 12. eating habits/ eating people. crying game / crying woman. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 7. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong.
) The absence of a determiner like the. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e.Unit nine Ing complements 9. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .3. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. a The absence of an of phrase. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. but the presence of a direct object (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.
if we were to go back to our incomplete table. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. Thus. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. In the second situation. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. How can we tell? In the first case. These are features that normally characterize any noun.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. George’s shooting the attacker.
Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. very large./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / His coming there puzzled her. 245 . / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. Jim left quietly. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town.
whenever we meet an –ing form. Look. With the infinitive. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. For instance. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).Nadina VIŞAN 9. the meaning is different. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. It has been noticed that. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. for example. However. ING Forms and Infinitives.4. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.
g. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). (S-a oprit din mâncat.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen.) The first example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.) After looking at this example. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.) . we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. and the most well-known one. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. containing an infinitive. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. having left) is infrequently used in English. anterior to the verb in the main clause. On the other hand.
which means that they are similar in meaning. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. i.) . recollect. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.e.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.) As you can see.e. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).
apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. but that’s it.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. dar asta este. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) . In the second example. the action is not completed.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.
s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) wedding. want With [+ human] objects. The house needs to be repaired.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. the event has not happened yet. The house needs repairing.) 250 . (Casa trebuie reparată.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată. In the second example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.) b. mean has the sense signify.) With [. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. e) need.
but they went by too quickly.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. my Lord. it’s overrated.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ ‘Tell me. (take) down her answer. whereas in the second case. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. my Lord.’ ‘In any case.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. I did ask Mr. however appearances were against us. Lady Corven. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. gerund or infinitive. Croom (try) (follow) one. (hold) up his pen and (speak). what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.
d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. suddenly.’ said Clare.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ 252 . and went out (post) it himself. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. licked the envelope with passion. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. he addressed the note. I must go back now. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. I just used the word and they fell. Then.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.
identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.5. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. the 253 . Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Pratice In the following texts. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Last but not least.
their edges crashing inwards. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. moving up towards his chest. slowly rising in a swirling motion. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. It was like a mist. Then he saw movement at his feet. He looked up towards the daylight. down into God knows where. it 254 . She started coughing. At first. The sight of the two children. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. then the noise and the cracking stone. someone looking for survivors.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. hoping he would see somebody up there. covering the girl’s head. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. down. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. according to the books he read. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. The two sides were moving apart. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. but then he saw it billowing up from below. the enormous split in the earth.
Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. and sunlight. brightening to winter brilliance. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. slanted on to her cheek. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. my dear. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. 255 . She finished what jobs there were. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count.
într-o joi. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. 2. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. and then went riding with her in the rain. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. închizând ochii. ucenicul său necredincios. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. totul se animă deodată. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Ridicându-se. mama mea. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. cei doi Mamona. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. În urma slugii. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Vaucher şi cu mine. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 .
despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. privit.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. dar ştiutoare. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. afară ploua în continuare. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. totul mi se părea cunoscut. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. auzit şi zadarnic. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. o sărută pe frunte. am ştiut şi cine. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Şi deodată. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. după cum îi spusese mama. aplecându-se puţin. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. la mine. pe mama mea părând absentă. 3. se duse lânga mama şi. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. pe Vaucher. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. Neclintiţi.
De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. cu tot cu baraca. dar. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu soba. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . să se apropie de aşezările din jur. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. Au coborât din camion încet. camionul a plecat. 5. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă.
Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
and meet it right here at home. 9. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 10. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. to retire early from my employment. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. I am sorry not to have seen you. 12. he had not yet been able to estimate. 5. apart from his distress for parents. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. in some way. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. Having regard to the date of drafting. How this time was to come. 7. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 2. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. and that 263 . and this particularly of late. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. How much. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 3. was unclear to Mitzi. because of pity. whereas if she went away she would get none. 4. You have been much in my thoughts. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. without profound questioning.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 11. 13. 6. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. since I have decided. he had been advised. this would really hurt.
please consider his proposition. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. one of the eggs broke. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. looking forward had not yet taken place. this always makes us feel embarrassed. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / In the end.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / Before you go on changing the subject. / Whenever I visited my aunt. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. he did not come to see her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. even for months. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. 17. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 264 . No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. for attending his sister’s wedding. 19. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. I was made say Grace before every dinner. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. 14. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much.
of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. without discovery. her recklessness. centered in London and themselves. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. quite unexpectedly. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. of the quick and wiry. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. (and there he was. She felt as when. a little girl. she said. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. of all people. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. Vulgar men did. cotton mills at Manchester. Clarissa used to think. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . She felt herself much older by nature and experience. rather than the hefty type. an open-air person. They rushed into shops. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. Essentially. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. and it was bound. They hated trying on. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. her old friend Hugh. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Tony was a child. 265 . Though much in request before her marriage. Instead of which she had married. it was said.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. At country houses she had met them of course. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. to end in some awful tragedy. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring.
Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Bolnava nu se simtea.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. cre s-au nascut lent.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. aveam tot mai 266 . but lying in her bath. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. The closer she allowed him to come to her. the more she would be torturing him. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. era un bun sfatuitor. nu puteam sa le uit. she was uneasy. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Reading many novels.Rindurile dvs. with all its impatience of restraint. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. short of the contacts of love. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Cind l-a chemat. De uitat. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. (John Galsworthy . to keep abreast of the current. indeed. she professed. ii faceau bine. astfel. si in plus.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. nu a facut-o pentru asta.Over the River) 2. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground.
lungimea picioarelor. nu pricep nimic. Ce a iesit. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Banulescu – ibid. cit mai au de trait. Banulescu – ibid. Daca tu. Banulescu – ibid.) 5. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 6. Banulescu – ibid. are nevoie. poate fi compensata. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. o data sau de doua ori. ca si tine. Milionarule. Personal. latimea si ascutisul labei. se stie. pe scaunul lui tare. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.) 267 . fa-o. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. (St. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. (St.) 7. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. (St. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. (St. mi-am zis.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. vaazut cindva.
to Emmanuel College. Arthur Atkinson M. Translate them. 2. for being a renegade. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. my grandfather. And had a brother killed in the same battle. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Cambridge.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who told me. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who when asked about his memories of the War..) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. when I was even younger than you. (. Could he be blamed. a wounded soldier. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Who came home from the war.P. delivered from the holocaust. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . A story-book romance. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Who was may father. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man.
4. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. a moody man. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. and because – but this is mere speculation. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). daughter of an ill-paid journalist. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. Rachel Williams. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. How 269 . He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. he had already engaged himself? 3. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. to whom. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. deep-set. Fabianism.
ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. satul. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. 270 . Ion. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum au tăcut ei. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. la şcoală. om mare. cu taina aceasta. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a trăit el. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum a ajuns el. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion.
când voi fi singur. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. greşeli dintr-astea.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. singurul lui stăpân. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cu sau fără voie. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. din franţuzeşte. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi.pune totul in discuţie. Când actriţa. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. de mama lor. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. 271 . L-au derivat cei din teatru. împotriva tuturor.
dam buzna peste automobile. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. sau ridicole. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 4. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. de pildă. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. 6. ci un sistem de acomodare. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. provocându-le. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. privindu-mă în ochi.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. 272 . e îndrăgostită de un actor. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. tânăr şi frumos şi el. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. traversând. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. uneori şi astăzi chiar. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Tot aşa. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. 3. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. nevasta-mea. A devenit palid. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. 5. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Am început. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. parcă începusem s-o uit. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. continuând. Într-o vreme. pe jumătate prezent. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare.
căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Aş vrea să mă las jos. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. E o problemă. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. De altminteri. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. fireşte. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. să merg întins. şi dacă merg întins. iar. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. orice s-ar întâmpla. că nu m-am gândit la asta. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. 9. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. fără să mă opresc o clipă. 8. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. 11. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. Dacă nemţii înaintau. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Am început. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. ca un acrobat. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. şi să nu ameţesc. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie.
Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. la carti. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. dar nu se mai putea. Acum isi ferea privirea. de uimire. parca i-ar fi fost frica. la fata locului. de la lucruri personale. La un moment dat. Ii venea greu. Uite.. 15.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. eu am venit sa va intreb. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. de la obiecte de pret. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Ilie nu-l asculta. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Greu era din partea asta. 274 . Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. la amintiri. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. se uita in jos. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. de la proces. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. nu trebuie sa va suparati. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Adica tot trecutul. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. cu mirare. Auzindu-l. 13. 16. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. trebuia sa le spuna. nu mai pricepu nimic. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. nu mai semana. In curind. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent.Ma. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 17. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint.. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. 14.
raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. se indeparta nepasator. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. 20. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Zimbea siret. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. dar. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». i se paru ca aici e ceva. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. vorbe asa si-asa. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. asa cum facuse pina acum. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. 19. apoi se uitau la Ilie.Unit ten Revision exercises 18.Ce sa fac. There was even 275 . apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. which was part of his rich outfit. . Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Nu era nevoie. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. cum zicea Anghel. Aici era ceva. fara sa-si dea seama de ce.
’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. at least. 5. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. to move fast. on this occasion. But Daisy. gave an exclamation. She was one 276 . quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. 3. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. resuming her walk. He felt then. to take his way home on foot. a simplification. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. He walked a long time.Miller at her hotel. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. the young lady. for the instant. 4. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2.Nadina VIŞAN relief. paying no attention. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. conversationally. going astray. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. to admit that she was a proud. rude woman. asked for Mrs.
She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. as it were. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. Advising with me. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. as text book.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms.Walker. She rustled forward. 8. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. uncomfortably. 7. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. of studying European society. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. often. while residing abroad. He left me musing. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. making Paul stop and look at her. smiling and chattering. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. make a point. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. indeed. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. Her daughter. on the other hand. 6. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. She appeared. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. as to projected changes. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . in their own phrase. in radiant loveliness. and wondering what the deuce he meant. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence.
it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. 10. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. with his humorous density. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. or at any rate not heeding. and perceived that it must be something important. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. and acute too. while Paul. and. 11. which was deliberate. 9. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. H. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. could see he was remarkable. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. wondered what they were talking about. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. was only half satisfied with this. not seeing. H. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. H.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. though E.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face.’ 278 . was immensely struck with him.
and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. that the haunting wonder which now. H. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. But she gave him no chance. 14. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . which was very copious. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. 15. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. had the power to chain his sympathy. as he looked back. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. appeared to fill his whole childhood. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. 13. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. not glancing at him for a moment. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who.
and there were others. 17. dragging herself on her knees. It was very possible she was capricious. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. that she must be on the contrary. as a general thing. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. At the theatre.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. where the Pearl of Paraguay. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. 16. and to H. disheveled and distracted. The whole establishment. ironically reserved. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. 18. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. proudly. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. H. yet 280 .
No one ever listens to her. had blown a certain chill. It came over H. young men were invited. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. didn’t mind. 3.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. Their mistakes and illusions. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. 20. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. *Old. with the poor. and lurking within this nebulous design. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 19. 281 . Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. on which the damp breath of the streets. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. would always be more or less irritating. 2. H.
9. 11. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. walking quickly. 10. 12. 5. I walked fast. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. Either John or he * have got to give in. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. “Oh. I was definitely going to be sick. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 282 . I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping.Nadina VIŞAN 4. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I blundered by. slipped on some steps. 8. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 6. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 7. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. c) When I saw her sitting there. Rachel. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. I saw her as a vision. striding like a Spartan maid. her arms held out. her shining blue feet twinkling.
Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. One or more solutions can be valid: 1.
analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. And then I ventured to add that. where my servant. which was really alarming. if they were poor. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 4. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. The old women spoke no English. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. could cook my meals. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 5. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 2. but that we saw and pitied. 3. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish.
on a house. etc. Munt. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. distress. etc. 285 . that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. to settle. apart form his distress for parents. before they left town.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to pay their annual visit. his. etc.g. was informed. Constituents: He. at noon. Constituents: how much. he. Constituents: Margaret. he had not yet been able to estimate. would really hurt.apart from his distress = apart from. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. on Saturday. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. apart from his distress for parents. How much. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt. had not been able to estimate. was anxious = was + anxious. this. was anxious.g.
don’t bother her./ She finally admitted. interrogative..semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – non-assertive. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. which is not assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. which context is non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . negative/ If you like jazz. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. it is assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. / If you like her. – comparison. and is non-assertive. listen to this. Second clause is an imperative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive/ Don’t do that. second clause is non-assertive. interrogative.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. – first clause is an ifclause. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. negative. negative/ Come with me. The sentence is however 286 . – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.. interrogative. – first clause is non-assertive.
Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. – I like somebody else. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. but it wasn’t them. / You have never met 287 ./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. – they told the truth to somebody else. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ Not long ago. everybody used to travel by coach. but nothing out of the ordinary. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / They didn’t leave./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. – someone hates animals. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. only irresolute. but not more than she does others. / She does not hate animals. the two brothers dared to protest. – someone did that./ Hardly interested in the conference./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. not even when it’s quiet around. not even this thing. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / I don’t like her very much. but it isn’t Susan./ He was smart enough./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ When he learned the news. –double negation cancellation./ They weren’t really confused.but to someone else. / Not really convinced by what the had heard.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. he was hardly pleased. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / She does like John./ He was exceptionally cunning./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all.
* not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. did they? / No problems were caused after all..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. / This is hardly the 288 .negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. they go skiing in the mountains. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.. / Should they not have told her the truth. is he? / Few of them stayed behind..negative incorporation / None of them liked house music...Nadina VIŞAN her. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. not even when you were very young. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. *did he?/ They caused us no problems... – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. not even in my dreams. – I cannot look him in the eye. did they? / A few of them stayed behind..negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. were they? / This boy is no good. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. – negative insertion.
but she also lent him a car. – I don’t often look at her like that. Activity 8 I shall never. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – Not many people came to see her. / Hardly anybody liked him. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger../ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – Almost nobody liked him./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Few people came to see her. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.Never shall I trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – You haven’t eaten a thing.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. when we started our holiday./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – I almost never look at those paintings.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.. / I seldom look at her like that..Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. never trust a man again. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – I never see her. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow.
/ They say he once had someone very close. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / Don’t worry. you can still do something about it. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – They say he never had anyone very close. –At no time did we leave the office. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – I don’t expect he will come here again./ Well. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time./ I expect he won’t come here again. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ I somewhat like his proposal. you can’t do anything about it any more. / Come on. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – They don’t believe she likes them. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – 290 . –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care.I don’t like his proposal at all. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / She could rely on nobody but him. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – Nowhere could the keys be found. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / They believe she does not like them. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – Only on this man could she rely. – Come on. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime.
– He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday./ Bob is still living at that address.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Well. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. –Alice still lives here. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine../ Peter knows some English and so does John. / She hardly ever comes here. / You needn’t send her anything. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. too. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / You must pay that fine. – You can’t be telling lies. – You should send her something. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / You must be telling lies. either. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – She almost always comes here./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Well her husband has always been a good person.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – I feel much better for having had a holiday./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I can understand all of these ten English words. 291 .
He didn’t move a muscle.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. to any of us. e un magar./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ N-are nici cap nici coada. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ He’s a happy man./ I don’t know why she’s crying. has never studied anywhere./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ I don’t know a thing about her. He isn’t that smart./ Nimic de facut./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Nobody told us a thing. / Jim is so brave. give me a hand./ E un baiat de zahar./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. ever since I got this ulcer. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. It’s no wonder. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. not yet./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ They say this Ph./ Nu spune nu niciodata. Oh./ He was a tough man./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici.D./ 292 . / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Zis si facut./ You took his leaving you very hard. I haven’t seen her in years. / Don’t go on believing him. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Am avut un car de necazuri. / Please. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Have they rung the bell? No. I haven’t done anything./ You look so tired today.
I had never had the opportunity to prove. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant .Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze./ Nu-i nici un deranj. with the same needs they had. that I was a decent man. for I thought this threatening.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . without too much determination. no memory. 293 . slowly./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. feebly.’/ Deloc descurajat. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.’ ‘Nici o problema. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. one way or another. I hadn’t really expected miracles. We had nothing in common. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. parasi camera. nothing. thrown out. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.
not as we would like it to be or some other way. your story. by coming here to the monastery. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. Not for a moment had I thought that. but facts. Radu had calmed down. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. to say the least. Unfortunately. We have to judge it as it is. he was sitting beside me.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. You really made me mad. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. or if you understood what I meant. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. It’s not made up of theories and the like. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. Your judgement is false. good. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. I’d be so happy if it were so. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. I was sleepy and tired. • It was my turn to say something. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. I admit. the only 294 . clear or confusing. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. it’s not words. things you do any moment. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. on the front seat. bad. that’s what the world is about.. let alone irritable. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase.
fear might be hiding. although it was a difficult thing to do. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. you can go to Ursu’s. it solves troubles. it’s your problem. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. • So. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. and if you like. as Baciu would have us be. or you are lying hidden. we are leaving. clears your way. But what about you and Melania. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. I won’t interfere. behind these big. no matter how huge they are. too? A gun is power. either. me. Anyway. soon we’ll be in town. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. Look. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. and an inability to act. keep your conscience clean: you have one. 295 . because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. did you ever step up front. you do as you think fit. it’s yours.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. to fight. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. precious words. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. just to please myself. me. keep it squeaky clean. But I was just wondering. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. or call the respect of others. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog.
. -correct 3. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . – incorrect. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. correlatives are mixed 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. because before is a positive polarity item 2. as soon as he delivered it. The villagers were not very religious. .Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. has yet arrived -correct 2.incorrect. has not arrived yet – double negation. or some other woman.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems ..Negative raising (transportation) f)1. firmly determined not to answer immediately. will he?. But it was not because I had no answer to give. but they gradually got used to it.correct 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.Negative attraction b) 1. the sentence is incorrect 3. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.Negative incorporation 296 .
prea răscolit. b) But it was rather (API) late. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. yet. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. much less ((NPI) for her. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Avea sufletul prea obosit. Her stillness. His spirit was too tired. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. nu era 297 . slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. not happy at all (NPI).) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. either (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. she couldn’t marry him.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. (ibid. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. too troubled. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Ştia că are dreptate. Nu putea să se mişte. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI).
cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. and not a little unsteadily.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. Ba dimpotrivă. (ibid. he made his way to the screen. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. şi destul de hotărât. (Salman Rushdie. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. if anything (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. she looked younger than ever (NPI). (ibid. 298 . (ibid. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. se îndreptă spre paravan. his heart was beating fast. inima îi batea năvalnic. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. e) At length. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. The Satanic Verses.
Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. i) What did C. the gift was useless. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). (ibid. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Home receded from the prodigal son. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. The point was. care if the school were willing to treat him. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. h) C.) C. but his father would have none of it (NPI). 299 . Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Ce-i pasă lui C.
as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. . correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. 300 . correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
yes. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Luca Horobet. do you really think that this vixen. she didn’t wear a ring. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. Vica. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. to make them lust after her. 2. she likes to entrance them. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. now she was chatty. and then what do you 308 . you are in enough trouble as it is. they were. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Stavre Paici. Chizlinski. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. all godfearing husbands and fathers. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. keep Condrat away from her. Fenia. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. the bitch. She has an eye for gentle men.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Fenia. “Now.
He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . He got him out of his mosque.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. The mullah. 3. a seventy-eight year old lad. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. It even takes him a while to go to the window. ankle-long flowered calico. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. G. what’s her name. have a girlfriend. the minister of Tartars and Turks. her hair pinned with blue combs. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. dragging his feet listlessly. 4. with a railway station and a mosque. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea.
tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.
His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . John is ready and Mary is ready. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. and I passed. – similar situation 10.phrasal coordination (in this case.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8..Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. yellow and blue.) 9. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. our respective examinations.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. John and Mary are ready. John and Mary are the newly married couple. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. Our flag is red. Her pet kitten is black and white. – sentence coordination 7..
7. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. We can and will demand payment. and even tennis. 9. that method and those. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. your proposal and his.) Joan plays many games. plays football. her idea and John’s. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. her son and others. Activity 4 1. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 5.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 2. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. your work and mine. much satisfaction or little 312 . – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. but not John. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 8. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 3. 10. many guest or few. Activity 5 This book and the other. but John does not play football. 6.
) 6. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Activity 8 1. 4. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Ups and downs 6. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Touch and go 10. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Law and order 8. 8. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Pros and cons 4. To and fro 15. Bread and butter 16. Safe and sound 313 . etc. 7. Life and soul 5. Spick and span 9. Few and far between 14. He snapped at him and slapped him. but not simple. He read. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. The facts and figures 3. Thick and thin 11. Over and above 13. High and low 2. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Swings and roundabouts 7. 3.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. 5. magazines are only for children. Wear and tear 12. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters.
– asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 5. 4. exclusive 17. There are some chairs and a table in the room. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – symmetric. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. exclusive 15. – symmetric. 2. Asymmetric 20. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 9.symmetric 11. 9. Symmetric 13. Symmetric 21. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. My son and daughter are twins. inclusive 16. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 4. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – symmetric 10. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 6. – symmetric. 7. – similar situation 9. 8. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – symmetric 2. 314 . 7. 3. 6. 1. Asymmetric 19. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 3. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 10. 5. My son and heir is safe. b. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 8. 10.. 2. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric 18.
(2) 1. 10. 5. 2. Her husband is long dead and buried. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Not only should you rest 315 .He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Should he pour water in the basin. 8. Brother or no brother. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. Jim thought it over for a while. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 11. 3. it was too small. They came to me. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 9. 3. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. There are doctors and doctors. for better or worse. nor fowl. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. I’ll still finish this paper. thanks for asking. 4. He went to bed. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. clothes and all. We’ll stick together. 7. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 6. ‘Madam. No drinking and driving. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 15. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. He’s neither fish. By hook or by crook. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 2. 14. 12. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity.
The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. he’d leap high. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. he starts lecturing her about life and things. it would work out fine. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life.’ (3) 1. And. so he’d gone down and died in no time. both dead and buried. tense with concentration. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. so he could leap in pursuit. what’s its name. without mentioning financial matters. 316 . but he’d come out a cripple. as she always does. This. You know. Mrs. They hadn’t kept him there too long. but she blinks in approval. an important man. So she’ll listen to him. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. Whatever she tried her hand at. she started doing a great job. at equal intervals. she knows for sure. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. tense like a bow. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. From time to time she will launch a helping question.Nadina VIŞAN assured. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Her first husband had been a professor. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. their common ground. and then. and she listens to him. 2. stop dead in his tracks. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. just like when he was thirty. What do you know? The moment Mrs. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing.
coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – she.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. came. functioning as an object (direct). functioning as an adjunct 2.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . told. you. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – she. whomever wanted to listen.subordinate. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . looked. functioning as a modifier 3. – she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.subordinate.subordinate. – Susan. she looked at me sadly. – obligatory elements: she. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . – obligatory elements: I. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . cannot tell.subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. is aware. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.
subordinate.complement b) 1. remove our home yet again .subordinate. that we should. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that you are choosing exile . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.Nadina VIŞAN 4. since the main verb is think of something) 5.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . at our age.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.
coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. a house. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object.complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. outbuildings. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . a barn. adjunct (time)/ 319 . modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement.
But other people. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. sickle in hand. When Anton put the sickle down. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. (…) He dashed back. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. Activity 5 1. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .A few days before the war. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. staring at each other. direct object. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. without straightening her back. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ to sit there – complement.wh complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. subject/ to do such again – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. (…) ‘Well. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning.
although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. 321 . First. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. that was for sure. For no bold man really falters. 2. while they spoke from miles away. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. which he doesn’t rely on completely. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. Not even at this point. but also his sharp nose. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. Ana could not stand a trip now. or if he does. rather than a real threat. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. while on other occasions he would show caution. or other more hidden means. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. 3. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. as if they were at his beck and call. he will turn back and no longer be daring. but he doesn’t spurn either. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Only he had Ana to think of. you need courage even for this small thing. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Why! He was not of two minds.
The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. But it was not ok. In fact. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. although he could have said so earlier. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. under the silliest of pretexts. it was the women. 4. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. and on Monday followed another feast).Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. he had postponed writing back. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. So. come on. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. and when things didn’t go as planned. to see some mutual friends. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. in Odobesti. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. We were going to drive to a vineyard. by the cars of some of us. and twice we were requested to get out. without really knowing why. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. And here’s how this first day looked. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. are we getting off again? What is wrong. 322 . when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they would ruin the arrangement. Twice did we get in the car. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied.
Activity 3 1. when we first met . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.free 8. 9. 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 5. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. This is my husband whom I love very much.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . any of whom would answer to questions.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 5. 4. The students like their teacher. 4. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 10. where I spent my youth .restrictive 7. 6. John told his friend a story about the king. The students. These are people who we cannot tell much about. which was silly of him. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 6. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. on which this occurred . like their teacher.restrictive 4. 7. most of whom were from England. 7. 3. which was a pity.She came to London where I went too. 11. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 2. where I least expected 323 . They met those students none of whom agreed with them. Activity 2 1. who was just passing by. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 8. 8.restrictive 2. I bought Jim a book that he liked. He is the author who they gave a prize to. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. He told her the secret. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 10. all of whom would answer to his questions. You couldn’t join the party. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.restrictive 6. why they all left .
when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. What – direct object 2.adjunct 6. I. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. where – predicative 7. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. What Inman remembered – subject. who think so highly of yourselves. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. When .restrictive 10.free 9. who cannot say a word. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. Where . This isn’t the Bucharest I know. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.adjunct 10. which . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 11. 5. Where he was from – adjunct. what their parents made them.free Activity 4 1. Where . where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative.Nadina VIŞAN . 2. however sad . when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative.adjunct 3. Who . 3. when . Which – subject 4. the prince chose Cinderella. You. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.subject 9. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. come up front. where we talk money – predicative. 6. What I’m saying – subject. Of all the persons there. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . 7. Activity 5 1. was very displeased with the situation.subject 8. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. 4. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct.adjunct 5.When Ada remarked – adjunct. Why . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.
human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .attribute 12. whatever – predicative 13.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . – which is ungrammatical due to the [. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. what little she knew – direct object. which is ungrammatical due to the[.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how .whom is ungrammatical due to the [.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. what . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. which requires an accusative form.
whose great-grandfather. but whose second cousin. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. a sergeant. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. got married and had a daughter. in his turn. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. due to its invariable character.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. having changed quite a number of jobs. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. a rather tiny looking man.
This story.obligatory 3. . In the interest of public decency. – no 9. . was now complete. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.yes 10. whose interest he most sincerely shared. he rarely saw now. – yes.yes Activity 9 1.no 5. – yes 2. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. Irene.yes 3. – yes 6. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. .yes 7. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. . She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. were now all gone. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. has been troubling them forever. The problem of safe transportation. His friends. no easy answers to which could be offered.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. – no 4. . . She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. – obligatory pied piping 2.His father’s friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.obligatory 4.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. he requested that the public be excluded. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. – no pied piping 5. . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. with deletion of the noun friends]. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – no pied piping 327 .
4.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. or as of a vast arena. For twenty years. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 328 . where two teams battled every day… 5. irrespective of age and nature. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be.and he couldn’t thank me enough. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. Everything was ending. yours. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. For all the four children. for instance. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 7. 8. 3. Only an ugly endless dream remained. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. Nelu. 6. the third born son. I am to be envied. 2. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . I did so. In other people’s opinion. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town.
10. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. although she was standing quite close to him. 15. the tram was rattling along. He was suffering from dizziness. Let me tell you my last conclusion. Behind them. which was why he saw Dora very far away. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. You are newly arrived here. 329 . from MR street. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity.R. All that you have read is rubbish. 17. since I don’t really know which my true life is. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 16. she said. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 12.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. barely glittering in the distance. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 13. on Icoanei street. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. staring aimlessly. 14. 11. leaving streets and houses behind. where from Marta was coming too. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. What you’re saying sounds very nice.
who prompted everyone on the street. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 23. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. But. 22. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. From the vantage point I was in. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. day by day. likes and dislikes. So. had a personal style in clothes. 24. I could see my woman falling away from me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. She was a woman of means. 330 . I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. or the many Egyptian dynasties. 21. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. after the car was fixed. While we were poor. While some trees are still green. 20. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. If he had hit me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I don’t know what might have happened. in her pursuits. so optimistic and composed? 19. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. But for me. which I did not posses. or the clash of stars above. had a huge house in Bucharest. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. who only lived once in this world.
– impossible 7. prepositional object Activity 2: 1.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. subject 2.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . subject 9. 6. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. direct object 3. – unextraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. 3. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – the same as 3. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – extraposed. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. subject 4. object 6. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. subject 8. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 8. – extraposed. 2. direct object 10. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 331 . Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. object 5. subject 7. – questionable. It appears that no one voted for him.
I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. same as 12. 15.grammatical. . – grammatical. – incorrect. – same as 12.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – impossible. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 18.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. idiomatic formula 16. – grammatical. – impossible 11. – impossible. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 9. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. . 10. – grammatical. a bit too intricate 5.grammatical. same as 12. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. It is nice to meet you. same as 12. It is no use trying to convince her. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year.correct 4.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.incorrect. – the same as 12. 14. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. but pragmatically impossible 4. 17. – impossible. They never expected it that he would come back. I guess it that he will come back. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – correct 2. tense influences the 332 . although a bit intricate 2. – impossible. . but pragmatically impossible 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Activity 3: 1..
Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. in the pits on the road. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. behind gates.incorrect. under bridges. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. 5. thus. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.’ Lionel says. – correct 6. 2. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 3. 333 . in the ditch. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. though. (Not always. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1.’ 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. I hurriedly hid wherever I could.
? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. prime-minister. By saying this. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. who had just returned from Africa. – the first sentence is the better of the two. without trying to protest too much. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 8. who had just returned from Africa. It is less ambiguous than the first. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. because it is less ambiguous. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change.Nadina VIŞAN 6. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 2. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 4. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. who had just returned from Africa. 3. 7. since the 334 . / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. – the second sentence is questionable. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist.
but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. – both sentences are grammatical. extraposition is obligatory here. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 335 . – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 6. The second and third sentences are grammatical. 8./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 5. so there is no need for extraposition. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.
(Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. required by deverbal noun 336 . . – prepositional object. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) complement that clauses. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – direct object. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. . – complement 2.relative Activity 9 1. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. – relative 3. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. – subject. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. The idea that he had had earned him good money.adverbial of sequence/result. ibid. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – adverbial of sequence/result. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. ibid. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.We discovered that our map has disappeared. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – relative 5.prepositional object. they were chained to each other forever. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. . required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – complement that clause.complement 4. coordinated. – complement 5. . for better or worse. (Iris Murdoch. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.) adverbial of sequence/result.
(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. that they were not too late to leave. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that is obligatory. h) John thought that Harry had run. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. you want me to believe. – that is obligatory. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. f) John said that Harry would leave. that deletion is obligatory. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.
sequence of tenses is observed 4. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. a. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. c. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – grammatical sentences. – both sentences are grammatical. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7.
One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. hawk. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. present perfect instead of past perfect. present instead of simple past. While the first is possible because of the generalization. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . – generalization on habits of birds. ciocârlii şi şoimi. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. lark. cenuşii şi albe. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. geese both grey and white. prepeliţe. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. quail. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation.
o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. love of practical jokes. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. lipsa de vanitate. Crows will relish what presents itself. slyness in a fight. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. She admired their keenness of wit.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. The generic present is used in this case. lack of pridefulness. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause.
iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. He died erect. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. But as the battle raged around them. the young officer. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Murise în picioare. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. he claimed. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. El căzuse pe spate. […] During the latter stages of the tale. încercând să-i uşureze chinul.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. He had fought hard through the war. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. tânărul ofiţer. tragică şi eroică. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. in the very act of expiring. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. se ridicase în picioare. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case.
When he saw me. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. war hero though he was. How can I explain? I just felt shy. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. 2. Activity 13 1. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. – similar situation to the one under (c). around seventeen or eighteen years old. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. I realized I could not tell him the big news. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. 342 . the oldest. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Luptase din răsputeri în război. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. And they might just hang him. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). susţinea el.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Acum stătea aici. When the boys saw that mother had left. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. deşi era erou de război. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. în închisoare. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. They all had their hands in their pockets. One of them. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Now here he stood jailed. But when he reached me. A short while later. they gathered around my desk. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. to finish my drawing. he closed the album. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. mother went home and I was left alone.
6. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. or fear his rage. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. as if he had been drunk. for her vineyard.’ Mr. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. or if she would do so again. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good.’ 5. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. brightly and closely. 4. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. All his senses were now keen.
saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. thinking of him. 8. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. 11. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 9. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 10. 7. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great.Nadina VIŞAN to him. The last time when we met here you scared me. And if things were so. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.
towards Jurubita. without putting anything in a note. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 13. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. We either sell them or we don’t. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. where he would run to confess everything.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. more urgently than ever. 14. 12. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. which secretly drove him. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. namely the impatience of this young man.
grammatical 2. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical 5. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. grammatical 3. / He was forced to send Tom on the front.simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 6.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. grammatical. – simple infinitive. 9. . She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – perfect infinitive. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. – infinitive continuous. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.. / He had Mary clean her room. . / they saw her leave. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – simple infinitive. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 10. grammatical 7. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. 346 .
– Test: He persuaded her. \ She wanted [him to leave. – Test: They convinced her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. Test: *She wanted him. you need to try harder. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They tempted him. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / It is not too late for him to learn. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / I want to never see you again. \ She promised him PRO to leave. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: *They would have hated her. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / He is believed to have known her 347 . Test: *I would love them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them. Test: *They did not wish her. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I allowed [them to come. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. – Test: They asked her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ They did not wish [her to come back.
/ He is young enough to start again. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / Oh. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / To make a long story short. . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. not to miss the train. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / He is easy to live with. / He is easy to talk to. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. I don’t need you or your services. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / I want you to leave my house. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . / He is hard to stand. Activity 6 Oh. . / I have a word to tell you.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / You are to blame that the factory exploded.
He suspected hostility at once. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. 1 – PRO. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. Harold. the herd instinct was very strong in him.Accusative + Infinitive. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive.to. 1 – PRO-to. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. so that we might get to the future and have done. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. he didn’t envy those above it. 1] A little crossly. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. If he himself was out of spirits. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Subject. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Predicative 4 . who wasn’t used to men with moods. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. they had depressed and fuddled him. Subject. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 349 .
cautiously. 1 – PRO-to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. more meaningful. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. PRO controlled by ‘me’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. we seem to forget about our own pain. or better said. excitedly. slowly. c) Unlike plane trips. PRO controlled by ‘she’. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. PRO controlled by ‘him’. more believable than evidence itself. 350 . PRO controlled by ‘she’. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. But when we need to comfort others. One day. man and woman. f) The passing time is important. object 2 – PRO –to. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. direct object 3 – PRO –to. e) When two persons. And you might also be hit and humiliated. true.
tickled by the trickles of sweat. even when this love is hurried. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. And to actually start to believe you are so.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. for instance. in the street. to live only with your coughing. I am indeed praising my own merits. That is it. which he had already forgotten. as he had appeared to him in the rain. 351 . my wish being only to please and serve. that you are young. Mrs. or. while swearing to change my way of life. all down our neck. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. If it was summer. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. Moroi says heavily. And I would care for this man so deeply. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. He had not been able to leave Dr. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Stroescu. not to want to wipe it off. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. not even those parts where he had been half-right. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. or their talk that night. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. S. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. h) I want us to go. k) With this considerable dowry. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love.
o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. poor Muti. met by squalor and terrible smells. no matter what. Well. she was suddenly so shocked. If you will have what I can give you. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. ready to submit to any demand. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. haphazardly. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. every Bucharester knows it. or to speak so fast. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. 352 . here I am with all of my own. for that’s the door people get off by. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by.
353 . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / They found it thrown in a corner./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. with its lips drawn back.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ She sent him shopping. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Attributive past participle./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ He went to have a tooth pulled. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. badly beaten and bloodied. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ Don’t keep him waiting.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE ./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother.. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.
Finding the treasure. 8. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Accusative + present participle / In any case. I slammed the door of my room. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Turning on the light. 9. having heard it all before. they began quarreling about how to divide it. Activity 4 1. The tree had fallen across the road. – Attributive present participle. 5. having been uprooted by the gale. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Sleeping in the next room. Attributive present participle. Having fed the dog./ Running into the room. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. – As she was running into the room. 6. 4. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 3. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Having looked through the fashion magazine. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Running into the room. 10. he sat down to his own dinner. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. sitting taut between her father and her sister.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. 2. 7. I was astonished at what I saw.
Reading in bed. / Climbing down the tree. – As he left the cinema. his horse fell at the last jump. I let the dog out of the room. 8. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. bald-headed. he was bit by a scorpion. stony-hearted. 12. I let it out of the room. narrow-minded. lion-hearted. Tied to the post. a scorpion bit him. 355 . Knowing me to be the fool of the family. my hands often get very cold. empty-headed. his horse fell at the last jump. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. one of the eggs broke. Passing under a ladder. an idea suddenly occurred to me. open-minded. 9. 7. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. a pot of paint fell on my head. a scorpion bit him. Riding in the first race. – As he was getting out of bed. Getting out of bed. I often get very cold hands. – As he was riding in the first race. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Activity 5 Fair-haired. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 11. one of the eggs broke. – As I was passing under a ladder. 2. my hands often get very cold. – As he was tied to the post. 10. / Getting out of bed. the sea was tossing the post up and down. red-handed. broad-shouldered. Dropped by parachute. Leaving the cinema. 3. three-coloured. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. sharp-eyed/minded./ Reading in bed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 4. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he broke one of the eggs. – When I read in bed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. an idea suddenly occurred to me. wooden-headed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 5. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the sea was tossing it up and down. cloth-covered. Climbing down the tree. Barking furiously. 6. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. many-coloured. fishy-eyed. – As he was climbing down the tree. – As the dog was barking furiously.
produced by S. (take) 2. Activity 7 1. admired for their elegance and precision. open-hearted. dark-skinned. roast meat. (injure). hunted for their valuable oil and meat. straight-shouldered. (produce) 3. shrunken stream. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. The escaped prisoner. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Many old people. is expected to be a great hit.Spielberg. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. rotten plank. are in grave danger of extinction. eagle-eyed. injuring my arm. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.I fell on the ice. (find) 6. / Three people. Whales. (hunt). (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. drunken man. (grow) 4. 356 . The film./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. I stared at the canvas for ages. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (admire) 5. shaven head. sunken eyes. Activity 8 1. are sold throughout the world. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. bounden duty. injured when their car crashed on the M1. mown grass. ill-gotten wealth. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. 7. stricken deer.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. was today taken back to prison.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. shorn lamb. hunting for a bargain. graven image. found hiding in a barn. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / Swiss watches. lighted candle. were taken to hospital. hidden meaning.
He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. and moreover. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. suddenly suffocated. 2. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. flat and soft. He felt close to his father. he were struggling for breath. thrown in the pots. 3. yet left them room to sway free. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. in charge of his house and lands. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. streaked with yellow veins of fat. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. its scales scraped off by the knife. and the puffed pastry beds. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. So. hovering uncertain and soft. he started peering anxiously around as if. the fish. sprinkled with sticky flour. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. And his soul. After a while. boil them. now taken down. A parasol. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. 357 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. seeking some promised land. then put up. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. the carved chicken. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. 4. bake them. the twice rinsed vegetables.
A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. – participle (attribute) 2. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. he left the store without buying a thing. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day.gerund 5. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. Gambling is his favourite pastime. – gerund (subject) 4. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / I am sorry for being so late./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. . / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. – Accusative + participle 3. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / I told him not to bother putting things back. Activity 10 1./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings.
– gerund (prepositional object) 10. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11.possessive ING (direct object) 9. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – gerund (attribute. . possessive ING (predicative) 7. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – Nominative + participle 13. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. 8. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.participle vs. He was spotted talking to her. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. preceded by preposition). – gerund (prepositional object) 15. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.
Lady Corven. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. my Lord. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. – gerund (full. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has adjective). also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.’ 360 . adjective. adjective.. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. however appearances were against us. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Croom to try to follow one.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. take down her answer. – verbal noun (has determiner. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.’ ‘Tell me. – gerund or verbal noun. hold up his pen and speak.verbal noun (has determiner.
f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. it’s overrated.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment.’ 361 . ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. I spend all my time hunting a job. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. and went out to post it himself. Then. he addressed the note.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. my Lord. suddenly. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ said Clare. I must go back now. I just used the word and they fell. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. ‘I do hate asking for things.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ said Clare. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.
the very earth opening up (half gerund. gerund. The two sides were moving apart. attribute). …while their edges were crashing inwards). direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. down. The collapsing shops (participle. At first. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. (participle. adverbial of time. following the verb ‘remember’. hoping (participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) towards him. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute). shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. village which is burning). elliptical here. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down into God knows where. Then he saw movement at his feet. It was like a mist. the enormous split in the earth. He looked up towards the daylight. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object) from below. attribute. First the crack snaking (half gerund.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. direct object). someone looking for survivors (participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. attribute. attribute. The sight of the two children. slowly rising (participle. after verb of perception. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. slightly 362 . adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . adverbial of manner) towards his chest. adverbial of reason). preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund.). etc. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. you. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. according to the books he read. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. one. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. prepositional object. moving up (participle.e. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. has ‘of’ phrase). covering (participle. early. i. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. my dear. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. direct object).
reluctant or not. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) to winter brilliance. Standing up. and then went riding (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. examining (participle. Having a French governess (participle. preceded by preposition. So. slanted on to her cheek. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. mother. brightening (participle. adverbial of manner). preceded by preposition. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. Vaucher and I. and sunlight. and everything got suddenly animated. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. which beckoned to 364 . a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of manner). and not only in my imagination or theirs. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. And. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. the two Mamonas. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. She finished what jobs there were. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. for Dornford was busy on an important case. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of reason). making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. attribute) stopped dead.
his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. he found us sitting each in his place. kissed her forehead. bending a little. about sparing no effort. let alone greet us or say something. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. So when Old Mamona came in. And then. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . he looked like someone who did. I knew who it would be. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. without taking his sack off his shoulders. who knows. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. 4. her back towards us.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. closing my eyes. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. and smelling so hard of rain. to me. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. Vaucher might have known that too. and ended his life in the year 1821. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. Not so unimaginable though. He cast us a swift glance. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. his disloyal apprentice. he went to mother and. too. And. as mother had ordered him. to Vaucher. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. 3. 2. Entering our house on a Thursday. sitting in his puddle. about concentrating all our resources. killed by Young Mamona. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. and to Young Mamona. in the year 1812. each carrying a wooden box. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. for anyway.
After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. barrack. wood pile. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. They got off the truck slowly. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. And all around them was the great field 366 . futile. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. everything seemed familiar. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. But. already seen and heard. as an afterthought. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. 5. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. of taking notes and rewriting them. And suddenly. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. long board table. each pausing before jumping down. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. stove.
The next thing was to go to the well. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. 367 . The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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