NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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6 . materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. titularizare şi grad.de rezolvări.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

4.3. The Distribution of an Element 1. Constituent Phrase 1.Contents: 8 1.5. Insertion 1.1.6. Complementary distribution .2. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Auxiliary verbs 1.

Syntactic.2. Semantic. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. For instance. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. 1. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. very much. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. sequences of the kind her mother very. loves. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . They are just strings. that is sequences fragmented at random. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.1. Consequently. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. her mother.

must. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. an order given to an interlocutor). we are dealing with a directive (i.4. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.e. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. should. 1. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).3. 1. (Mi-a spus secretul. be).) 10 . etc.

(Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. Consider. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. an ‘empty’ there subject. etc. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.6. 1. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.) 1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.5. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. live. for instance. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.

distribution. whereas (7) is not. Munt. Pratice Define and illustrate. using your own examples: insertion. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. If the given context is the one under (6). This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. semantic. as the star indicates. complementary distribution. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. syntactic. How much. this would really hurt. both (8) and (9) are correct structures.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. 12 . apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. he had not yet been able to estimate. pragmatic.

To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).

Tests for negativity 2.3.2. Key terms 2. Full – local negation 2.1. affirmative sentences. Conclusion. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.4. Polarity Items 2.7.5.8. Instances of negation 2. Key terms . Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.6. Negative vs.2.

) is said to be an assertion.Unit two Sentence negation 2.Declarative vs. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. For instance. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.) b. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. This example can be compared to: (2)a. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .Positive vs. Negative .2. Consequently. in the sense that it states something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. it asserts something. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. in that they do not state anything. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.

g. / Come with me. comparison.interrogative (e. 16 . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.positive sentence . listen to this./ Don’t do that. They told her the ( e./ If you like her.positive and declarative secret./ She can’t wait to read that book. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.) .assertion . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.g. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.negative (e.) . don’t bother her. / She finally admitted. Did they tell her the secret? ) .Nadina VIŞAN ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.other (if –clauses.g.non-assertion . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .

I met a girl named Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. John is unhappy.) b. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. Susan dislikes her friends. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is not happy.) b.) 17 . Susan doesn’t like her friends. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). (John e nefericit.3.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. since the negative word not is not present there. (Nu demult. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. For example. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. word negation. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. In the case of the sentences under (4).

) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) c. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. since the negative word not is present inside them. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.) b. In other words. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. She was not an unattractive woman. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. where the word 18 . He was not without intelligence. more precisely the phrase it is part of. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. In other words.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. these sentences look negative. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. but their meaning tells us a different story. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. just like in the case of word negation. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. I was not a little worried.

/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night.e. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. semantic negation. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Când a aflat vestea. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . without intelligence. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Translate the following sentences into English./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.

/ A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. dar nu neobişnuit. ci doar indecişi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept.4. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. 2. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. affirmative sentences. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Negative vs. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. dar nu în mod special. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Era el destul de isteţ.

Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (Nu m-am dus acolo. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. such as do insertion. (see subsection 1. For instance.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. etc. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.1.) (9) I didn’t go there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (M-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .).

nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends./ They didn’t leave.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. 22 . *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / We don’t come here often. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / Susan did not get married to Jim. incorrect. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / She does not hate animals. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / I don’t like her very much. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends.

) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. not even the smart ones. which is ungrammatical. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. *and neither do they like her. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). and they don’t like her either.Unit two Sentence negation 2. * and they don’t like her either. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. and neither do they like her. 3. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. 4. .) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. even the smart ones. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. *not even the smart ones.

whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. In conclusion. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.5.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Not always a witty interlocutor. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / You have never met her. / A few of them stayed behind. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / They caused us no problems. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. 2. they go skiing in the mountains. / This boy is no good. / No problems were caused after all. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / Few of them stayed behind. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. By applying these tests to the sentence in question.

(27) a . b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-a venit John). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. I went nowhere. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody.

b. (N-am văzut nici un student.) (29) a. I didn’t see any student. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. Not all that glitters is gold. / I didn’t ever go to his place. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. I didn’t see anybody. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. no incorporation takes place. I didn’t go anywhere.) b.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.) b. 26 .Nadina VIŞAN b. I never went to his place. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. All that glitters is not gold. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. No day passed without me thinking of him. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) c. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.

/ Not a word fell from her lips./ They didn’t come to meet her. / I didn’t see anybody./ They never went there. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / I saw nobody.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. nici măcar din alea scurte. scarcely. / I showed him nothing.4. / No one ever listens to her. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. seldom. / None of them liked house music. and we don’t go to the theatre either. barely. (Nu citesc romane./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / Not many women are famous opera composers. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. rarely. . / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / He should not be released. etc.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / Not one of them came to meet her. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.) They barely read any novels.) We seldom watch T. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.V.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. not even short ones.

/ This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) b.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / Few people came to see her. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / Hardly anybody liked him. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.) d. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / I seldom look at her like that. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) 28 them. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I scarcely ever see her. . which triggers inversion): (35) a. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Never have I met a more horrible person. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.) c.

in the sense that the 29 . / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. never trust a man again. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.) They don’t think that he likes them. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / She could rely on nobody but him./ We seldom receive such generous praise. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.

the negative meaning is less strong. / I expect he won’t come here again.) but also by the existence of certain elements that.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. suppose. In sentence (37). should be desirable. guess. For example. imagine. intend. we can very well say something like: (38) a. cannot appear in an affirmative context. / He reckoned he would not win her over. sound/feel like. advise.: think. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. barely. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. be supposed to. intention. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. expect. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. be probable. 2. etc. seem.) 30 . although not negative in meaning. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. appear. probability. ought to. suggest. be likely. believe.) b. / They believe she does not like them. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / I suppose she doesn’t care. look like. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. choose. etc. want. etc.6.

*She lifted a finger to help me. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.2. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical. That is 31 .Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. b. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. *She likes our chairman at all. and sentences such as: (39) a. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.

before (He didn’t arrive until 5. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I eat caviar most of the times. some (I haven’t any money.) Much vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I somewhat like his proposal.) Any more vs. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). too. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / I have some money. / I can understand both of these 32 . / I still love you) Either vs. too. / I like it . still (I don’t love you any more.). / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / You needn’t send her anything. / He arrived before 5. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / Well. either. / I like you a lot. / They say he once had someone very close. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. already (I haven’t seen him yet. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / Come on. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I have already seen him. too (I don’t like it. / I somehow like him. etc. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) At all vs.) Until vs.) Hardly ever vs. / She hardly ever comes here. / Well. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. you can still do something about it.) Yet vs. / Don’t worry. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Bob is still living at that address.

crack a smile. touch a drop. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / You must pay that fine. lay a finger on someone. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Ajută-mă. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. hurt a fly. move a muscle. last a minute. find a trace. give a damn/darn. say / breathe/ understand a word. have/be worth a red cent. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / You must be telling lies. turn a hair. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. know a single person. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. leave a stone unturned. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. mulţumesc. bat an eye(lid). n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. sleep a wink. flinch. / Peter knows some English and so does John. see/ feel/ remember a thing. nici unuia dintre noi. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată./ I can understand all of these ten English words. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. hear a peep. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. de când cu 33 . have a care/ friend in the world. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. Translate into English.

/ Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / He is no end of a fellow. Translate into Romanian. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. he left the room. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. but you really should do something about it. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. B: Aşi. nu e vina mea. As you have noticed from the exercises above. he’s a pig. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / No admittance. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / He won’t make old bones. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Never is a long word. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / I had no end of trouble. / No entry.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / No hands wanted. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No man is wise all the time. / Hotărât lucru. / No sooner said than done. încercând să prindă criminalul. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. n-a sunat încă. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No trouble at all. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / Not that I care. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . budge. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Nothing succeeds like success.

Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present.Unit two Sentence negation rather). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). as well: 35 . / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Normally. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. c) He is anxious to say something. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. say it. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). b) I love asking some funny remarks. 2. / I hate making any commitments./ I saw no one. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.7.

mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. (Nu. B: Not this poem. 36 . We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. I don’t like this poem. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu-mi place.) 2. I don’t. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. Conclusion. nu poezia asta. from a syntactic point of view.8. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. The second negation is somehow independent. Key terms. however. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. nu îmi place poezia asta. B: Nu. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

45 . interrogation).e. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.

Questions 3.1.1 Tag Questions 3.3.4.3 Alternative Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2.2.3.3. Optional Exercises . Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2. Minor Types of Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Key Terms.2 Wh. Direct vs.3.2.

English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. for a subsequent section. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .Unit three Questions 3.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. If we try to analyze the examples above. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.1. focusing on direct questions mainly.

48 .Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.g. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. (3) and (4). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. (2). and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. pe mama. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.

indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Since the question is not direct any more. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. because. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Likewise. in this case. In the case of indirect questions. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. 49 . Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions).

paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / He asked me who she was. / I don’t know whom she fancies. ce culoare are pielea. spune la un moment dat femeia. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. sau mai bine zis. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / I don’t know who she is. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. c) Ştii ce. identify the incorrect sentences. / He asked me who she is. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte.

Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.Unit three Questions 3. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. being typical of spoken language. the type of answer the respective question requires.2. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. as Quirk shows. Let us provide 51 . In this case.

(how long / wait for me?) 10. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.2. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (which / you like best) ? 4.1. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1.

(Da). instead of Negative Polarity ones. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. it has. are said to be positively – oriented. they did. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . (Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.

but I want to play basketball a little longer. (speak yet) B: ……. ……………………………. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. …………………. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’ve been learning German for years.. 2... as in the example: 1. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 4. because you always copy everything I do! 5.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. 3. A: You look down.. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. ……. 6. ……………? (hear her) B: …. 7. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. . A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: Your mother is shouting for you. I’ve still got plenty of time.. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.? (a mean thing to do) 54 .

questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. which When. where. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. A: It’s past your bedtime. 9.. . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….. A: There was a terrible car crash. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . 3. ………………………………. I didn’t get home until late last night. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.. what . 10.2. You could have mentioned it earlier. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.2 Wh – questions Wh. how. 8.Unit three Questions B: …………………. . . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.

/ There are six students in my class. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ I have French lessons twice a week. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / She lives in the suburbs./ Sara owns two cars. (Poppy Z. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. Nearly two hundred years. / David’s car was stolen. trying to find places where I resided in life. of course.000dollars. / Shirley got married to Ben. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. what ever. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / My new car cost 10. / That’s my pen. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans./ We’ve lived here for ten years. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. I cannot do that. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are./ She dropped her glasses.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. why ever. / Kay’s gone out shopping.

Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 .2. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.

What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. didn’t use he? 4. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. wasn’t it there? 17. Who did left the gate open? 18. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How far is it the cinema? 3. There was a fax for you this morning. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. can you be? 58 . Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. You can’t be serious. How long is she be spending in America? 8.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. How far is it the cinema? 10. shall we stay? 7. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. He used to work in a bank. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Let’s stay for another few days. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Let’s stay for another few days. shall we stay? 14. didn’t use he? 11.

Unit three Questions 19. will you not? 27. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. despre o lume dură. dacă prin absurd 59 . Pot reveni. How long time does it take to get there? 28. neliniştea infantilă. Whose it is this book? 32. Ani întregi. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. That’s your car. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. How long have you be lived in London? 26. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. doesn’t he go? 23. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. deci. will you not? 21. plin de germeni virulenţi. John goes jogging every morning. isn’t it this? 25. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Who did told you about the problem? 31. deci. să-mi înfrâng frica. wasn’t it he? 22. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. ca şi cei ce au fost. Toate vechi. That was Jeremy’s brother. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. uneori disperat. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following.

în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. “Spune! striga el. lung.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. puturos. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. iar proştii. îi ştiu gustul. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. ghiceam doar unde se află. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. dar şi drumul. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. indiferent de risc. Şi. murdar. pe sub bolţile din care. naiv. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. pe care oricum am simţit-o. mă întreb. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. negru. neîntrerupt. Riscul? Ratarea. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. de atunci. picură apa roşietică. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. umed. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. inactivii. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. laşii. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. B. străină priceperii lor. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea.

nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. da? (37) Let’s go there. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. orbitor. la urma urmei. will you? (38) She went to Prague. golul alb. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. exclus. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. domnule profesor. 3. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. viaţa? Oare e drept. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. care i-a determinat alegerea. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba.Unit three Questions viaţă.1. Tag Questions Tag questions.3. didn’t she? . or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. nu se poate.3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.

or falling. it’s all spent. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. aren’t they? 62 . constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. the tag is affirmative too. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. au fost cheltuiţi. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. The suggestion is that in this case.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. sarcasm. au fost cheltuiţi. hasn’t she? (Aha. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. or “comment tags”. is it? (Deci. In this way.) A: Oh. if the host sentence is negative. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. the tag is negative too).e. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. (Din păcate. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.

/ You ought not to smoke. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / That’s your car over there. / I may see you tomorrow. / I don’t think you like my music. / He simply hates empty words. / You will pick me up. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I may not see you tomorrow. after all. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I am older than you. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / The boy often watched his sister. / I think you like my music.…/ Let me know. / A few people like her. / Don’t leave without me. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I think you don’t like my music. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / Few people like her. / There is enough food for everyone. / I am dressed smartly enough. / She used to talk a lot. / I must go now. / Everyone felt happy about it. / Tell me. / You will pick me up at 7. 63 . / He hates his wife. / She left an hour ago. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / They said he liked music. / She has a brother. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / The boy never watched his sister. / That was your father. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / He has to marry Susan. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Surely you have enough money. / Each of us is staying. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / You have been invited.

/ He never used to study so hard….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…./ I’m right about this…. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. 5. using a question tag at the end. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. or what? 3. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. So you enjoyed my talk. He used to play squash.

3. / Grants… 3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.) B: Chinese? 65 . Recapitulatory echo questions . (Soţul meu ştie chineză. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.3. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.2.2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.1. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.2. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.1.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.

phrase is fronted. (Închide lumina aia. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. rather than the repetition.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.3.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. If the wh. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. of something just said. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. disbelief. consternation.2. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.2.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.

am pierdut scrisoarea. dear. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. whereas with explicatory echo questions. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (i. with recapitulatory echo questions.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen./ He is interested in blue movies. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. which letter do you 67 . (Vai. / He is interested in music. I’ve lost the letter.e. / We are looking for a pixie.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. rather than did you say. (Uită-te la asta./ We are looking for a purse. intonation is rising. / I think I’ve found a solution.

she knows about it. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.4. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .Nadina VIŞAN 3. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.

lui Chizlinski. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. ca să zic aşa. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza.– Crezi tu. pe Condrat de Vica. şi care s-a aciuat. şerpoaica. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. după pofte. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. stricata. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. nu purta verighetă. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. aşa.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. în general. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. Fenio. în satul nostru. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. cumnată Fenia. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. şi apoi Vica ce zice. să se încolăcească mai bine. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. lui Luca Horobeţ. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. lui Stavre Păici. oameni aşezaţi. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. acuma sporovăiala. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. cu o casă de copii. Are gust de oameni blânzi. da. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. că tot trebuie să plece pe front.

Hogea. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. deci. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. până la călcâie. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. roşu şi galben. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. L-a scos din geamie. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. abia târându-şi picioarele. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. dar cum se face că a 70 . scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. sau cum o chema. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. De asta erai. sus.

Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

6.5.3.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Key Concepts .Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.2.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Contents: 74 4.4.1.Coordination and Subordination 4.

e. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. on the other hand.Unit four Coordination 4. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. 75 .) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. that elements are coordinated. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. where there is no indication other than a comma.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. i. present) in the sentence. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. reproachfully. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.1 Syndetic vs. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. cu repros. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e.

) (4) If you hit my wife. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. vei muri. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. 76 . subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. From the previously mentioned examples. you will die.Nadina VIŞAN 4.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. Conversely. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.) Such examples.

from a logical & semantic point of view. the second.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. but presupposed. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. we need to specify that. respectively subordinated constituents. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. However. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.

He wrung the bottom of his trousers. took off his shoes and emptied them. with enormous solidity. the houses were beautiful and ancient.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. with formal walks under rows of trees. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Then he sat down. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. but the 78 . His clothes hung to him. John Steinbeck. adorned with cornices. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the first. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. of cut gray stone. his shoes squished. He moved and made a slopping noise. In the second. built. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. took off his coat and emptied them. Though the castle had vanished. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph.

and as the way is with Irish mountains. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. over some of the roughest ground in the country. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. left the house. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Cecil Woocham – Smith. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. the higher he went the wetter it grew.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins.

we should be seriously annoyed. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . were to take down the name of every man. (G. as shown in (9). A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.K. however distinguished. As one can easily notice. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.3 Sentence vs. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.

5. Her pet kitten is black and white. 7.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. 4. and even tennis. 9. 8. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. yellow and blue. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. and I passed. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 3. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. / Joan plays many games. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. John and Mary are ready. / Bob and George are admired by their students. plays football. Our flag is red. Pratice Distinguish coordination.Unit four Coordination example (7). Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. 10. but not John. John is ready and Mary is ready. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 6 John sang and Mary danced. / Peter and John played football. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 2. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . our respective examinations. / Peter. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. Activity 2 sentences: 1.

A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.) c. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. John writes poetry and Bill prose. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. or deleted. 6. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. John loves and Bill hates cigars. 5. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. as can be seen in (10b). Activity 4 2. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Jane 82 .Nadina VIŞAN b. 3. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) b. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case.

having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 8. So. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.e. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. 10. the predication buy a pair of shoes. i. 9. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. than a longer repetitive one. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 83 . the so-called Principle of Economy. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. Besides ellipsis. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. can be reduced by substitution.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 7.) The common element. these syntactical processes.

the old men and women 2. In certain cases. George and Jane are separated. Translate the following sentences. A citit. simple books and magazines for children 3. George and Jane went back to their parents.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. using reduced structures: 1. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 4. 4. 2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 3. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. one or (the) other method. some reason or another.

bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 .I searched ………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. of your proposals later on? 3. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 12... 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. even though they have their little …………. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. fish and chips. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. I need another 100$ ………. 6. like: salt and pepper. 15. A pendulum swings ………. After all their adventures.. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 5. . 13. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. Can we discuss the …………. the amount I’ve already saved up. 8. for my wallet. it’s a case of ………… 7. sweet and sour. 2. 5.You gain some things and you lose others.… 14. 6. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 16... they reached home………. 8. 7. They get on quite well together.. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. Marks and Spencers. only for damage. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 11.

4. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. In fact.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. 4. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Nor sun. and 86 . For instance. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. the expressive function of coordination is. etc. more often than not. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. as in: (17) a. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.) There are. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. of course. b.

etc). some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) 87 . (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (I-am dat banii.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. where the subordinator is repeated. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. 20 (b)). If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. sometimes but. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. o respectau si o indrageau.) b. too): (20) a. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) In certain cases. and cherished her.) c.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.g. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. or . both … and . I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it.

(Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. (Imi place si o admir. In this case. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . I admire and like her.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. I washed and ironed my pants.* I ironed and washed my pants.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. and you’ll die. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. I like and admire her. From this point of view.) b. (O admir si imi place. if we were to rewrite the example . and hit my wife. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.

) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) (While Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.Unit four Coordination 1. Brown experiments with humans. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (If you do that.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. he failed). you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. 97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.

If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.g. 5. as the name suggests it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. e. From the functional point of view. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.which are based on coordination . turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.) 101 .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.

an adverbial item.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. sentences) required by the verb (or. in certain cases. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) 102 . we associate it with these objects. for instance.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. For instance. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (I-a dat cartea.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) Whenever we think of this particular verb.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. such as proud of. In a way. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. We do not presuppose however something like. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. for example). by an adjective + preposition.

to her) and one extra-item. i. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. related to example (4). A second observation. The second example. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The term comes from the verb to adjoin.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. to add something. In other words. 103 . I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. an additional one. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. Thus.) b.e. which is the adverbial willingly. I am afraid that he won’t come.

So. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. (Înainte să plece din cameră. I’ll die. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) 104 .) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. a închis toate ferestrele. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. such as want. etc. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. make.) (11) If you don’t marry me. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. like.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. am să mor. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.

6.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. [. They came to e. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . Whoever did that was a genius. 2.g. Susan disappeared without saying a word. The book that because they home. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. After I told her the story.g. she looked at me sadly. e. 4. 5. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.g.She came to him of her own will. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 3. this to whomever wants it. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.

was a novelty to Mitzi. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. You suggestion that we should.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. etc. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. not object. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. stating their function: Activity 2 1. which. but he declined. WHETHER.He took an intelligent interest in her. FOR. 3. As you can see. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT.) 106 . at our age. 5. 4. 6. 2. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. though it was largely politeness. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still.

how. where. (E de dorit să plece. (Am vrut să plec imediat. etc. 107 .) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. when.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. Where he went is London. why. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. who. (15) It is John who did it.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) (16) a. Who did it was John. which.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.

the categories are reduced to only three in this case. As you will see. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. Unlike complement clauses. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. if. etc.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. before. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. consider the following table.1. which sums up this classification. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In conclusion.) (18) She told me this before she left. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . In (18). (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. for instance. done from a structural point of view. however. Compare.

109 . for.: e. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. etc. whether he will come when I feel like it. at your young age. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. Dear Ludwig. I will come back such as because. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. after. as. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.g.g. back. you understand. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I will go there because I feel like it. Introduced know e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.g.

Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. Accidental Man) b)1. 2. Late that afternoon.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. he said. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. she stopped to speak to Monroe. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . Too. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. As she left the house. But she thought that no one would call again.The day Monroe had died was in May. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. a tightening in her breathing. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. but he asked her to wake him when she returned.

3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. However. I told her everything after she arrived. că e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. a correspondence can be traced. As you have probably noticed already.g.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. interesting.g.g. 111 .g. That he loved e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.2.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.

Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.2. i. whereas wh complements are the 112 . adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.complement. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. Thirdly. So.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. (Cred că mă place. complements. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. In the fourth place. We will come back to that in the next chapter.e. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. whenever you identify a wh.1. Secondly.

Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. I first thought to tell in 113 . and I do not know how things might stand between us. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. before. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. but no idea what to do with them. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. because. Pratice Consider the following text. a house. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. after. a barn. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. She mistrusted her handwriting. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano.g. for no matter how she tried. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. c) I am coming home one way or another. their introductory elements (e. outbuildings. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function.

According to a structural criterion. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.e. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. and I have not the will or the energy. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return.4. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. because they modify. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. it would make you fear to do such again. these clauses can be complements.

• The Romanian term complement indirect (i. answering the question to whom? So. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. O zbughi înapoi. Pratice Translate the following. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. etc. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. Alţii. după ce că are grâu puţin. ce o fi având.g. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. 115 . look at. be very careful to use this term correctly. îşi spuseseră că Anton. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Nevasta secera în tăcere. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz.e. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. think of. interested in.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. (…) “Mă. însă. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei.

deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . decât cu ameninţare adevărată. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. timp de un ceas. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. cât de bolnavă era. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Toată lumea înţelesese că. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. izolate de sat.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. întâi. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. de fapt. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Nici acum. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer.

amânase scrisul. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. acum sunt desluşiţi. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. În realitate. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. stricau totul. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. aşa de oţetit. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. la Odobeşti. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. la nişte prieteni comuni. de pildă. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Pace nu era. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. deşi cam târziu. Iată. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat.

frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. întâia noapte de război) 118 . nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.

etc. subject relative clauses.. 119 . the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. of which. etc).SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.g. whose.

2. The Co-reference Condition 6.1.4. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.6. Key Concepts .6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.5. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.7. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.3.

Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.Unit six Relative clauses 6.2. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.1. 121 . The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. 6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. The Co-reference Condition . It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.

Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. By combining these two clauses. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. 122 . We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. John loves that woman. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.

The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The common element woman is present. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. This way.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. 123 .

The king was just passing by. I introduced him to Jim. John told his friend a story about the king. She came to London. 8. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHICH 4. therefore in spoken English. WHERE 3. Any of the students would answer to questions. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. WHO 5. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I love my husband very much. He’s the author who received the prize. He told Jim everything about his plans. He liked that book.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 2. 10. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. 9. This is my husband. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 6. 4. Susan wants to meet Jane. I went to London. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 5. The students like their teacher. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. too. WHO 124 . I bought Jim a book. frequently used in written language. I had a book. 3. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. I lost the book’s cover. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. The students like their teacher. None of the students agreed with them. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 7. by leaving behind a trace. They met those students. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one.

WHOM 6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. . independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. WHICH 8. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. WHOM 10. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. 2. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHOSE 7. TO 11.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. most of them were from England. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.e. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. (Cine strică plateşte. i.Unit six Relative clauses 6. relative clauses are divided into 1.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.

) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Cel care strică plăteşte. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. unlike in the case of (14). we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. in a manner of speaking.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. Unlike their sisters. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) So. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Predicative This was what she intended. is no longer overtly expressed. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) .Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.e. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. it is covert.

) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. care este zeul negoţului. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. They can be thus divided into: 1. is my favourite god.) (22) Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.) (Mercury. they define it).Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. who incidentally is the god of commerce. 127 . is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Du-te unde pofteşti. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. (Mercur. who is the god of commerce. este zeul meu favorit.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.

was the one we all welcomed and admired.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 7. 9. this type of relative clauses.e. who is a genius. is a great playwright. who came to see me. 8. restrictive relative clauses. As we were saying. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. I have met him where I least expected.This is the village where I spent my youth. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. 10. Independent I don’t know what you want. then it is an attribute. on whom nobody could depend. i. 2. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. 5. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. They are what 128 . Shakespeare. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). She. 6. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. On the day on which this occurred I was away. is a genius.

who died a few years ago. care a murit acum câţiva ani. a. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. etc. however sad this may be. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. 6. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. .) 2. composed The (Freddie Mercury.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. etc. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. When the antecedent has no determiner.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.

ill-tempered. (Ei apeleaza la mine. (Eu.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. iritabilă şi uscată. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. 3. 2. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. poftiţi în faţă. 7. who neither work nor am anxious. who am your son. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte.) Pratice Translate the following. dried-up old maid. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care-ţi sunt fiu.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. 4. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Dintre toate personajele prezente. numai eu nu. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. 5. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. bătrînă morocănoasă.) (28) They come to me. but a peevish. Mie. 130 . nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. can see your shortcomings only too well. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care nu sunt o femeie. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 6. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. ci o fată a woman. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală.

) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. părăsi camera. (32) service finished late. heard.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.Unit six Relative clauses 6. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. . were now in his possession.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. erau acum în posesia lui. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. than whom few more can be more crashing.

relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. literary style: (37) a.5. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. but it is typical of the formal.1. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .) d. too. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) c. The genitive form with which is still in use. as can be seen in (36d).) b. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina.) b.

which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Iris Murdoch. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.

(Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. He is not the man which he used to be.) • states.) b. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. … Italy. ships (that can be personified) a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. animals. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) b. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. of which. but to a type or a function: a. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (45) (46) .Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. by the way. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.

It is poor what gets the punches. how. why. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) 6. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. whom it concerned most closely. (Nu ştiam ce vor. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. France. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) 135 (47) . (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. where. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. pe care o privea direct.Unit six Relative clauses b.5. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.2 Relative Adverbs: when. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. while. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. etc. reason.) b. time. etc. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) b) dialectal (49) a.

(Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. The place whither he goes is unknown. This is the place wherefrom they came.) e. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. They returned to the land whence they had come.3.) 136 .) b.) b. He went where he had been before. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b.) c. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) When they introduce free relative clauses.5. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.They left when they decided it was proper to.) 6. no antecedents are required: (52) a. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.

] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .

era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. not any. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. I’ll get you such things as you may want. but • in standard language a. much. .Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. 138 (64) his shoes. Honest man as he was.4.5.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. every. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. any. but they are used very infrequently: as. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) b.

) c. Uncle George.) • in dialect a.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. This is the same one that/as you had before. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. . There’s not many as’ll say that. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. ăl de fusese in China…) b. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. him as was in China … (Uncle George.) c. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. And always on the buttered side. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. It’s the dry weather does it.

(It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) b. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) 140 . For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.

The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. Where he was from. 2. The man that John spoke to is a genius. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. makes me a wart and a wen.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.) c. we all have to come to some terms. What I’m saying is. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. fortifies me. It seemed a thing 141 . That which shows God out of me.” 4. 3. 7.) b.5. The man who John spoke to is a genius.3): (72) a. This is where we talk money. 6.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The man John spoke to is a genius. b. What Inman remembered was this passage. 5.

Ruby said. (…) Partly. who had not witnessed many dawns. which is a lot. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. Oh. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 11. Whatever his fate was. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. of living. The rudeness of eating. 12. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. though. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 13. 10.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 8.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. he had left Ruby high and dry. 9. 142 . (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.

care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. cumnatul unui portughez. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. (Iris Murdoch. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. pe linie paterna.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa.al lui. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. fiu natural al unui morar. plutonier. poate. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. una din nepoatele unui inginer. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. al carei strabunic. divortata. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. pirpiriu. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. vasnic. un var primar. nu prea sarac. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. Cumnatul meu avea. mort de tanar.

She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.2. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Everybody listened to that woman. By extension. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. She was a woman. b. Teatru) 6. The opposite phenomenon. 144 .6. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. insurat de trei ori la rand. I lost the cover of the book. c. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5.

2.Unit six Relative clauses b. no easy answers to which could be offered. The problem of safe transportation. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 7. The difference between (76) and (77). 9. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 8. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 3. 5. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. has been troubling them forever. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. In the interest of public decency. 4. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 6. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. acting again as a genuine pied piper.

She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. His friends. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 146 . Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. was now complete. Irene. 4.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 5. 3. 10. he rarely saw now. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. no matter which. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 2. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. This story. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.His father’s friends. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. has been deleted.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. as the case is). Activity 9 were now all gone. They do not function as attributes. 6.

din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. himeric. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 7. De douazeci de ani. 3. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. sunt vrednic de invidiat. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 5. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 4. Pentru alţii. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. Toate sfârşeau. 6. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Nelu. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 .Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 2. închipuirea.

12. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. nici în searbăda mea versiune. 10. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. cu surle şi cu tobe. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 9. 8. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. a făcut el.

14. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 20. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. fie la teatru. 18. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 17. 15. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. din direcţia căreia apoi. despre care. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. deşi atât de aproape. Dacă mă lovea. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. roiuri de fetiţe. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. până mai adineauri. dinspre Maria Rosetti. din care cauză pe Dora. 16. pe strada Icoanei. care era foarte “mondenă”. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. de unde venea şi Marta. apărură. În spatele lor. Avea acum un fel de vertij. 149 . izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. zise ea cu ochii mari. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. trăia larg de tot. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. fie pe stradă. toată lumea întreba cine e. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară.

decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. de mine. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. pe care ea îi admira acum. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. Pare-se că snobii. 24. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. aveau un stil al lor. Pentru mine însă. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. după ce maşina a fost reparată. până în şosea. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. 23. când au urcat râpa iar. de sus de unde eram. 22. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene.Nadina VIŞAN 21. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. pe care eu nu-l aveam. întâia noapte de război) 150 . alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.

151 . by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.1. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3.1.1.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.6.3.Clause Shift 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.3. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.4.2.2.Extraposition 7.3.2.7.2.3.2. That Complements as Subjects 7.1.5. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. Key Concepts .1.4.2.2.1.5. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.2. That Deletion 7.2.Topicalization 7.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.3.

Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.1.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. 7. Apart from those introduced by that.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. placed in a marginal position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. In other words. 153 . (3) Tell me if you need anything. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. the clause is extraposed. but also of infinitival ones.

) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.

15.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 3. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 14. 6. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 10. 4. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It is no use trying to convince her. 2. 8.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 10. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It appears that no one voted for him. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 2. 7. 5. 11. 8. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 11. 9. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It is nice to meet you. 9. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 6. 13. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 7. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 4.

4. în canal.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 3. unde se nimerea. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. I don’t expect it that he will come back. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. mă ascundeam în grabă.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 2. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 18. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 5. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 5. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. They never expected it that he would come back. 3. 2. atât 156 . în gropi. după porţi. I guess it that he will come back. 2.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 4. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. sub poduri. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 6. 3. zice Lionel.

hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. excelentă. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. 5. 7. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. 6. vor căuta să o zdruncine. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. 157 . atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. fără îndoială. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. fără să cârteşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. (Nu întotdeauna. Spunând cele ce-am spus.” 4. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă.

Consequently. 1. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. subject clauses are the frequent situation.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. this asymmetry is undone. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) While in the case of extraposition. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.2. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.1. in the case of topicalization. Pratice Read the following.

This was another era. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 3. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 7. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 5. 4. mere chance would decide. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. He was utterly gone. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 6. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. even today. She had always been the slave of chance. whether it would finally carry her off. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 2. was inconceivable.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. he felt no spring of interest in her. He did not blame Gracie. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. 8. but not now.

The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.) 160 .3. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.1. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.

we obtain. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. the verb to drive).) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. 161 . The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.e.

7.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 4. 162 .He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 8. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 2. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 3. who had just returned from Africa. 6.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 5. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.

that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.2. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.Unit seven That complements 7. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.

desire. (I-au promis o casă nouă. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. estimate.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.: (25) a. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat.2. They believe the man is guilty.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. deny. prefer.) a.) 164 . consider. They believe that the man is guilty. He announced that they were engaged. afirm. etc.1. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. suggest. promise. state.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. They promised him that he would received a new house. etc. predict. He announced their engagement. judge.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. deem. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) b. explain. communicate.) b. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.

Unit seven

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. on condition that. for example. hope =>purpose.) 172 . cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.e. In older stages of English.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) I like him in that he is smart. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. they lose their meaning.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) language. ibid. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.

să o vadă trecând. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. that we wouldn’t doubt it. That can be deleted.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) b. He gave an answer such. .) (66) 173 a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) b. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He gave such an answer as had expected.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) When the structure contains the word such.

11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. ibid.) b. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. He gave an answer such that I had expected. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. (Iris Murdoch. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.) 174 .) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.We discovered that our map has disappeared. they were chained to each other forever.

175 . (69) a.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.1.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (A prins de veste că ei vin. for instance. He said he had borrowed her money. that he uses a relaxed tone. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) c. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. say. He showed he was able to do it. He got word they were coming.3.) b. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.Unit seven That complements 7. tell).3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.

they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.3.) b. for better or worse. (Îmi place că e aici. rele. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. *I like it he was here. because that has been deleted. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.Nadina VIŞAN 7. bune. for better or worse. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. I like it that he was here. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. they were chained to each other forever. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .) (De asemenea.3.3. 7.2. (Iris Murdoch. ibid.

7) They maintain. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. which is ungrammatical in English. that they were not too late to leave. simultaneity.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 7. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.) b)He told me that she was there.4. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. you want me to believe. (“Este acolo”. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. he said. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. spuse el.) 177 . The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.

(A spus că o să o părăsească. (“Era acolo”. In the example below.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . (Am să o părăsesc. până pleacă ea. o să vină el. vine el. spuse el. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. I will leave her.) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) b. He told me that she had been there.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. (Pâna să plece. (A spus că. he said. He said he would leave her. “She was here”. The Present complement). (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.) Future Perfect -----.) b.

(Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. wish. mention. hope. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. forget. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. believe.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. report. show. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius.) b. whisper. notice. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) 179 . dream. discover. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. think. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) On the other hand. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. be amazed/concerned. With such factive verbs as realize. regret. realize it). etc. insist.etc. say. be aware. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know.

(Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) b.) b. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. She believed that the earth is round.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. we notice that general truths. She realized that all men are fools. (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. Consider also: (85) a. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. cu un respect tandru reciproc. feign habits which are not their own. in tender deference to each other. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. He knew that she thought all men were fools.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. 180 . The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.

(87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.Unit seven That complements 2.) b. There are however cases. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. such as a. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) In (88).) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. 3. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. 181 .

Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. for instance. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. John said that Harry will leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. c) John said that Harry is leaving. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. But 182 . The time is 3 o’clock. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) John thought that Harry ran. Imagine. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. / b) John said that his car is out of gas.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run.

whistling swan. quail. nighthawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. jaybird. b.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. She admired their keenness of wit. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. lark. geese both grey and white. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. love of practical jokes. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. Crows will relish what presents itself. c. Cooper’s hawk. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. kingfisher. Translate the following. redtailed hawk. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. as evidenced by its drear plumage. slyness in a fight. bluebird. lack of pridefulness. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. 183 .

a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. the young officer. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. he claimed. But as the battle raged around them. […] During the latter stages of the tale. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. in the very act of expiring. Now here he stood jailed. He had fought hard through the war. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . He died erect. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. And they might just hang him. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. war hero though he was. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. with the hammer snapping on empty loads.

topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). object ones up to the attributive function. or else. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). which they share with wh-complements. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. from the very frequent subject. on other occasions it has to stay there. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). 185 . On certain occasions that can be deleted.Unit seven That complements 7. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb.

băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. cel mai mare. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Unul din ei. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. neconvenabil şi primejdios. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Fiind 186 . ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. peste puţin. 2. Mama. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 4. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Când au văzut că mama a plecat.

dacă va mai veni. 7. 6. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. luminos şi apropiat şi când. aşa. cel puţin pentru un timp. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. va pleca din oraş la vie. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. un vis de acesta 187 . 8. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. care îl pândise. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. 9. venind de la avocat. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. ea. Se mira. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. fericit. de ce constata în sine. Nu ţi-a trecut. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 5. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute.

tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. lucrul era înfăptuit. şi mândria că a biruit. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. 11. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. liniştit. dar şi teama că.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. fireşte. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Astfel de va fi. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. 12. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Acesta. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. încă o dată. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.

spre Jurubiţa. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Pe toate. să le lămurească pe toate. 14. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. fără o vorbă scrisă. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 .Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. mai puternic decât oricând. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. ci numai aşa. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. după cum.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

9.5.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.Key Concepts .What Are Infinitive Complements 8.6.8.3.1.7.2.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.4.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.

infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. 193 . (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. From this perspective. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. That you love her is something wonderful. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. To love her is something really wonderful.) b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). I told her to be more careful in the future. It is important that you should know what you need.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (3) a. It is important for you to know what you need.) b. b. (2) a. Consider the following: • like that complements. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) • like that complements. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.1. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.

d. the Gerund. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so.) b. participial clauses. For instance. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. gerundial clauses. the Conditional. 2. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. etc. the Participle) (i. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. moduri nepersonale) By convention. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart.e. as opposed to the finite ones. 194 . (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.

To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) b. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) 195 .) c. namely no ending. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.

2. 9. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. 8. 6.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It is vital this factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 7. 3. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 5. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 10. the criterion of form. 2. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 4. (7) They saw her leave.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 8. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .

/ A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. 2. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (10) 197 . / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. hear. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive.

/ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. uncharacteristic for literary English.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. However. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. Pratice Translate the following. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. 198 (11) the universe. 3. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. . trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.

) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. to use the appropriate technical term.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. or the control constructions. In other words. as I have already mentioned. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Further on. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. 199 . since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions.

) Object: (18) a. It is important for him not to err.) b.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) 200 . the logical subject. şi creştineşte să ierţi. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. namely the agent of the event. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. PRO to forgive divine. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) In this situation. So far. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.) b. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. I hoped for him to be there in time. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to err is human.

him is not the agent of the infinitive. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. Semantically.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. He stepped aside for her to enter. not to the infinitive. but the patient of the verb persuade.) b. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. In other words. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. him is related to the main clause verb.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).

\ 202 . This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They convinced her to come back. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. I hate animals to be tortured. \ She wanted him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ They tempted him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. Likewise. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ He persuaded her to come. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ I would love them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ She promised him to leave.

Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. 203 . Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. • Last but not least.) He seems to be a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. So. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. \ They really asked her to come back.

The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. 204 . that is not required by certain verbs. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. etc. To sum up the discussion. which are said to be free.). / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. to meet her. hate. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. seem. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. appear. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine.

venture. care to. arrange. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. etc. prefer. agree to.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) 205 friend. seek (= try). contrive. condescend. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. bear. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. deign. omit. 8. presume. dislike. try. mean. endeavour./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. scheme. hate. refuse. etc. aspire to.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. / E greu să îl suporţi. deserve. intend. propose. hope.3 The Distribution of PRO . scorn. wish. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. fail.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. desire. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. want. .Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. etc. like.) b) verbs such as abide. decline. afford. need. Compare: (31) a. manage. expect.

however. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. verbs of liking and disliking. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. I hate that you should say a thing like this. suggest. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării.etc. endeavour. bear. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. desirable. I would like for him to become president of the country.) b. threaten. unlikely.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. etc. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) b. be important. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) 206 . conclude. possible. ask.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.) b. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. forget. claim.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.Nadina VIŞAN b. For all of them to have been killed is. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) 8. stand.

) b.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) 8.) 2. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) 207 . The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.

Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Direct Objects (39) a. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 4.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Like in the case of that complements. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) 208 knowledge. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. I decided for John to represent us. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.) b. the preposition is deleted. but the meaning remains. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.Nadina VIŞAN 3. .) 5.

The stew is delicious to eat. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) c) adverbial of result 209 . This paint is like concrete to work with. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. curious about. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. 6. You’re an idiot to go there. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. etc. delicious. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. He is a bastard to work for. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.: (42) a.) d.) b. She is pretty to look at.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) e.) c. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.

the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . / Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. final or introductory infinitive In this case./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Pe şleau. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. you’re a bad driver. drept să spun. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale.) I’ve never met him. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. să nu piardă trenul. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. conduci prost.) Oh. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. to tell you the truth. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.

direct. influence. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. promise. encourage. press. According to this. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. inspire. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. urge. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. need. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. inform. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. enable.) b.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.etc. nu mai vreau să te vad. b. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. oblige. (49) a. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. induce.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. etc. 8.) . swear.: (51) a.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show.

depend on. command.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.etc. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. vote.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. order. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. look to. prevail on./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. count on. nominate. etc.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint./ And now he 212 . / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. permit. elect. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. allow. name. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. choose. etc.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.

(Iris Murdoch.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). come.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.: (55) She appears to like him. i. grow. (57) He is to come any day now. this construction is lexically governed.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. be going to.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (O să întârzii/ leşin. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.verbs: appear. etc.etc. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Se pare că îi place de el. etc. be about to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. seem. An Accidental Man) 8.e.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. 213 (58) (59) . happen. (56) She grew to like him in the end.

be reported.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. In (57).etc. be considered. watch. be alleged. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). is well supported by the syntactical analysis.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). . be rumoured. be thought. overhear.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. observe. (L-au auzit insultând-o. feel. perceive. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause.) 8. etc. etc. hear.: (62) They heard him insult her. that of intention.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. be claimed.

However. consider. discover. know.) 215 (67) . find. understand. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. etc.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. believe.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. remember. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. deem.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. (Cred că este un geniu. figure.) • with a full infinitive: get. imagine. cause. presume. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. judge. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. picture. occasion.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. prove. have. recollect.

suffer.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. prefer. they had depressed and fuddled him.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. if he himself was out of spirits. expect.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. love. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. order.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. permit. mean. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. who wasn’t used to men with moods. he hated anyone to comment 216 . etc. command. want. desire. choose. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.etc.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. wish.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. Harold.

And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. to make sure we attended strictly to business. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. so that we might get to the future and have done. A little crossly. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . (L. he didn’t envy those above it. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. the herd instinct was very strong in him.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it.P. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. though he tended to look down on those below it. He suspected hostility at once. Both seemed to him a little unreal.

9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. From this perspective. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. 218 . Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. The last criterion. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions.Nadina VIŞAN 8. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.

b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. e important ce întrebări pui. de asemenea. de bună seamă. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. bunăoară. dar să nu-ţi spună. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. lovit şi umilit. fireşte. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. mai bine219 . dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. să-l capete. E posibil. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. un bărbat şi o femeie. Şi tu să fii. e) Când doi oameni. într-o zi. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte.

să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet.Şt. avusese dreptate. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. De era vară. încă. 220 .Nadina VIŞAN zis. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. aşa cum îi apăruse el. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. în parte. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. în jos. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. (B. ca să nu şi-o amintească. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Însă Paul Achim trăise. mai pline de înţeles. un picior.Şt. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Să spui de pildă. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. pe care deja o uitase. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. sau. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. mai bine de două decenii. . (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. să nu vrea să se şteargă. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. în parte. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în ploaie.Delavrancea. d-a lungul gâtului. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. că eşti tânăr.

orice bucureştean ştie. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. (Al. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. un miros îngrozitor. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut.. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. fie ea şi grăbită. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. prin faţă e coborârea. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. deşi. biata Muti. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. sunt aici cu tot ce am. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. şi nu un amant. de fapt. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia..Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.. şi prin faţă. orice-ar fi. ei. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. o mizerie.. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. nici ca să 221 . caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. Într-un cuvânt. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. Mă laud singură.

ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede.

participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.

1.4.1.9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.5 Key Concepts .2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Participial Constructions 9.3.2.3.The Participle Contents: 224 9.2.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.The Gerund 9.2.1.1.2.The Verbal Noun 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.

1.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1. (Susan doarme. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Due to this situation. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.) 225 .

) As you can see in this second case. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. 226 . the past participle can appear after a noun. Susan has been killed. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.e. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.) More infrequently. (A venit Susan) b. Susan has come. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). This situation is also characteristic for past participles. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. it functions attributively. were closing. been and killed are past participle forms.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. blood-shot and painted. In (2) the forms come. too: (6) Her eye-lids. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. i. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.

Arriving here. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) c.) c. o să ajung la timp. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) b. (Ştiind cine era el. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. I will arrive there on time. Knowing who the guy was.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. God willing. o să ajung la timp. leul poate să atace.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. If provoked. When singing.) d. Oh.) b. people should pay attention to high notes. începură să cânte. they started singing. she ran away. he will eventually marry her. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) 227 . a lion can attack. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Weather permitting. (Sosind aici. mother permitting. ea o luă la fugă.

) b. He was found stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found killed by a bullet. behold.) 228 . (L-au descoperit că fură.) b. smell. They found him killed by a bullet. which stands for an adverbial clause. (L-am descoperit furând.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. hear. I found him stealing. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. respectively.) ii. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. watch. notice.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (Am simţit-o tremurând.

send.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. etc. start. recollect. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. He’ll soon get things going. etc.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I must get my hair cut. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) b. etc. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . I heard it said that men are a bore.: a. hear.) b. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. confess. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. set. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. find. (A fost văzut plângând. a.) c.) • Causative verbs: get. she knew herself dismissed. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. make a.) b. recollect. have.: When she heard his words. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon.) • Causative verbs: get . (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. etc. have. feel. leave. keep. know.) • mental perception verbs: remember.

/ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. Men like shopping made easy.) b. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. / Nu după multă vreme./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 ./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. lovit şi plin de sânge. command I ordered my bill made out. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) • verbs of permission.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul.

Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. 231 . / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. with its lips drawn back. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. sitting taut between her father and her sister.e. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / In any case. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / Dinny. Unlike the gerund. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.2. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / My Lord.1. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9.

se va opri şi ploaia. People were sleeping in the next room. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (Văzând acestea. It had been uprooted by the gale. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I have looked through the fashion magazine. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I knew that the murderer was still at large.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. 2. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I left. The tree had fallen across the road. am plecat. I was astonished at what I saw. using either a present participle. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 3. 4. I left. the rain will stop. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. I turned on the light. 6.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. 7. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . She had heard it all before.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. (Desi nu ştia limba. 5. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. am plecat.

shoulder.Running into the room. minded (3 times). three. 10. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. sharp. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. bald. handed. empty. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. a scorpion bit him. Read the sentences and try to correct them. 10. hearted (twice). lighted. open. He fed the dog. fishy. 3. my hands often get very cold. 11. Leaving the cinema. 9. skinned. coloured. his horse fell at the last jump. I slammed the door of my room. straight. eagle. 2. mown. a pot of paint fell on my head. haired (twice). 233 . one of the eggs broke. cloth. Climbing down the tree. cornered. narrow. stony. Dropped by parachute. Barking furiously. b) Headed (5 times). How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 12. 5. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 4. Reading in bed. roast. 6. an idea suddenly occurred to me. shaven. He sat down to his own dinner. many. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Mother punished me for my mistake. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. covered. 8. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Passing under a ladder. quick. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. wooden. Getting out of bed. I let the dog out of the room. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. They found the treasure. stricken. eyed (3 times). broad. red (twice). 8. Riding in the first race. lion. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Tied to the post.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. drunken. 9. 7. open. dark.

lead. 7.I fell on the ice. _______ for their elegance and precision. Whales.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. deer. / Swiss watches. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. graven. candle. man. (take) 2. In the following pairs of sentences. were taken to hospital.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. hidden. _______ my arm. wealth. shorn. rotten._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. meat. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . _______ for a bargain. I stared at the canvas for ages. The film. lamb. shrunken. the same verb is missing twice. image. stream. (grow) 4. Translate into English: 1. (admire) 5. are sold throughout the world. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. was today taken back to prison. (find) 6. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. meaning. (injure). _______ by S. duty. is expected to be a great hit./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. are in grave danger of extinction. plank. The escaped prisoner. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (produce) 3. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. eyes. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. / Three people.Spielberg. (hunt). ill-gotten. b) grass. head. bounden. / Many old people . ________ hiding in a barn. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.

care le rânduia. le cocea. păsări tăiate. deodată sufocat. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. întinse. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. După câtva timp. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. precum şi foile de plăcintă. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. legume date prin mai multe ape. trezit. şi moi. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. 3. Şi. ca şi cum. 4.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. O umbreluţă. 2. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. când strânsă. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . când deschisă. le fierbea. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. nesigur şi moale. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Şi sufletul său. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc.

(Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. Likewise. According to this criterion. crezi. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.Nadina VIŞAN 9. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. 236 . A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Dacă vezi. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. The Gerund 9.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.1.2.2.

His winning and your losing were both surprising.2.2. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. That he won and you lost was surprising.) b. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. Consider the following table.) 9. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. In that. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. Him winning and you losing was surprising. gerunds differ from participles.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.

(Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul.) 2. *It was illegal growing a beard. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) Unlike participles.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. Consider (32). In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.) b. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. as being verbal 238 . A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. It was illegal to grow a beard. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.

He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. Participles vs. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) 3.) 9. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.) b.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.3.) b.2. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. It’s no good talking to her. as offered in the table below: 239 . (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.

3. + noun] 1. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . passive ones She was crying. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. forms: continuous . Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. babies suck their thumb. 2. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. (adverbial of time) 4. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home.

/ Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 .

5. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 10. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 3. 2. 12. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. Gambling is his favourite pastime. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 11. He was spotted talking to her. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 13. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. eating habits/ eating people. 7. 4. 12. crying game / crying woman. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 6. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 8. 15. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 242 .Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 14. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. shooting gallery / shooting star. 9. swimming duck / swimming trunks.

they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. but the presence of a direct object (i.e.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.e. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . a The absence of an of phrase. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.3.Unit nine Ing complements 9. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.

GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. George’s shooting the attacker.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. These are features that normally characterize any noun. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. In the second situation. How can we tell? In the first case. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.

/ The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. Jim left quietly./ His sudden coming puzzled her. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. 245 ./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. very large. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / His coming there puzzled her.

we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. whenever we meet an –ing form. It has been noticed that. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. the meaning is different. With the infinitive. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. Look. for example. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.Nadina VIŞAN 9.4. For instance. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). ING Forms and Infinitives. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. However.

(S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. containing an infinitive.) The first example. anterior to the verb in the main clause. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. having left) is infrequently used in English. future-oriented value of the infinitive). Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) After looking at this example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. (S-a oprit din mâncat. and the most well-known one.g. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. On the other hand. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) . posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.

(Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. i.) . verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. recollect.) As you can see. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.e. which means that they are similar in meaning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.

) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. dar asta este.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. but that’s it.) . (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. In the second example. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. the action is not completed. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.

e) need. In the second example.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.human] objects. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. the event has not happened yet. want With [+ human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. mean has the sense signify.) With [.) wedding.) 250 . The house needs to be repaired. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.) b. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Casa trebuie reparată. The house needs repairing.

I did ask Mr.’ ‘In any case.’ ‘Tell me. however appearances were against us. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. Croom (try) (follow) one. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. but they went by too quickly.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Lady Corven. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. it’s overrated. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. whereas in the second case. my Lord. gerund or infinitive. (take) down her answer. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. my Lord.

and went out (post) it himself. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. licked the envelope with passion. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ 252 .’ said Clare. I just used the word and they fell. suddenly. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. I must go back now. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. Then.

whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. Last but not least. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms.Unit nine Ing complements 9. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Participles mainly function as adverbials. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.5. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Pratice In the following texts. the 253 .

moving up towards his chest. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. someone looking for survivors. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. according to the books he read. The sight of the two children. but then he saw it billowing up from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. covering the girl’s head. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. It was like a mist. slowly rising in a swirling motion. Then he saw movement at his feet. then the noise and the cracking stone. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. The two sides were moving apart. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. down into God knows where. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. the enormous split in the earth. At first. She started coughing. it 254 . hoping he would see somebody up there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. down. their edges crashing inwards. He looked up towards the daylight.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him.

and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. Having a French governess. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. for Dornford was busy on an important case. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. and sunlight.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. 255 . brightening to winter brilliance. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. slanted on to her cheek. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. She finished what jobs there were. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.

dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. În urma slugii.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Vaucher şi cu mine. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. totul se animă deodată. 2. and then went riding with her in the rain. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. mama mea. într-o joi. ucenicul său necredincios. Ridicându-se. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . cei doi Mamona. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. închizând ochii.

am ştiut şi cine. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. aşezată cu spatele la noi. privit. pe mama mea părând absentă. auzit şi zadarnic. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. la mine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. Şi deodată. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. totul mi se părea cunoscut. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. afară ploua în continuare. pe Vaucher. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. 3. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. dar ştiutoare. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. aplecându-se puţin. Neclintiţi. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. se duse lânga mama şi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. după cum îi spusese mama. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. o sărută pe frunte.

oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. cu tot cu baraca. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu soba. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. 5. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. dar. şi. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. Au coborât din camion încet. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. camionul a plecat.

Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

13. to retire early from my employment. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. in some way. I am sorry not to have seen you. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. without profound questioning. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. since I have decided. he had been advised. 2. 4. 10. he had not yet been able to estimate. You have been much in my thoughts. was unclear to Mitzi. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. and meet it right here at home. 9. 5. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 3. and this particularly of late. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. and that 263 . 11. 6. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. apart from his distress for parents. 7. Having regard to the date of drafting. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. How much. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 12. How this time was to come. whereas if she went away she would get none. because of pity. this would really hurt. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly.

Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / In the end. / Whenever I visited my aunt. 19. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / Before you go on changing the subject. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. he did not come to see her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. 264 . for attending his sister’s wedding. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. looking forward had not yet taken place. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. this always makes us feel embarrassed. even for months. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. please consider his proposition. 14. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 17. I was made say Grace before every dinner. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand.

And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. 265 . an open-air person. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. They hated trying on. she said. and it was bound. centered in London and themselves. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . They rushed into shops. At country houses she had met them of course. quite unexpectedly. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. Though much in request before her marriage. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. Instead of which she had married. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. it was said. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. her recklessness. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. of all people. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. Essentially. rather than the hefty type. She felt as when. a little girl. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. Vulgar men did. her old friend Hugh. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. without discovery. of the quick and wiry. Tony was a child. Clarissa used to think. cotton mills at Manchester. (and there he was. to end in some awful tragedy.

Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des.Rindurile dvs. astfel. but lying in her bath. De uitat. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Reading many novels. Cind l-a chemat. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii.Over the River) 2.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. short of the contacts of love. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. viguros si vesel in felul lui. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. the more she would be torturing him. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. she was uneasy. nu a facut-o pentru asta. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. cre s-au nascut lent. aveam tot mai 266 . ii faceau bine. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. to keep abreast of the current. Bolnava nu se simtea. nu puteam sa le uit. si in plus. (John Galsworthy . with all its impatience of restraint. The closer she allowed him to come to her. indeed. era un bun sfatuitor. she professed.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.

se stie. (St. (St. Personal.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. latimea si ascutisul labei.) 267 .Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. lungimea picioarelor. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.) 6. are nevoie. Banulescu – ibid.) 7. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. Banulescu – ibid. Banulescu – ibid. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Ce a iesit. nu pricep nimic. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. cit mai au de trait. Daca tu. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. pe scaunul lui tare. (St. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. 4. fa-o. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin.) 5. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Milionarule. ca si tine. poate fi compensata. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. (St. o data sau de doua ori. Banulescu – ibid. mi-am zis. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. vaazut cindva.

Who came home from the war. when I was even younger than you. Translate them. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. A story-book romance. Who. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. for being a renegade. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. to Emmanuel College. delivered from the holocaust. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. And had a brother killed in the same battle. my grandfather. (. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. 2. Cambridge. Arthur Atkinson M. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. a wounded soldier. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.. Who when asked about his memories of the War. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Who told me..P. Who was may father. Could he be blamed. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father.

That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. How 269 . Fabianism. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). 4.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. and because – but this is mere speculation. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. he had already engaged himself? 3. deep-set. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. Rachel Williams. a moody man. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. to whom.

uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. cu taina aceasta. la şcoală. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. 270 . Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum au tăcut ei. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Ion. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Ion. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. om mare.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. satul. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum a trăit el. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum a ajuns el. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie.

începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. 271 . ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. împotriva tuturor. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. greşeli dintr-astea. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. Când actriţa. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. L-au derivat cei din teatru. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. din franţuzeşte. de mama lor. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. când voi fi singur. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. singurul lui stăpân. cu sau fără voie. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel.pune totul in discuţie. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1.

Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Într-o vreme. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. dam buzna peste automobile. continuând. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. 3. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Tot aşa. fostă prietenă din copilărie. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. A devenit palid. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. 4. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. 6. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Am început. sau ridicole. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. 5. provocându-le. e îndrăgostită de un actor. de pildă. parcă începusem s-o uit. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. ci un sistem de acomodare. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. privindu-mă în ochi. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. traversând. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. 272 . nevasta-mea. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. pe jumătate prezent.

căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. şi dacă merg întins. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. 11. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. E o problemă. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Am început. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. că nu m-am gândit la asta. fireşte. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. De altminteri. ca un acrobat. iar. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. 9. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. să merg întins. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. 8. şi să nu ameţesc.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. Aş vrea să mă las jos. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. Dacă nemţii înaintau. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. fără să mă opresc o clipă. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. orice s-ar întâmpla. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului.

16. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. In curind. nu mai semana. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint.Ma. 14. cu mirare. de la lucruri personale. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. nu mai pricepu nimic. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Ilie nu-l asculta. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. se uita in jos. de la obiecte de pret. de uimire. trebuia sa le spuna. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. la carti. 15. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta.. La un moment dat. Uite. Adica tot trecutul. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. eu am venit sa va intreb. la fata locului. Ii venea greu. la amintiri. Greu era din partea asta. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. dar nu se mai putea. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : .. 274 . de la proces. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Auzindu-l. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 17.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. 13. Acum isi ferea privirea. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea.

nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. There was even 275 . dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. asa cum facuse pina acum. vorbe asa si-asa. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Zimbea siret. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. i se paru ca aici e ceva. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Nu era nevoie. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. 19. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. dar. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read .Ce sa fac. cum zicea Anghel. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. apoi se uitau la Ilie. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Aici era ceva. . trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. 20. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. which was part of his rich outfit. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. se indeparta nepasator. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea.

She was one 276 . 4. a simplification. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. paying no attention. for the instant. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. He walked a long time. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. to admit that she was a proud.Nadina VIŞAN relief. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. resuming her walk. He felt then. on this occasion. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. to take his way home on foot. conversationally.Miller at her hotel.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. at least. 5. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. rude woman. the young lady. asked for Mrs. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. going astray. 3. gave an exclamation. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. But Daisy. to move fast.

so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. 6. as text book. indeed. He left me musing. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. on the other hand. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. and wondering what the deuce he meant. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. as it were. Advising with me. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. she was sometimes more conservative even than I.Walker. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. She rustled forward. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. while residing abroad. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. 8. often. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. in radiant loveliness. as to projected changes. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. Her daughter. make a point. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. of studying European society. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. smiling and chattering. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. making Paul stop and look at her. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. She appeared. 7. in their own phrase. uncomfortably.

with his humorous density. H. or at any rate not heeding. and acute too. was only half satisfied with this. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. and perceived that it must be something important. and.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. H. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. not seeing. could see he was remarkable. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. 9.’ 278 . for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. 10. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. though E. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. was immensely struck with him. H. 11. The agent became a very familiar type to H. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. while Paul. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. which was deliberate. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. wondered what they were talking about.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him.

But she gave him no chance. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. as he looked back. appeared to fill his whole childhood. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. 13.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. which was very copious. had the power to chain his sympathy. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. not glancing at him for a moment. that the haunting wonder which now. H. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. 15. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 14. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who.

solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. At the theatre. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. The whole establishment. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. 18. It was very possible she was capricious. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. proudly.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. H. ironically reserved. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. 17. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. disheveled and distracted. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. 16. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. yet 280 . from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. and to H. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. as a general thing. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. and there were others. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. where the Pearl of Paraguay. dragging herself on her knees. that she must be on the contrary.

that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. and lurking within this nebulous design. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. 19. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. with the poor. No one ever listens to her. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 281 . One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. would always be more or less irritating. *Old. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. had blown a certain chill. 2. H. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. It came over H. 20. Their mistakes and illusions. young men were invited. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. on which the damp breath of the streets. didn’t mind. 3. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all.

He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 12. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. striding like a Spartan maid. 10. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 6. 11. I was definitely going to be sick. walking quickly. I blundered by. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Either John or he * have got to give in. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. c) When I saw her sitting there. Rachel. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. I saw her as a vision. her shining blue feet twinkling. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 282 . That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. “Oh. 7. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. her arms held out. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. slipped on some steps./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 8. I walked fast. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 5. 9.

The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.

And then I ventured to add that. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. 5. 4. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. 3. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. where my servant. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. could cook my meals. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. but that we saw and pitied. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 2. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. if they were poor. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. which was really alarming. The old women spoke no English.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts.

Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. etc. before they left town. apart from his distress for parents. he. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. on Saturday. Munt. apart form his distress for parents. had not been able to estimate. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious = was + anxious. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. his. etc. Constituents: He. was informed. distress. to settle.apart from his distress = apart from. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. How much.g. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. this would really hurt. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc. Constituents: how much. was anxious. on a house. 285 .g. this. to pay their annual visit. at noon. would really hurt. Constituents: Margaret.

interrogative. listen to this. negative/ Come with me.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – comparison. Second clause is an imperative. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. interrogative. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted. second clause is non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 .SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.. negative/ If you like jazz.. – first clause is an ifclause. negative. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. and is non-assertive. interrogative. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. which is not assertive. – non-assertive. don’t bother her. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – non-assertive. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – assertive/ Don’t do that.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – first clause is non-assertive. it is assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. which context is non-assertive. / If you like her.

/ I can hardly understand what they are saying. everybody used to travel by coach. not even this thing. – they told the truth to somebody else./ Hardly interested in the conference./ They weren’t really confused. but nothing out of the ordinary./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. not even when it’s quiet around. – someone hates animals. the two brothers dared to protest. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ Not long ago. – someone did that. –double negation cancellation./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / They didn’t leave. only irresolute./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ When he learned the news./ He was smart enough. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but not more than she does others. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. but it wasn’t them. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. / She does like John. – I like somebody else./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / She does not hate animals. he was hardly pleased. / I don’t like her very much.but to someone else./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / You have never met 287 . but it isn’t Susan. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ He was exceptionally cunning.

negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem..negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.. / This is hardly the 288 ... is he? / Few of them stayed behind. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. they go skiing in the mountains.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. / Should they not have told her the truth. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. not even when you were very young.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her... – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. not even in my dreams. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. were they? / This boy is no good.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.Nadina VIŞAN her.. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – I cannot look him in the eye. *did he?/ They caused us no problems..negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. – negative insertion. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. did they? / No problems were caused after all.

– Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise.. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.. never trust a man again. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat./ We seldom receive such generous praise./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Not many people came to see her. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I never see her. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – I almost never look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I don’t often look at her like that. when we started our holiday.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain.Never before did anything like that happen in our street.Never shall I trust a man again./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Almost nobody liked him. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. Activity 8 I shall never. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.. but she also lent him a car. / I seldom look at her like that. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.

/ He reckoned he would not win her over. / Don’t worry./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – Only on this man could she rely. – Nowhere could the keys be found. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – They don’t believe she likes them. –At no time did we leave the office. / They believe she does not like them. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. / She could rely on nobody but him. / They say he once had someone very close. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ I somewhat like his proposal. / Come on. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. you can’t do anything about it any more. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all.. – I don’t expect he will come here again. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – They say he never had anyone very close./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – 290 . / You must on no account touch this machinery. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – Come on./ Well. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser.I don’t like his proposal at all. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. you can still do something about it. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain.

either. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – Well her husband has always been a good person./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / She hardly ever comes here.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Bob is still living at that address. –Alice still lives here.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow../ Peter knows some English and so does John. – You can’t be telling lies. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / You must pay that fine. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Well. / You needn’t send her anything./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. 291 . too. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / You must be telling lies. – She almost always comes here. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – You should send her something.

/ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Nu spune nu niciodata. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. Oh./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. I haven’t seen her in years. not yet. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ Zis si facut./ You took his leaving you very hard.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ N-are nici cap nici coada. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. / Don’t go on believing him. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ 292 ./ Nimic de facut./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ They say this Ph. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. to any of us. He didn’t move a muscle. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc.D./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ You look so tired today./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ E un baiat de zahar. e un magar./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. / Jim is so brave./ Norocul la noroc trage./ He’s a happy man./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. give me a hand./ Have they rung the bell? No. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. He isn’t that smart. has never studied anywhere. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. It’s no wonder./ Nobody told us a thing. I haven’t done anything. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Am avut un car de necazuri. / Please./ He was a tough man. ever since I got this ulcer. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin.

without too much determination. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.’ ‘Nici o problema. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. no story./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. We had nothing in common. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ Nu-i nici un deranj.’/ Deloc descurajat. slowly. nothing. one way or another.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. no memory. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. with the same needs they had.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. that I was a decent man. for I thought this threatening. I had never had the opportunity to prove. 293 . I hadn’t really expected miracles. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. feebly. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . parasi camera. thrown out./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.

I find it hard to understand where you are at”. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. he was sitting beside me. We have to judge it as it is. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. Not for a moment had I thought that. • It was my turn to say something. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people.. by coming here to the monastery. good. let alone irritable. I admit. not as we would like it to be or some other way. he immediately answered me patronizingly. to say the least. things you do any moment. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. or if you understood what I meant. on the front seat. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. I was sleepy and tired. bad. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. Unfortunately. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. Your judgement is false. but facts. I’d be so happy if it were so. Radu had calmed down.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. clear or confusing. It’s not made up of theories and the like. You really made me mad. it’s not words. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. that’s what the world is about. your story. the only 294 . but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case.

we are leaving. behind these big. too? A gun is power. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. you do as you think fit. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. and an inability to act. me. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. me. either. Look. although it was a difficult thing to do. But I was just wondering. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. keep your conscience clean: you have one. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. or you are lying hidden. • So. it’s yours.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. clears your way. it’s your problem. it solves troubles. 295 . soon we’ll be in town. to fight. I won’t interfere. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. keep it squeaky clean. fear might be hiding. But what about you and Melania. or call the respect of others. no matter how huge they are. and if you like. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. you can go to Ursu’s. did you ever step up front. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. just to please myself. precious words. Anyway. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. as Baciu would have us be. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing.

. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. – incorrect.incorrect. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Negative attraction b) 1.. will he?. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. as soon as he delivered it.correct 3. firmly determined not to answer immediately. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . -correct 3. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. . She admires neither Susan nor Jane. the sentence is incorrect 3.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. or some other woman. because before is a positive polarity item 2.Negative incorporation 296 .Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. The villagers were not very religious. correlatives are mixed 2.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . has not arrived yet – double negation. but they gradually got used to it. has yet arrived -correct 2. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. But it was not because I had no answer to give.

) Însă era cam târziu. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Nu putea să se mişte. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. nu era 297 . (ibid. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Her stillness. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Avea sufletul prea obosit. His spirit was too tired. (ibid. she couldn’t marry him. prea răscolit. much less ((NPI) for her. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. either (NPI). slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. b) But it was rather (API) late. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. too troubled. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. not happy at all (NPI). One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. Ştia că are dreptate. yet.

and not a little unsteadily. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. Ba dimpotrivă. she looked younger than ever (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. inima îi batea năvalnic. he made his way to the screen. his heart was beating fast.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. The Satanic Verses. if anything (NPI). se îndreptă spre paravan.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. (Salman Rushdie. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. e) At length.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. 298 . d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). (ibid. (ibid. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. şi destul de hotărât. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni.

and probably an administrative headache as well. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. 299 . că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. The point was. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. i) What did C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. but his father would have none of it (NPI).) C. care if the school were willing to treat him.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Home receded from the prodigal son. the gift was useless. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. h) C. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Ce-i pasă lui C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut.

Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. . correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. 300 . correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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yes. keep Condrat away from her. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. she likes to entrance them. they were. 2. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. She has an eye for gentle men. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. Stavre Paici. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. to make them lust after her. you are in enough trouble as it is. Chizlinski. Fenia. “Now. Luca Horobet. she didn’t wear a ring. and then what do you 308 . do you really think that this vixen. Fenia. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. all godfearing husbands and fathers. now she was chatty. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Vica.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. the bitch. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village.

4. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. He got him out of his mosque. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . You said: “Doesn’t this guy. her hair pinned with blue combs. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. G. 3. The mullah. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. have a girlfriend. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. the minister of Tartars and Turks. with a railway station and a mosque. a seventy-eight year old lad. dragging his feet listlessly. ankle-long flowered calico. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. It even takes him a while to go to the window. what’s her name.

But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic.

. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination 2.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – sentence coordination 7. John and Mary are ready. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. yellow and blue.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. John and Mary are the newly married couple. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Our flag is red. Her pet kitten is black and white. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.) 9. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. and I passed. – similar situation 10. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.phrasal coordination (in this case. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . John is ready and Mary is ready. our respective examinations.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5..

Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. many guest or few. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. but not John. We can and will demand payment. 10. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. her idea and John’s. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 6. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. 7. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. your proposal and his. but John does not play football. much satisfaction or little 312 . – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words).) Joan plays many games. that method and those. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. your work and mine. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Activity 5 This book and the other. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 9. 8. 2. 5. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. and even tennis. Activity 4 1. her son and others.

magazines are only for children. The facts and figures 3. Touch and go 10. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. He read. 4. Thick and thin 11. He snapped at him and slapped him. Life and soul 5. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Bread and butter 16. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Pros and cons 4. Over and above 13. etc. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Safe and sound 313 .) 6. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Activity 8 1. 8. Ups and downs 6. Spick and span 9. Law and order 8. 7. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Wear and tear 12. (I have always fought for progress and always will. To and fro 15. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. I have always fought and will fight for progress.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. 3. High and low 2. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. but not simple. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Few and far between 14. Swings and roundabouts 7. 5.

Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 7. 7. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. b. 4. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 2. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 4. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 8. Asymmetric 20. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. exclusive 17. inclusive 16.. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 2. 314 . Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. My son and heir is safe. – symmetric. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 5. 10. 3. 1. – symmetric. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric 18. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 5. Not John but his two sons are to blame. Asymmetric 19. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 9. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 3.symmetric 11. exclusive 15. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – symmetric. – symmetric 10. There are some chairs and a table in the room. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. My son and daughter are twins. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Cathy and David have arrived. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 6. Symmetric 13. – symmetric 2.There is a table and some chairs in the room. Symmetric 21. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 10. 9.

Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. ‘Madam. (2) 1. 9. They came to me. 3. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 3. 11. 12. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. clothes and all. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. He’s neither fish.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 14. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 10. 4. 7. Her husband is long dead and buried. Jim thought it over for a while. 8. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. for better or worse. There are doctors and doctors. Should he pour water in the basin. 6. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. nor fowl. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. No drinking and driving. 2. thanks for asking. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. Brother or no brother. We’ll stick together. 2. Not only should you rest 315 . or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. By hook or by crook. He went to bed. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. it was too small. 5. 15. I’ll still finish this paper.

just like when he was thirty. They hadn’t kept him there too long. both dead and buried. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. 316 . triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. and she listens to him. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. it would work out fine. tense like a bow. he’d leap high. their common ground. stop dead in his tracks. 2. and then. so he could leap in pursuit. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. an important man. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. without mentioning financial matters. You know. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. she knows for sure. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. but she blinks in approval. but he’d come out a cripple.Nadina VIŞAN assured. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. So she’ll listen to him. he starts lecturing her about life and things. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. so he’d gone down and died in no time. as she always does. she started doing a great job. what’s its name. And. tense with concentration. This. Her first husband had been a professor. Mrs. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. What do you know? The moment Mrs. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally.’ (3) 1. at equal intervals. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Whatever she tried her hand at. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth.

what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. – Susan. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as an object (direct).Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . at me Activity 2: 1. whomever wanted to listen. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as a modifier 3. – obligatory elements: she.subordinate. came. – she. she looked at me sadly. you. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – she. looked. – obligatory elements: I.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .subordinate. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.subordinate. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. is aware. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . told. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – she. functioning as an adjunct 2. cannot tell.

subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that we should. remove our home yet again . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate.subordinate.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.complement b) 1. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . since the main verb is think of something) 5. that you are choosing exile . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . at our age.

direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. outbuildings. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. a barn.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. a house. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement.complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano .

adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. (…) He dashed back. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. direct object/ and done – wh complement. sickle in hand. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. (…) ‘Well. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. without straightening her back. that kept her constantly tense and grim.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. staring at each other. When Anton put the sickle down. But other people. subject/ to do such again – complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .A few days before the war. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime.wh complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Activity 5 1. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. His wife was reaping the wheat silently.

he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Only he had Ana to think of. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. First. or other more hidden means. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. but also his sharp nose. rather than a real threat. as if they were at his beck and call. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. that was for sure. Why! He was not of two minds. you need courage even for this small thing. but he doesn’t spurn either. 321 . although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. For no bold man really falters. or if he does. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. while on other occasions he would show caution. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Not even at this point. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. he will turn back and no longer be daring. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Ana could not stand a trip now. while they spoke from miles away. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. 2. 3. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy.

they would ruin the arrangement. he had postponed writing back. it was the women. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. In fact. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. and twice we were requested to get out. come on.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. are we getting off again? What is wrong. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and on Monday followed another feast). who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. But it was not ok. by the cars of some of us. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. and when things didn’t go as planned. We were going to drive to a vineyard. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. So. without really knowing why. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. And here’s how this first day looked. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. in Odobesti. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. 322 . they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. Twice did we get in the car. to see some mutual friends. 4. under the silliest of pretexts. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. although he could have said so earlier.

I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 6. who was just passing by. which was silly of him. 3. which was a pity. 4. most of whom were from England. You couldn’t join the party. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 10. 8. when we first met . Activity 2 1. This is my husband whom I love very much.restrictive 7. 4. Activity 3 1. 3. The students.restrictive 6. 6. 7. 9. 2. all of whom would answer to his questions. 5. like their teacher. 7.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE .She came to London where I went too. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. any of whom would answer to questions. 8. John told his friend a story about the king. 11.restrictive 4. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 5. I bought Jim a book that he liked.free 8. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.restrictive 2. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. where I least expected 323 . where I spent my youth . To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. on which this occurred . These are people who we cannot tell much about. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 10. The students like their teacher. why they all left . He told her the secret.

What Inman remembered – subject. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. come up front. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. When . who think so highly of yourselves. about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 6. Why .subject 9. where we talk money – predicative. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. where – predicative 7. 7. when . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. 5. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. 4. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.free Activity 4 1.subject 8. was very displeased with the situation. which . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. 3. Who . Of all the persons there.free 9. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. What I’m saying – subject.Nadina VIŞAN . Where . Where he was from – adjunct. I. however sad . Where . Which – subject 4. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Activity 5 1. 2. You. 6. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.restrictive 10.adjunct 11. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.adjunct 3.When Ada remarked – adjunct. what their parents made them.adjunct 5. the prince chose Cinderella. who cannot say a word.adjunct 10. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. What – direct object 2. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.

the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. how . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. what . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what little she knew – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . which requires an accusative form.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.attribute 12.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. whatever – predicative 13. which is ungrammatical due to the[.

but whose second cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. having changed quite a number of jobs. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. in his turn. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. due to its invariable character. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . a rather tiny looking man. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose great-grandfather.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a sergeant. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. got married and had a daughter. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who.

– no pied piping 5.His father’s friends. .yes 7. . Irene.no 5. The problem of safe transportation. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. – yes 2.yes 3. no easy answers to which could be offered. – no pied piping 327 . although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. he rarely saw now. he requested that the public be excluded. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.yes 10. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. . – yes 6. . whose interest he most sincerely shared. was now complete. . – obligatory pied piping 2.obligatory 4.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. In the interest of public decency. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. – no 9. has been troubling them forever. – yes. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.obligatory 3. . knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. His friends. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. with deletion of the noun friends]. – no 4. . This story. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.yes Activity 9 1. were now all gone. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.

for instance. For twenty years. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. the third born son. In other people’s opinion. yours. 6. 8. Nelu. 3. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. I am to be envied. Only an ugly endless dream remained. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. irrespective of age and nature. I did so. 7. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive.and he couldn’t thank me enough. 4. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. where two teams battled every day… 5. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 328 .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. Everything was ending. For all the four children. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 2. or as of a vast arena.

You are newly arrived here. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 17.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. she said. on Icoanei street. staring aimlessly. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 12. 13. He was suffering from dizziness. 14. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. barely glittering in the distance. 11. from MR street. the tram was rattling along. leaving streets and houses behind. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. Behind them. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. since I don’t really know which my true life is. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. Let me tell you my last conclusion. although she was standing quite close to him. 10. All that you have read is rubbish. What you’re saying sounds very nice. where from Marta was coming too. 16. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 329 . He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 15.R.

From the vantage point I was in. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. So. While we were poor. 24. But. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. day by day. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. While some trees are still green. 330 . If he had hit me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. had a personal style in clothes. But for me. I don’t know what might have happened. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. after the car was fixed. 21. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. She was a woman of means. or the clash of stars above. or the many Egyptian dynasties. who only lived once in this world. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. so optimistic and composed? 19. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 22. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I could see my woman falling away from me. who prompted everyone on the street. had a huge house in Bucharest. in her pursuits. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. which I did not posses. 23. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 20. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. likes and dislikes.

subject 4. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. 6. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – extraposed. 8. 331 . It was suggested that they should meet the President. 2. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – questionable. It appears that no one voted for him.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. object 5. prepositional object 11. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. direct object 3. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – extraposed. 3. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 7. subject 8. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – extraposed. – impossible 7. subject 2. for pragmatic reasons 5. subject 9.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – unextraposed. object 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . direct object 10. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – the same as 3.

18. same as 12.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 9. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – grammatical. . You know it only too well that he will not marry you. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. same as 12.. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. same as 12.grammatical. – impossible. 14. – the same as 12. – impossible 11. – correct 2. but pragmatically impossible 4. I guess it that he will come back. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – impossible. Activity 3: 1. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – incorrect. . It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. a bit too intricate 5. 15. 17. 10. although a bit intricate 2. idiomatic formula 16.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. I don’t expect it that he will come back. It is nice to meet you. – impossible. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – grammatical. .grammatical. – impossible. but pragmatically impossible 3. They never expected it that he would come back. – grammatical. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.correct 4. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. tense influences the 332 . – same as 12. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.incorrect. It is no use trying to convince her.

(Not always. 333 . When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. under bridges. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.’ Lionel says. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. 3. though. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.incorrect. thus. in the ditch.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. in the pits on the road. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! .’ 4. 2. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. behind gates. – correct 6. 5. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).

Nadina VIŞAN 6. By saying this.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa. without trying to protest too much. 2. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. 4. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. who had just returned from Africa. 8. who had just returned from Africa. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. It is less ambiguous than the first. prime-minister. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 7. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. – the first sentence is the better of the two. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. because it is less ambiguous. since the 334 . – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. – the second sentence is questionable. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. 3. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.

/ He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 6. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. extraposition is obligatory here. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – both sentences are grammatical. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. so there is no need for extraposition. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 335 . – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 8. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 5./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 7. The second and third sentences are grammatical. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete.

extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. The idea that he had had earned him good money. .We discovered that our map has disappeared. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. . required by deverbal noun 336 .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. (Iris Murdoch. coordinated. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. .prepositional object. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) complement that clauses.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. (Iris Murdoch. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. ibid.relative Activity 9 1.adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object. – adverbial of sequence/result. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – relative 3. – subject. for better or worse.complement 4. ibid.) adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 5. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. . – complement that clause. they were chained to each other forever. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – complement 5. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – complement 2. – prepositional object.

f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. you want me to believe. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. that deletion is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. f) John said that Harry would leave. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that is obligatory. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant.

– sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c. b.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – both sentences are grammatical. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. a. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – grammatical sentences. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5.

Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. While the first is possible because of the generalization.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. present perfect instead of past perfect. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. cenuşii şi albe. hawk. present instead of simple past. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. quail. ciocârlii şi şoimi. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. – generalization on habits of birds. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. prepeliţe. geese both grey and white. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . lark.

It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. slyness in a fight. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. She admired their keenness of wit. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. lack of pridefulness. love of practical jokes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Crows will relish what presents itself. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. lipsa de vanitate. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. The generic present is used in this case.

El căzuse pe spate.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. se ridicase în picioare. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. tragică şi eroică. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. He had fought hard through the war. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. But as the battle raged around them. the young officer. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. he claimed. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. in the very act of expiring. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. tânărul ofiţer. Murise în picioare. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . He died erect. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. […] During the latter stages of the tale. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line.

the oldest. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. 342 . – similar situation to the one under (c). His sparse hair was full of dandruff. around seventeen or eighteen years old. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. They all had their hands in their pockets. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. I realized I could not tell him the big news. Acum stătea aici. When he saw me. A short while later. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. One of them. în închisoare. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. he closed the album. Now here he stood jailed. But when he reached me. Luptase din răsputeri în război. When the boys saw that mother had left. to finish my drawing. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. susţinea el. How can I explain? I just felt shy. war hero though he was. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). deşi era erou de război. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. Activity 13 1. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. And they might just hang him. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. 2. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. they gathered around my desk. mother went home and I was left alone.

‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. All his senses were now keen. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. or if she would do so again. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. or fear his rage. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark.’ Mr. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. as if he had been drunk. brightly and closely. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.’ 5. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . 6. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. for her vineyard. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing.

Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 7. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. And if things were so. The last time when we met here you scared me. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 8. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. 10. 9. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. it meant that he would approve of him from then on.Nadina VIŞAN to him. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. thinking of him. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. 11.

exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. namely the impatience of this young man. without putting anything in a note. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. 13. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. which secretly drove him. towards Jurubita.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. We either sell them or we don’t. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. more urgently than ever. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 12. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. 14. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. where he would run to confess everything. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 .

ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. 9. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 6. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 346 . / He helped them lift the heavy parcel.. grammatical 5. grammatical 10. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. grammatical 7.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. . or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital this factory to be reopened. / they saw her leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. .Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – simple infinitive. – perfect infinitive. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. / He had Mary clean her room. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.simple infinitive. – infinitive continuous. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 2. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical. – simple infinitive. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 3.

\ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: *They did not wish her. \ I allowed [them to come. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / He is believed to have known her 347 . Test: * I would like people. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. – Test: They asked her. \ She wanted [him to leave. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ She promised him PRO to leave. ] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *I allowed them.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: *I would love them.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. – Test: They tempted him. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *She wanted him. / It is not too late for him to learn. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ I would love [ them to come. you need to try harder. Test: *They would have hated her. – Test: She promised him. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. – Test: He persuaded her. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / I want to never see you again.

Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . . / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. Activity 6 Oh. . / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. I don’t need you or your services.Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. . / I want you to leave my house. / He is easy to live with. not to miss the train. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.obligatory subject control verb 348 .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He is young enough to start again. / To make a long story short. / He is hard to stand. / Oh. / He is easy to talk to. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.

1] A little crossly. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Harold. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Both seemed to him a little unreal. 1 – PRO-to. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. he didn’t envy those above it. 349 . Direct object 3 – PRO –to. If he himself was out of spirits. Subject. the herd instinct was very strong in him. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive.Accusative + Infinitive. 1 – PRO. He suspected hostility at once. who wasn’t used to men with moods. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. so that we might get to the future and have done. they had depressed and fuddled him. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Subject. Predicative 4 .

PRO controlled by ‘him’. e) When two persons. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. PRO controlled by ‘she’. f) The passing time is important. more believable than evidence itself. PRO controlled by ‘she’. excitedly. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. or better said.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. 350 . elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. true. cautiously. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. And you might also be hit and humiliated. object 2 – PRO –to. we seem to forget about our own pain. man and woman. One day. 1 – PRO-to. direct object 3 – PRO –to. more meaningful. slowly. But when we need to comfort others. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. PRO controlled by ‘me’. c) Unlike plane trips. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.

g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. tickled by the trickles of sweat. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Mrs. Moroi says heavily. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. to live only with your coughing. not even those parts where he had been half-right. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Stroescu. for instance. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. or. And I would care for this man so deeply. And to actually start to believe you are so. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. while swearing to change my way of life. not to want to wipe it off. even when this love is hurried. S. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. as he had appeared to him in the rain. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. or their talk that night. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. h) I want us to go. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. my wish being only to please and serve. which he had already forgotten. I am indeed praising my own merits. all down our neck. in the street. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. that you are young. k) With this considerable dowry. 351 . He had not been able to leave Dr. That is it. If it was summer.

for that’s the door people get off by. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. poor Muti. 352 . met by squalor and terrible smells. Well. every Bucharester knows it. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. or to speak so fast.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. haphazardly. no matter what. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. If you will have what I can give you. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. she was suddenly so shocked. here I am with all of my own. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. ready to submit to any demand. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram.

/ She sent him shopping. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. 353 ./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / They found it thrown in a corner.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction)./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates../ He went to have a tooth pulled. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Attributive past participle. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. with its lips drawn back. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ Don’t keep him waiting. badly beaten and bloodied.

heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 8. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 7. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 4. Attributive present participle. – As she was running into the room. lying face downwards in a sea of mud.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Turning on the light. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. I was astonished at what I saw. Finding the treasure. I slammed the door of my room. having been uprooted by the gale. he sat down to his own dinner. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Activity 4 1. having heard it all before. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Having looked through the fashion magazine. 2. 9. a rug caught her foot and she fell. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Having fed the dog. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. 3. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. 6. The tree had fallen across the road.Running into the room. – Attributive present participle. 10. 5. Sleeping in the next room. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1./ Running into the room. they began quarreling about how to divide it.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. a rug caught her foot and she fell.

12. sharp-eyed/minded. an idea suddenly occurred to me./ Reading in bed. his horse fell at the last jump. 10. one of the eggs broke. – As he was getting out of bed. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Leaving the cinema. a scorpion bit him. 5. three-coloured. cloth-covered. one of the eggs broke. – As he was climbing down the tree. Getting out of bed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. wooden-headed. – As I was passing under a ladder. Dropped by parachute. broad-shouldered. – When I read in bed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 7. / Climbing down the tree. a pot of paint fell on my head. a scorpion bit him. – As he was tied to the post. stony-hearted. my hands often get very cold. / Getting out of bed. – As the dog was barking furiously. I often get very cold hands. I let it out of the room. narrow-minded. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. empty-headed. 11. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. his horse fell at the last jump. – As he left the cinema. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Riding in the first race. – As he was riding in the first race. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 4. the sea was tossing it up and down. 3. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. bald-headed. 8. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. open-minded. many-coloured. I let the dog out of the room. Tied to the post. he broke one of the eggs. 2. Barking furiously. he was bit by a scorpion. an idea suddenly occurred to me. red-handed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. fishy-eyed. 6. Reading in bed. 355 . my hands often get very cold. the sea was tossing the post up and down. lion-hearted. Passing under a ladder.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Climbing down the tree. 9. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him.

Spielberg. dark-skinned. / Three people. stricken deer.I fell on the ice./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. eagle-eyed. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / Swiss watches. shorn lamb. (injure). produced by S. Activity 8 1. (grow) 4. admired for their elegance and precision. 356 . straight-shouldered. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. mown grass. shaven head. (hunt). Whales. / Many old people. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. The escaped prisoner. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (take) 2. drunken man. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. hunting for a bargain. I stared at the canvas for ages. hidden meaning. The film. sunken eyes. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. 7. found hiding in a barn. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. was today taken back to prison. (find) 6. were taken to hospital. open-hearted. lighted candle. rotten plank. injured when their car crashed on the M1. shrunken stream. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. are in grave danger of extinction. bounden duty. graven image.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. ill-gotten wealth. are sold throughout the world. (admire) 5.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. (produce) 3. is expected to be a great hit. Activity 7 1. roast meat. injuring my arm. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail.

its scales scraped off by the knife. the fish. thrown in the pots. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. then put up. the carved chicken. bake them. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. He felt close to his father. now taken down. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. in charge of his house and lands. yet left them room to sway free. So. he were struggling for breath. 357 . It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. and the puffed pastry beds. boil them. and moreover. 4. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. A parasol. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. flat and soft. 2. the twice rinsed vegetables. suddenly suffocated. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. streaked with yellow veins of fat. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. And his soul. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. 3. he started peering anxiously around as if. After a while. seeking some promised land. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. hovering uncertain and soft. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. sprinkled with sticky flour.

gerund 5. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. – gerund (subject) 4. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. – Accusative + participle 3. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. he left the store without buying a thing. Activity 10 1./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / I am sorry for being so late. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. – participle (attribute) 2./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough.

.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs.possessive ING (direct object) 9. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. preceded by preposition). – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs.participle vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 8. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – Nominative + participle 13. possessive ING (predicative) 7. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He was spotted talking to her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs.

but they went by too quickly.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. however appearances were against us. – verbal noun (has adjective). take down her answer..’ 360 .verbal noun (has determiner. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – verbal noun (has determiner. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. hold up his pen and speak.’ ‘Tell me. – gerund (full. I did ask Mr. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. Croom to try to follow one. adjective. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. my Lord. adjective.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Lady Corven. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund or verbal noun. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.

licked the envelope with passion.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. and went out to post it himself.’ said Clare. I must go back now. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. ‘I do hate asking for things. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. I just used the word and they fell. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. suddenly.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. I spend all my time hunting a job.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. it’s overrated. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. Then. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. he addressed the note. my Lord.’ said Clare. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ 361 .

the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. The sight of the two children. functions as direct object) and then the ground. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. village which is burning). First the crack snaking (half gerund. attribute. He looked up towards the daylight. (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. slightly 362 . down into God knows where. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. hoping (participle. direct object). gerund. elliptical here. after verb of perception. It was like a mist. direct object) towards him. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. attribute). following the verb ‘remember’. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. …while their edges were crashing inwards). attribute. Then he saw movement at his feet. the very earth opening up (half gerund. slowly rising (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. attribute. The two sides were moving apart. direct object) from below. attribute). down. attribute) in a swirling motion. the enormous split in the earth. At first. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. adverbial of time. attribute.

i. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. direct object). That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. early.).e. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. has ‘of’ phrase). prepositional object. one. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. moving up (participle. according to the books he read. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. covering (participle. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. you. adverbial of reason). preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . etc. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund.

And. slanted on to her cheek. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. She finished what jobs there were. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. a door was opened and as a servant entered. attribute) stopped dead. mother. and sunlight. Young Mamona left the room without a word. attribute) a sudden whoop. preceded by preposition. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. preceded by preposition. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of reason). and then went riding (participle. we were all gathered in that room. for Dornford was busy on an important case. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. attribute) to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Vaucher and I. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. and not only in my imagination or theirs. the two Mamonas. Standing up. and everything got suddenly animated. So. examining (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner). waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. brightening (participle. reluctant or not. Having a French governess (participle. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle.

a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. too. his disloyal apprentice. Vaucher might have known that too. Not so unimaginable though. 3. 4. he looked like someone who did. He cast us a swift glance. each carrying a wooden box. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. and smelling so hard of rain. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. closing my eyes. as mother had ordered him. he found us sitting each in his place. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. her back towards us. he went to mother and. let alone greet us or say something. and ended his life in the year 1821. 2. killed by Young Mamona. And. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. I knew who it would be. in the year 1812. about concentrating all our resources. Entering our house on a Thursday. sitting in his puddle. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. for anyway. kissed her forehead. to Vaucher. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . And then. about sparing no effort. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. bending a little. without taking his sack off his shoulders. and to Young Mamona. to me. who knows. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. So when Old Mamona came in.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour.

But. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. already seen and heard. wood pile. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. each pausing before jumping down. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. everything seemed familiar. of taking notes and rewriting them. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. They got off the truck slowly. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. futile. long board table. barrack.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. And all around them was the great field 366 . staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. stove. And suddenly. 5. as an afterthought.

Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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. Kruisinga. Tense in Texts. 1973.. I. Number 3. M. Klein... The Present Perfect Puzzle. Klima. S. Jim. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. CUP. Language. vol. Kluwer Academic Publishers. OUP. K. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. Groningen. Dordrecht. A Grammar of Contemporary English. A Handbook of Present-day English. Serban. Foresman and Company. vol. 1990. 1931. 323-352 O’Connell. 1964. 1926. Greenbaum. 2002. L. McCarthy.Kamp. Scott. Kamp.. Wolfgang. E. English Syntax. J. Parrott. R. 1993. 1987. TUB. Literature. An Introduction to Fiction. X. . English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Part II. Kennedy. An Outline of English Lexicology. Poutsma. Hans and Uwe Reyle. and J. Transactions of the Philological Society. A Modern English Grammar... 89:2 (2000). D. 1982. Groningen Lipka. Negation in English. in Fodor. London. Seminar Press. CUP. & Felicity O’Dell. H. 1991. Grammar for English Language Teachers. A Grammar of Late Modern English. Miller. 1983. Poetry and Drama. 2000. Nelson. Bauerle et al.Katz. M. and Svartvik. (advanced). 2000. E. Schibsbye. G. Quirk. 1970. volume 68. Sue. Hans and Christian Rohrer. 1992. From Discourse to Logic. J. Leech. eds. Focus on Proficiency.J..

Vet. 2003. New York. Stefanescu. R. 2001.. 2003. Smith.. Rodopi. Zandvoort. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. N. Mouton de Gruyter. Le passe simple. Carlota. editia 1. Henriette. Editura Credis.Schwegler. Modes of Discourse.. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Conference on British and American Studies. de Swart. In M. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Berlin. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1992. London. 1998. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. Vet. Cahiers de praxematique 19.. 1999. Lectures in English Morphology. Co. 372 .) L’emprise du sens. TUB. Plenat (ed. 1990.. Co.. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. 2003. Visan. Sentence Processes.. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. Vişan. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. e. N.W. A. a. I. 347-385. A Handbook of English Grammar. Amsterdam. 1978. 1957 and 1962.

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