NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. 6 .

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

3.2. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.4. Insertion 1. Constituent Phrase 1. Complementary distribution .5. The Distribution of an Element 1.Contents: 8 1.6. Auxiliary verbs 1.1.

Semantic. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.1. For instance. They are just strings. 1. loves. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Consequently. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. that is sequences fragmented at random. sequences of the kind her mother very. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. very much. Syntactic. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 .Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. her mother.2. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.

) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. 1. 1. we are dealing with a directive (i. an order given to an interlocutor). semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.3.4.e. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. be). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). should. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. (Mi-a spus secretul. etc.) 10 . Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. must.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.

The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. live. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. etc. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. Consider.5.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. for instance. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.6. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. an ‘empty’ there subject. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .) 1. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. 1.

Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. How much.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. pragmatic. as the star indicates. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Pratice Define and illustrate. semantic. whereas (7) is not. If the given context is the one under (6). let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. complementary distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. 12 . syntactic. this would really hurt. using your own examples: insertion. he had not yet been able to estimate. Munt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. distribution.

13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.

Full – local negation 2.7.6.4. Conclusion.5.3. Instances of negation 2. Polarity Items 2.2. Negative vs. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.8. Key terms 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.1. Key terms . Tests for negativity 2.2. affirmative sentences.

in that they do not state anything. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.) is said to be an assertion. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.Declarative vs.Positive vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a. Consequently.2. For instance. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.) b. Negative . The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . in the sense that it states something. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.Unit two Sentence negation 2. it asserts something.

assertion ./ If you like her. Did they tell her the secret? ) .g. listen to this. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / Come with me.Nadina VIŞAN . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. don’t bother her.negative (e.positive and declarative secret. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. 16 ./ She can’t wait to read that book./ We didn’t come here just to talk. They told her the ( e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. comparison. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .g.other (if –clauses.positive sentence . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.g.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.interrogative (e.non-assertion . / She finally admitted./ Don’t do that.) .) .

since the negative word not is not present there. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is not happy. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) 17 . word negation. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. (Nu demult. I met a girl named Susan. (John e nefericit.) b. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. In the case of the sentences under (4). am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. Susan doesn’t like her friends. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).Unit two Sentence negation 2. Susan dislikes her friends. John is unhappy. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. For example.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure.) b. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.

Nadina VIŞAN In this case. but their meaning tells us a different story. since the negative word not is present inside them.) c. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. these sentences look negative. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. He was not without intelligence. just like in the case of word negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. I was not a little worried. more precisely the phrase it is part of. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. She was not an unattractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. where the word 18 . In other words. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.) b. In other words.

By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. semantic negation. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). / Când a aflat vestea.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. without intelligence.

Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.4. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Era el destul de isteţ. ci doar indecişi. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. dar nu neobişnuit. Negative vs. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. affirmative sentences. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . dar nu în mod special. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. 2. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune.

) (9) I didn’t go there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. etc. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. For instance.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (M-am dus acolo. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .1. (Nu m-am dus acolo. such as do insertion.). (see subsection 1.

doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / She does not hate animals./ They didn’t leave. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. 22 . / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / Susan did not get married to Jim. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / We don’t come here often. incorrect. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative.

*and neither do they like her.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. and they don’t like her either. * and they don’t like her either. 3. even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. . which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. not even the smart ones. *not even the smart ones. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which does not happen in the case of (18). (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and neither do they like her. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. 4. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative.Unit two Sentence negation 2. which is ungrammatical. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).

/ I can hardly understand what they are saying. / This boy is no good. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Few of them stayed behind. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they go skiing in the mountains. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. 2. / You have never met her. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / They caused us no problems. / A few of them stayed behind. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / Not always a witty interlocutor. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.5. / No problems were caused after all. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. In conclusion.

(N-am văzut pe nimeni). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-a venit John). b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. Susan could not go to the theatre. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (27) a . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. I went nowhere. (26) I saw nobody. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22).

I didn’t go anywhere.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) (29) a.) b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. I didn’t see any student. no incorporation takes place. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) b. b. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut nici un student. / I didn’t ever go to his place. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. No day passed without me thinking of him. I never went to his place.) c. Not all that glitters is gold.Nadina VIŞAN b. 26 . I didn’t see anybody.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. All that glitters is not gold.

/ None of them liked house music. seldom.) They barely read any novels. / I showed him nothing. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly./ They didn’t come to meet her. (Nu citesc romane.) We seldom watch T. / Not one of them came to meet her. . nici măcar din alea scurte. scarcely. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / I saw nobody. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / I didn’t see anybody. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. etc./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them./ They never went there. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.4. rarely. barely. not even short ones. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / He should not be released.V. / No one ever listens to her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / Not a word fell from her lips.

Never have I met a more horrible person. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / Hardly anybody liked him. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) d. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) b.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) 28 them. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Few people came to see her. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / I scarcely ever see her.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I seldom look at her like that.) c.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. .

/ You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / She could rely on nobody but him. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.) They don’t think that he likes them./ We seldom receive such generous praise.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. in the sense that the 29 . (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again. As you can see from the translation of these examples./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.

we can very well say something like: (38) a. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. probability. 2.: think. want. / I expect he won’t come here again. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. be likely. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. advise. sound/feel like. ought to. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. / They believe she does not like them. intend. For example. In sentence (37).Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. suppose. choose. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. intention. believe. appear. cannot appear in an affirmative context. the negative meaning is less strong. seem. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.) b.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. be probable. etc. / He reckoned he would not win her over. look like. should be desirable. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. etc. suggest. although not negative in meaning. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / I suppose she doesn’t care. barely. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.6. be supposed to. expect. etc. imagine.) 30 . She didn’t lift a finger to help me. guess.

I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. and sentences such as: (39) a.2. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. are clearly not grammatical. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. That is 31 . *She likes our chairman at all. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. b. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. They are not usable in an affirmative environment.*She lifted a finger to help me.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.

) At all vs. / He arrived before 5. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.) Much vs. either. / I still love you) Either vs. some (I haven’t any money. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. too (I don’t like it. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. too. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I eat caviar most of the times.) Any more vs. / Come on. still (I don’t love you any more. / Well. / You needn’t send her anything. / They say he once had someone very close. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I have already seen him.) Yet vs. / I like you a lot. too. / Bob is still living at that address. you can still do something about it. / I like it . / I have some money. / She hardly ever comes here. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.). /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I somehow like him. / Don’t worry. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. etc. / I somewhat like his proposal. a lot (I don’t like you much. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / Well. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I can understand both of these 32 . somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.) Hardly ever vs.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why.) Until vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.

say / breathe/ understand a word. hurt a fly. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. nici unuia dintre noi. lay a finger on someone. mulţumesc. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. last a minute. de când cu 33 . flinch. have/be worth a red cent. crack a smile. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. have a care/ friend in the world. sleep a wink. see/ feel/ remember a thing. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. lift/raise/ stir a finger. move a muscle. / You must be telling lies.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Ajută-mă. turn a hair./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / You must pay that fine. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. Translate into English. Ion nu e prea deştept. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. leave a stone unturned. / Peter knows some English and so does John. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. give a damn/darn. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). bat an eye(lid). know a single person. hear a peep. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. touch a drop. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ I can understand all of these ten English words. find a trace.

/ No hands wanted. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. B: Aşi. / No man is wise all the time. / No sooner said than done. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / He is no end of a fellow. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. n-a sunat încă. but you really should do something about it. / No entry. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. As you have noticed from the exercises above. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. he’s a pig. / No trouble at all. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Hotărât lucru. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Never is a long word. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / He won’t make old bones. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Not that I care. nu e vina mea. budge. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / I had no end of trouble. / No admittance. he left the room. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / Nothing succeeds like success. Translate into Romanian. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool.

Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). c) He is anxious to say something.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. which is not the case of the sentence under (45).7. / I hate making any commitments./ I saw no one. say it. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. N-am văzut pe nimeni. b) I love asking some funny remarks. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences.Unit two Sentence negation rather). 2. as well: 35 . Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Normally. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English).

in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. Conclusion. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. nu poezia asta. Key terms. from a syntactic point of view. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. B: Nu. I don’t like this poem. (Nu.8. I don’t. 36 . We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.) 2. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. The second negation is somehow independent. nu îmi place poezia asta. nu-mi place. B: Not this poem. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. however. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation). 45 .e. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.

Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3. Key Terms. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2. Direct vs.3.3 Alternative Questions 3. Optional Exercises .3.2.2.1.3.2 Wh.4. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.

for a subsequent section. If we try to analyze the examples above.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.1.Unit three Questions 3. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.

Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.g.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. 48 . due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. (3) and (4). (2). Pratice Translate the following questions in English. pe mama. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.

because. in this case. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). the sequence of the tenses is violated. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Likewise. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). 49 . In the case of indirect questions. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. Since the question is not direct any more. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going.

c) Ştii ce. sau mai bine zis. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / He asked me who she was. / I don’t know who she is. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. ce culoare are pielea. spune la un moment dat femeia. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / I don’t know whom she fancies. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / He asked me who she is. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. identify the incorrect sentences.

one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Let us provide 51 . In this case. as Quirk shows. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.2. the type of answer the respective question requires.Unit three Questions 3. being typical of spoken language. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.

(when / the accident happen) ? 9.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (who / talk to last night)? 5. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (which / you like best) ? 4. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. 3. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.2.

which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da). that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. it has. they did. instead of Negative Polarity ones. are said to be positively – oriented. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 .Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement.

A: You’re still in your pyjamas. 3.. ……………………………. (speak yet) B: ……. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. because you always copy everything I do! 5.? (a mean thing to do) 54 .. 7. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. …………………. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: You look down. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. A: She had her tenants evicted.. . (tell me who does it for you) B: …. A: Your mother is shouting for you. 2. ……………? (hear her) B: …. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. 4. A: You’ve been learning German for years.. as in the example: 1. I’ve still got plenty of time. 6. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. …….

? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. . 3. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . ………………………………. 10.Unit three Questions B: ………………….questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….. 9. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. 8. where. .2. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: It’s past your bedtime.. I didn’t get home until late last night. which When.. .2 Wh – questions Wh. how. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. You could have mentioned it earlier. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. what . A: There was a terrible car crash.

/ My new car cost 10. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / She lives in the suburbs. (Poppy Z. / Shirley got married to Ben./ I have French lessons twice a week. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. Nearly two hundred years. / Kay’s gone out shopping. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. I cannot do that.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. why ever. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / David’s car was stolen. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city./ She dropped her glasses. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. trying to find places where I resided in life. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair./ Sara owns two cars./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / That’s my pen. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . what ever.000dollars. of course. / There are six students in my class.

Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.) 57 .2. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.

Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. You can’t be serious. How far is it the cinema? 10. didn’t use he? 11. shall we stay? 14. There was a fax for you this morning. How far is it the cinema? 3. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Who did left the gate open? 18. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. can you be? 58 . He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. didn’t use he? 4. He used to work in a bank. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. wasn’t it there? 17. shall we stay? 7. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Let’s stay for another few days. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16.

necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. isn’t it this? 25. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. will you not? 21. deci. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. plin de germeni virulenţi. ca şi cei ce au fost. That’s your car. wasn’t it he? 22. neliniştea infantilă. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. Whose it is this book? 32. How long have you be lived in London? 26. deci. uneori disperat. doesn’t he go? 23. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. will you not? 27. Ani întregi.Unit three Questions 19. dacă prin absurd 59 . despre o lume dură. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. That was Jeremy’s brother. John goes jogging every morning. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Toate vechi. Pot reveni. să-mi înfrâng frica. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. Don’t forget to take some spare socks.

străină priceperii lor. Şi. îi ştiu gustul. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. dar şi drumul. “Spune! striga el. umed. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. laşii. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. indiferent de risc. mă întreb. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. negru. pe sub bolţile din care. B. puturos. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. murdar. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. picură apa roşietică. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. ghiceam doar unde se află. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. neîntrerupt. de atunci. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. inactivii.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. pe care oricum am simţit-o. naiv. lung. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Riscul? Ratarea. iar proştii.

nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English.3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. exclus. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. când nu-i pot face nici un bine.3. da? (37) Let’s go there. Tag Questions Tag questions.Unit three Questions viaţă. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. golul alb. la urma urmei. didn’t she? . shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.1. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. care i-a determinat alegerea. 3. viaţa? Oare e drept. will you? (38) She went to Prague. domnule profesor. orbitor. nu se poate. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.

Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. au fost cheltuiţi. or falling. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. sarcasm. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. au fost cheltuiţi.) A: Oh. The suggestion is that in this case. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. is it? (Deci. hasn’t she? (Aha. the tag is affirmative too. if the host sentence is negative. or “comment tags”. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. (Din păcate. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. the tag is negative too).e. aren’t they? 62 . reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. In this way. it’s all spent.

/ Let’s eat dinner now. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul.…/ Let me know. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That’s your car over there. / I must go now. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / Each of us is staying. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Surely you have enough money. / Few people like her. / She used to talk a lot. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I think you don’t like my music. / I am older than you. / I think you like my music. / The boy often watched his sister. / I am dressed smartly enough.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / They said he liked music. / He has to marry Susan. / You will pick me up. / You have been invited. / Tell me. / I don’t think you like my music. 63 . / He hates his wife. / He simply hates empty words. / I may not see you tomorrow. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / There is enough food for everyone. / That was your father. / Don’t leave without me. / The boy never watched his sister. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / There are a lot of cars on that street. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I may see you tomorrow. / A few people like her. / You ought not to smoke. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / She left an hour ago. after all. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / She has a brother. / You will pick me up at 7.

isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education./ I’m right about this…. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. or what? 3. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. using a question tag at the end. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. So you enjoyed my talk. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . He used to play squash.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1.. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. 5. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / He never used to study so hard…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….

) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / Grants… 3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.) B: Chinese? 65 . / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.2. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.1. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.questions which repeat part or all of the message.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.3.3.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. Recapitulatory echo questions .1. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.

) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.3. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. consternation. disbelief. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.2.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. of something just said. (Închide lumina aia.phrase is fronted. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. If the wh. rather than the repetition.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.

) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / We are looking for a pixie. rather than did you say. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.e. / I think I’ve found a solution. which letter do you 67 . with recapitulatory echo questions. intonation is rising. / He is interested in music. dear. am pierdut scrisoarea. (Vai.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen./ We are looking for a purse. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green./ He is interested in blue movies. I’ve lost the letter. (i. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. (Uită-te la asta. whereas with explicatory echo questions.

she knows about it. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.4.

care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. nu purta verighetă.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. şerpoaica. lui Chizlinski. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. ca să zic aşa. şi apoi Vica ce zice. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. lui Luca Horobeţ. stricata. Are gust de oameni blânzi. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. în satul nostru. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. lui Stavre Păici. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu.– Crezi tu. cu o casă de copii. da. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. pe Condrat de Vica. şi care s-a aciuat.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. cumnată Fenia. Fenio. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . în general. aşa. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. după pofte. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. să se încolăcească mai bine. oameni aşezaţi. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. acuma sporovăiala.

Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. sus. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. sau cum o chema. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. De asta erai. L-a scos din geamie. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. până la călcâie. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. dar cum se face că a 70 . atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. deci. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. abia târându-şi picioarele. roşu şi galben. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Hogea.

Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Key Concepts .Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.3.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.2.6.1.5.Coordination and Subordination 4.

cu repros. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.e. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. on the other hand. present) in the sentence. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. where there is no indication other than a comma. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. Example (2). that elements are coordinated. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. reproachfully. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. i. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.e.1 Syndetic vs. 75 . The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.

coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.) Such examples. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. vei muri. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.) (4) If you hit my wife. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Conversely. From the previously mentioned examples. 76 .Nadina VIŞAN 4. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. you will die. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.

respectively subordinated constituents. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. we need to specify that. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. However. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. from a logical & semantic point of view. but presupposed.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. the second. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.

this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. but the 78 . with formal walks under rows of trees. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. John Steinbeck. Then he sat down. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. with enormous solidity. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. Though the castle had vanished. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. built. his shoes squished. of cut gray stone. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. He moved and made a slopping noise. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. took off his coat and emptied them. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. In the second. adorned with cornices. took off his shoes and emptied them. His clothes hung to him. In the first. the houses were beautiful and ancient. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again.

Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. left the house. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. the higher he went the wetter it grew. and as the way is with Irish mountains. over some of the roughest ground in the country. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Cecil Woocham – Smith. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 .

who was caught at a University Extension lecture. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. we should be seriously annoyed. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.3 Sentence vs. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.K.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. were to take down the name of every man. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. As one can easily notice. (G. as shown in (9). A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. however distinguished. yesterday and the day before yesterday. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.

/ Peter and John played football. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 3. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 2. and even tennis. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. Her pet kitten is black and white. and I passed. Activity 2 sentences: 1. yellow and blue. / Joan plays many games. plays football. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 10. 8. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 5. John and Mary are ready. / Peter. Our flag is red. but not John. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Unit four Coordination example (7). John is ready and Mary is ready.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. 4. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. our respective examinations. 7. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 9. 6 John sang and Mary danced. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John and Mary are the newly married couple. / Bob and George are admired by their students.

Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. 5. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. 6.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile.Nadina VIŞAN b. Jane 82 . John loves and Bill hates cigars. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. 3. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.) c. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Activity 4 2. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.) b. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. or deleted. as can be seen in (10b).

8.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. i. 10.) The common element. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. the so-called Principle of Economy. 7. 83 . Besides ellipsis. the predication buy a pair of shoes. So. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. these syntactical processes. 9. can be reduced by substitution. than a longer repetitive one. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.e.

ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. 2. 3. Translate the following sentences. simple books and magazines for children 3. In certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. George and Jane are separated. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 4. A citit. some reason or another. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. George and Jane went back to their parents. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 4. the old men and women 2. one or (the) other method. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. using reduced structures: 1.

for my wallet. 11. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together.… 14. like: salt and pepper. 5. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. fish and chips... 8. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. the amount I’ve already saved up. . A pendulum swings ………. 2. it’s a case of ………… 7. 13. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. even though they have their little ………….You gain some things and you lose others. of your proposals later on? 3. 7. sweet and sour. I need another 100$ ………. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 16.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Marks and Spencers. 6. 5. 6. 8.. They get on quite well together. 15.. only for damage. 12. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. they reached home………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. After all their adventures. Can we discuss the …………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.I searched ………..

b.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. as in: (17) a. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) There are. more often than not. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. Nor sun. In fact. the expressive function of coordination is. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. etc. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. of course. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. For instance.4. and 86 . 4.

) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. 20 (b)). etc). (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. where the subordinator is repeated. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.g. too): (20) a. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. sometimes but. or .) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) b. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) c. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. o respectau si o indrageau. (I-am dat banii. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) 87 . both … and . (Ei o placeau pe Susan. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. and cherished her. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) In certain cases.

In this case.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. and you’ll die. I admire and like her.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. if we were to rewrite the example . (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. I washed and ironed my pants.* I ironed and washed my pants.) b. From this point of view. (O admir si imi place. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. I like and admire her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) b. and hit my wife. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (Imi place si o admir.

(Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (If you do that. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . he failed).Unit four Coordination 1. Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Brown experiments with humans.) (While Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.

takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) 101 . From the functional point of view. 5. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.g. as the name suggests it. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. e. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .which are based on coordination .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.

(Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. we associate it with these objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. sentences) required by the verb (or. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (I-a dat cartea. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. by an adjective + preposition. We do not presuppose however something like. In a way.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. an adverbial item. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. they are still presupposed by the speaker. For instance. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. in certain cases. for instance. for example). such as proud of.) 102 . (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation.

(Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. Thus. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. which is the adverbial willingly. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. In other words. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to her) and one extra-item. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. The second example. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.e. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. 103 . related to example (4). but its effect remains even after its wipeout. to add something. an additional one. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. I am afraid that he won’t come. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. A second observation.) b. i.

such as want. I’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) 104 . am să mor. make. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. like. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. So. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. etc. a închis toate ferestrele. (Înainte să plece din cameră. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) (11) If you don’t marry me. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.

6. After I told her the story. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. Susan disappeared without saying a word. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. [. They came to e.g. she looked at me sadly.g. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. Whoever did that was a genius. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 2. this to whomever wants it. 5. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. 4. e.g. The book that because they home. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. 3.She came to him of her own will.

WHETHER. 5. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. at our age. As you can see. which. but he declined.) 106 . 4. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 2. stating their function: Activity 2 1. FOR. You suggestion that we should. was a novelty to Mitzi. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. not object. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 3. etc. though it was largely politeness.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject.He took an intelligent interest in her. 6.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.

) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. who.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. 107 . (15) It is John who did it. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. Where he went is London. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. why.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. how. Who did it was John. (E de dorit să plece.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) b. where. when.) (16) a. which. etc.

these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .1. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. before.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In conclusion. for instance. As you will see. which sums up this classification. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. In (18). etc. if. Compare. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. however. consider the following table. done from a structural point of view.) (18) She told me this before she left. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. Unlike complement clauses.

Dear Ludwig. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. etc. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. whether he will come when I feel like it. for.g. I will go there because I feel like it.g.: e. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. 109 .g. I will come back such as because. as. after. back. surely you cannot sincerely believe. you understand. at your young age. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. Introduced know e. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.

a tightening in her breathing. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . he said. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Late that afternoon. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.The day Monroe had died was in May. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. But she thought that no one would call again. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. 2. Too. she stopped to speak to Monroe. As she left the house. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. but he asked her to wake him when she returned.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Accidental Man) b)1. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.

g. că e. interesting.g.g. 111 . Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. However.g. As you have probably noticed already.g. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. I told her everything after she arrived.2.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. That he loved e. a correspondence can be traced. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.

whereas wh complements are the 112 .complement.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).1. i. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.2. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. complements. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. whenever you identify a wh. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. (Cred că mă place.e. We will come back to that in the next chapter. In the fourth place. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.. Thirdly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. Secondly. So. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.

but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. before. because. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. c) I am coming home one way or another. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. and I do not know how things might stand between us. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. She mistrusted her handwriting. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. a barn. I first thought to tell in 113 . It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. Pratice Consider the following text. but no idea what to do with them. for no matter how she tried. a house.g. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. outbuildings. their introductory elements (e. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out.

e. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). these clauses can be complements. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. and I have not the will or the energy. According to a structural criterion.4. because they modify. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. it would make you fear to do such again.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.

O zbughi înapoi. answering the question to whom? So. ce o fi având. însă. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. Nevasta secera în tăcere. look at. be very careful to use this term correctly. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. (…) “Mă. Alţii. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. 115 . Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. fără să-şi ridice spinarea.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. think of. Pratice Translate the following.e. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. după ce că are grâu puţin.g.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. îşi spuseseră că Anton. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. etc. interested in.

devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. de fapt. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. Toată lumea înţelesese că. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Nici acum. cât de bolnavă era. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. timp de un ceas. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . izolate de sat. întâi. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă.

Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. stricau totul. Pace nu era. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. aşa de oţetit. În realitate. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Era bine de ştiut. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Iată. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. la nişte prieteni comuni. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. acum sunt desluşiţi. amânase scrisul. la Odobeşti. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. deşi cam târziu.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. de pildă. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate. întâia noapte de război) 118 . nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar.

accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). 119 . subject relative clauses.. of which. etc.g. whose. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.

2.1.3.4. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. The Co-reference Condition 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.5. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.6.7. Key Concepts .

6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.2. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.1.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.Unit six Relative clauses 6. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. The Co-reference Condition . 121 . relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.

Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. John loves that woman. By combining these two clauses. 122 . like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed.

The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The common element woman is present. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 . John offered flowers to that woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti .

These are people about whom we cannot tell much. The king was just passing by. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I love my husband very much. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 2. I lost the book’s cover. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. Susan wants to meet Jane. WHO 124 . None of the students agreed with them. 9. I introduced him to Jim. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. 3. He liked that book. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. John told his friend a story about the king. 8. They met those students. I went to London. frequently used in written language. Any of the students would answer to questions. He’s the author who received the prize. WHO 5. 5. WHICH 4. WHERE 3. 10. by leaving behind a trace.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 4. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. This is my husband. too. 6. 7. He told Jim everything about his plans. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I bought Jim a book. therefore in spoken English. I had a book. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. The students like their teacher. The students like their teacher. She came to London.

i. relative clauses are divided into 1. (Cine strică plateşte. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. 2. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. TO 11.Unit six Relative clauses 6. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.e. WHOM 6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHOM 10. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. . dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. WHOSE 7. most of them were from England. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. WHICH 8.

) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted.) So. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. Unlike their sisters.) • Predicative This was what she intended. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. (Cel care strică plăteşte. in a manner of speaking. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . is no longer overtly expressed. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.e.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. it is covert. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. unlike in the case of (14).

non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. they define it). They only provide supplementary information about it. who is the god of commerce. who incidentally is the god of commerce. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (22) Mercury.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They can be thus divided into: 1. is my favourite god. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. 127 .) (Mercury. care este zeul negoţului. este zeul meu favorit. (Du-te unde pofteşti. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Mercur.

The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. On the day on which this occurred I was away. 5. Shakespeare. this type of relative clauses. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. i. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 6. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.e. She. restrictive relative clauses. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3.This is the village where I spent my youth. As we were saying. 8. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 10. is a great playwright. 2. who is a genius. They are what 128 . is a genius. Independent I don’t know what you want. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 9.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. was the one we all welcomed and admired. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 7. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. I have met him where I least expected. on whom nobody could depend. then it is an attribute. who came to see me.

) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. however sad this may be. etc. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. care a murit acum câţiva ani. etc. a. who died a few years ago. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. .) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. When the antecedent has no determiner. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. composed The (Freddie Mercury.) 2. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. 6.

Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. bătrînă morocănoasă. poftiţi în faţă. who am your son. ci o fată a woman. 130 . care-ţi sunt fiu. care nu sunt o femeie. but a peevish. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.) (28) They come to me.) Pratice Translate the following. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. îţi văd prea bine defectele. 5. can see your shortcomings only too well.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 4. 7. numai eu nu. ill-tempered. (Ei apeleaza la mine. who neither work nor am anxious. (Eu. Dintre toate personajele prezente.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). 3. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. iritabilă şi uscată. Mie. dried-up old maid. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 2. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. 6.

) (35) The compositions of Cardan. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. (32) service finished late. părăsi camera. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. were now in his possession. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. .) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. heard.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. erau acum în posesia lui. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. than whom few more can be more crashing.

The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) d.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) b. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) c.) b.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. literary style: (37) a. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. 6. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.1.5. as can be seen in (36d). but it is typical of the formal.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. The genitive form with which is still in use. too.

Unit six Relative clauses form of which. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.

He is not the man which he used to be. but to a type or a function: a.) b.) b. (45) (46) . (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. … Italy. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. ships (that can be personified) a. by the way. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. of which.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. (Nu mai este omul care era odată.) • states. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. animals.

One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. how.5. why. where. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) b.Unit six Relative clauses b. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.2 Relative Adverbs: when. reason. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. pe care o privea direct.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. while.) b) dialectal (49) a. It is poor what gets the punches. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) 6. France. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Nu ştiam ce vor. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. whom it concerned most closely. etc. etc. Poland is the place where Christine was born. time. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) 135 (47) .

They left when they decided it was proper to. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.5. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) b. This is the place wherefrom they came.) When they introduce free relative clauses. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) c. The place whither he goes is unknown. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) b. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. He went where he had been before.) e. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) 6. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) 136 . (S-a dus unde mai fusese.3. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.

Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. Moreover.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .

4. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. Honest man as he was. . every. 138 (64) his shoes.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. not any.5. any. but • in standard language a. much.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) b. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. but they are used very infrequently: as. I’ll get you such things as you may want.

who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. Uncle George. There’s not many as’ll say that. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. him as was in China … (Uncle George. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. ăl de fusese in China…) b. This is the same one that/as you had before. .) c. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. And always on the buttered side. It’s the dry weather does it. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.) • in dialect a.

) b. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.) 140 .

the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. 3. This is where we talk money.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 5.) b. Where he was from. The man who John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. It seemed a thing 141 .) c. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 6. b.3): (72) a. The man John spoke to is a genius. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 2.5. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. fortifies me.” 4. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. we all have to come to some terms. What I’m saying is. That which shows God out of me.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. What Inman remembered was this passage. makes me a wart and a wen. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 7.

who had not witnessed many dawns. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. though. 12. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 9. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. of living. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 11. Whatever his fate was. Oh.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. he had left Ruby high and dry. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 142 . 10. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. (…) Partly. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. which is a lot. 13. 8. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good.

Cumnatul meu avea. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. pe linie paterna. cumnatul unui portughez. pirpiriu. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . divortata. una din nepoatele unui inginer. un var primar. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. (Iris Murdoch. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. vasnic. mort de tanar. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. fiu natural al unui morar. nu prea sarac.al lui. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. plutonier. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carei strabunic. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. poate. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa.

She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. Teatru) 6.2. 144 . The opposite phenomenon. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. b. insurat de trei ori la rand.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. By extension. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. I lost the cover of the book. This is the book. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.6. She was a woman. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. Everybody listened to that woman. c. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.

She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 7. 4.Unit six Relative clauses b. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. he requested that the public be excluded. no easy answers to which could be offered. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. In the interest of public decency. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. acting again as a genuine pied piper. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 3. The difference between (76) and (77). as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 6. 8. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. 2. 5. has been troubling them forever. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 9. The problem of safe transportation. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.

but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Activity 9 were now all gone. 146 . as the case is). 2. 6. whose interest he most sincerely shared. His friends.His father’s friends. 5. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. They do not function as attributes. This story. Irene. was now complete. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 4. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. has been deleted. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. no matter which. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. he rarely saw now. 10. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have).7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 3. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).

din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. închipuirea. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 5. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 2. 7. 4. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Toate sfârşeau. Nelu.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. 3. De douazeci de ani. Pentru alţii. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. himeric. sunt vrednic de invidiat. pentru dumneata bunăoară. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. 6. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director.

(Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 12. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. nici în searbăda mea versiune.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. a făcut el. cu surle şi cu tobe. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. 9. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. 10. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. 8.

Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 149 . din care cauză pe Dora. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. toată lumea întreba cine e. 14. 20. fie pe stradă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. până mai adineauri. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. pe strada Icoanei. În spatele lor. despre care. 18. deşi atât de aproape. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. de unde venea şi Marta. trăia larg de tot. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 15. care era foarte “mondenă”. fie la teatru. zise ea cu ochii mari. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. roiuri de fetiţe. 16. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Avea acum un fel de vertij. 17. apărură. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. Dacă mă lovea. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. din direcţia căreia apoi. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui.

de sus de unde eram. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 24. pe care ea îi admira acum. 22. de mine. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. până în şosea. întâia noapte de război) 150 . alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. pe care eu nu-l aveam. aveau un stil al lor.Nadina VIŞAN 21. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. Pare-se că snobii. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. 23. Pentru mine însă. când au urcat râpa iar. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi.

151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

1.2.1.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.Topicalization 7. Key Concepts .1. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.4.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.3.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.6. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.1. That Deletion 7.3. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.2.1.2.3.5.2.1.1.3.Extraposition 7.2.2.4.2.3. That Complements as Subjects 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.5.Clause Shift 7.2.2.

being found not only in the case of that-clauses. the clause is extraposed. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. but also of infinitival ones.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). placed in a marginal position. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. (3) Tell me if you need anything.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. Apart from those introduced by that.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. In other words.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.1.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. 153 . 7.

) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.

13. 3. 10. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 2. 8. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 7. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 4. It is no use trying to convince her. 11. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 9. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 8. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 6. 10. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is nice to meet you. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 2. 11.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 5. It was suggested that they should meet the President. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 15.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 4. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It appears that no one voted for him. 14. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 6. 3. 9. 7. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.

It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. în gropi. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. în canal. 4.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 6. 2. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 3. 4.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. zice Lionel. 2. 5. They never expected it that he would come back. sub poduri. 3. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 3. I guess it that he will come back. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 5. atât 156 . She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 2. după porţi. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. mă ascundeam în grabă. unde se nimerea. 18.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.

Spunând cele ce-am spus. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. fără să cârteşti. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. (Nu întotdeauna. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. Mi s-a părut chiar că. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). vor căuta să o zdruncine. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti.” 4. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. fără îndoială. 7. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. 157 . n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. 5. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. 6. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. excelentă. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi.

this asymmetry is undone. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.1. 1.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. subject clauses are the frequent situation.) While in the case of extraposition. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. in the case of topicalization. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.2. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Consequently. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Pratice Read the following. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.

Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 2. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 6. 4. He was utterly gone. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. he felt no spring of interest in her. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. This was another era. 8. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 7. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. mere chance would decide. 5. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. whether it would finally carry her off. She had always been the slave of chance. even today. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. was inconceivable. 3. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. but not now. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. He did not blame Gracie. To walk by was an expression of his own despair.

) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.3. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.1. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.

because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. 161 . It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. we obtain. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.e.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. the verb to drive).

/*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 162 . 4./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 5.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. prime-minister./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 2.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 3. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa. 7. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 6.

(Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.2.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.Unit seven That complements 7. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.

He announced that they were engaged.: (25) a. explain.2. estimate. consider.) b.1. etc.) a. deem. promise. deny. etc. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. desire. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. (I-au promis o casă nouă. predict. afirm. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. He announced their engagement. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. suggest. judge. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat.Nadina VIŞAN 7. communicate. They believe that the man is guilty. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. prefer.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) 164 . They believe the man is guilty. state.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

171

She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. they lose their meaning. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) 172 .Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. In older stages of English. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.e. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. on condition that.) I like him in that he is smart. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. for example. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. hope =>purpose. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. ibid. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) language.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.

(Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. That can be deleted. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. .) When the structure contains the word such.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. that we wouldn’t doubt it. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) (66) 173 a. He gave such an answer as had expected. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. He gave an answer such. să o vadă trecând. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) b. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.

4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) b. ibid. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. He gave an answer such that I had expected. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. (Iris Murdoch.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.We discovered that our map has disappeared.) 174 . 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. for better or worse. (Iris Murdoch. they were chained to each other forever.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. ibid. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.

If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. He got word they were coming. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. 175 . (69) a. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) b. for instance.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.Unit seven That complements 7. that he uses a relaxed tone. (A prins de veste că ei vin.3.1. tell). He showed he was able to do it.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. He said he had borrowed her money. say.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.

‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. for better or worse. for better or worse. rele. *I like it he was here. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3. I like it that he was here. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. bune. because that has been deleted. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. (Îmi place că e aici.) b.Nadina VIŞAN 7. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. ibid.2.3. they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.) (De asemenea. they were chained to each other forever. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. 7.

you want me to believe. 7. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 7) They maintain. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. which is ungrammatical in English. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. (“Este acolo”. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. he said.) b)He told me that she was there. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. simultaneity. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause.) 177 . spuse el. that they were not too late to leave.4. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke.

In the example below.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. (A spus că o să o părăsească. spuse el. I will leave her.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Future Perfect -----. “She was here”. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. The Present complement). până pleacă ea. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.) b. (“Era acolo”.) b. (Am să o părăsesc. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (A spus că. o să vină el. (Pâna să plece. He told me that she had been there. vine el. he said.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.) b. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. He said he would leave her.

regret. be amazed/concerned. be aware. report. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. believe. notice. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. insist.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. forget. realize it). show. say. wish. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. hope. mention. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees.etc. think. dream. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) 179 . the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. etc. whisper.) b. With such factive verbs as realize. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. discover.) On the other hand.

simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. we notice that general truths. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. She realized that all men are fools. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. cu un respect tandru reciproc. in tender deference to each other.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. (Iris Murdoch. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. He knew that she thought all men were fools.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. 180 .) b.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She believed that the earth is round. Consider also: (85) a. feign habits which are not their own.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) b.

) b. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. such as a. There are however cases. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. 3. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) In (88). since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) b. Peter said that John would leave at 5. 181 . (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. Peter said that John will leave at 5. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous.Unit seven That complements 2.

for instance. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. The time is 3 o’clock. Imagine. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. g) John thought that Harry ran. But 182 .

whistling swan. Translate the following. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. quail. Crows will relish what presents itself. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. redtailed hawk. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. 183 . a. love of practical jokes. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. slyness in a fight. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. geese both grey and white. c. lack of pridefulness. John told Mary that she should bake a pie.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. nighthawk. bluebird. Cooper’s hawk. She admired their keenness of wit. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. kingfisher. b. jaybird. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. lark. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky.

Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. And they might just hang him. in the very act of expiring. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Now here he stood jailed. […] During the latter stages of the tale.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. war hero though he was. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. He died erect. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. he claimed. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. But as the battle raged around them. He had fought hard through the war. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home.

On certain occasions that can be deleted. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). which they share with wh-complements.Unit seven That complements 7. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. or else. on other occasions it has to stay there.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). 185 . from the very frequent subject. object ones up to the attributive function. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function.

că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. cel mai mare. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Fiind 186 . 2. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Unul din ei. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. neconvenabil şi primejdios. peste puţin. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 3. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. 4. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Mama. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine.

Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. cel puţin pentru un timp. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. va pleca din oraş la vie. dacă va mai veni. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. venind de la avocat. Se mira. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. ea.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. 5. de ce constata în sine. Nu ţi-a trecut. 7. fericit. luminos şi apropiat şi când. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. 6. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. 8. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. 9. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. care îl pândise. un vis de acesta 187 . aşa. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris.

Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. încă o dată. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. dar şi teama că. lucrul era înfăptuit. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. şi mândria că a biruit. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Acesta.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. liniştit. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. 11. Astfel de va fi. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. 12. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. fireşte.

fără o vorbă scrisă.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. 14. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. să le lămurească pe toate. Pe toate. mai puternic decât oricând. ci numai aşa. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. după cum. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. spre Jurubiţa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.2.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.9.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.8.Key Concepts .5.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.4.6.3.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.1.8.7.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.

complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). It is important that you should know what you need.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.) b.) • like that complements. Consider the following: • like that complements. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. That you love her is something wonderful. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) b. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. To love her is something really wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.1. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). From this perspective. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (3) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). (2) a. It is important for you to know what you need. 193 . There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).

etc. gerundial clauses.e. as opposed to the finite ones. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. 2. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. participial clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. For instance. the Participle) (i. 194 . the Conditional. the Gerund. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.) b.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. d. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention.

) c. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) 195 . The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. namely no ending. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.

It is vital for our factory to be reopened. (7) They saw her leave. 4.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. the criterion of form. 8. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 8. 7. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 6.2. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 9. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 2. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It is vital this factory to be reopened.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 10. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 3. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 5.

/ L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. 2. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. (10) 197 . / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. hear.

198 (11) the universe. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. Pratice Translate the following. 3./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. However.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. uncharacteristic for literary English. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. .

so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. or the control constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. 199 . we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. to use the appropriate technical term. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. In other words. Further on. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. as I have already mentioned.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed.

namely the agent of the event. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. PRO to forgive divine. the logical subject. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) 200 . What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) In this situation. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. şi creştineşte să ierţi. So far.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. PRO to err is human.) Object: (18) a. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) b. I hoped for him to be there in time. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.

but a PRO-TO one: 201 . We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. but the patient of the verb persuade. not to the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. him is not the agent of the infinitive. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. In other words.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . Semantically. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) b. He stepped aside for her to enter. him is related to the main clause verb. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.

\ I would love them to come. \ He persuaded her to come.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Likewise. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ She wanted him to leave. \ She promised him to leave. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ 202 . \ I allowed them to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave. \ They convinced her to come back. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. I hate animals to be tortured. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade.

so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. \ They really asked her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.) In examples (25) and (26). and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. \ They did not wish her to come back. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. • Last but not least. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. 203 . So. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.

hate. 204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. to meet her. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. Pratice Translate the following sentences. with special semantic and syntactic properties. which are said to be free. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.). / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. seem. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. appear.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. etc. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. that is not required by certain verbs. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. To sum up the discussion.

desire.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. deserve. care to. wish. 8. agree to./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. etc. aspire to. decline. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. try.3 The Distribution of PRO .) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. mean. like. need. hope. prefer. intend. deign. want. refuse.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. venture. condescend. . etc. bear.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. afford. hate. contrive. propose. Compare: (31) a. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.) 205 friend. etc. presume. / E greu să îl suporţi. scheme. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. omit. arrange. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. fail. dislike.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. seek (= try). endeavour. expect. manage. scorn.) b) verbs such as abide.

For all of them to have been killed is.) 8. desirable. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. be important. endeavour.) 206 .) b.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. etc. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. unlikely.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. I hate that you should say a thing like this. verbs of liking and disliking. bear. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. suggest. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. conclude. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. stand. ask. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) b. possible.) b. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. threaten. I would like for him to become president of the country.etc. forget. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. however. claim.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.

) b. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 207 .) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) 2. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.) 8. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.

but the meaning remains.) 5.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Direct Objects (39) a.) 208 knowledge. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) b. . I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. the preposition is deleted.) b. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.Nadina VIŞAN 3. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) 4. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. I decided for John to represent us. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Like in the case of that complements. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.

) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.: (42) a.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. You’re an idiot to go there. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. curious about. She is pretty to look at.) b. 6. This paint is like concrete to work with. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. etc. The stew is delicious to eat. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) c. He is a bastard to work for. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) e.) d. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. delicious.

/ E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Pe şleau. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. să nu piardă trenul. drept să spun. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . / Ehei. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.) I’ve never met him. you’re a bad driver. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. conduci prost. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. final or introductory infinitive In this case. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. to tell you the truth.) Oh.

(Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. inform.etc. 8.) .) b. direct. b. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. urge. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show.: (51) a. oblige. encourage. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. nu mai vreau să te vad. swear. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. According to this. promise. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. enable. influence. induce. etc. (49) a. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. inspire. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. press. need. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.

) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. nominate.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. look to. choose. permit. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.etc. depend on. order. elect. count on./ And now he 212 . allow. vote. name. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. etc. command. etc. prevail on.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.

(Iris Murdoch. this construction is lexically governed. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. etc. (56) She grew to like him in the end.e. happen.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. come. be about to.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. An Accidental Man) 8.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. etc. seem.etc. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.: (55) She appears to like him. (O să întârzii/ leşin. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. 213 (58) (59) . (Se pare că îi place de el.verbs: appear. i. grow. (57) He is to come any day now. be going to.

In (57). . that of intention. be reported. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. hear.: (62) They heard him insult her. be alleged. be considered. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. feel. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (L-au auzit insultând-o. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).etc.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. perceive. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. overhear.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). watch. be thought.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. observe. be rumoured. etc. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. etc.) 8. be claimed.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.

recollect. believe. discover. consider.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. know. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night.) 215 (67) . presume.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. find. (Cred că este un geniu. However. judge. deem. figure. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. imagine. picture. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. cause. etc. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. occasion. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. prove. have. understand.) • with a full infinitive: get. remember.

Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. Harold.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. mean. choose. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. they had depressed and fuddled him.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. if he himself was out of spirits. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. he hated anyone to comment 216 .) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. order. who wasn’t used to men with moods. wish. desire. prefer. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. love. suffer. expect.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. command. permit. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. want.etc.

b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. He suspected hostility at once. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. so that we might get to the future and have done. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. to make sure we attended strictly to business. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. he didn’t envy those above it. (L. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. A little crossly. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. though he tended to look down on those below it.P. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. the herd instinct was very strong in him. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own.

is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The last criterion. From this perspective. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. 218 . having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN 8. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.

lovit şi umilit. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. mai bine219 . b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. să-l capete. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. dar să nu-ţi spună. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. de bună seamă.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. de asemenea. un bărbat şi o femeie. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. e) Când doi oameni. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. E posibil. bunăoară. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. fireşte. e important ce întrebări pui. Şi tu să fii. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. într-o zi.

Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Însă Paul Achim trăise. încă. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. avusese dreptate. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.Şt. sau. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. d-a lungul gâtului. să traiesc numai cu tusea. (B.Şt. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. aşa cum îi apăruse el. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. un picior. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. mai pline de înţeles. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. că eşti tânăr. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. în parte.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet.Nadina VIŞAN zis. De era vară. . pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. pe care deja o uitase. 220 .Delavrancea. în parte. să nu vrea să se şteargă. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. ca să nu şi-o amintească. mai bine de două decenii. în ploaie. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. în jos. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Să spui de pildă. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.

sunt aici cu tot ce am.. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea.. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). un miros îngrozitor. orice bucureştean ştie. o mizerie. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. fie ea şi grăbită. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. deşi. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. ei. de fapt. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. Mă laud singură. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. (Al. şi prin faţă. prin faţă e coborârea. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. şi nu un amant.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. biata Muti. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului.. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. Într-un cuvânt. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. orice-ar fi. nici ca să 221 . ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.

în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare.

participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.

The Verbal Noun 9.1.1.2.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.1.1.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Participial Constructions 9.2.5 Key Concepts .3.9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.2.2.The Gerund 9.3.4.1.

One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Due to this situation.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. (Susan doarme.) 225 .1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.

(Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. Susan has been killed. Susan has come. it functions attributively. In (2) the forms come. too: (6) Her eye-lids.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. i.) As you can see in this second case. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. blood-shot and painted. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). were closing. (A venit Susan) b.e. the past participle can appear after a noun. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. been and killed are past participle forms.) More infrequently. 226 .

she ran away. ea o luă la fugă.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. Knowing who the guy was. he will eventually marry her. they started singing. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. I will arrive there on time. mother permitting.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) d.) 227 . (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.) c. If provoked.) b. Weather permitting. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. începură să cânte. (Sosind aici. I will arrive there on time.) b. a lion can attack. people should pay attention to high notes. When singing. Oh. God willing. Arriving here. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. leul poate să atace. (Ştiind cine era el. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) c. o să ajung la timp.

which stands for an adverbial clause. I found him stealing. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.) b. behold. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. smell. (L-am descoperit furând. He was found stealing. He was found killed by a bullet. (L-au descoperit că fură. hear. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) 228 . respectively.) ii. notice. (Am simţit-o tremurând. watch.

(Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. start.) • Causative verbs: get . etc. leave. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. know. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) b. have. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. a.) b. I heard it said that men are a bore. find. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. etc.) c. etc. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. have. recollect. set.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . feel.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. hear. make a. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. I must get my hair cut. He’ll soon get things going. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. she knew herself dismissed.) b. keep. confess. etc. send. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (A fost văzut plângând.: When she heard his words. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.) • Causative verbs: get.) • mental perception verbs: remember.: a.

/ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.) b. Men like shopping made easy. lovit şi plin de sânge. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. He wanted his car fixed immediately.) • verbs of permission./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. command I ordered my bill made out.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu după multă vreme.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi.

if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.2. / Dinny. / My Lord. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Unlike the gerund. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever.e. 231 .Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her.1. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / In any case. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. with its lips drawn back. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).

) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. using either a present participle.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. the rain will stop. 4. I left. 7. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 6. She had heard it all before. am plecat. (Văzând acestea. se va opri şi ploaia. 3. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.She didn’t want to hear the story again. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. It had been uprooted by the gale. I have looked through the fashion magazine. 2. 5. I was astonished at what I saw. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. am plecat. I left. (Desi nu ştia limba. The tree had fallen across the road. I turned on the light.

dark. stricken. 6.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 3. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Riding in the first race. Tied to the post. haired (twice). covered. many.Running into the room. He sat down to his own dinner. one of the eggs broke. 5. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Reading in bed. Getting out of bed. straight. three. handed. open. wooden. cloth. red (twice). I slammed the door of my room. They began quarreling about how to divide it. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. my hands often get very cold. 4. lighted. He fed the dog. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 8. Barking furiously. Dropped by parachute. 7. a rug caught her foot and she fell. a pot of paint fell on my head. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Passing under a ladder. sharp. hearted (twice). skinned. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 10. coloured. 9. shaven. a scorpion bit him. his horse fell at the last jump. broad. drunken. stony. cornered. 10. narrow. Climbing down the tree. I let the dog out of the room. 12. eyed (3 times). 9. 8. Leaving the cinema. mown. 11. eagle. Read the sentences and try to correct them. empty. open. roast. They found the treasure. minded (3 times). Mother punished me for my mistake. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. fishy. quick. b) Headed (5 times). bald. 233 . lion.shoulder. 2. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar.

________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. meat. In the following pairs of sentences. are sold throughout the world. are in grave danger of extinction.Spielberg. duty. was today taken back to prison. stream. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. lead. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. image. (injure). / Swiss watches. candle. (take) 2. head. were taken to hospital. / Many old people . wealth. bounden./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. 7. ill-gotten. ________ hiding in a barn. lamb. / Three people._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. eyes. man.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. the same verb is missing twice. The escaped prisoner. shrunken. (produce) 3. _______ for their elegance and precision. (admire) 5. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks.I fell on the ice. meaning. Whales. The film. plank. graven. (find) 6. (hunt). b) grass. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. deer. hidden. _______ by S. I stared at the canvas for ages. is expected to be a great hit. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . _____ when their car crashed on the M1. Translate into English: 1. _______ my arm. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (grow) 4. rotten. shorn. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. _______ for a bargain.

legume date prin mai multe ape. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. le fierbea. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. Şi sufletul său. întinse. şi moi. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. După câtva timp. ca şi cum. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. care le rânduia. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. 2. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. O umbreluţă. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. nesigur şi moale. le cocea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . 3. trezit. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Şi. când strânsă. păsări tăiate. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. deodată sufocat. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. 4. precum şi foile de plăcintă. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. când deschisă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli.

Likewise. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. (Dacă vezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. 236 .2.1.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. crezi. According to this criterion. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.2. The Gerund 9.

(M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. His winning and your losing were both surprising. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. Consider the following table. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. gerunds differ from participles. Him winning and you losing was surprising. In that. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) 9.) b. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. That he won and you lost was surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.2.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b.

(Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. It was illegal to grow a beard. Consider (32).) b. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.) Unlike participles. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. *It was illegal growing a beard. as being verbal 238 .) 2. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.

) b. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. It’s no good talking to her. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) 3. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Participles vs. Just like in the case of noun phrases. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.3. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.) b. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.2.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. as offered in the table below: 239 .) 9. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.

Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. babies suck their thumb. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . 3. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles may function adverbials: house. forms: continuous . + noun] 1.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. perfect. passive ones She was crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. (adverbial of time) 4. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. 2.

/ După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine.

The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 9. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 2. 242 . înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 11. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 8. 4. crying game / crying woman. 10. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 14. shooting gallery / shooting star. 12. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 13. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 12. 5. 3. swimming duck / swimming trunks.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. eating habits/ eating people. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He was spotted talking to her. 6. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 15. 7. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.

But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. but the presence of a direct object (i.e. a The absence of an of phrase.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.3. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.) The absence of a determiner like the.Unit nine Ing complements 9. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .

GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. if we were to go back to our incomplete table.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. These are features that normally characterize any noun. In the second situation. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. George’s shooting the attacker. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. How can we tell? In the first case. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .

/ His coming there puzzled her./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. the sheriff. Jim left quietly. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. 245 . very large. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.

at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.Nadina VIŞAN 9. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. However. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. whenever we meet an –ing form. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). With the infinitive.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. ING Forms and Infinitives.4.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. For instance. It has been noticed that. Look. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. for example. the meaning is different. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.

) After looking at this example. anterior to the verb in the main clause.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. and the most well-known one. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. having left) is infrequently used in English.g. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. (S-a oprit din mâncat. On the other hand. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.) The first example.) . containing an infinitive.

(Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). recollect. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.e. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) As you can see. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. which means that they are similar in meaning. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.) . The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. i.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.

but that’s it. the action is not completed.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the petrol tank is not filled yet. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. In the second example. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) .Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. dar asta este. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.

human] objects. e) need. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. The house needs to be repaired. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.) b. mean has the sense signify.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. want With [+ human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Casa trebuie reparată. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) 250 .) wedding. The house needs repairing. In the second example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. the event has not happened yet. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) With [.

what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. (hold) up his pen and (speak). as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. whereas in the second case. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. Croom (try) (follow) one. gerund or infinitive.’ ‘Tell me.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. however appearances were against us. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. I did ask Mr. my Lord. (take) down her answer.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.’ ‘In any case. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. it’s overrated. Lady Corven. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. but they went by too quickly.

I just used the word and they fell.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. he addressed the note.’ said Clare. suddenly. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. and went out (post) it himself.’ 252 .’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. Then. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. licked the envelope with passion. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. I must go back now. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).

Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Last but not least. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground.Unit nine Ing complements 9.5. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Participles mainly function as adverbials. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Pratice In the following texts. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. the 253 . don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.

Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. it 254 . according to the books he read. down into God knows where. hoping he would see somebody up there. She started coughing. moving up towards his chest. down. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. slowly rising in a swirling motion. someone looking for survivors. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. covering the girl’s head. The two sides were moving apart. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. then the noise and the cracking stone. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. but then he saw it billowing up from below. At first. He looked up towards the daylight. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. the enormous split in the earth. The sight of the two children. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. It was like a mist. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. their edges crashing inwards. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. Then he saw movement at his feet.

and sunlight. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. brightening to winter brilliance. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. slanted on to her cheek. 255 . Having a French governess. my dear. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks.

veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. În urma slugii. închizând ochii. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Vaucher şi cu mine.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. totul se animă deodată. mama mea. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Ridicându-se. cei doi Mamona. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. and then went riding with her in the rain. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. într-o joi. 2. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. ucenicul său necredincios. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea.

totul mi se părea cunoscut. afară ploua în continuare. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. după cum îi spusese mama. pe mama mea părând absentă. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. am ştiut şi cine. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. auzit şi zadarnic. privit. 3. pe Vaucher. Şi deodată. se duse lânga mama şi. dar ştiutoare. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. Neclintiţi. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. la mine. o sărută pe frunte. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. aplecându-se puţin. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân.

şi cu soba. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. cu tot cu baraca. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. camionul a plecat. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. dar. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. 5. Au coborât din camion încet. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi cu stiva de lemne. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale.

Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

was unclear to Mitzi. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. in some way.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 2. 7. to retire early from my employment. since I have decided. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. without profound questioning. 9. 6. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. whereas if she went away she would get none. he had been advised. 13. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and meet it right here at home. You have been much in my thoughts. and that 263 . 4. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. How this time was to come. I am sorry not to have seen you. Having regard to the date of drafting. because of pity. 11. this would really hurt. apart from his distress for parents. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 3. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 12. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. he had not yet been able to estimate. How much. 10. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 5. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. and this particularly of late.

he did not come to see her. one of the eggs broke. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. this always makes us feel embarrassed. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. 264 . 14. / Whenever I visited my aunt. / Before you go on changing the subject. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / In the end. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. for attending his sister’s wedding. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. I was made say Grace before every dinner. even for months. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 19. looking forward had not yet taken place. / I would very much like walking out in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. please consider his proposition. 17.

rather than the hefty type. Essentially. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Vulgar men did. 265 . They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. They hated trying on. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. without discovery. she said. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. an open-air person. of the quick and wiry. her old friend Hugh. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. Instead of which she had married. At country houses she had met them of course. centered in London and themselves. cotton mills at Manchester. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. She felt as when. Though much in request before her marriage. quite unexpectedly. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. of all people. a little girl. and it was bound. (and there he was. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. it was said. her recklessness. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Clarissa used to think.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. to end in some awful tragedy. They rushed into shops. Tony was a child.

dar vizitele acestui om din topor. era un bun sfatuitor. (John Galsworthy . cre s-au nascut lent. indeed. the more she would be torturing him.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon.Over the River) 2. astfel. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. The closer she allowed him to come to her. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. nu a facut-o pentru asta. ii faceau bine. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. she was uneasy. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Cind l-a chemat. viguros si vesel in felul lui. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. si in plus. she professed. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. De uitat.Rindurile dvs. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. with all its impatience of restraint. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. short of the contacts of love. Bolnava nu se simtea. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. nu puteam sa le uit. aveam tot mai 266 .au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. but lying in her bath. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Reading many novels. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. to keep abreast of the current. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.

Personal. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. cit mai au de trait. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. poate fi compensata. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. (St. latimea si ascutisul labei. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 5.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. fa-o. vaazut cindva. lungimea picioarelor. 4. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Milionarule. (St. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. o data sau de doua ori. Banulescu – ibid. Banulescu – ibid. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Banulescu – ibid. are nevoie. Ce a iesit. (St. se stie. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.) 267 . printr-o asistenta activa din afara. (St. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. nu pricep nimic. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. A fost gasit plingind in urlete.) 7.) 6. ca si tine. Daca tu. pe scaunul lui tare. mi-am zis. Banulescu – ibid. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.

Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. when I was even younger than you. Ernest Richard Atkinson. A story-book romance. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.P. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. delivered from the holocaust. to Emmanuel College. (. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Arthur Atkinson M. Who told me. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who was may father. Translate them. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . 2. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Could he be blamed. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. my grandfather. Who. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who when asked about his memories of the War. for being a renegade. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. a wounded soldier. Who came home from the war. Cambridge.

mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. to whom. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. he had already engaged himself? 3. 4. a moody man. How 269 . where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). deep-set. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. and because – but this is mere speculation. Fabianism.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. Rachel Williams. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest.

just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum a ajuns el. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum au tăcut ei. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Ion. Cum a trăit el. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Ion. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. satul. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. om mare. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. la şcoală. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. 270 . ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. cu taina aceasta. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său.

singurul lui stăpân. de mama lor. cu sau fără voie. din franţuzeşte. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. 271 . cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu .Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. L-au derivat cei din teatru. împotriva tuturor. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Când actriţa. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. când voi fi singur. greşeli dintr-astea.pune totul in discuţie. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English.

îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. tânăr şi frumos şi el. privindu-mă în ochi. 3. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. 5. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. A devenit palid. 6. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Tot aşa. traversând. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. parcă începusem s-o uit. Într-o vreme. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Am început. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. nevasta-mea. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. ci un sistem de acomodare. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. 272 . Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. pe jumătate prezent. continuând. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. sau ridicole. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. provocându-le. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. fostă prietenă din copilărie. 4. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. dam buzna peste automobile. de pildă. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem.

mă puteau prinde fără luptă. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. De altminteri. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Dacă nemţii înaintau. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. fără să mă opresc o clipă. 8. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Am început. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. să merg întins. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. şi să nu ameţesc. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. iar. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. fireşte. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. E o problemă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. 9. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. şi dacă merg întins. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. orice s-ar întâmpla. ca un acrobat. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. Aş vrea să mă las jos. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. 11. că nu m-am gândit la asta.

cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. nu mai semana. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Greu era din partea asta. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. la carti. cu mirare. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. la amintiri. de la lucruri personale.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Acum isi ferea privirea. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Ii venea greu. trebuia sa le spuna. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. In curind. nu trebuie sa va suparati. se uita in jos. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. 274 . stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. de la obiecte de pret. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. la fata locului. 17. Uite. nu mai pricepu nimic.. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. de la proces. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. 15. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 14. La un moment dat. 13. Adica tot trecutul. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Ilie nu-l asculta.. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Auzindu-l. de uimire. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. dar nu se mai putea. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea.Ma. 16. eu am venit sa va intreb.

having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. vorbe asa si-asa. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. 20. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Aici era ceva. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. apoi se uitau la Ilie.Ce sa fac. Zimbea siret. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. . which was part of his rich outfit. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. dar. There was even 275 .Unit ten Revision exercises 18. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. asa cum facuse pina acum. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . fara sa-si dea seama de ce. se indeparta nepasator. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. 19. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Nu era nevoie. cum zicea Anghel. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap.

going astray.Miller at her hotel. 5. He walked a long time. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. the young lady. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. He felt then. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. a simplification. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. resuming her walk. gave an exclamation. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. rude woman. But Daisy. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. 3. to admit that she was a proud. on this occasion. paying no attention. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. at least. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. 4. She was one 276 . to take his way home on foot. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. to move fast.Nadina VIŞAN relief. conversationally. asked for Mrs. for the instant.

as text book. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. on the other hand. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. Her daughter. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. 8. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . in radiant loveliness. make a point. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. as to projected changes. uncomfortably. making Paul stop and look at her. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. while residing abroad. smiling and chattering. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. She rustled forward. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. Advising with me. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. 6. of studying European society. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. She appeared. in their own phrase. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. indeed. He left me musing. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. as it were. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. and wondering what the deuce he meant.Walker. 7. often.

Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. H. could see he was remarkable.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him.’ 278 . was immensely struck with him. H. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. which was deliberate. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. H. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. and acute too. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. 11. and perceived that it must be something important. 10. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. not seeing. and. though E. while Paul. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. wondered what they were talking about. with his humorous density. was only half satisfied with this. 9. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. or at any rate not heeding. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character.

The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. 14. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. that the haunting wonder which now.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. But she gave him no chance. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. which was very copious. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. appeared to fill his whole childhood. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 13. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. H. as he looked back. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. not glancing at him for a moment. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. had the power to chain his sympathy. 15.

There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. The whole establishment. H. At the theatre. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. 18. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. proudly. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. 16. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. yet 280 . to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. and there were others. It was very possible she was capricious. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. and to H. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. disheveled and distracted. 17.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. where the Pearl of Paraguay. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. as a general thing. dragging herself on her knees. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. that she must be on the contrary. ironically reserved.

*Old. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. and lurking within this nebulous design. didn’t mind. young men were invited. would always be more or less irritating./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. No one ever listens to her. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 2. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. had blown a certain chill. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. It came over H. on which the damp breath of the streets. with the poor. 19. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 3. 281 .Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. H. 20. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. Their mistakes and illusions. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court.

Nadina VIŞAN 4. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 6. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. slipped on some steps. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 5. I was definitely going to be sick. 10. striding like a Spartan maid. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. c) When I saw her sitting there. 9. Either John or he * have got to give in. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. “Oh. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I saw her as a vision. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 282 . That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. I blundered by. 12. Rachel. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. her arms held out. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. I walked fast. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 7. 11. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. her shining blue feet twinkling. walking quickly. 8.

The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.

I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 3. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. where my servant. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. which was really alarming. if they were poor. 4. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 2. but that we saw and pitied. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 5. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. could cook my meals. And then I ventured to add that. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. The old women spoke no English. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life.

was informed. had not been able to estimate. he. apart from his distress for parents. on Saturday. Constituents: how much. was anxious = was + anxious. would really hurt.g. at noon. this would really hurt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. etc. this.apart from his distress = apart from. How much. to settle. 285 . etc. to pay their annual visit. his. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. before they left town. Constituents: Margaret. he had not yet been able to estimate. distress. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. on a house. apart form his distress for parents. etc. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: He.g. was anxious.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. Munt.

interrogative. negative/ Come with me. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. which is not assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. – first clause is an ifclause. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. listen to this. which context is non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. negative/ If you like jazz. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / If you like her. The sentence is however 286 . – non-assertive. Second clause is an imperative. second clause is non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – first clause is non-assertive.. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. and is non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – non-assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – comparison. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.. interrogative. it is assertive. negative. interrogative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. don’t bother her. – assertive/ Don’t do that.

but nothing out of the ordinary. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. but it wasn’t them./ He was smart enough. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / She does not hate animals./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / I don’t like her very much. not even this thing.but to someone else. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. / They didn’t leave. / She does like John./ Hardly interested in the conference./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. – someone did that. but not more than she does others. – I like somebody else./ They weren’t really confused./ Susan did not get married to Jim . – someone hates animals./ Not long ago.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. only irresolute. –double negation cancellation./ He was exceptionally cunning. / He wasn’t unusually bright. / You have never met 287 . but it isn’t Susan. not even when it’s quiet around. – they told the truth to somebody else. he was hardly pleased. the two brothers dared to protest. everybody used to travel by coach./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ When he learned the news.

not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – I cannot look him in the eye.Nadina VIŞAN her..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. / This is hardly the 288 . they go skiing in the mountains. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. / Should they not have told her the truth. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. were they? / This boy is no good.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. Jim felt rather at a loss for words..negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them..negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. not even when you were very young. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. did they? / No problems were caused after all.. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.. not even in my dreams.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news...negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. I could hardly wait to hear the news.

/ I hardly ever look at those paintings. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / Few people came to see her. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / I seldom look at her like that. Activity 8 I shall never.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – I never see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I don’t often look at her like that. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether../ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.Never shall I trust a man again. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. when we started our holiday.. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Almost nobody liked him. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / You’ve eaten hardly anything./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.. – Not many people came to see her. but she also lent him a car. – I almost never look at those paintings. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / I didn’t leave the 289 .

it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / They say he once had someone very close. / Don’t worry. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – They don’t believe she likes them./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / They believe she does not like them. – Only on this man could she rely./ I expect he won’t come here again. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – 290 ./ I somewhat like his proposal. / She could rely on nobody but him. – Nowhere could the keys be found. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. you can’t do anything about it any more. –At no time did we leave the office./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – It isn’t likely that he will help her.. you can still do something about it./ Well. – They say he never had anyone very close. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / He reckoned he would not win her over. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – Come on. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / Come on. – I don’t expect he will come here again.I don’t like his proposal at all. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.

291 . – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – You can’t be telling lies. / You must be telling lies./ I nearly always have to clean it myself.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. too. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – You should send her something./ Bob is still living at that address. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / She hardly ever comes here. / You must pay that fine. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – She almost always comes here. either.. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / You needn’t send her anything. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. –Alice still lives here. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Well.

/ It was clear that something awful had taken place. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Have they rung the bell? No. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. It’s no wonder. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ 292 . His opinion isn’t worth a cent. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. Oh. ever since I got this ulcer. He didn’t move a muscle./ N-are nici cap nici coada.D./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. / Don’t go on believing him./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ They say this Ph.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ I don’t know a thing about her. to any of us./ Zis si facut. I haven’t seen her in years. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. has never studied anywhere. I haven’t done anything. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. / Jim is so brave./ E un baiat de zahar./ Nimic de facut. e un magar. not yet./ Nobody told us a thing./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ He’s a happy man. / He can’t have done a thing like that. give me a hand. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ You look so tired today./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Please. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Am avut un car de necazuri. He isn’t that smart./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Norocul la noroc trage./ He was a tough man. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge.

293 ./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. I had never had the opportunity to prove. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. We had nothing in common. thrown out. parasi camera.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.’/ Deloc descurajat. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . I hadn’t really expected miracles. feebly. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. for I thought this threatening. that I was a decent man. no memory. one way or another. with the same needs they had. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. without too much determination. nothing.’ ‘Nici o problema. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. slowly.

a leftover fom other times…” “Well. I admit. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. the only 294 . I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. I was sleepy and tired.. he immediately answered me patronizingly. You really made me mad. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. let alone irritable. I’d be so happy if it were so. not as we would like it to be or some other way. he was sitting beside me. Radu had calmed down. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. We have to judge it as it is. • It was my turn to say something. that’s what the world is about. things you do any moment. it’s not words. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. Unfortunately. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. It’s not made up of theories and the like. or if you understood what I meant. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Not for a moment had I thought that. but facts. your story. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. to say the least. on the front seat. clear or confusing. good. bad. Your judgement is false. by coming here to the monastery. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch.

keep it squeaky clean. although it was a difficult thing to do. to fight. no matter how huge they are. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. it’s your problem.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. either. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. But I was just wondering. just to please myself. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. or you are lying hidden. you do as you think fit. or call the respect of others. • So. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. clears your way. me. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. soon we’ll be in town. we are leaving. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. and an inability to act. precious words. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. But what about you and Melania. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. me. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. 295 . Look. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. fear might be hiding. it solves troubles. behind these big. it’s yours. too? A gun is power. keep your conscience clean: you have one. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. you can go to Ursu’s. as Baciu would have us be. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. and if you like. I won’t interfere. Anyway. did you ever step up front. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours.

correlatives are mixed 2.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems ..Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. firmly determined not to answer immediately.correct 3.incorrect. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. – incorrect.Negative incorporation 296 .correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. as soon as he delivered it. has yet arrived -correct 2.. has not arrived yet – double negation. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.Negative attraction b) 1. because before is a positive polarity item 2. -correct 3.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. will he?. the sentence is incorrect 3. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. But it was not because I had no answer to give. or some other woman. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. . have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. but they gradually got used to it. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . The villagers were not very religious.

His spirit was too tired. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). (ibid. much less ((NPI) for her. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Avea sufletul prea obosit. Ştia că are dreptate. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. prea răscolit. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. b) But it was rather (API) late. not happy at all (NPI). nu era 297 .) Însă era cam târziu. (ibid. Nu putea să se mişte. yet. too troubled. Her stillness. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. she couldn’t marry him. either (NPI). She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir.

(ibid. e) At length. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. and not a little unsteadily. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. Ba dimpotrivă. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. şi destul de hotărât.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. inima îi batea năvalnic. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid. she looked younger than ever (NPI). 298 .) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. he made his way to the screen. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. se îndreptă spre paravan. his heart was beating fast. if anything (NPI). ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. The Satanic Verses.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. (ibid. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (Salman Rushdie. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.

i) What did C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. but his father would have none of it (NPI). the gift was useless. Ce-i pasă lui C. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. and probably an administrative headache as well. Home receded from the prodigal son. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. 299 . there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. care if the school were willing to treat him.) C. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. (ibid. The point was. h) C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. He wrote to his father refusing the offer.

correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. . correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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“Now. all godfearing husbands and fathers. She has an eye for gentle men. Vica. and then what do you 308 . 2. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. to make them lust after her. the bitch. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. yes. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. now she was chatty. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Luca Horobet. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. Stavre Paici. they were. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. do you really think that this vixen. Fenia. you are in enough trouble as it is. Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. Chizlinski. she likes to entrance them. keep Condrat away from her. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca.

the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. It even takes him a while to go to the window. what’s her name.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. ankle-long flowered calico. the minister of Tartars and Turks. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. her hair pinned with blue combs. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. with a railway station and a mosque. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. 3. a seventy-eight year old lad. dragging his feet listlessly. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . You said: “Doesn’t this guy. G. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. 4. The mullah. He got him out of his mosque. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. have a girlfriend.

But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.

Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – sentence coordination 2. Her pet kitten is black and white. John and Mary are the newly married couple. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. and I passed. Our flag is red.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. John and Mary are ready. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will..phrasal coordination (in this case. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – sentence coordination 7. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . John is ready and Mary is ready. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. our respective examinations. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. yellow and blue.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .) 9. – similar situation 10.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.

– ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words).The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. many guest or few.) Joan plays many games. but John does not play football. 5. 2. plays football. 8. her son and others. her idea and John’s. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. and even tennis. Activity 5 This book and the other. 3. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. 6. your work and mine. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. but not John. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 9. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. Activity 4 1. much satisfaction or little 312 . your proposal and his. We can and will demand payment. that method and those. 10.

He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. To and fro 15. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. (I have always fought for progress and always will. but not simple. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. 4. Pros and cons 4. Few and far between 14. Touch and go 10. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. 5. Spick and span 9. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. 8. Bread and butter 16. High and low 2. Swings and roundabouts 7. Activity 8 1. etc. He snapped at him and slapped him. Life and soul 5. Safe and sound 313 . I have always fought and will fight for progress. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. The facts and figures 3. magazines are only for children. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Thick and thin 11. Over and above 13. Wear and tear 12.) 6. 3. 7. Ups and downs 6. Law and order 8. He read. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party.

4. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Cathy and David have arrived. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. b. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 8. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. cause-effect Activity 10 1.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 5. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 1. 7. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. inclusive 16. 7. 10.symmetric 11. Symmetric 13. 314 . 2. – symmetric.. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 4. 5. 10. 3. – symmetric 10. – symmetric. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – similar situation 9. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – symmetric. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 6. 8. 9. 2. Symmetric 21. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 3. My son and daughter are twins. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. exclusive 17. 9. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. – asymmetric 18. Asymmetric 20. exclusive 15. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Either the child or the parents are to blame. My son and heir is safe. – symmetric 2. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Asymmetric 19.

2. Not only should you rest 315 . pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. for better or worse. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. He went to bed. 3. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 14. 12. Her husband is long dead and buried. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 6. I’ll still finish this paper. 4. ‘Madam. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 8. Jim thought it over for a while. 7. By hook or by crook. Brother or no brother. 15. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. thanks for asking. 9. it was too small. 11. (2) 1.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 5. Should he pour water in the basin. No drinking and driving. 10. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. They came to me. clothes and all. There are doctors and doctors. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 3. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 2. We’ll stick together. nor fowl. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. He’s neither fish. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1.

he starts lecturing her about life and things. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. their common ground. Mrs. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. so he could leap in pursuit. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. an important man. as she always does. They hadn’t kept him there too long. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. tense with concentration. and she listens to him. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle.’ (3) 1. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. but she blinks in approval. but he’d come out a cripple. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. at equal intervals. You know. she knows for sure. 316 . she started doing a great job. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. just like when he was thirty. he’d leap high. without mentioning financial matters. Her first husband had been a professor. stop dead in his tracks. What do you know? The moment Mrs. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. tense like a bow. both dead and buried. And. So she’ll listen to him. what’s its name. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. it would work out fine. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses.Nadina VIŞAN assured. This. From time to time she will launch a helping question. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. and then. 2. Whatever she tried her hand at. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet.

functioning as an adjunct 2. you. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as an object (direct). to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.subordinate. – obligatory elements: she. – obligatory elements: I. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. cannot tell.subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3. she looked at me sadly. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . about her problems at home After I told her the story. is aware. – Susan. – she.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. looked. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – she. came.subordinate.subordinate.subordinate. told.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – she. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.

that we should.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. remove our home yet again . at our age. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .complement b) 1.subordinate. that you are choosing exile .

modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. but no idea – relative that complement. a barn. direct object. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. a house. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement.complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.

this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. (…) He dashed back. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. sickle in hand. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . Activity 5 1. direct object/ and done – wh complement. staring at each other. But other people. subject/ to do such again – complement.wh complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. (…) ‘Well. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. direct object/ to write that tale – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. When Anton put the sickle down. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame.A few days before the war. without straightening her back. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . that kept her constantly tense and grim.

but also his sharp nose. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. 2. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. but he doesn’t spurn either. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. rather than a real threat. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. For no bold man really falters. that was for sure. he will turn back and no longer be daring. you need courage even for this small thing. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Not even at this point. First. 3. Ana could not stand a trip now. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. as if they were at his beck and call. while they spoke from miles away. Why! He was not of two minds. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. which he doesn’t rely on completely. 321 . Only he had Ana to think of. or if he does. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. or other more hidden means.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. while on other occasions he would show caution.

by the cars of some of us. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. it was the women. 4. So. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. In fact. and on Monday followed another feast). The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. Twice did we get in the car. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. they would ruin the arrangement. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. And here’s how this first day looked. come on. under the silliest of pretexts. But it was not ok. although he could have said so earlier. We were going to drive to a vineyard. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. 322 . in Odobesti.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. without really knowing why. and twice we were requested to get out. are we getting off again? What is wrong. to see some mutual friends. and when things didn’t go as planned. he had postponed writing back. Costel didn’t want to give up this job.

10. 3. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. I bought Jim a book that he liked. on which this occurred . Activity 3 1. all of whom would answer to his questions. 4. The students like their teacher. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 4. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. where I least expected 323 .She came to London where I went too. any of whom would answer to questions. You couldn’t join the party. 7. 6. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. They met those students none of whom agreed with them.restrictive 4. This is my husband whom I love very much. 2. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.free 8. 6. These are people who we cannot tell much about. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. He told her the secret. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 5. 3. when we first met .restrictive 7. Activity 2 1. 7. why they all left . 10.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . The students. 9. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. like their teacher. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.restrictive 6. 8. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 5. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.restrictive 2. 11. which was a pity. John told his friend a story about the king. who was just passing by. 8. which was silly of him. most of whom were from England. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. where I spent my youth .

adjunct 6. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. Of all the persons there. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. however sad . He who doesn’t work will never succeed.When Ada remarked – adjunct. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. 3. What Inman remembered – subject. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. Why . What I’m saying – subject. what their parents made them.restrictive 10. who think so highly of yourselves.adjunct 3. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. 7. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. who cannot say a word. Which – subject 4. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation. Where he was from – adjunct. Where .adjunct 5. 5. 6. Who . where – predicative 7.Nadina VIŞAN . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Activity 5 1.subject 9. when .adjunct 10. You. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. Where . I. come up front. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. where we talk money – predicative. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .free 9. the prince chose Cinderella. 4. which .adjunct 11.subject 8.free Activity 4 1. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. 2. What – direct object 2. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . When . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.

Whatever his fate was – adjunct.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . which is ungrammatical due to the[. what little she knew – direct object.attribute 12. which requires an accusative form.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. whatever – predicative 13. what .human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.

but whose second cousin. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who. a rather tiny looking man. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. in his turn. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. having changed quite a number of jobs. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . a sergeant. due to its invariable character. got married and had a daughter. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. whose great-grandfather.

. This story. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. – no pied piping 327 . and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.yes 10. – no 9. no easy answers to which could be offered. In the interest of public decency.obligatory 4. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.yes 7.obligatory 3. – no pied piping 5. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. His friends. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. was now complete. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . – obligatory pied piping 2. whose interest he most sincerely shared. . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – yes 2. he rarely saw now. Irene. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. with deletion of the noun friends]. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. The problem of safe transportation.His father’s friends.yes Activity 9 1. – yes. . he requested that the public be excluded.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. . has been troubling them forever.yes 3.no 5. – no 4. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. were now all gone. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – yes 6.

I did so. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 2. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 3. where two teams battled every day… 5. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive.and he couldn’t thank me enough. Everything was ending. 4. for instance. I am to be envied. or as of a vast arena. yours. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. For all the four children. 6. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 7. In other people’s opinion. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 8. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 328 . the third born son. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. Only an ugly endless dream remained. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. irrespective of age and nature. For twenty years. Nelu. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars.

which was why he saw Dora very far away. All that you have read is rubbish. 11. He was suffering from dizziness. 13. barely glittering in the distance. from MR street. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. What you’re saying sounds very nice. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. You are newly arrived here. 14. on Icoanei street. 16. the tram was rattling along. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. staring aimlessly. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. she said. 17. 329 . although she was standing quite close to him. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. Behind them. leaving streets and houses behind. where from Marta was coming too. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. 15. 12. since I don’t really know which my true life is.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 10.R. Let me tell you my last conclusion.

She was one of those impeccably dressed women. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. I could see my woman falling away from me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. so optimistic and composed? 19. While we were poor. 23. 24. or the clash of stars above. While some trees are still green. day by day. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. which I did not posses. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. But. or the many Egyptian dynasties. in her pursuits. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. If he had hit me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. She was a woman of means. So. 330 . I don’t know what might have happened. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. 21. who prompted everyone on the street. who only lived once in this world. likes and dislikes. had a personal style in clothes.Nadina VIŞAN 18. From the vantage point I was in. after the car was fixed. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 20. had a huge house in Bucharest. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 22. But for me.

6. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. object 6. – extraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5. direct object 3. subject 4.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. direct object 10. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. prepositional object Activity 2: 1.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. subject 8. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. object 5. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. prepositional object 11.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – impossible 7. – questionable. – unextraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – the same as 3. 3. 8. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 2. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 331 . subject 2. subject 7. – extraposed. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. subject 9.

grammatical. . It is nice to meet you. a bit too intricate 5. 18. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. I guess it that he will come back. – grammatical. – grammatical. – same as 12. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 15. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. idiomatic formula 16.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. but pragmatically impossible 3. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. Activity 3: 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. . – grammatical. – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 10. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. . 14. I don’t expect it that he will come back. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 17.incorrect. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – the same as 12. – correct 2. tense influences the 332 . same as 12. 9. but pragmatically impossible 4. – impossible. although a bit intricate 2. – impossible. – impossible 11. They never expected it that he would come back.. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use.grammatical. – incorrect. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.correct 4. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. same as 12. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. – impossible.

– correct 6.’ Lionel says.’ 4. though. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 3. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. 2. under bridges. 333 . in the ditch. behind gates. thus. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 5. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. in the pits on the road. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. (Not always.incorrect. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. I hurriedly hid wherever I could.

prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. – the second sentence is questionable. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. without trying to protest too much. It is less ambiguous than the first. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 2. 3. By saying this. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. 7. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. 4. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift.Nadina VIŞAN 6. because it is less ambiguous. who had just returned from Africa. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. who had just returned from Africa. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. since the 334 . – the first sentence is the better of the two. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 8.

8. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 335 . / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. extraposition is obligatory here. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 6. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. so there is no need for extraposition./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. The second and third sentences are grammatical. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 7. – both sentences are grammatical.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 5. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved.

extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – subject. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. coordinated. – complement 5.adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. – prepositional object. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. they were chained to each other forever. ibid. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed.prepositional object.relative Activity 9 1. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.complement 4. – relative 5. . correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. – complement 2.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.) adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 3. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. . . for better or worse. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. .We discovered that our map has disappeared. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. (Iris Murdoch. – adverbial of sequence/result. – complement that clause. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – direct object. ibid.) complement that clauses. required by deverbal noun 336 .His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers.

you want me to believe. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. that deletion is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. f) John said that Harry would leave. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. h) John thought that Harry had run. that they were not too late to leave.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving.

*John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. b. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. a. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . c. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – grammatical sentences. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – both sentences are grammatical. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.

geese both grey and white. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. hawk. cenuşii şi albe. present instead of simple past. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. lark. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. ciocârlii şi şoimi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. – generalization on habits of birds. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. prepeliţe. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. present perfect instead of past perfect. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. quail.

slyness in a fight. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. lack of pridefulness. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. lipsa de vanitate. love of practical jokes. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. She admired their keenness of wit. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Crows will relish what presents itself. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Noble beyond all her powers of expression. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. as evidenced by its drear plumage. The generic present is used in this case. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat.

rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. El căzuse pe spate. He had fought hard through the war. Murise în picioare. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. the young officer. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. in the very act of expiring. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. tânărul ofiţer. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. he claimed. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . tragică şi eroică. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. He died erect. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. […] During the latter stages of the tale. se ridicase în picioare. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. But as the battle raged around them. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale.

2. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. One of them.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Now here he stood jailed. I realized I could not tell him the big news. Activity 13 1. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Luptase din răsputeri în război. – similar situation to the one under (c). But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. în închisoare. Acum stătea aici. 342 . Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. When the boys saw that mother had left. How can I explain? I just felt shy. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. But when he reached me. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. mother went home and I was left alone. to finish my drawing. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. deşi era erou de război. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. the oldest. he closed the album. they gathered around my desk. war hero though he was. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). A short while later. And they might just hang him. around seventeen or eighteen years old. susţinea el. When he saw me. They all had their hands in their pockets. His sparse hair was full of dandruff.

And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things.’ Mr. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. All his senses were now keen. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. for her vineyard. as if he had been drunk. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. 6. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. brightly and closely. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. or fear his rage. or if she would do so again. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. 4. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long.’ 5. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently.

And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. claiming you had no ambition for the future. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 11. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 10. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. And if things were so. 7. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. thinking of him. 8. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. The last time when we met here you scared me. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory.Nadina VIŞAN to him. 9. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great.

and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. 12. which secretly drove him. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. more urgently than ever. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. without putting anything in a note. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. We either sell them or we don’t. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. 13. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. where he would run to confess everything. towards Jurubita. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . 14. namely the impatience of this young man. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled.

9. . – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – simple infinitive. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. – simple infinitive. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 10. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. grammatical 2. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. grammatical 3. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. grammatical 6. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 5. .. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 346 .Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / they saw her leave. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. grammatical 7. – infinitive continuous. / He had Mary clean her room. – perfect infinitive. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.simple infinitive.

Test: *They did not wish her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: *I allowed them. ] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: They convinced her. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I would love [ them to come. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ I allowed [them to come. – Test: They tempted him.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. Test: *She wanted him. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They asked her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Test: * I would like people. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Test: *I would love them. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / It is not too late for him to learn. you need to try harder. \ She promised him PRO to leave. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ They would have hated [her to come back. – Test: He persuaded her. Test: *They would have hated her. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / I want to never see you again. – Test: She promised him.

– obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / He is young enough to start again. / He is hard to stand. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / Oh. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. . / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. . / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.obligatory subject control verb 348 . I don’t need you or your services. / I want you to leave my house. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / I have a word to tell you. / I want to tell you what I think of you. .Nadina VIŞAN for years. / He is easy to talk to. / He is easy to live with. not to miss the train. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. Activity 6 Oh.

The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. they had depressed and fuddled him. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. so that we might get to the future and have done. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. 1 – PRO-to. 349 . 1 – PRO. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3].to. the herd instinct was very strong in him. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to.Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Subject. Predicative 4 . he didn’t envy those above it. Both seemed to him a little unreal. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Harold. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Subject. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. 1] A little crossly. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. He suspected hostility at once. If he himself was out of spirits. who wasn’t used to men with moods. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].

c) Unlike plane trips. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. And you might also be hit and humiliated. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. f) The passing time is important. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. object 2 – PRO –to. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘me’. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. 1 – PRO-to. cautiously. excitedly. But when we need to comfort others. man and woman. or better said. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. PRO controlled by ‘she’. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. true. PRO controlled by ‘him’. slowly. more believable than evidence itself. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. One day. more meaningful. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. PRO controlled by ‘she’. e) When two persons. direct object 3 – PRO –to. we seem to forget about our own pain. 350 .

which he had already forgotten. That is it.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. Moroi says heavily. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Mrs. not to want to wipe it off. in the street. as he had appeared to him in the rain. And to actually start to believe you are so. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. to live only with your coughing. Stroescu. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. If it was summer. 351 . k) With this considerable dowry. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. h) I want us to go. tickled by the trickles of sweat. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. or their talk that night. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. my wish being only to please and serve. He had not been able to leave Dr. that you are young. while swearing to change my way of life. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. all down our neck. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. I am indeed praising my own merits. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. And I would care for this man so deeply. S. for instance. or. not even those parts where he had been half-right. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. even when this love is hurried. Would you like me to look at you transfixed.

or to speak so fast. poor Muti. every Bucharester knows it. haphazardly. Well. she was suddenly so shocked. for that’s the door people get off by. no matter what. met by squalor and terrible smells. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. 352 . If you will have what I can give you. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. here I am with all of my own. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. ready to submit to any demand.

/ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. – Attributive past participle. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE .. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. badly beaten and bloodied. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum./ He went to have a tooth pulled. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ She sent him shopping./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me./ Don’t keep him waiting. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / They found it thrown in a corner. 353 ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second.

sitting taut between her father and her sister. she caught her foot in a rug and fell.She didn’t want to hear the story again. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. – Attributive present participle. 7. Having fed the dog. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. he sat down to his own dinner. 8. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. 4.Running into the room. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Attributive present participle. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Sleeping in the next room. 2. they began quarreling about how to divide it. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. having heard it all before. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 3. a rug caught her foot and she fell. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 6. Having looked through the fashion magazine. Accusative + present participle / In any case. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Turning on the light. – As she was running into the room. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 10. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Activity 4 1. a rug caught her foot and she fell. The tree had fallen across the road. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Finding the treasure. I slammed the door of my room. I was astonished at what I saw./ Running into the room. 9. having been uprooted by the gale. 5.

Activity 5 Fair-haired. Getting out of bed. Knowing me to be the fool of the family.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 8. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. broad-shouldered. – As the dog was barking furiously. 5. my hands often get very cold. I often get very cold hands. Riding in the first race. he broke one of the eggs. – As he was tied to the post. 2. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. empty-headed. fishy-eyed. the sea was tossing it up and down. 355 . it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 6. I let the dog out of the room. Leaving the cinema. a pot of paint fell on my head. wooden-headed. three-coloured./ Reading in bed. Passing under a ladder. Tied to the post. 7. Reading in bed. a scorpion bit him. 9. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. he was bit by a scorpion. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. one of the eggs broke. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. / Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he left the cinema. many-coloured. open-minded. – As he was getting out of bed. narrow-minded. 3. my hands often get very cold. 10. a scorpion bit him. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. cloth-covered. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 11. Barking furiously. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. red-handed. – As he was riding in the first race. 12. – As I was passing under a ladder. one of the eggs broke. lion-hearted. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. his horse fell at the last jump. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – When I read in bed. his horse fell at the last jump. Dropped by parachute. sharp-eyed/minded. – As he was climbing down the tree. Climbing down the tree. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. bald-headed. I let it out of the room. a pot of paint fell on my head. stony-hearted. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 4. an idea suddenly occurred to me. / Getting out of bed.

lighted candle. (take) 2. 7. graven image. open-hearted.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. are sold throughout the world. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (admire) 5. Whales. rotten plank. sunken eyes. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. are in grave danger of extinction. mown grass. (produce) 3. (hunt). roast meat. (injure). / Many old people. dark-skinned. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. stricken deer. eagle-eyed. is expected to be a great hit. produced by S.I fell on the ice. (find) 6. shorn lamb. injured when their car crashed on the M1. shrunken stream. admired for their elegance and precision. was today taken back to prison. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. ill-gotten wealth. found hiding in a barn. hidden meaning. bounden duty. drunken man. Activity 8 1. injuring my arm.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / Swiss watches./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. straight-shouldered. (grow) 4. I stared at the canvas for ages.Spielberg. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Three people. 356 . shaven head. Activity 7 1. The film. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. The escaped prisoner. were taken to hospital. hunting for a bargain. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.

4. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. So. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. the twice rinsed vegetables. 2. sprinkled with sticky flour. And his soul. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. bake them. its scales scraped off by the knife. A parasol. streaked with yellow veins of fat. boil them. the carved chicken. 3. flat and soft. then put up. seeking some promised land. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. the fish. suddenly suffocated. and moreover. After a while. 357 . forcing him to ponder over their meaning. He felt close to his father. now taken down. he were struggling for breath. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. and the puffed pastry beds. hovering uncertain and soft. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. thrown in the pots. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. he started peering anxiously around as if. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. yet left them room to sway free. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. in charge of his house and lands.

he left the store without buying a thing. – participle (attribute) 2. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. . / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I am sorry for being so late./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. Activity 10 1. / After annoying the shop-assistant./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday.gerund 5. – gerund (subject) 4. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. – Accusative + participle 3.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury.

gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. 8. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. . gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – gerund (attribute. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.participle vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – Nominative + participle 13. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He was spotted talking to her. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. preceded by preposition). I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.

– gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. but they went by too quickly. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. hold up his pen and speak. adjective. – verbal noun (has determiner.’ ‘Tell me.’ 360 . – verbal noun (has adjective). Lady Corven. – gerund or verbal noun. Croom to try to follow one. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. however appearances were against us. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. my Lord. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. adjective. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. take down her answer.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – gerund (full.. I did ask Mr.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.

what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. it’s overrated.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. I just used the word and they fell. and went out to post it himself.’ said Clare. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. Then.’ said Clare. suddenly. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. ‘I do hate asking for things. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. my Lord. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I must go back now. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. he addressed the note. I spend all my time hunting a job.’ 361 .

adverbial of time. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. down. the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute. attribute).’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. direct object) from below. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. gerund. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. slowly rising (participle. elliptical here. attribute. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. (participle. direct object). …while their edges were crashing inwards). attribute. the enormous split in the earth. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. direct object) towards him. At first. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. First the crack snaking (half gerund. The sight of the two children. following the verb ‘remember’. village which is burning). The two sides were moving apart. He looked up towards the daylight. after verb of perception. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute. functions as direct object) and then the ground. It was like a mist. attribute).Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. slightly 362 . then the noise and the cracking stone. hoping (participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. attribute) in a swirling motion. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. down into God knows where. The collapsing shops (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. Has a complex subject) in the hole.

my dear. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. adverbial of reason). you. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head.). has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. etc. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . early. direct object). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. covering (participle. has ‘of’ phrase). preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. moving up (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. direct object) that his two young people were listening too.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. i. one. according to the books he read.e. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.

and not only in my imagination or theirs. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. adverbial of manner). attribute) a sudden whoop.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. preceded by preposition. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. we were all gathered in that room. reluctant or not. brightening (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. slanted on to her cheek. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and then went riding (participle. Having a French governess (participle. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. for Dornford was busy on an important case. the two Mamonas. and sunlight. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. Young Mamona left the room without a word. So. adverbial of manner). looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. examining (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. mother. Vaucher and I. She finished what jobs there were. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) stopped dead. preceded by preposition. attribute) to winter brilliance. Standing up. And. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. and everything got suddenly animated. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of reason).

as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. 3. closing my eyes. he went to mother and. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. And. I knew who it would be. his disloyal apprentice. killed by Young Mamona. he found us sitting each in his place. Entering our house on a Thursday. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. to Vaucher. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. who knows. about concentrating all our resources. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. in the year 1812. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. Vaucher might have known that too. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. So when Old Mamona came in. too. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. bending a little. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . he looked like someone who did. to me. her back towards us. and to Young Mamona. sitting in his puddle. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. let alone greet us or say something. about sparing no effort. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. each carrying a wooden box. kissed her forehead. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. and ended his life in the year 1821. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . and smelling so hard of rain. He cast us a swift glance. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. Not so unimaginable though. 2. 4. as mother had ordered him. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. for anyway. And then. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. without taking his sack off his shoulders. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable.

staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. stove. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. already seen and heard. wood pile. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. futile. They got off the truck slowly. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. 5. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. each pausing before jumping down. as an afterthought.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. And suddenly. And all around them was the great field 366 . one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. long board table. But. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. everything seemed familiar. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. barrack. of taking notes and rewriting them.

The next thing was to go to the well. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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