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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad. 6 . materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
6. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.3. Insertion 1.1. Auxiliary verbs 1.5. Constituent Phrase 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.2.Contents: 8 1.4. Complementary distribution .
Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sequences of the kind her mother very. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).2. Syntactic. Consequently. They are just strings. her mother. Semantic. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. For instance. loves. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. that is sequences fragmented at random. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.1.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. 1. very much.
1.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. be). (Mi-a spus secretul. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).3. etc. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) 10 . 1. must. we are dealing with a directive (i.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. an order given to an interlocutor).e. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. should.4.
These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. 1. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. Consider. live.) 1. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. an ‘empty’ there subject. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.5. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. etc. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. for instance.6.
If the given context is the one under (6). He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. using your own examples: insertion. this would really hurt. as the star indicates.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. he had not yet been able to estimate. semantic. How much. Pratice Define and illustrate. complementary distribution. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. pragmatic. Munt. 12 . apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. syntactic. distribution. whereas (7) is not. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context.
To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
Full – local negation 2. Key terms . Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. affirmative sentences. Conclusion.8.2. Negative vs.6. Polarity Items 2. Key terms 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 22.214.171.124. Tests for negativity 126.96.36.199. Instances of negation 2.
in that they do not state anything.2.Declarative vs. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.Positive vs. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Unit two Sentence negation 2. For instance. Negative . (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. in the sense that it states something. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.) b. it asserts something. This example can be compared to: (2)a.) is said to be an assertion. Consequently.
/ She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.assertion .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. don’t bother her. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.other (if –clauses. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.non-assertion . comparison. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / She finally admitted./ Don’t do that.positive and declarative secret./ If you like her.interrogative (e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens./ She can’t wait to read that book.g.) . / Come with me.g.Nadina VIŞAN . listen to this. 16 . They told her the ( e. Did they tell her the secret? ) .g.) . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.negative (e.positive sentence .
John is not happy. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (John e nefericit.) 17 . (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. For example. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) b. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (Nu demult. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. word negation. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. In the case of the sentences under (4). Susan doesn’t like her friends. I met a girl named Susan.Unit two Sentence negation 2.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. John is unhappy. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) b. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. since the negative word not is not present there. Susan dislikes her friends.
) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. She was not an unattractive woman.) b. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. I was not a little worried. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. In other words. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. where the word 18 . just like in the case of word negation. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. more precisely the phrase it is part of. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. He was not without intelligence. these sentences look negative.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. but their meaning tells us a different story. since the negative word not is present inside them. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.) c. In other words.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.
/ Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Când a aflat vestea. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă.e. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. without intelligence./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation.
dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă.4. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. affirmative sentences. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. ci doar indecişi. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Era el destul de isteţ. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Nu erau nelămuriţi.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. 2. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. Negative vs. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. dar nu în mod special.
such as do insertion.) (9) I didn’t go there. (Nu m-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. For instance. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. etc.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (see subsection 1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.). Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.1. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (M-am dus acolo. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.
/ They didn’t leave. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / She does not hate animals. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. incorrect. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / We don’t come here often. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. 22 . / I don’t like her very much. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan did not get married to Jim. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical.
(Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. * and they don’t like her either. which does not happen in the case of (18). as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. 4. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). 3. *and neither do they like her. and they don’t like her either. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. *not even the smart ones. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. . nici măcar de cei deştepţi.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. which is ungrammatical. Example (14) is syntactically negative.Unit two Sentence negation 2. not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and neither do they like her. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.
/ No problems were caused after all. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. they go skiing in the mountains. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 .Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. 2. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / This boy is no good. / They caused us no problems. In conclusion.5. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / A few of them stayed behind. / Few of them stayed behind. / You have never met her. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / Not always a witty interlocutor.
Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). I went nowhere. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). Susan could not go to the theatre. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (27) a . b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-a venit John). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object.
) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) b. Not all that glitters is gold. / I didn’t ever go to his place.Nadina VIŞAN b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t see any student. I never went to his place. b. I didn’t go anywhere.) b. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. no incorporation takes place.) (29) a. All that glitters is not gold. No day passed without me thinking of him.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (N-am văzut nici un student. 26 . ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) c. I didn’t see anybody. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.
nici măcar din alea scurte.) They barely read any novels. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.V. / I showed him nothing. / Not one of them came to meet her. and we don’t go to the theatre either. (Nu citesc romane.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man./ They never went there. rarely. not even short ones./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / He should not be released. / I saw nobody. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly.) We seldom watch T.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / None of them liked house music. / Not a word fell from her lips. scarcely. / I didn’t see anybody. . seldom. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / No one ever listens to her. etc./ They didn’t come to meet her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. barely. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.4. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.
Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. which triggers inversion): (35) a. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I seldom look at her like that. .) c. / I scarcely ever see her.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / Hardly anybody liked him. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.) b. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. Not for the world would I do such a thing. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) d. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) 28 them. Never have I met a more horrible person. / Few people came to see her.
/ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / You must on no account touch this machinery./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.) They don’t think that he likes them. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. As you can see from the translation of these examples. in the sense that the 29 . / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She could rely on nobody but him. never trust a man again. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere.
believe.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. the negative meaning is less strong. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. For example. want. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. be likely. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. appear. although not negative in meaning. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. be supposed to. ought to.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. we can very well say something like: (38) a. guess. / They believe she does not like them. seem. sound/feel like. cannot appear in an affirmative context. should be desirable. expect. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / I suppose she doesn’t care.) 30 . choose.) b. intend. etc. imagine. probability. barely. intention. etc. / I expect he won’t come here again. suggest. 2. / He reckoned he would not win her over. etc. advise. In sentence (37).: think. look like. suppose.6. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. be probable.
* Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. b. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă.2. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. *She likes our chairman at all. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. are clearly not grammatical. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence).Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. That is 31 . I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. and sentences such as: (39) a. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.*She lifted a finger to help me.
Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. you can still do something about it.) At all vs. / I somehow like him. / I somewhat like his proposal. / Don’t worry. still (I don’t love you any more. / Bob is still living at that address. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / You needn’t send her anything.) Until vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / They say he once had someone very close. / Come on. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / Well. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. some (I haven’t any money.) Hardly ever vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I have already seen him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Well. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I have some money. / I like it . too (I don’t like it. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. a lot (I don’t like you much.) Any more vs.) Yet vs. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.) Much vs. / I still love you) Either vs. / I eat caviar most of the times. / She hardly ever comes here. / I like you a lot. etc. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / He arrived before 5. too. either. too. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / I can understand both of these 32 .). / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.
touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. turn a hair. / You must be telling lies. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. de când cu 33 . hurt a fly. hear a peep. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / You must pay that fine. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). see/ feel/ remember a thing. know a single person. bat an eye(lid). flinch. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. give a damn/darn. have a care/ friend in the world. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. Ion nu e prea deştept./ I can understand all of these ten English words. touch a drop./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. last a minute. say / breathe/ understand a word. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. lay a finger on someone.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. crack a smile. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. leave a stone unturned. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. sleep a wink. find a trace. move a muscle. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Ajută-mă. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. have/be worth a red cent. lift/raise/ stir a finger. mulţumesc. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. Translate into English. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. nici unuia dintre noi.
etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / No man is wise all the time. / Never is a long word. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No entry. Translate into Romanian. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. n-a sunat încă. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Nothing succeeds like success. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. budge. / He won’t make old bones. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / No trouble at all. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No sooner said than done. nu e vina mea. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. B: Aşi. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Not that I care. încercând să prindă criminalul. but you really should do something about it. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. he’s a pig. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No admittance. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / He is no end of a fellow. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Hotărât lucru.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / No hands wanted. / I had no end of trouble. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. he left the room.
/ He is reluctant to ever say anything. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. c) He is anxious to say something. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). as well: 35 . which is not the case of the sentence under (45). b) I love asking some funny remarks.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. say it. Normally. 2.Unit two Sentence negation rather). Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord./ I saw no one. / I hate making any commitments. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. N-am văzut pe nimeni.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.
We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. Key terms.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. B: Not this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. nu-mi place. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. (Nu.) 2. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. however. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. I don’t like this poem. nu poezia asta. nu îmi place poezia asta. from a syntactic point of view. The second negation is somehow independent. 36 . B: Nu. Conclusion. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.8. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. I don’t.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .e.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation).
Key Terms. Direct vs.2 Echo Questions 3.3.1 Tag Questions 188.8.131.52.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.Questions 3.2 Wh.1 Yes/No Questions 184.108.40.206. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Optional Exercises .2.3 Alternative Questions 3.2.
This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.1.Unit three Questions 3.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. focusing on direct questions mainly. for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. If we try to analyze the examples above.
(3) and (4). pe mama. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.g. 48 . (2). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.
the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). because. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). in this case. Likewise. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Since the question is not direct any more. 49 .Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the sequence of the tenses is violated. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). In the case of indirect questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going.
Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. ce culoare are pielea. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / I don’t know whom she fancies. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she was. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I don’t know who she is. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. identify the incorrect sentences. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. sau mai bine zis. / He asked me who she is. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. spune la un moment dat femeia.
Let us provide 51 .2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.Unit three Questions 3. being typical of spoken language. In this case. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.
(who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.2.1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. 3.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.
A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da).Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. are said to be positively – oriented. instead of Negative Polarity ones. they did. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . it has. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement.
A: You look down. A: She had her tenants evicted. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 7. 3. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. ……………………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. but I want to play basketball a little longer. ……. (speak yet) B: ……... 2. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. . 4..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 6. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. I’ve still got plenty of time.. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. ………………….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. because you always copy everything I do! 5. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. A: You’ve been learning German for years. as in the example: 1.. ……………? (hear her) B: ….
what ..Unit three Questions B: …………………. You could have mentioned it earlier. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. A: It’s past your bedtime. how. 3. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. A: There was a terrible car crash. 9. which When.2 Wh – questions Wh.. ………………………………. 8. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. .. I didn’t get home until late last night. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. .2. 10. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. where.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .
I cannot do that. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / Kay’s gone out shopping. Nearly two hundred years. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / David’s car was stolen. / She lives in the suburbs. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans.000dollars. / There are six students in my class. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / Shirley got married to Ben. why ever. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city./ We’ve lived here for ten years./ I have French lessons twice a week./ She dropped her glasses. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. trying to find places where I resided in life. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . what ever. of course./ Sara owns two cars. / That’s my pen. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / My new car cost 10. (Poppy Z. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.
de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.2. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 . • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.
He used to work in a bank. didn’t use he? 4. He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. shall we stay? 7. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. can you be? 58 . shall we stay? 14. How far is it the cinema? 10. Who did left the gate open? 18. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. wasn’t it there? 17. Let’s stay for another few days. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 8. You can’t be serious.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 3. Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. There was a fax for you this morning. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16.
Don’t forget to take some spare socks. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic.Unit three Questions 19. uneori disperat. wasn’t it he? 22. doesn’t he go? 23. will you not? 21. That’s your car. Ani întregi. deci. plin de germeni virulenţi. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. deci. Whose it is this book? 32. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Pot reveni. will you not? 27. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. isn’t it this? 25. Toate vechi. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. That was Jeremy’s brother. How long have you be lived in London? 26. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. să-mi înfrâng frica. How long time does it take to get there? 28. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. ca şi cei ce au fost. dacă prin absurd 59 . John goes jogging every morning. despre o lume dură. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. neliniştea infantilă. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29.
Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. “Spune! striga el. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. B. indiferent de risc. umed. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. străină priceperii lor. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. pe sub bolţile din care. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. naiv. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. de atunci. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. mă întreb. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. îi ştiu gustul. dar şi drumul. picură apa roşietică. inactivii. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . Riscul? Ratarea. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. murdar. pe care oricum am simţit-o. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. negru. Şi. neîntrerupt. laşii. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. puturos. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. iar proştii. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. ghiceam doar unde se află. lung.
chiar când prin absurd aş putea. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. care i-a determinat alegerea. la urma urmei. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.Unit three Questions viaţă. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. da? (37) Let’s go there. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. domnule profesor.3. viaţa? Oare e drept. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. 3.1. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. exclus. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. didn’t she? .3. will you? (38) She went to Prague. Tag Questions Tag questions. golul alb. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. orbitor. nu se poate. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3.
tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. aren’t they? 62 . the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. the tag is affirmative too. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. The suggestion is that in this case. if the host sentence is negative. In this way.) A: Oh. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. au fost cheltuiţi. sarcasm. is it? (Deci. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. it’s all spent. or “comment tags”. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet.e. or falling. (Din păcate. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. hasn’t she? (Aha. the tag is negative too).
/ She left an hour ago. / I may see you tomorrow. / A few people like her. / Surely you have enough money. / I don’t think you like my music. / He hates his wife. …/ Ann can’t speak French. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Everyone felt happy about it. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / He has to marry Susan. / They said he liked music. / I am older than you. / She used to talk a lot. / The boy never watched his sister. / You have been invited. / That was your father. / Tell me. / You ought not to smoke. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Let’s eat dinner now. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Each of us is staying. / I must go now. / I am dressed smartly enough. 63 . after all. / The boy often watched his sister. / There is enough food for everyone.…/ Let me know. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / I think you like my music. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick.Unit three Questions (Se mută. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / You will pick me up at 7. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Few people like her. / I think you don’t like my music. / Don’t leave without me. / That’s your car over there. / You will pick me up. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / He simply hates empty words. / She has a brother. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room.
/ How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 .Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. So you enjoyed my talk. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one./ I’m right about this…. / He never used to study so hard…. using a question tag at the end. 5. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash.. or what? 3. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. He used to play squash. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.
/ Grants… 3. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.) B: Chinese? 65 .2.1. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.questions which repeat part or all of the message.3.2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.2.3.1.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. Recapitulatory echo questions . as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.
If the wh.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. disbelief. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. consternation.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.2.2.phrase is fronted. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.3. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. (Închide lumina aia. of something just said. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. rather than the repetition.
(i. (Uită-te la asta. intonation is rising. / He is interested in music.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. with recapitulatory echo questions.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. / We are looking for a pixie. whereas with explicatory echo questions. I’ve lost the letter. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. dear./ He is interested in blue movies./ We are looking for a purse. rather than did you say. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Vai. which letter do you 67 .e. am pierdut scrisoarea. / I think I’ve found a solution.
Nadina VIŞAN 3. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.4. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . she knows about it. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.
lui Stavre Păici. lui Chizlinski. pe Condrat de Vica. în satul nostru. cumnată Fenia. lui Luca Horobeţ. Are gust de oameni blânzi. acuma sporovăiala. da. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. după pofte. şi care s-a aciuat. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. stricata. şerpoaica. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. oameni aşezaţi. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. aşa. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie.– Crezi tu. Fenio.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. ca să zic aşa. să se încolăcească mai bine. şi apoi Vica ce zice. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. nu purta verighetă. în general. cu o casă de copii.
pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. sau cum o chema. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. până la călcâie. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Hogea. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. dar cum se face că a 70 . (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. L-a scos din geamie.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. deci. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. abia târându-şi picioarele. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. roşu şi galben. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. sus. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. De asta erai. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
4.Contents: 74 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 220.127.116.11.2.5.Key Concepts .
some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.Unit four Coordination 4.e.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. cu repros. where there is no indication other than a comma.1 Syndetic vs. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. present) in the sentence. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.e. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. that elements are coordinated. on the other hand. reproachfully. Example (2). (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. 75 . i.
) (4) If you hit my wife. 76 . coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. Conversely. vei muri. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. you will die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.Nadina VIŞAN 4. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.) Such examples. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. From the previously mentioned examples.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.
we need to specify that.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. However.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. respectively subordinated constituents. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. from a logical & semantic point of view. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. but presupposed. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the second. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted.
took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. In the second. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. built. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. with formal walks under rows of trees. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. Though the castle had vanished. took off his shoes and emptied them. took off his coat and emptied them. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. Then he sat down. His clothes hung to him. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. the houses were beautiful and ancient. adorned with cornices. of cut gray stone.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. John Steinbeck. but the 78 . his shoes squished. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. In the first. with enormous solidity. He moved and made a slopping noise. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet.
the higher he went the wetter it grew. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and as the way is with Irish mountains. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. left the house. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Cecil Woocham – Smith. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside.
(G. yesterday and the day before yesterday. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.3 Sentence vs. however distinguished.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. as shown in (9). (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.K. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. we should be seriously annoyed. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. As one can easily notice. were to take down the name of every man.
Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. and I passed. / Peter and John played football. but not John. John and Mary are the newly married couple. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 6 John sang and Mary danced. 3. / Joan plays many games. plays football. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 8.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. our respective examinations. John is ready and Mary is ready. 9. 4. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated .) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. John and Mary are ready.Unit four Coordination example (7). 5. 10. / Peter. and even tennis. Our flag is red. yellow and blue. 7. Activity 2 sentences: 1. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Her pet kitten is black and white. 2. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.
(Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Activity 4 2. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. as can be seen in (10b). Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves and Bill hates cigars.Nadina VIŞAN b. Jane 82 .) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. 5. 3. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) b. John writes poetry and Bill prose. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. 6. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. or deleted. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.) c.
Besides ellipsis. the so-called Principle of Economy. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 9. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. these syntactical processes. So. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 10. 83 . as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself.e.) The common element. than a longer repetitive one. 7. i. can be reduced by substitution. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 8. We can demand payment and we will demand payment.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.
one or (the) other method. 3. simple books and magazines for children 3. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. In certain cases. George and Jane went back to their parents. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 4. George and Jane are separated. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. A citit. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. 2. the old men and women 2. 4. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Translate the following sentences. using reduced structures: 1. some reason or another.
6. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 6. 5. only for damage. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 16. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. for my wallet. it’s a case of ………… 7.. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………... They get on quite well together. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. like: salt and pepper. fish and chips.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.I searched ………. I need another 100$ ………. .You gain some things and you lose others. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. even though they have their little …………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 12. sweet and sour. 11. Can we discuss the ………….. 2. 8. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 5. the amount I’ve already saved up. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. of your proposals later on? 3. 7. After all their adventures. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 13. A pendulum swings ………. they reached home………. 8.. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….… 14.. Marks and Spencers. 15. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.
) There are. In fact. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. b. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. as in: (17) a. the expressive function of coordination is. and 86 . of course.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.4. For instance. etc.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. 4. more often than not. Nor sun. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.
) c. too): (20) a.) b. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.) 87 .Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. o respectau si o indrageau. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii.) In certain cases.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. etc). (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. 20 (b)). He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. where the subordinator is repeated. both … and . (I-am dat banii. or . some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.g. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. sometimes but. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. and cherished her. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.
(Imi place si o admir. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . I like and admire her.* I ironed and washed my pants. I admire and like her. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. I washed and ironed my pants. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.) b.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. if we were to rewrite the example . we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. and you’ll die. From this point of view. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and hit my wife. In this case. (O admir si imi place. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.
) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.Unit four Coordination 1. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. he failed).) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. (If you do that. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . Brown experiments with humans.) (While Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.
subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. From the functional point of view.) 101 .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.which are based on coordination . This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. e. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. as the name suggests it.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. 5. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .g.
(7) He willingly gave the book to her. an adverbial item. in certain cases. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.) 102 . (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). In a way. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. we associate it with these objects.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. sentences) required by the verb (or.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. such as proud of. (I-a dat cartea. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. For instance. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. for example). even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. We do not presuppose however something like.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. by an adjective + preposition. they are still presupposed by the speaker. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. for instance.
We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. In other words. Thus. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. which is the adverbial willingly. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. 103 .e. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The second example. i. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. related to example (4).) b. A second observation. I am afraid that he won’t come. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. an additional one. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. to add something. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. to her) and one extra-item. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.
please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. such as want. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. a închis toate ferestrele. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.) (11) If you don’t marry me. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. make. So. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. like. etc. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. (Înainte să plece din cameră.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) 104 . I’ll die. am să mor.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.
She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. this to whomever wants it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Whoever did that was a genius. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . e. After I told her the story. They came to e. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. I cannot tell you what I heard about you.g. 2. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 6.g. 4. 5. [. The book that because they home. she looked at me sadly. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 3.She came to him of her own will.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.
As you can see. FOR. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. though it was largely politeness. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 5. WHETHER. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 3. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. 2. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. not object. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 6. which.He took an intelligent interest in her. but he declined. You suggestion that we should. etc.) 106 . you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. was a novelty to Mitzi. at our age.
etc. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. when.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. why.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. 107 . (Am vrut să plec imediat. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. how.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. Where he went is London.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (E de dorit să plece. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. where.) b. which. (15) It is John who did it. Who did it was John. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) (16) a. who.
consider the following table. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.1. however. In (18). and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. for instance. etc. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. before. done from a structural point of view. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. Compare. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. which sums up this classification.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. In conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.) (18) She told me this before she left. Unlike complement clauses. As you will see. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . if.
g. after. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.: e. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will come back such as because. 109 . you understand. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. at your young age. whether he will come when I feel like it. etc. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. Introduced know e. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. back.g.g. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I will go there because I feel like it. Dear Ludwig. for. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. as.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.
but he asked her to wake him when she returned. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Late that afternoon. a tightening in her breathing. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. she stopped to speak to Monroe.The day Monroe had died was in May. But she thought that no one would call again. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. 2. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. As she left the house. Too. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. he said. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Accidental Man) b)1.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. 111 . Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. However.g. a correspondence can be traced.g. că e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.2. I told her everything after she arrived. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. interesting.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. As you have probably noticed already. That he loved e.
This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.1. Secondly.2. complements. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. So. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. In the fourth place. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.. whereas wh complements are the 112 . whenever you identify a wh. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.complement.e. Thirdly. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. i. (Cred că mă place. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. We will come back to that in the next chapter.
a house. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. and I do not know how things might stand between us. after. a barn.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. I first thought to tell in 113 . outbuildings. because. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. for no matter how she tried. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. before. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. but no idea what to do with them. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. Pratice Consider the following text. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. She mistrusted her handwriting. c) I am coming home one way or another. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. their introductory elements (e.g.
objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. these clauses can be complements. because they modify. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany).4.e. it would make you fear to do such again. and I have not the will or the energy. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). According to a structural criterion.
Pratice Translate the following. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. (…) “Mă. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.g. ce o fi având.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. după ce că are grâu puţin. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace.e. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. O zbughi înapoi. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. 115 . îşi spuseseră că Anton. însă. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. answering the question to whom? So. interested in.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. Nevasta secera în tăcere. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Alţii. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. look at. etc. be very careful to use this term correctly. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. think of.
iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. cât de bolnavă era. de fapt. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Nici acum. izolate de sat. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Toată lumea înţelesese că. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. timp de un ceas. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. întâi. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă.
iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Pace nu era. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. aşa de oţetit. stricau totul. la nişte prieteni comuni.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. deşi cam târziu. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. la Odobeşti. Iată. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Era bine de ştiut. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. de pildă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. amânase scrisul. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. În realitate. acum sunt desluşiţi. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat.
Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. frate. întâia noapte de război) 118 .
etc). 119 . the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. whose. subject relative clauses. etc. of which.g.
The Co-reference Condition 18.104.22.168.6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.5. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.2.7. Key Concepts .
(1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. The Co-reference Condition . Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.1.Unit six Relative clauses 6.2. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. 121 . (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. 6. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.
Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. John loves that woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. By combining these two clauses. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. 122 . we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.
we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The common element woman is present. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. 123 . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.
5. She came to London.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. I went to London. I introduced him to Jim. WHO 124 . WHERE 3. 6. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I lost the book’s cover. He liked that book. They met those students. 3. The students like their teacher. WHICH 4. None of the students agreed with them. WHO 5. 9. therefore in spoken English. too. I bought Jim a book. 10. I love my husband very much. This is my husband. 2. The students like their teacher. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I had a book. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. The king was just passing by. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. John told his friend a story about the king. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. by leaving behind a trace. Susan wants to meet Jane. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Any of the students would answer to questions. frequently used in written language. 4. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 8. He told Jim everything about his plans. He’s the author who received the prize. 7. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue.
Unit six Relative clauses 6. TO 11. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. most of them were from England. WHICH 8. i. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. . WHOSE 7.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. 2. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. WHOM 10.e. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. (Cine strică plateşte. relative clauses are divided into 1.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. WHOM 6.
unlike in the case of (14).) So. is no longer overtly expressed. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. Unlike their sisters. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. it is covert. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. in a manner of speaking. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Cel care strică plăteşte.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.e. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. these relatives cannot function as attributes.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Predicative This was what she intended.
non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (22) Mercury. is my favourite god.) (Mercury. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. (Mercur.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. they define it). care este zeul negoţului.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. este zeul meu favorit. (Du-te unde pofteşti. They can be thus divided into: 1. 127 . They only provide supplementary information about it. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who is the god of commerce. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.
who came to see me.e. then it is an attribute. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. this type of relative clauses. As we were saying. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. is a genius. restrictive relative clauses. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. 5. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. They are what 128 . 8. is a great playwright. 7. She. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. On the day on which this occurred I was away. was the one we all welcomed and admired. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). who is a genius. 2. i.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. on whom nobody could depend. 10.This is the village where I spent my youth. 9. Independent I don’t know what you want. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 6. Shakespeare. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. I have met him where I least expected. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met.
) 2. however sad this may be.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. a. care a murit acum câţiva ani.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. . etc.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. composed The (Freddie Mercury. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. who died a few years ago. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. 6. etc. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. When the antecedent has no determiner. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.
) Anybody else would have done something except myself. who neither work nor am anxious. 5. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Mie. numai eu nu. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. bătrînă morocănoasă. dried-up old maid. can see your shortcomings only too well. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. ill-tempered. but a peevish. who am your son. (Eu. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte.) (28) They come to me. 6. iritabilă şi uscată. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 2. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 7. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. 130 . poftiţi în faţă. (Ei apeleaza la mine. ci o fată a woman. care nu sunt o femeie.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. care-ţi sunt fiu. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. 3. Dintre toate personajele prezente. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. 4. îţi văd prea bine defectele.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic).) Pratice Translate the following. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva.
(32) service finished late.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. than whom few more can be more crashing.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.Unit six Relative clauses 6. were now in his possession. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. părăsi camera.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. heard. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. erau acum în posesia lui.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. .
but it is typical of the formal. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. literary style: (37) a. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. too. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) d.) b. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.5. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The genitive form with which is still in use.) c. 6. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. as can be seen in (36d).1.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) b. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .
but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Iris Murdoch.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .
but to a type or a function: a.) b. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.) • states. (45) (46) .) b. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. of which. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. He is not the man which he used to be. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. … Italy. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. animals. by the way. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. ships (that can be personified) a. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.
(Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. etc. etc. Poland is the place where Christine was born.) 6. reason.Unit six Relative clauses b. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. It is poor what gets the punches. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. while. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (Nu ştiam ce vor.5.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. where. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b.) b) dialectal (49) a.) b.2 Relative Adverbs: when. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. France. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. how. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.) 135 (47) . pe care o privea direct. whom it concerned most closely. why. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. time.
(Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) 6. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.3. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.They left when they decided it was proper to.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) 136 . (S-a dus unde mai fusese. He went where he had been before.) c. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) e. The place whither he goes is unknown. no antecedents are required: (52) a. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) b.) b. This is the place wherefrom they came. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.5.
(Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. Moreover. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.
138 (64) his shoes. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. but • in standard language a. .) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.4. but they are used very infrequently: as. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. not any. any. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. every. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. Honest man as he was. I’ll get you such things as you may want. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. much.5.
să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. . I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. It’s the dry weather does it. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. him as was in China … (Uncle George. And always on the buttered side.) c.) • in dialect a. There’s not many as’ll say that. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. This is the same one that/as you had before. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. Uncle George. ăl de fusese in China…) b. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.
) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.
What I’m saying is. 7. b.” 4.3): (72) a. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. It seemed a thing 141 . 5. What Inman remembered was this passage.5.) c.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. The man that John spoke to is a genius. 2. The man who John spoke to is a genius. That which shows God out of me. 3. we all have to come to some terms. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man John spoke to is a genius. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. makes me a wart and a wen. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) b. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. Where he was from. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. 6. fortifies me.
though. (…) Partly. 142 . she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. which is a lot. Whatever his fate was. 12.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Oh. who had not witnessed many dawns. 9. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. he had left Ruby high and dry. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. 10. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 8. 11. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. Ruby said. The rudeness of eating. 13. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. of living.
mort de tanar. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. plutonier. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era.al lui. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. Cumnatul meu avea.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. fiu natural al unui morar. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . cumnatul unui portughez. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. divortata. un var primar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. una din nepoatele unui inginer. vasnic. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carei strabunic. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. pe linie paterna. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. nu prea sarac. poate. (Iris Murdoch. pirpiriu.
where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. I lost the cover of the book.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. 144 .2. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. Everybody listened to that woman.6. b. c. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was a woman. Teatru) 6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. This is the book. insurat de trei ori la rand. By extension. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. The opposite phenomenon. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.
3. The problem of safe transportation. The difference between (76) and (77). For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 5.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. In the interest of public decency. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 2. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. has been troubling them forever. 4. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. acting again as a genuine pied piper. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 8. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 9. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti.Unit six Relative clauses b. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 6. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. no easy answers to which could be offered. 7. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. he requested that the public be excluded.
The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause.His father’s friends. as the case is). Activity 9 were now all gone. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 10. 4. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. They do not function as attributes. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. was now complete. 2. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 146 . including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). has been deleted. Irene. This story. no matter which. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. 3. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 5.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. he rarely saw now. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. 6. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. His friends.
Toate sfârşeau. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Pentru alţii. închipuirea. 6. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. 4. 7. Nelu. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). sunt vrednic de invidiat. 3. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 5. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. De douazeci de ani. pentru dumneata bunăoară. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. 2. himeric. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut.
10. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. nici în searbăda mea versiune. a făcut el. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. 12. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 8. cu surle şi cu tobe. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 9. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire.
care era foarte “mondenă”. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. 20.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 15. fie pe stradă. trăia larg de tot. toată lumea întreba cine e. despre care. până mai adineauri. apărură. 16. În spatele lor. 17. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. din care cauză pe Dora. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. 18. Avea acum un fel de vertij. pe strada Icoanei. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Dacă mă lovea. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. roiuri de fetiţe. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. 14. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. 149 . zise ea cu ochii mari. deşi atât de aproape. fie la teatru. din direcţia căreia apoi. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. de unde venea şi Marta.
care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. pe care ea îi admira acum. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. 23. pe care eu nu-l aveam. de sus de unde eram. 22. întâia noapte de război) 150 . de mine. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. până în şosea. 24. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. când au urcat râpa iar. Pentru mine însă. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. Pare-se că snobii. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. aveau un stil al lor. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. după ce maşina a fost reparată.Nadina VIŞAN 21. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei.
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 . by stating their syntactic function. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
2.Clause Shift 7.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 22.214.171.124.2.3. Key Concepts .Extraposition 7.2. That Deletion 7.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 126.96.36.199.1.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.6. That Complements as Subjects 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 188.8.131.52. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.2.3. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.2.1.Topicalization 7.1.5. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.1.5.
(1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. 7.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. Apart from those introduced by that.1. 153 . being found not only in the case of that-clauses. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. but also of infinitival ones. In other words. placed in a marginal position. the clause is extraposed.
(Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.
Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 7. 6. 14.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 2. It is nice to meet you. 9. 3. 4. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 11. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It appears that no one voted for him. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 3. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 8. It is no use trying to convince her. 10. 13. 9. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 5. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 15. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 10. 7. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 2. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 8. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 6.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 11. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 4. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.
unde se nimerea.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. sub poduri. 4.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 6.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. după porţi. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 4. 3. mă ascundeam în grabă. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 5. I guess it that he will come back. în gropi. zice Lionel. 3. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 5. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. atât 156 . 18. They never expected it that he would come back. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 2. 3. 2. 2. în canal. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe.
Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 7. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. fără să cârteşti. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. (Nu întotdeauna. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. excelentă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. vor căuta să o zdruncine.” 4. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Mi s-a părut chiar că. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. fără îndoială. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 5. 6. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. 157 . Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci.
Pratice Read the following. this asymmetry is undone. 1. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .2. in the case of topicalization. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Consequently.) While in the case of extraposition.1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.
This was another era. was inconceivable. even today. He was utterly gone. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 8. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. he felt no spring of interest in her.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. 3. mere chance would decide. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 4. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. 2. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. She had always been the slave of chance. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 5. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 7. but not now. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. whether it would finally carry her off. He did not blame Gracie. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 6.
) 160 . according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.1. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.3. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.
(17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. 161 . Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. the verb to drive).e. we obtain.
He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 2. 162 . / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. prime-minister. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 8. 4. 6. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. who had just returned from Africa. 5. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 3./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa.
) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.2.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.Unit seven That complements 7. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.
deem. desire. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. consider. prefer. etc. etc. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. state.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. They believe the man is guilty. suggest. He announced that they were engaged.: (25) a.) 164 . (Şi-a anunţat logodna. promise.1. judge. estimate. He announced their engagement.Nadina VIŞAN 7. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. communicate. They believe that the man is guilty. afirm.2. predict. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) a. deny.) b.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. explain. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) b. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. ibid. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. for example.) 172 . She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.e. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. hope =>purpose. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. on condition that.) language.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. they lose their meaning. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.) I like him in that he is smart. In older stages of English.
) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. He gave an answer such. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. să o vadă trecând. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) When the structure contains the word such. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) b. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) (66) 173 a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He gave such an answer as had expected. That can be deleted. . the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) b. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.
9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. they were chained to each other forever. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. ibid. ibid. (Iris Murdoch.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) 174 . 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) b. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared.
omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.3 ‘That Deletion 7.1. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. for instance.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.Unit seven That complements 7. He said he had borrowed her money.3. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A prins de veste că ei vin. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. say.) c. He showed he was able to do it. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. tell). (69) a.) b. that he uses a relaxed tone. 175 . He got word they were coming.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.
3.2. for better or worse. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. (Îmi place că e aici.) (De asemenea.Nadina VIŞAN 7. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. because that has been deleted. I like it that he was here. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. (Iris Murdoch. bune. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.) b. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. *I like it he was here. for better or worse. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.3. they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.3. 7. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. rele.
The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.) b)He told me that she was there. 7) They maintain. that they were not too late to leave. 7. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. he said. you want me to believe.4. (“Este acolo”. which is ungrammatical in English. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. spuse el. simultaneity. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.) 177 .
I will leave her. o să vină el. “She was here”. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) b. vine el. He said he would leave her.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. He told me that she had been there. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (A spus că.) Future Perfect -----. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. (Am să o părăsesc.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) b. In the example below. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . spuse el.) b. până pleacă ea. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (“Era acolo”. The Present complement). he said. (Pâna să plece.
discover. be aware.etc.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. realize it).) On the other hand. report. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. forget. insist. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) 179 . Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. believe. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. be amazed/concerned. With such factive verbs as realize. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. show.) b. regret. whisper.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. notice. hope. think. wish. dream. etc. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. mention. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. say. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.
(Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. feign habits which are not their own. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. He knew that she thought all men were fools. She believed that the earth is round.) b. She realized that all men are fools. in tender deference to each other. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) b. She still believed that the earth was flat. Consider also: (85) a. 180 . expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. we notice that general truths. (Iris Murdoch. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.
since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) In (88). Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. 181 . Peter said that John will leave at 5.) b. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) b. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. There are however cases. such as a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3.Unit seven That complements 2. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Peter said that John would leave at 5.
Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. for instance. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. Imagine. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. But 182 . g) John thought that Harry ran. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) John said that Harry is leaving. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) John said that Harry was leaving. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. The time is 3 o’clock. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave.
whistling swan. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. kingfisher. b.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. love of practical jokes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. a. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. slyness in a fight. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. quail. Translate the following. lack of pridefulness. Crows will relish what presents itself. redtailed hawk. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. lark. nighthawk. c. She admired their keenness of wit. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. 183 . finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. jaybird. geese both grey and white. bluebird. Cooper’s hawk. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy.
which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. But as the battle raged around them. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. And they might just hang him. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. war hero though he was. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. in the very act of expiring. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He had fought hard through the war. he claimed. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Now here he stood jailed. He died erect. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. the young officer. […] During the latter stages of the tale. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest.
On certain occasions that can be deleted.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. from the very frequent subject. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. object ones up to the attributive function. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). on other occasions it has to stay there. 185 . or else.Unit seven That complements 7. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. which they share with wh-complements. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).
Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. neconvenabil şi primejdios. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. peste puţin. Mama. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. 3. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Unul din ei. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. 4. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. 2. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Fiind 186 . Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. cel mai mare.
Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. care îl pândise. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. un vis de acesta 187 . Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. va pleca din oraş la vie. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 8. de ce constata în sine. fericit. dacă va mai veni. Nu ţi-a trecut. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. 7. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. aşa. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Se mira. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. cel puţin pentru un timp. 9. ea. 6. venind de la avocat. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. 5. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. luminos şi apropiat şi când.
– La ceea ce mă gândesc. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. dar şi teama că. 12.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. şi mândria că a biruit. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. 11. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. încă o dată. Astfel de va fi. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. fireşte. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Acesta. lucrul era înfăptuit. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. liniştit.
fără o vorbă scrisă.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. spre Jurubiţa. 14. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Pe toate. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. după cum. mai puternic decât oricând. să le lămurească pe toate. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. ci numai aşa.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
6.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.8.2.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Key Concepts .3.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 184.108.40.206.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 220.127.116.11.A Classification of Infinitives 8.
infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. 193 . What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) b. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) • like that complements. To love her is something really wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. It is important that you should know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions.) b. Consider the following: • like that complements. That you love her is something wonderful. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).1. I told her to be more careful in the future.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (3) a. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). It is important for you to know what you need. (2) a. b. From this perspective. I told her that she should be more careful in the future.
as opposed to the finite ones.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. gerundial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention.e. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. etc. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.) b. the Participle) (i. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 194 .Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. participial clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. the Gerund. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. 2. For instance. d. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. the Conditional. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.
(Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) c.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.) 195 . (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. namely no ending.) b. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.
2.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 4. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 10. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 8. 3.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 6. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.2. the criterion of form.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 8. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 9. 7. 5. (7) They saw her leave.
/ I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. hear. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. (10) 197 . according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. 2. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.
the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. Pratice Translate the following. .) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. 3.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. However. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. 198 (11) the universe. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. uncharacteristic for literary English.
we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. as I have already mentioned. Further on. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. In other words. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. 199 . since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. to use the appropriate technical term. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. or the control constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO.
(Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.) Object: (18) a.) b. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.) b. PRO to forgive divine. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.) 200 . as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. It is important for him not to err. I hoped for him to be there in time. namely the agent of the event. şi creştineşte să ierţi. So far.) In this situation.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. the logical subject. (E important ca el să nu greşească. PRO to err is human. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.
He stepped aside for her to enter. but the patient of the verb persuade. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. In other words. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). not to the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. him is related to the main clause verb.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .) b. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.
(Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. I hate animals to be tortured. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ She promised him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ I would love them to come. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They tempted him to leave. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ She wanted him to leave. \ He persuaded her to come. Likewise. \ I allowed them to come. \ 202 . \ They convinced her to come back. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals.
\ They did not wish her to come back. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. • Last but not least. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. 203 .) He seems to be a good linguist. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. \ They really asked her to come back.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. So. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.
etc. that is not required by certain verbs. To sum up the discussion. to meet her. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. with special semantic and syntactic properties. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. hate. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.).Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. 204 . seem. which are said to be free. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. appear. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă.
like. dislike. scorn. hope. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. omit. deign. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. decline. wish. 8. etc.) 205 friend. etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. try. refuse.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. scheme. deserve. expect. aspire to. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. arrange. venture. desire./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. prefer. contrive.3 The Distribution of PRO . (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. agree to. seek (= try). etc. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. manage. want. condescend. . need. fail. endeavour. bear. presume. intend. afford. propose.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.) b) verbs such as abide.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. mean. Compare: (31) a. hate. care to. / E greu să îl suporţi.
) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. unlikely. stand. For all of them to have been killed is. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) b. bear.) b. be important. possible. I would like for him to become president of the country. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.) 206 .) b. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. however. conclude. etc.etc.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. endeavour. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. threaten. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. ask. suggest.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. forget. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. claim. desirable. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.) 8. verbs of liking and disliking.Nadina VIŞAN b. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.
(E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 8. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) 2.) b.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) 207 . ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.
Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. I decided for John to represent us.) 5. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Like in the case of that complements. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) 4. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 208 knowledge. but the meaning remains.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. . I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) b. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. the preposition is deleted. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Direct Objects (39) a. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b.
You’re an idiot to go there.) b. This paint is like concrete to work with. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. etc. delicious. curious about.) c.) d. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. The stew is delicious to eat. 6.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) c) adverbial of result 209 .: (42) a. She is pretty to look at. He is a bastard to work for. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) e. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.
to tell you the truth. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / Pe şleau. să nu piardă trenul. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.) I’ve never met him.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. you’re a bad driver. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. drept să spun. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / Ehei.) Oh.
need. According to this. influence. induce. inspire. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.) b. encourage. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. promise. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. 8. swear. b. direct.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. enable.: (51) a. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. press. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. oblige. inform. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.) . / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. nu mai vreau să te vad. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. (49) a. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. urge.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. etc.etc.
/ And now he 212 . allow. count on. command. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. prevail on. order. name. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.etc. etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. vote.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. choose. elect.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. permit. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. look to.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. nominate. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. etc. depend on.
i. this construction is lexically governed. 213 (58) (59) .7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.: (55) She appears to like him.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. etc. be about to.etc. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (O să întârzii/ leşin. come. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). grow. An Accidental Man) 8.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. seem.e. be going to. (Iris Murdoch. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (57) He is to come any day now. etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.verbs: appear. (Se pare că îi place de el. happen.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.
observe. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. that of intention. be alleged. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. In (57).: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be reported.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. be thought.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. overhear.) 8. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. watch.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. etc. be considered. hear.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). perceive. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. be claimed.: (62) They heard him insult her. feel. be rumoured. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).etc. . etc.
) 215 (67) .Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. etc. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. believe. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. consider. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. understand. figure. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. have. remember. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. deem.) • with a full infinitive: get. recollect. occasion. However. judge.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. (Cred că este un geniu. cause. imagine. picture. presume. discover. prove. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. know. find. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money.
command.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. choose. order. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. mean. love. desire.etc. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. suffer. wish. expect. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. if he himself was out of spirits. he hated anyone to comment 216 . permit. they had depressed and fuddled him. who wasn’t used to men with moods. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. Harold. prefer.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. etc.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. want. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.
(L.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. he didn’t envy those above it. though he tended to look down on those below it. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Both seemed to him a little unreal. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. to make sure we attended strictly to business. A little crossly. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. He suspected hostility at once.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. the herd instinct was very strong in him.P. so that we might get to the future and have done. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.
about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.Nadina VIŞAN 8. From this perspective. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. The last criterion. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. 218 . We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. we can speak about bare and full infinitives.
să-l capete. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. un bărbat şi o femeie. de asemenea. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. lovit şi umilit. Şi tu să fii. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. e) Când doi oameni.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. bunăoară. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. fireşte. E posibil. într-o zi. de bună seamă. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. mai bine219 . c) Călătoriile cu liftul. dar să nu-ţi spună. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. e important ce întrebări pui. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat.
să nu vrea să se şteargă. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în jos. să traiesc numai cu tusea. încă. (B. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. mai bine de două decenii. aşa cum îi apăruse el. . d-a lungul gâtului. sau. în parte. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. pe care deja o uitase. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. nici măcar în acele puncte unde.Şt. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. mai pline de înţeles. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.Şt. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Însă Paul Achim trăise. un picior. 220 .Delavrancea. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Să spui de pildă. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. De era vară. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. în parte. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. că eşti tânăr.Nadina VIŞAN zis. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. în ploaie. avusese dreptate. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi.
caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. şi nu un amant. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. o mizerie.. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. orice bucureştean ştie. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. orice-ar fi.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. deşi. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. Într-un cuvânt. de fapt. şi prin faţă. un miros îngrozitor. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. (Al. ei. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). gata să mă supun oricărei porunci... prin faţă e coborârea. biata Muti. nici ca să 221 . ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure.. fie ea şi grăbită. Mă laud singură. sunt aici cu tot ce am. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.
în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. niciodată ea nu i le pune. parcă la întâmplare. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.
Characteristics of Gerunds 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.5 Key Concepts .The Gerund 9.9.1.The Verbal Noun 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 126.96.36.199.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Participial Constructions 9.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.1.3.
) 225 .1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Due to this situation. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Let us start with the Participle: 9. (Susan doarme. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.
especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. it functions attributively. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.) As you can see in this second case. blood-shot and painted. 226 . (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. been and killed are past participle forms. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. i. In (2) the forms come. Susan has been killed. Susan has come.) More infrequently.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. the past participle can appear after a noun. were closing. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (A venit Susan) b.e. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. too: (6) Her eye-lids.
o să ajung la timp. (Sosind aici.) c. Weather permitting. ea o luă la fugă. leul poate să atace. God willing. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. Oh. he will eventually marry her. Arriving here. (Ştiind cine era el.) c.) 227 .) b. If provoked. Knowing who the guy was. a lion can attack.) d. people should pay attention to high notes. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. o să ajung la timp.) b. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. she ran away. When singing. I will arrive there on time.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. mother permitting. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. they started singing. începură să cânte.
I found him stealing. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-au descoperit că fură.) 228 . (Am simţit-o tremurând. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) ii. He was found stealing. watch. hear. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (L-am descoperit furând.) b. which stands for an adverbial clause. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. respectively. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. They found him killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. behold. smell. notice.) b. He was found killed by a bullet.
) b.) c. find.: a. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. etc. make a. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. etc.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. I heard it said that men are a bore. recollect. recollect. she knew herself dismissed. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. have.) • Causative verbs: get. know.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (A fost văzut plângând. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. etc. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. hear. He’ll soon get things going. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. set. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.: When she heard his words.) • Causative verbs: get . have. a.) b. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.) b. send. leave. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. I must get my hair cut.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. confess. feel. keep. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. etc. start.) • mental perception verbs: remember.
lovit şi plin de sânge. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu după multă vreme.) • verbs of permission. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. command I ordered my bill made out. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. Men like shopping made easy.) b. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.
the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / My Lord.1. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. Unlike the gerund. with its lips drawn back. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.2. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / In any case.e. / Dinny. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. sitting taut between her father and her sister. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. 231 . I should be glad to recall the petitioner. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.
3.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. I left. I knew that the murderer was still at large. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. the rain will stop.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. (Desi nu ştia limba. She had heard it all before. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 6. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I was astonished at what I saw. I have looked through the fashion magazine.She didn’t want to hear the story again. (Văzând acestea. am plecat. People were sleeping in the next room. am plecat. using either a present participle. 4. I turned on the light. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 2. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. se va opri şi ploaia. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. 5. It had been uprooted by the gale. I left. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. The tree had fallen across the road. 7.
5. dark. 9. Reading in bed. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. minded (3 times). Knowing me to be the fool of the family. They began quarreling about how to divide it. fishy. cornered. I let the dog out of the room. sharp. coloured. open.Running into the room. roast. They found the treasure. red (twice). Riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree. He sat down to his own dinner. empty. 11. a pot of paint fell on my head. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. shaven. an idea suddenly occurred to me. three. b) Headed (5 times). 8.shoulder. Dropped by parachute. 12. covered. 10. Barking furiously. narrow. Passing under a ladder. broad. drunken. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. wooden. Leaving the cinema. mown. bald. quick. eagle. many. 3. straight. 9. 8. handed.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 7. 233 . Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 6. 10. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Mother punished me for my mistake. his horse fell at the last jump. cloth. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 2. hearted (twice). the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. one of the eggs broke. lion. eyed (3 times). open. haired (twice). lighted. a scorpion bit him. Getting out of bed. stricken. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Tied to the post. my hands often get very cold. I slammed the door of my room. Read the sentences and try to correct them. skinned. the sea was tossing the post up and down. stony. He fed the dog. 4.
ill-gotten. plank. / Swiss watches. (take) 2. duty. b) grass. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (produce) 3. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. _______ for their elegance and precision._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. hidden. shrunken. / Three people. image. _______ my arm. graven. (grow) 4. rotten. Translate into English: 1. (injure). the same verb is missing twice. meat. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. I stared at the canvas for ages. _______ by S. deer.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. eyes. lead. The escaped prisoner.I fell on the ice. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. wealth. / Many old people . umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . ________ hiding in a barn.Spielberg. man. stream. were taken to hospital. shorn. was today taken back to prison. (admire) 5. _______ for a bargain. meaning. In the following pairs of sentences. are sold throughout the world. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. are in grave danger of extinction. bounden. is expected to be a great hit. (find) 6. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. Whales. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. lamb. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. 7. head./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (hunt). The film. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. candle.
cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Şi sufletul său. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. Şi. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. 2. 4. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. 3. când deschisă. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. deodată sufocat. le cocea. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. care le rânduia. le fierbea.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . biruit veşnic de o îndoială. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. După câtva timp. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. şi moi. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. nesigur şi moale. O umbreluţă. legume date prin mai multe ape. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. când strânsă. precum şi foile de plăcintă. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. păsări tăiate. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. întinse. trezit. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. ca şi cum.
236 . crezi.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Dacă vezi.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. Likewise.2. According to this criterion. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.2. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.Nadina VIŞAN 9. The Gerund 9. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.
) b. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.2. Him winning and you losing was surprising. Consider the following table.) b. gerunds differ from participles. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. That he won and you lost was surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) 9. In that. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.
(Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. as being verbal 238 . A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.) Unlike participles. *It was illegal growing a beard.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) b. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. Consider (32).) 2. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. It was illegal to grow a beard. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.
2. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) 3. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) b. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Participles vs. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.) 9. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. as offered in the table below: 239 . It’s no good talking to her.) b. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.3.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.
(adverbial of time) 4. perfect.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. + noun] 1. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. forms: continuous . (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may function adverbials: house. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. 3. 2. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. babies suck their thumb. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. passive ones She was crying. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project.
/ Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 .Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat.
He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 9. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 12. 13. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 10. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 3. 14. 12. 6. 7. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 11. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. swimming duck / swimming trunks. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 242 . The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. crying game / crying woman. 5. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 15. 8. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 2. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. eating habits/ eating people. He was spotted talking to her. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. shooting gallery / shooting star. 4. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.
) The absence of a determiner like the. a The absence of an of phrase. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.3. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. but the presence of a direct object (i.Unit nine Ing complements 9. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .
The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . In the second situation.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. These are features that normally characterize any noun. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. George’s shooting the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. if we were to go back to our incomplete table.
/ The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / His coming there puzzled her. 245 ./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. very large. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. Jim left quietly. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.
at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).Nadina VIŞAN 9. Look. It has been noticed that. For instance.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. whenever we meet an –ing form. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. However. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.4. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. With the infinitive.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . ING Forms and Infinitives. for example. the meaning is different. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.
(S-a oprit din mâncat. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. having left) is infrequently used in English. anterior to the verb in the main clause.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. the infinitive is future-oriented. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.) The first example. On the other hand. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. and the most well-known one. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. future-oriented value of the infinitive). The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. containing an infinitive.) After looking at this example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.) .g.
She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.) As you can see. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. recollect.e. which means that they are similar in meaning.e. i. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.) . having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.
) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) . but that’s it. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the petrol tank is not filled yet. the action is not completed. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. In the second example. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. dar asta este. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.
(Casa trebuie reparată. In the second example.) With [. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) wedding. mean has the sense signify. want With [+ human] objects.) 250 .) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) b. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. the event has not happened yet. The house needs to be repaired. e) need. The house needs repairing. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.
but they went by too quickly.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. I did ask Mr. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. gerund or infinitive. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.’ ‘Tell me.’ ‘In any case. whereas in the second case. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. my Lord. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. Croom (try) (follow) one. my Lord. however appearances were against us. it’s overrated.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Lady Corven. (take) down her answer. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.
’ said Clare. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. he addressed the note. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. and went out (post) it himself. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. suddenly.’ 252 . I must go back now.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. Then. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ said Clare. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. I just used the word and they fell. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).
There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Last but not least. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Pratice In the following texts. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits.5. the 253 . We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which.
down into God knows where. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. their edges crashing inwards. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. She started coughing. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. moving up towards his chest. down. the enormous split in the earth. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. It was like a mist. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. then the noise and the cracking stone. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. covering the girl’s head. hoping he would see somebody up there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. it 254 . but then he saw it billowing up from below. slowly rising in a swirling motion. someone looking for survivors. The two sides were moving apart. according to the books he read. At first. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. He looked up towards the daylight. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. Then he saw movement at his feet.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. The sight of the two children.
they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Having a French governess. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. for Dornford was busy on an important case. my dear. 255 . the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. slanted on to her cheek. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. She finished what jobs there were.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. brightening to winter brilliance. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.
frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Vaucher şi cu mine. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. într-o joi. mama mea. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. închizând ochii. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. totul se animă deodată. În urma slugii. cei doi Mamona. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. ucenicul său necredincios. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. 2. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Ridicându-se. and then went riding with her in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit.
dar ştiutoare. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Şi deodată. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. auzit şi zadarnic. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. la mine. după cum îi spusese mama. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. afară ploua în continuare. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. 3. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. aşezată cu spatele la noi. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. privit. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. se duse lânga mama şi. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. aplecându-se puţin. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . pe Vaucher. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. o sărută pe frunte. totul mi se părea cunoscut. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Ne-a privit o clipa şi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. Neclintiţi. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. am ştiut şi cine. pe mama mea părând absentă.
şi. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. dar. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu stiva de lemne. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu soba. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Au coborât din camion încet. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. camionul a plecat. 5. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase.
259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
9. How this time was to come. How much. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. I am sorry not to have seen you. 11. 6. 13. Having regard to the date of drafting. and meet it right here at home. and this particularly of late. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. to retire early from my employment. since I have decided. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. 2. because of pity. this would really hurt. 7. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. without profound questioning. in some way. 3. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 12. apart from his distress for parents. 4. he had not yet been able to estimate. he had been advised. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 5. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. and that 263 . whereas if she went away she would get none. was unclear to Mitzi. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. You have been much in my thoughts. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 10.
14. looking forward had not yet taken place. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. please consider his proposition. he did not come to see her. 264 . / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. even for months. / Whenever I visited my aunt. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. / In the end. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. 19. this always makes us feel embarrassed. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. one of the eggs broke. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 17. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. for attending his sister’s wedding. / Before you go on changing the subject. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes.
Vulgar men did. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. her recklessness. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. cotton mills at Manchester. They rushed into shops. she said. a little girl. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. of the quick and wiry.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. She felt as when. of all people. to end in some awful tragedy. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. (and there he was. Instead of which she had married. 265 . quite unexpectedly. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. Though much in request before her marriage. her old friend Hugh. Tony was a child. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. rather than the hefty type. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. it was said. Essentially. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. centered in London and themselves. without discovery. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. and it was bound. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Clarissa used to think. They hated trying on. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. At country houses she had met them of course. an open-air person. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. She felt herself much older by nature and experience.
but lying in her bath. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. viguros si vesel in felul lui.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. (John Galsworthy . the more she would be torturing him. Bolnava nu se simtea. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. The closer she allowed him to come to her. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. aveam tot mai 266 . dar vizitele acestui om din topor. ii faceau bine. to keep abreast of the current. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. cre s-au nascut lent.Rindurile dvs. nu a facut-o pentru asta.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. nu puteam sa le uit. astfel. Reading many novels. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she professed. she was uneasy. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. indeed. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. with all its impatience of restraint. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita.Over the River) 2. si in plus. Cind l-a chemat. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. De uitat. short of the contacts of love. era un bun sfatuitor.
ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Banulescu – ibid. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani.) 5. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. se stie. (St.) 267 . Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina.) 6. fa-o. Daca tu. cit mai au de trait. pe scaunul lui tare. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Banulescu – ibid. (St.) 7. poate fi compensata. Banulescu – ibid. mi-am zis. Banulescu – ibid. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. ca si tine. lungimea picioarelor.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. 4. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. latimea si ascutisul labei.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Personal. (St. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. Milionarule. vaazut cindva. o data sau de doua ori. (St. Ce a iesit. are nevoie. nu pricep nimic. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si.
Ernest Richard Atkinson. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Could he be blamed. Who when asked about his memories of the War. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who told me. when I was even younger than you. Who. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Cambridge. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who came home from the war. (. Who was may father. delivered from the holocaust.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Arthur Atkinson M. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father.. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. for being a renegade. A story-book romance. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. 2.P. my grandfather.. a wounded soldier. to Emmanuel College. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Translate them. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes.
a moody man. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. Rachel Williams. and because – but this is mere speculation. How 269 . that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. he had already engaged himself? 3. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. Fabianism. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). 4. deep-set. to whom. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for flirting with ideas (European socialism.
How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Ion. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum au tăcut ei. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum a trăit el. 270 . Ion. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. satul. cu taina aceasta. la şcoală. Cum a ajuns el. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. om mare. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. trebuie să te vrea şi ele.
împotriva tuturor. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. de mama lor. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. 271 . din franţuzeşte.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare.pune totul in discuţie. Când actriţa. singurul lui stăpân. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cu sau fără voie. când voi fi singur. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. greşeli dintr-astea. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună.
Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. dam buzna peste automobile. privindu-mă în ochi. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. de pildă. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Am început. e îndrăgostită de un actor. A devenit palid. 5. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. nevasta-mea. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. parcă începusem s-o uit. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. pe jumătate prezent. traversând. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. sau ridicole. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Într-o vreme. ci un sistem de acomodare. 3. 6. continuând. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. provocându-le. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. 272 . Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Tot aşa. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. 4.
încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. iar. Dacă nemţii înaintau. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . 8. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. să merg întins. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. 9. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. şi dacă merg întins. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. şi să nu ameţesc. Aş vrea să mă las jos. că nu m-am gândit la asta. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. fără să mă opresc o clipă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. fireşte. 11. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. E o problemă. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. ca un acrobat. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. De altminteri. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Am început. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. orice s-ar întâmpla.
274 . dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. la fata locului. Greu era din partea asta. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila.. Acum isi ferea privirea. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. 16. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. parca i-ar fi fost frica. eu am venit sa va intreb. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. de la proces. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. la amintiri. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. 17.Ma. nu mai pricepu nimic. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. trebuia sa le spuna. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ii venea greu.. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. se uita in jos. 14. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. de uimire. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. de la obiecte de pret. nu mai semana. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Adica tot trecutul. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. de la lucruri personale. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. la carti. cu mirare. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. dar nu se mai putea. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. La un moment dat. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Uite. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. In curind. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Ilie nu-l asculta. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. 13. Auzindu-l. 15. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : .
19. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. se indeparta nepasator. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. 20. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. cum zicea Anghel. dar. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap.Ce sa fac. asa cum facuse pina acum. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. which was part of his rich outfit. Nu era nevoie. apoi se uitau la Ilie. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. i se paru ca aici e ceva. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . vorbe asa si-asa. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. . le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Zimbea siret. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Aici era ceva. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. There was even 275 . Ilie nu intelesese nimic. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. fara sa-si dea seama de ce.
for the instant. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. paying no attention. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. He felt then. He walked a long time. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. 3. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. 4. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. She was one 276 . at least. But Daisy. the young lady. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. asked for Mrs.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. a simplification. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. gave an exclamation. on this occasion.Nadina VIŞAN relief. resuming her walk. going astray. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. rude woman.Miller at her hotel. to move fast. conversationally. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. to take his way home on foot. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. to admit that she was a proud. 5. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her.
was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. making Paul stop and look at her. He left me musing. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. in radiant loveliness. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. make a point. smiling and chattering. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . 7. of studying European society. uncomfortably. on the other hand. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. as to projected changes. She appeared. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. Advising with me. as text book. Her daughter. She rustled forward.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. and wondering what the deuce he meant. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. in their own phrase. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. often. as it were. indeed. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. while residing abroad. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. 6. 8.Walker.
Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. with his humorous density. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. not seeing. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. though E. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. wondered what they were talking about.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. was only half satisfied with this. H. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. while Paul. could see he was remarkable.’ 278 . and acute too.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. which was deliberate. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. was immensely struck with him. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. and perceived that it must be something important. and. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. 10. or at any rate not heeding. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. 9. 11.
could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 14. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. 13. 15. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. appeared to fill his whole childhood. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. that the haunting wonder which now. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. H. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . which was very copious. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. not glancing at him for a moment. as he looked back. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. But she gave him no chance. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. had the power to chain his sympathy. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn.
It was very possible she was capricious. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. 18. ironically reserved. At the theatre. dragging herself on her knees. yet 280 . from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. as a general thing. disheveled and distracted. 16. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. H. proudly. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. The whole establishment.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. 17. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. and to H. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. where the Pearl of Paraguay. and there were others. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. that she must be on the contrary. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts.
going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. 2. *Old. 19. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. H. had blown a certain chill. would always be more or less irritating. with the poor. Their mistakes and illusions. It came over H. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. and lurking within this nebulous design. young men were invited. 3. didn’t mind. 20. No one ever listens to her. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 281 . that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. on which the damp breath of the streets. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her.
c) When I saw her sitting there. striding like a Spartan maid. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. 5. her shining blue feet twinkling. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 8. 11.Nadina VIŞAN 4. “Oh. I walked fast. 12. her arms held out. 6. 282 . walking quickly. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 10. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. Rachel. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. I was definitely going to be sick. Either John or he * have got to give in. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. I saw her as a vision. I blundered by. slipped on some steps. 7. 9. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have.
One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer.
Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. The old women spoke no English. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. but that we saw and pitied. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. which was really alarming. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. 2. if they were poor. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. 4. could cook my meals. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. And then I ventured to add that. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. 5. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. 3. where my servant.
Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. this. apart form his distress for parents. at noon. apart from his distress for parents. etc. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. he had not yet been able to estimate. to pay their annual visit. his. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. Constituents: He. Munt. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house. he. this would really hurt. Constituents: how much. would really hurt. on Saturday. distress. had not been able to estimate. 285 . How much. before they left town. was anxious = was + anxious. was anxious.g.apart from his distress = apart from. Constituents: Margaret. to settle. etc.g. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. etc. was informed.
semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – non-assertive./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.. negative/ Come with me. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. which is not assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). – first clause is an ifclause..syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. it is assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. negative. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. negative/ If you like jazz. – assertive/ Don’t do that. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. second clause is non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. interrogative. The sentence is however 286 . – first clause is non-assertive. and is non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. – comparison. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. Second clause is an imperative. don’t bother her./ She finally admitted. listen to this. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.. interrogative. interrogative. / If you like her.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.
/ He was smart enough. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. –double negation cancellation. – someone did that. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ Not long ago./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / They didn’t leave./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / You have never met 287 . / I don’t like her very much. the two brothers dared to protest. but nothing out of the ordinary./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / She does not hate animals./ Hardly interested in the conference. but it isn’t Susan. but it wasn’t them.but to someone else. not even this thing./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. he was hardly pleased. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / She does like John./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. – I like somebody else. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. everybody used to travel by coach. only irresolute./ He was exceptionally cunning./ When he learned the news. – someone hates animals. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. but not more than she does others./ They weren’t really confused./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. not even when it’s quiet around. / He wasn’t unusually bright.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. – they told the truth to somebody else. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty.
.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. not even in my dreams. were they? / This boy is no good.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they go skiing in the mountains. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – I cannot look him in the eye. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. / Should they not have told her the truth.. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / This is hardly the 288 . not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody....negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad..negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. not even when you were very young.Nadina VIŞAN her.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.
/ You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes..Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. Activity 8 I shall never. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. when we started our holiday. / I seldom look at her like that. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.Never shall I trust a man again. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Not many people came to see her. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. never trust a man again. – Almost nobody liked him./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. but she also lent him a car. – I almost never look at those paintings. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – I don’t often look at her like that./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.. / Hardly anybody liked him. – I never see her.. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / Few people came to see her. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.
/ The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – Come on. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / Come on. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent)./ I somewhat like his proposal./ I expect he won’t come here again. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. you can’t do anything about it any more./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / They believe she does not like them. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / He reckoned he would not win her over.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / She could rely on nobody but him. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – Nowhere could the keys be found. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / They say he once had someone very close. – They say he never had anyone very close. – 290 ./ Well. you can still do something about it. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Don’t worry.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent.. – Only on this man could she rely. – They don’t believe she likes them. –At no time did we leave the office. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain.
/ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – You should send her something. – Well her husband has always been a good person. 291 .Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You must pay that fine. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – You can’t be telling lies.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / She hardly ever comes here. – I feel much better for having had a holiday./ I can understand all of these ten English words. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / Well. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Peter knows some English and so does John. I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ Bob is still living at that address. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – She almost always comes here./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. –Alice still lives here. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / You must be telling lies. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. too. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. either. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / You needn’t send her anything./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences.
/ He can’t have done a thing like that. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Zis si facut./ You look so tired today./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ I don’t know why she’s crying. not yet./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. has never studied anywhere./ Nobody told us a thing./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge.D. Oh. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. / Don’t go on believing him. ever since I got this ulcer./ 292 ./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. to any of us. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I haven’t seen her in years. e un magar. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ You took his leaving you very hard. / Jim is so brave./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. He didn’t move a muscle. He isn’t that smart. give me a hand./ He was a tough man. It’s no wonder. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Nu spune nu niciodata. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ E un baiat de zahar./ Have they rung the bell? No. / Please./ They say this Ph./ He’s a happy man. I haven’t done anything. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Nimic de facut./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ I don’t know a thing about her.
/ You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.’/ Deloc descurajat. parasi camera. with the same needs they had. nothing. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . that I was a decent man. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. for I thought this threatening. slowly. no memory.’ ‘Nici o problema. without too much determination. 293 . We had nothing in common. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. thrown out. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate ./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. I hadn’t really expected miracles. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. no story. I had never had the opportunity to prove. one way or another. feebly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.
. I admit. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. or if you understood what I meant. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. Your judgement is false. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. good. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. Unfortunately. that’s what the world is about. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. the only 294 . • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. on the front seat. Radu had calmed down.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. by coming here to the monastery. I’d be so happy if it were so. your story. • It was my turn to say something. not as we would like it to be or some other way. to say the least. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. he immediately answered me patronizingly. he was sitting beside me. it’s not words. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. things you do any moment. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. clear or confusing. Not for a moment had I thought that. You really made me mad. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. bad. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. let alone irritable. I was sleepy and tired. It’s not made up of theories and the like. but facts. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. We have to judge it as it is.
clears your way. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. and if you like. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. But I was just wondering. I won’t interfere. precious words. keep your conscience clean: you have one. although it was a difficult thing to do. and an inability to act. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. me. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. to fight. Anyway. you can go to Ursu’s. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. soon we’ll be in town. as Baciu would have us be. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. • So. just to please myself. it solves troubles. did you ever step up front. Look. it’s your problem. either. me. behind these big. we are leaving. or call the respect of others. no matter how huge they are. But what about you and Melania. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. it’s yours. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. or you are lying hidden. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. keep it squeaky clean. too? A gun is power.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. you do as you think fit. fear might be hiding. 295 . because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them.
as soon as he delivered it. firmly determined not to answer immediately. but they gradually got used to it.. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. But it was not because I had no answer to give.correct 3. because before is a positive polarity item 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. will he?. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. or some other woman. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. the sentence is incorrect 3. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.Negative attraction b) 1. has not arrived yet – double negation.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.Negative incorporation 296 . .correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. The villagers were not very religious. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. -correct 3.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. – incorrect.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. correlatives are mixed 2. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. has yet arrived -correct 2..incorrect.
Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. (ibid. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. either (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. nu era 297 . she couldn’t marry him. Ştia că are dreptate. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. b) But it was rather (API) late. prea răscolit. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită.) Însă era cam târziu. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. (ibid. Avea sufletul prea obosit. too troubled. Her stillness.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Nu putea să se mişte. yet. not happy at all (NPI). (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. much less ((NPI) for her.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). His spirit was too tired.
se îndreptă spre paravan. (ibid. (Salman Rushdie. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. Ba dimpotrivă. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. his heart was beating fast. she looked younger than ever (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. e) At length. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. şi destul de hotărât. inima îi batea năvalnic. 298 . (ibid. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. he made his way to the screen. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. if anything (NPI). The Satanic Verses. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. and not a little unsteadily.
there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. but his father would have none of it (NPI). h) C. the gift was useless. Ce-i pasă lui C. care if the school were willing to treat him. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. Home receded from the prodigal son. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta.) C. The point was. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. 299 . Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. and probably an administrative headache as well. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. (ibid. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. i) What did C. the school wasn’t budging (NPI).
correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. 300 . . incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. yes.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. you are in enough trouble as it is. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. now she was chatty. “Now. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. She has an eye for gentle men. to make them lust after her. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. the bitch. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. and then what do you 308 . Chizlinski. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Fenia. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. Luca Horobet. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. they were. keep Condrat away from her. do you really think that this vixen. Fenia. all godfearing husbands and fathers. Stavre Paici. 2. she likes to entrance them. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. she didn’t wear a ring. Vica.
what’s her name. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. with a railway station and a mosque. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. 3. The mullah. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. have a girlfriend. dragging his feet listlessly. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. 4. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. ankle-long flowered calico. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 .Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. He got him out of his mosque. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. the minister of Tartars and Turks. her hair pinned with blue combs. It even takes him a while to go to the window. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. a seventy-eight year old lad. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. G.
Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.
Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang..) 9. John and Mary are ready.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – sentence coordination 2. Her pet kitten is black and white. – sentence coordination 7. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. Our flag is red. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John and Mary are the newly married couple. our respective examinations. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. John is ready and Mary is ready. – similar situation 10. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. yellow and blue. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. and I passed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .phrasal coordination (in this case..
We can and will demand payment. 9. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. plays football.) Joan plays many games. Activity 5 This book and the other. but not John. and even tennis. your proposal and his. 7. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. that method and those. 3. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 5. her son and others. 6. but John does not play football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. many guest or few.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). much satisfaction or little 312 . Activity 4 1. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. her idea and John’s. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 10. 2.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend.
Ups and downs 6. 7. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Law and order 8. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. magazines are only for children. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. He snapped at him and slapped him.) 6. Spick and span 9. Swings and roundabouts 7. Bread and butter 16. He read. High and low 2. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. The facts and figures 3. Life and soul 5. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. etc. Touch and go 10. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. To and fro 15. Over and above 13. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Wear and tear 12. but not simple. Safe and sound 313 . 5. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Activity 8 1. Thick and thin 11. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. 3. 4. 8. I have always fought and will fight for progress. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Pros and cons 4. Few and far between 14.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children.
2. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 3. 5. Symmetric 21.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 4. – symmetric 2. 7. cause-effect Activity 10 1. exclusive 17.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. – symmetric. 10. inclusive 16. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 8. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Symmetric 13. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – symmetric. Not John but his two sons are to blame. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. – similar situation 9. 1. 7. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 5. Asymmetric 19. 6. 9. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – asymmetric 18. – symmetric 10. exclusive 15. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. Cathy and David have arrived. – symmetric. 10. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 4. b. My son and daughter are twins. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 314 . My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 9. 3. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. My son and heir is safe. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 2. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Asymmetric 20. Neither he nor his wife was/were here.. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14.symmetric 11. 8.
Her husband is long dead and buried. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Should he pour water in the basin. 14. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 2. ‘Madam.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 7. for better or worse. He went to bed. 11. 6. clothes and all. Not only should you rest 315 . I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. nor fowl. He’s neither fish. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 3. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 5. We’ll stick together. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. thanks for asking. There are doctors and doctors. I’ll still finish this paper. No drinking and driving. 12. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 10. 8. it was too small. 9. 4. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 3. 15. Jim thought it over for a while. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 2. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. They came to me. By hook or by crook. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Brother or no brother. (2) 1.
but she blinks in approval. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Whatever she tried her hand at. it would work out fine. as she always does. And. 316 . but he’d come out a cripple. and she listens to him. what’s its name. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. tense with concentration. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. You know. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. Mrs. their common ground.Nadina VIŞAN assured. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. So she’ll listen to him. Her first husband had been a professor. tense like a bow. From time to time she will launch a helping question. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. just like when he was thirty.’ (3) 1. so he could leap in pursuit. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. he starts lecturing her about life and things. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. he’d leap high. 2. and then. she knows for sure. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. an important man. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. stop dead in his tracks. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. so he’d gone down and died in no time. What do you know? The moment Mrs. They hadn’t kept him there too long. without mentioning financial matters. both dead and buried. This. she started doing a great job. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. at equal intervals. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him.
Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate.subordinate. – obligatory elements: she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . about her problems at home After I told her the story. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. she looked at me sadly.subordinate. looked.subordinate. whomever wanted to listen. – she. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – obligatory elements: I.subordinate. – Susan. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . told. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as a modifier 3. functioning as an object (direct).THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. cannot tell. is aware. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . you. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – she. – she. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. came. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as an adjunct 2. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.
that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. since the main verb is think of something) 5.complement b) 1. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.Nadina VIŞAN 4. that you are choosing exile . remove our home yet again . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . that we should.subordinate.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.subordinate. at our age.
but no idea – relative that complement.complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (time)/ 319 . a house. direct object b) to dry it – complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. a barn. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. direct object. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement.
had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. staring at each other. But other people. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. without straightening her back. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. sickle in hand. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .wh complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement.A few days before the war. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Activity 5 1. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. (…) He dashed back. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. When Anton put the sickle down. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. (…) ‘Well. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ to sit there – complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. subject/ to do such again – complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame.
that was for sure. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. but he doesn’t spurn either. or other more hidden means. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. 2. or if he does. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. For no bold man really falters. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. he will turn back and no longer be daring. while they spoke from miles away. First. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. while on other occasions he would show caution. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Why! He was not of two minds. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. as if they were at his beck and call. rather than a real threat. but also his sharp nose. you need courage even for this small thing. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Only he had Ana to think of. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. 3. Not even at this point. 321 . Ana could not stand a trip now.
come on. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. although he could have said so earlier. under the silliest of pretexts. and when things didn’t go as planned. 4. to see some mutual friends. in Odobesti. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. it was the women. by the cars of some of us. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. without really knowing why. he had postponed writing back. So. In fact. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. are we getting off again? What is wrong. 322 . The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and twice we were requested to get out. We were going to drive to a vineyard. But it was not ok. Twice did we get in the car. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. and on Monday followed another feast). He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. they would ruin the arrangement. And here’s how this first day looked. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday.
RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. This is my husband whom I love very much. where I least expected 323 . any of whom would answer to questions. 3. I bought Jim a book that he liked.free 8. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 7. on which this occurred . when we first met .restrictive 2. like their teacher. 8.She came to London where I went too.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 5.restrictive 7. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 2. which was a pity. 4. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . He told her the secret. where I spent my youth . Activity 2 1. The students. which was silly of him. 6. 3. most of whom were from England. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. He is the author who they gave a prize to. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. all of whom would answer to his questions. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 4. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.restrictive 6. why they all left . 5.restrictive 4. 7. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. John told his friend a story about the king. who was just passing by. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 10. Activity 3 1. 9. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 11. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 6. You couldn’t join the party. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 10. The students like their teacher. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 8.
who think so highly of yourselves. Activity 5 1. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . 4. Where .subject 9. where – predicative 7. Which – subject 4.adjunct 11. who cannot say a word. What – direct object 2. 7.adjunct 10. when . about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 3. however sad . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. What Inman remembered – subject. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. come up front. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. Who .free 9. When . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. the prince chose Cinderella.free Activity 4 1. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. which .adjunct 5. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition.subject 8. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. Why . Of all the persons there.adjunct 6. What I’m saying – subject. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. I. You.restrictive 10. where we talk money – predicative. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. was very displeased with the situation. 3. Where he was from – adjunct.Nadina VIŞAN . What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. Where . When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.When Ada remarked – adjunct. what their parents made them. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. 2. 5. 6.
adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. which is ungrammatical due to the[. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what little she knew – direct object. which requires an accusative form. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. how .attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what .Key To Chapter Six Practice object. whatever – predicative 13.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.
My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. having changed quite a number of jobs. got married and had a daughter. but whose second cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who. whose great-grandfather. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . due to its invariable character. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. a sergeant. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. in his turn. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. a rather tiny looking man.
obligatory 3. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – no 9. – obligatory pied piping 2. he requested that the public be excluded. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.yes 7. were now all gone. . In the interest of public decency. . – yes 6. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. – no pied piping 5. he rarely saw now. – yes 2. This story. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.yes 3. . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. has been troubling them forever. – yes.yes Activity 9 1.obligatory 4. . The problem of safe transportation. with deletion of the noun friends]. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes 10. – no pied piping 327 . . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1.no 5. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.His father’s friends. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no 4. no easy answers to which could be offered. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. His friends. Irene. was now complete.
3. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. the third born son.and he couldn’t thank me enough. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 2. Only an ugly endless dream remained. For twenty years. 328 . I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . 8. I am to be envied. irrespective of age and nature. For all the four children. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 6. In other people’s opinion. yours. Everything was ending. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 4. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. I did so. Nelu. for instance. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. where two teams battled every day… 5. or as of a vast arena.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 7.
from MR street. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. What you’re saying sounds very nice. where from Marta was coming too.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. which was why he saw Dora very far away. although she was standing quite close to him. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 10. Behind them. 329 . 13. leaving streets and houses behind. 15. 14. staring aimlessly. on Icoanei street. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 12. 17. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 11. 16. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. He was suffering from dizziness. All that you have read is rubbish. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. barely glittering in the distance. she said. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me.R. since I don’t really know which my true life is. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. You are newly arrived here. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. the tram was rattling along. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away.
or the many Egyptian dynasties. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. While we were poor. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. or the clash of stars above. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. after the car was fixed. But for me. 330 . in her pursuits. From the vantage point I was in. had a huge house in Bucharest. 23. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. likes and dislikes. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. So. who prompted everyone on the street. 24. But. so optimistic and composed? 19. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 20. had a personal style in clothes. If he had hit me. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. 21. which I did not posses. 22. day by day. I could see my woman falling away from me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. She was a woman of means. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. who only lived once in this world. I don’t know what might have happened. While some trees are still green.
– extraposed. subject 9. object 6. 6. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. direct object 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. for pragmatic reasons 5. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. 331 .It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. subject 8. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. direct object 10. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 8. – the same as 3. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 7. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. object 5. 3. 2. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – impossible 7.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . subject 4. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – unextraposed. subject 2.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – questionable. prepositional object 11.
– impossible. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. same as 12. I don’t expect it that he will come back. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. 14. It is nice to meet you.grammatical. idiomatic formula 16. – the same as 12. same as 12. .. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. . 15. It is no use trying to convince her. but pragmatically impossible 3. I guess it that he will come back. although a bit intricate 2. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – same as 12. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. tense influences the 332 . – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – grammatical. – impossible. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – incorrect.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – impossible. – grammatical. 18. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.incorrect. 17. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – impossible 11.correct 4. – impossible. . a bit too intricate 5. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13.grammatical. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. same as 12. They never expected it that he would come back. but pragmatically impossible 4. Activity 3: 1. 10. – correct 2. 9.
Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! .’ Lionel says. 2. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. – correct 6.incorrect. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. behind gates. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. under bridges. in the pits on the road.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. 333 . When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. (Not always. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. in the ditch. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. 5. thus. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ 4. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. though. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. 3. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.
for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. Activity 7 1. prime-minister. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. 8.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. who had just returned from Africa. By saying this. 4. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. – the first sentence is the better of the two. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. because it is less ambiguous. who had just returned from Africa. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 7. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. since the 334 . 3. without trying to protest too much. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel.Nadina VIŞAN 6. It is less ambiguous than the first. – the second sentence is questionable. 2. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.
The second and third sentences are grammatical. 7. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. extraposition is obligatory here. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 5. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. although the third one has not undergone clause shift./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 8. so there is no need for extraposition. 6. 335 . – both sentences are grammatical.
. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. . – complement that clause. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – complement 5. required by deverbal noun 336 . correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers.adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – direct object. they were chained to each other forever. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. ibid.relative Activity 9 1. . The idea that he had had earned him good money. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse. – adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 3. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – prepositional object.We discovered that our map has disappeared. – subject. – relative 5.) adverbial of sequence/result. . – complement 2. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. coordinated.) complement that clauses.prepositional object.complement 4.
– that is obligatory. – that is obligatory. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. that deletion is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . you want me to believe. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. that they were not too late to leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. f) John said that Harry would leave. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.
a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – both sentences are grammatical. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. b. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . c. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. a. – grammatical sentences. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. cenuşii şi albe. ciocârlii şi şoimi. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. prepeliţe. hawk. lark. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. – generalization on habits of birds. present instead of simple past. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. present perfect instead of past perfect. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. geese both grey and white. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. While the first is possible because of the generalization. quail.
All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. as evidenced by its drear plumage. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. slyness in a fight. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . lipsa de vanitate. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. lack of pridefulness. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Crows will relish what presents itself. The generic present is used in this case. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. love of practical jokes. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. She admired their keenness of wit. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.
Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. But as the battle raged around them. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. He had fought hard through the war. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Murise în picioare. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. tragică şi eroică. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. El căzuse pe spate. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. the young officer. in the very act of expiring. se ridicase în picioare. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. he claimed. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. tânărul ofiţer. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. with the hammer snapping on empty loads.
I realized I could not tell him the big news. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. When the boys saw that mother had left. – similar situation to the one under (c). deşi era erou de război. And they might just hang him. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. susţinea el. They all had their hands in their pockets. How can I explain? I just felt shy. mother went home and I was left alone. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. A short while later. he closed the album. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). One of them. 342 . Luptase din răsputeri în război. Acum stătea aici. Now here he stood jailed. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. 2. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. When he saw me. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. the oldest. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Activity 13 1. they gathered around my desk. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. around seventeen or eighteen years old. war hero though he was. în închisoare. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. to finish my drawing. But when he reached me. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen.
So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. brightly and closely. for her vineyard. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture.’ Mr. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. or if she would do so again. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. 6. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing.’ 5. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. 4. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. All his senses were now keen. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. or fear his rage. as if he had been drunk. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark.
that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 9. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. The last time when we met here you scared me. 10. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. 11. 7. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . he would achieve his goal and be a victor. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. And if things were so. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 8.Nadina VIŞAN to him. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. claiming you had no ambition for the future. thinking of him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility.
Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. 13. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. 14. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 12. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. which secretly drove him. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. We either sell them or we don’t. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. more urgently than ever. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. namely the impatience of this young man. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. towards Jurubita. where he would run to confess everything. without putting anything in a note. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates.
/ He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical 10. – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – infinitive continuous. – perfect infinitive. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. grammatical 6. / they saw her leave. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.. – infinitive continuous. 346 . .simple infinitive. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. – simple infinitive. grammatical 7. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. grammatical 3. . grammatical 2. grammatical 5. – simple infinitive. 9. It is vital this factory to be reopened.
\ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. – Test: She promised him. \ They would have hated [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I want to never see you again. Test: *She wanted him. \ I allowed [them to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. Test: * I would like people. – Test: They tempted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. – Test: They convinced her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. Test: *I would love them. Test: *They would have hated her. \ She wanted [him to leave. – Test: They asked her. Test: *They did not wish her.] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. you need to try harder.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It is not too late for him to learn. Test: *I allowed them. \ I would love [ them to come. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: He persuaded her. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.
obligatory subject control verb 348 . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / He is easy to talk to. / I have a word to tell you. .obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / To make a long story short. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / I want to tell you what I think of you. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / He is hard to stand. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. . .Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / He is young enough to start again. Activity 6 Oh. . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / Oh. not to miss the train. I don’t need you or your services. / He is easy to live with.
She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. If he himself was out of spirits. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. the herd instinct was very strong in him. 1 – PRO. 349 . He suspected hostility at once. Both seemed to him a little unreal.to. Subject. Predicative 4 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Subject. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. so that we might get to the future and have done. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Harold. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4].Accusative + Infinitive. he didn’t envy those above it. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. they had depressed and fuddled him. 1] A little crossly. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1].
But when we need to comfort others. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. e) When two persons. direct object 3 – PRO –to. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. slowly. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. PRO controlled by ‘she’. PRO controlled by ‘she’. more meaningful. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. 1 – PRO-to. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. PRO controlled by ‘him’. And you might also be hit and humiliated. excitedly. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. 350 . elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. One day. more believable than evidence itself. c) Unlike plane trips. true. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. or better said.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. we seem to forget about our own pain. object 2 – PRO –to. f) The passing time is important. PRO controlled by ‘me’. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. cautiously. man and woman. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty.
If it was summer. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. h) I want us to go. Mrs. S. Moroi says heavily. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. tickled by the trickles of sweat. in the street. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. while swearing to change my way of life. my wish being only to please and serve. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. And I would care for this man so deeply. as he had appeared to him in the rain. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. which he had already forgotten. He had not been able to leave Dr.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. or their talk that night. for instance. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. k) With this considerable dowry. to live only with your coughing. even when this love is hurried. I am indeed praising my own merits. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. or. That is it. And to actually start to believe you are so. all down our neck. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. Stroescu. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. not even those parts where he had been half-right. that you are young. 351 . not to want to wipe it off.
met by squalor and terrible smells. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. ready to submit to any demand. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). or to speak so fast. every Bucharester knows it. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for that’s the door people get off by. poor Muti. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. haphazardly. If you will have what I can give you. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. no matter what. 352 . here I am with all of my own.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. Well. she was suddenly so shocked. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by.
/ Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE ./ He went to have a tooth pulled. 353 . – Attributive past participle.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ Don’t keep him waiting. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. badly beaten and bloodied./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ She sent him shopping. / They found it thrown in a corner. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. with its lips drawn back. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.
In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 10. 2. 5. 3. 6. he sat down to his own dinner. Accusative + present participle / In any case. I was astonished at what I saw. – Attributive present participle. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Having been punished by mother for my mistake./ Running into the room. I slammed the door of my room. Finding the treasure. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Sleeping in the next room.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 4. The tree had fallen across the road. – As she was running into the room. Having fed the dog.Running into the room. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. a rug caught her foot and she fell.She didn’t want to hear the story again. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 7. 9. 8. Having looked through the fashion magazine. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . you gave instructions to have your wife watched. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. having heard it all before. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Attributive present participle. Activity 4 1. Turning on the light. sitting taut between her father and her sister. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. having been uprooted by the gale.
– As the dog was barking furiously. 5.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause./ Reading in bed. open-minded. he broke one of the eggs. 8. Dropped by parachute. Tied to the post. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. an idea suddenly occurred to me. red-handed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Activity 5 Fair-haired. cloth-covered. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. my hands often get very cold. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. Barking furiously. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. / Climbing down the tree. an idea suddenly occurred to me. a scorpion bit him. I often get very cold hands. the sea was tossing the post up and down. broad-shouldered. I let the dog out of the room. narrow-minded. Climbing down the tree. 4. lion-hearted. 2. 355 . 11. / Getting out of bed. – When I read in bed. his horse fell at the last jump. Riding in the first race. sharp-eyed/minded. a scorpion bit him. stony-hearted. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. Passing under a ladder. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he was tied to the post. 7. fishy-eyed. he was bit by a scorpion. 6. a pot of paint fell on my head. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. bald-headed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. 9. the sea was tossing it up and down. I let it out of the room. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was climbing down the tree. wooden-headed. – As he was getting out of bed. – As I was passing under a ladder. my hands often get very cold. many-coloured. Leaving the cinema. – As he was riding in the first race. 3. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. one of the eggs broke. his horse fell at the last jump. 12. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. a pot of paint fell on my head. Getting out of bed. three-coloured. one of the eggs broke. empty-headed. Reading in bed. – As he left the cinema. 10.
is expected to be a great hit. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. was today taken back to prison. (admire) 5. / Swiss watches. injuring my arm. / Many old people. 7. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. The film. hidden meaning. (take) 2. graven image. are in grave danger of extinction. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (find) 6. eagle-eyed. dark-skinned./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. hunting for a bargain. found hiding in a barn. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. lighted candle. were taken to hospital. shrunken stream. (hunt). bounden duty. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. 356 . Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. admired for their elegance and precision.Spielberg. rotten plank. shaven head. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. injured when their car crashed on the M1. mown grass.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. stricken deer. straight-shouldered.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / Three people. roast meat. shorn lamb. (injure). (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. (grow) 4. Activity 7 1. are sold throughout the world. sunken eyes. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. Activity 8 1. Whales. (produce) 3.I fell on the ice. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. produced by S. The escaped prisoner. open-hearted. drunken man. I stared at the canvas for ages. ill-gotten wealth.
357 . bake them. After a while. thrown in the pots. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. its scales scraped off by the knife. boil them. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. And his soul. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. A parasol. hovering uncertain and soft. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. 2. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. and the puffed pastry beds. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. in charge of his house and lands. flat and soft. he were struggling for breath. seeking some promised land.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. yet left them room to sway free. suddenly suffocated. then put up. He felt close to his father. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. the carved chicken. 3. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. streaked with yellow veins of fat. So. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. the twice rinsed vegetables. now taken down. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. 4. he started peering anxiously around as if. sprinkled with sticky flour. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the fish. and moreover.
/ The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. Gambling is his favourite pastime./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards.gerund 5. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / After annoying the shop-assistant. Activity 10 1. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. . / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / I am sorry for being so late. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. – Accusative + participle 3. – gerund (subject) 4. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. – participle (attribute) 2./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. he left the store without buying a thing. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day.
– gerund (attribute. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. 8. He was spotted talking to her. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. preceded by preposition). – gerund (half or full. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. possessive ING (predicative) 7. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12.participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. . The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.
’ 360 .verbal noun (has determiner. however appearances were against us. I did ask Mr. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock... hold up his pen and speak. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. – verbal noun (has adjective). my Lord. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – gerund or verbal noun. take down her answer. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. but they went by too quickly.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Lady Corven. Croom to try to follow one. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. adjective. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. adjective.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – verbal noun (has determiner.’ ‘Tell me. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. – gerund (full.
Then. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ 361 . and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. my Lord. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. it’s overrated.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. suddenly. licked the envelope with passion.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. ‘I do hate asking for things.’ said Clare. he addressed the note.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. I just used the word and they fell. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I spend all my time hunting a job. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. and went out to post it himself. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. I must go back now. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.
elliptical here. direct object). attribute.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. The sight of the two children. …while their edges were crashing inwards). attribute). adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. attribute). stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. village which is burning). then the noise and the cracking stone. functions as direct object) and then the ground. The two sides were moving apart. He looked up towards the daylight. hoping (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. slowly rising (participle. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. the enormous split in the earth. attribute. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. following the verb ‘remember’.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. slightly 362 . direct object) from below. the very earth opening up (half gerund. First the crack snaking (half gerund. At first. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. down into God knows where. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. attribute. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object) towards him. Then he saw movement at his feet. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. gerund. adverbial of time. after verb of perception. It was like a mist. attribute) in a swirling motion. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. down.
Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has ‘of’ phrase). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. you.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. prepositional object. i. direct object). has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. adverbial of reason). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. moving up (participle.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. covering (participle. my dear. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. etc. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. according to the books he read. early.). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.e. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. one. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun.
attribute) to winter brilliance. Vaucher and I. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. brightening (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) a sudden whoop. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. a door was opened and as a servant entered. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. and then went riding (participle. preceded by preposition.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. adverbial of reason). adverbial of manner). looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. She finished what jobs there were. for Dornford was busy on an important case. Standing up. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of manner). adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. examining (participle. mother. preceded by preposition. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. And. we were all gathered in that room. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. Having a French governess (participle. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and everything got suddenly animated. and sunlight. slanted on to her cheek. the two Mamonas. attribute) stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. reluctant or not. and not only in my imagination or theirs. So. Young Mamona left the room without a word.
a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. bending a little. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. let alone greet us or say something. 4. Not so unimaginable though. sitting in his puddle. in the year 1812. killed by Young Mamona. And. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. he went to mother and. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. to me. So when Old Mamona came in. kissed her forehead. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. and to Young Mamona. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . each carrying a wooden box. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. he looked like someone who did. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. Vaucher might have known that too. 2. who knows. And then. closing my eyes. and smelling so hard of rain. her back towards us. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. about concentrating all our resources. 3. he found us sitting each in his place. to Vaucher. for anyway. I knew who it would be. and ended his life in the year 1821. without taking his sack off his shoulders. too. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. his disloyal apprentice. Entering our house on a Thursday. He cast us a swift glance. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. about sparing no effort. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. as mother had ordered him.
And suddenly. wood pile. And all around them was the great field 366 . the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. as an afterthought.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. They got off the truck slowly. stove. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. everything seemed familiar. futile. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. already seen and heard. 5. each pausing before jumping down. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. barrack. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. long board table. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. But. of taking notes and rewriting them. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing.
367 . The next thing was to go to the well.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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