This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
titularizare şi grad. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. 6 .
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Constituent Phrase 1. Complementary distribution . The Distribution of an Element 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.1. Insertion 1.4.5.Contents: 8 1. Auxiliary verbs 188.8.131.52.
Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.2. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. sequences of the kind her mother very. very much. her mother. 1. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Consequently. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. that is sequences fragmented at random. For instance. Syntactic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 .1. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. They are just strings. loves. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Semantic.
The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. we are dealing with a directive (i. be). etc. should.) 10 .Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.e. (Mi-a spus secretul.4. 1. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. 1. an order given to an interlocutor). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.3. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. must. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.
6. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. live. an ‘empty’ there subject. Consider.5.) 1. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. for instance. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. etc. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. 1. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.
auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Munt. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. whereas (7) is not. semantic. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. as the star indicates. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. using your own examples: insertion. pragmatic. distribution. syntactic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. 12 . this would really hurt. Pratice Define and illustrate. If the given context is the one under (6). He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. he had not yet been able to estimate. How much. complementary distribution.
13 . To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.
5.7.2. Key terms 2. Tests for negativity 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Polarity Items 2. Key terms .3.8.1. Instances of negation 2.4. Conclusion.6.2. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Full – local negation 2.
The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . it asserts something. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Consequently. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. in the sense that it states something.) is said to be an assertion.Positive vs. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .Declarative vs. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. For instance. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Negative .2. in that they do not state anything. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.) b. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. This example can be compared to: (2)a.
don’t bother her. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / She finally admitted. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .Nadina VIŞAN . 16 .non-assertion . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. listen to this. comparison.g. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / Come with me./ She can’t wait to read that book./ If you like her. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.other (if –clauses.) . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. Did they tell her the secret? ) .negative (e.positive sentence .interrogative (e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. They told her the ( e.g.assertion .positive and declarative secret./ Don’t do that.) .g.
since the negative word not is not present there. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. I met a girl named Susan. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) b. For example. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. Susan dislikes her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. John is not happy. word negation.3.) 17 .Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Nu demult. (John e nefericit. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure.) b. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. John is unhappy. In the case of the sentences under (4). A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. Susan doesn’t like her friends. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.
namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. She was not an unattractive woman. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. since the negative word not is present inside them. but their meaning tells us a different story. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. more precisely the phrase it is part of. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. I was not a little worried. He was not without intelligence.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. just like in the case of word negation. these sentences look negative.) b. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) c. In other words.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. where the word 18 . In other words. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman.
/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Translate the following sentences into English. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. without intelligence./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. / Când a aflat vestea. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.e.
Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. dar nu neobişnuit. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală.4. / Era el destul de isteţ. 2. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. ci doar indecişi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. dar nu în mod special. Negative vs. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. affirmative sentences. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte.
) (9) I didn’t go there. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. etc. such as do insertion.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (see subsection 1. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (Nu m-am dus acolo. (M-am dus acolo. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. For instance. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.).) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.
22 . / I don’t like her very much./ They didn’t leave. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / We don’t come here often. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / Susan did not get married to Jim. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.
* and they don’t like her either.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which is ungrammatical. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. not even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends.Unit two Sentence negation 2. 3. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. and they don’t like her either. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. and neither do they like her. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. *and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Example (14) is syntactically negative. *not even the smart ones. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. 4. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. . Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.
/ No problems were caused after all. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / You have never met her. / A few of them stayed behind. / They caused us no problems. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. In conclusion. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. 2.5. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . they go skiing in the mountains.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / This boy is no good. / Few of them stayed behind. / In no time he was able to solve the problem.
(Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. I went nowhere. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-a venit John). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (26) I saw nobody. Susan could not go to the theatre.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (27) a . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object.
I didn’t go anywhere. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) b. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. 26 . No day passed without me thinking of him. no incorporation takes place.) c. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. I didn’t see any student. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) (29) a. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. Not all that glitters is gold.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) b. All that glitters is not gold. I didn’t see anybody.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut nici un student. I never went to his place.
/ They didn’t come to meet her. / No one ever listens to her. / I showed him nothing. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. seldom. barely. rarely. etc.) They barely read any novels. / Not a word fell from her lips. . because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / None of them liked house music.) We seldom watch T. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. scarcely. not even short ones. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction./ They never went there. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. nici măcar din alea scurte./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / I saw nobody. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.V. (Nu citesc romane.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / I didn’t see anybody. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / Not one of them came to meet her. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / He should not be released.4.
Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor.) d. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / I scarcely ever see her. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Never have I met a more horrible person.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / Few people came to see her. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / I seldom look at her like that.) c. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / Hardly anybody liked him.) b. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. . / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) 28 them.
/ One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / She could rely on nobody but him.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.) They don’t think that he likes them. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. in the sense that the 29 . (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. never trust a man again./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You must on no account touch this machinery.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.
cannot appear in an affirmative context. etc. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. 2. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. barely. guess. ought to. we can very well say something like: (38) a. sound/feel like. / I suppose she doesn’t care. although not negative in meaning. imagine. / I expect he won’t come here again. For example.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force.: think. be supposed to.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. expect. suggest. advise. suppose. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. etc. intend. / He reckoned he would not win her over. should be desirable. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. etc. be probable.6. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. be likely. / They believe she does not like them. probability. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. believe. the negative meaning is less strong. seem. In sentence (37).) 30 . choose. look like. appear.) b. intention. want.
Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. b. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. are clearly not grammatical. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. *She likes our chairman at all. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. and sentences such as: (39) a. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context.*She lifted a finger to help me. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. That is 31 . They are not usable in an affirmative environment. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.2. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.
) Any more vs.) Much vs. / Well. too. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well. / I somehow like him. etc. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / He arrived before 5. a lot (I don’t like you much. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. either. / I have already seen him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I like you a lot. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I like it . / Come on. / Bob is still living at that address. / I can understand both of these 32 . too (I don’t like it. / I somewhat like his proposal. / She hardly ever comes here.) At all vs. too. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. you can still do something about it.). / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.) Until vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I still love you) Either vs. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. some (I haven’t any money. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) Hardly ever vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Don’t worry. already (I haven’t seen him yet. still (I don’t love you any more. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.) Yet vs. / They say he once had someone very close. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I eat caviar most of the times. / I have some money.
/ Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. bat an eye(lid). de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. Translate into English. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. lift/raise/ stir a finger. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. crack a smile. have/be worth a red cent. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. lay a finger on someone. / You must pay that fine. hear a peep. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. leave a stone unturned. de când cu 33 . Ion nu e prea deştept. / You must be telling lies. nici unuia dintre noi. give a damn/darn. find a trace. know a single person. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. move a muscle. have a care/ friend in the world./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. touch a drop. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. sleep a wink. hurt a fly. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Ajută-mă. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. turn a hair. tell/ ask/speak to a soul./ I can understand all of these ten English words. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). mulţumesc. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. flinch. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. last a minute.
/ He won’t make old bones. he left the room. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. n-a sunat încă. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No sooner said than done. budge. / Nothing succeeds like success. / Not that I care. / Hotărât lucru. încercând să prindă criminalul. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. he’s a pig. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. Translate into Romanian. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / No admittance. but you really should do something about it. / I had no end of trouble. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / No man is wise all the time. / Never is a long word. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / He is no end of a fellow. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. As you have noticed from the exercises above. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. B: Aşi.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / No trouble at all. nu e vina mea. / No hands wanted. / No entry.
e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. b) I love asking some funny remarks. as well: 35 . c) He is anxious to say something. Normally.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. 2. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord./ I saw no one. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.7. / I hate making any commitments. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.Unit two Sentence negation rather). / He is reluctant to ever say anything. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. N-am văzut pe nimeni. say it.
Key terms. nu poezia asta. however. nu-mi place. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. (Nu.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. Conclusion. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. nu îmi place poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. from a syntactic point of view.8. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. 36 . I don’t. B: Nu. I don’t like this poem.) 2. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. The second negation is somehow independent. B: Not this poem.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e. interrogation).
2.1 Tag Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.1. Optional Exercises . Direct vs.2 Wh. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3.4.Questions 184.108.40.206 Echo Questions 3. Key Terms.2.3.
) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. for a subsequent section. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.1. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. If we try to analyze the examples above. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.Unit three Questions 3. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.
all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. 48 . Pratice Translate the following questions in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (3) and (4). the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.g. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. (2). pe mama. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.
Likewise. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the sequence of the tenses is violated.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. because. 49 . Since the question is not direct any more. In the case of indirect questions. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. in this case. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.
am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / He asked me who she is. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. identify the incorrect sentences. / I don’t know who she is. sau mai bine zis. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. ce culoare are pielea. / I don’t know whom she fancies. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. spune la un moment dat femeia. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . c) Ştii ce. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / He asked me who she was. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată.
Unit three Questions 3.2. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows. In this case. Let us provide 51 . being typical of spoken language.
2. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. 3. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (how long / wait for me?) 10. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1.1.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (which / you like best) ? 4. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.
(20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . (Da). that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da). it has. are said to be positively – oriented. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. they did.
A: You’ve been learning German for years.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 7. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 3. 6. because you always copy everything I do! 5. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. ……………? (hear her) B: ….. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.. ……………………………. 4. (speak yet) B: ……. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. A: She had her tenants evicted. but I want to play basketball a little longer. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. as in the example: 1. 2. ……. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. . A: You look down. I’ve still got plenty of time.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues... It was the kind of film that really depresses me. …………………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: Your mother is shouting for you.
8. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….. A: There was a terrible car crash.2 Wh – questions Wh. how. 10. what . I didn’t get home until late last night. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. where. A: It’s past your bedtime. ………………………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. . A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 3. 9. which When. You could have mentioned it earlier.Unit three Questions B: …………………. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.2.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. ... . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.
/ Kay’s gone out shopping. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. Nearly two hundred years. (Poppy Z. / She lives in the suburbs./ We’ve lived here for ten years. I cannot do that. what ever. / My new car cost 10. why ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / There are six students in my class. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / David’s car was stolen. / Shirley got married to Ben. / That’s my pen. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city.000dollars. of course./ I have French lessons twice a week./ She dropped her glasses. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. trying to find places where I resided in life./ Sara owns two cars.
(A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.3.) 57 .Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.2.
How long is she be spending in America? 15. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Let’s stay for another few days. didn’t use he? 4. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How far is it the cinema? 3. He used to work in a bank. How far is it the cinema? 10. There was a fax for you this morning. can you be? 58 . He used to work in a bank. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. shall we stay? 7. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Who did left the gate open? 18. You can’t be serious. wasn’t it there? 17. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9.
What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. John goes jogging every morning. That’s your car. plin de germeni virulenţi. despre o lume dură. deci. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Pot reveni. ca şi cei ce au fost. deci. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. uneori disperat. Toate vechi. wasn’t it he? 22. isn’t it this? 25. Ani întregi.Unit three Questions 19. dacă prin absurd 59 . doesn’t he go? 23. Who did told you about the problem? 31. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. neliniştea infantilă. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. How long have you be lived in London? 26. will you not? 27. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. That was Jeremy’s brother. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Whose it is this book? 32. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. să-mi înfrâng frica. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. will you not? 21. How long time does it take to get there? 28.
laşii. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. străină priceperii lor. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . iar proştii. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. de atunci. îi ştiu gustul.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. B. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. inactivii. picură apa roşietică. mă întreb. lung. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. pe sub bolţile din care. Riscul? Ratarea. murdar. “Spune! striga el. Şi. umed. dar şi drumul. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. negru. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. naiv. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. pe care oricum am simţit-o. puturos. ghiceam doar unde se află. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. neîntrerupt. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. indiferent de risc.
când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Tag Questions Tag questions. will you? (38) She went to Prague. exclus.Unit three Questions viaţă. didn’t she? . când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. la urma urmei. da? (37) Let’s go there. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.3. orbitor. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. care i-a determinat alegerea. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate.3. viaţa? Oare e drept. domnule profesor.1. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. golul alb. 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.
hasn’t she? (Aha. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. In this way. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. (Din păcate. aren’t they? 62 . sarcasm. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.e. or “comment tags”. is it? (Deci. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. the tag is affirmative too. or falling. The suggestion is that in this case. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi. if the host sentence is negative.) A: Oh. the tag is negative too).
/ I may see you tomorrow. / Everyone felt happy about it. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / You have been invited. / She left an hour ago. / You ought not to smoke. / They said he liked music. / He simply hates empty words. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Surely you have enough money. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Each of us is staying. / Few people like her. / She has a brother. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Don’t leave without me. / She used to talk a lot. / I am dressed smartly enough. / He hates his wife. / You will pick me up at 7. / I don’t think you like my music.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / A few people like her. / Tell me. / Let’s eat dinner now. 63 . / Activity 12 He will be on time. / That’s your car over there. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick.…/ Let me know. / I think you like my music. / The boy often watched his sister. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / I think you don’t like my music. / You will pick me up. / He has to marry Susan. / I am older than you. / That was your father. / The boy never watched his sister. after all. / There is enough food for everyone. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I must go now. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets.
Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. So you enjoyed my talk. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. using a question tag at the end. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . or what? 3. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / He never used to study so hard…. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. He used to play squash./ I’m right about this….. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. 5. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….
(Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.questions which repeat part or all of the message.2.3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.1. / Grants… 3.1.) B: Chinese? 65 . (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.3. Recapitulatory echo questions .
) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. If the wh.phrase is fronted. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.2. rather than the repetition. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.2. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.3. disbelief. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. of something just said. (Închide lumina aia. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. consternation. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.
intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this./ He is interested in blue movies.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. (Vai.e. I’ve lost the letter. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green./ We are looking for a purse.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. rather than did you say. dear. / We are looking for a pixie.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. with recapitulatory echo questions. / I think I’ve found a solution. / He is interested in music. (Uită-te la asta. intonation is rising. am pierdut scrisoarea. whereas with explicatory echo questions. (i. which letter do you 67 .
4. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .Nadina VIŞAN 3.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.
să se încolăcească mai bine. stricata. pe Condrat de Vica. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şerpoaica. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. în satul nostru. şi apoi Vica ce zice. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. aşa. oameni aşezaţi. Fenio. acuma sporovăiala. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte.– Crezi tu. cumnată Fenia. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. cu o casă de copii.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şi care s-a aciuat. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. ca să zic aşa. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. da. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. nu purta verighetă. în general. lui Luca Horobeţ. lui Chizlinski. lui Stavre Păici. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. după pofte.
Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. sus. De asta erai. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. dar cum se face că a 70 . roşu şi galben. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. L-a scos din geamie. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. deci. până la călcâie. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Hogea. sau cum o chema. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. abia târându-şi picioarele. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată.
se vede prea bine. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
4.2.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Key Concepts .1.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.5.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.6.Coordination and Subordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Contents: 74 4.3.
75 .e. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. that elements are coordinated. reproachfully. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.1 Syndetic vs. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. cu repros. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. on the other hand. i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Example (2).e. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. present) in the sentence. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. where there is no indication other than a comma.Unit four Coordination 4. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.
coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. From the previously mentioned examples. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. Conversely. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 76 . vei muri. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.) (4) If you hit my wife. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.) Such examples. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. you will die. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.
(John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. from a logical & semantic point of view. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. we need to specify that. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. respectively subordinated constituents.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. the second. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. but presupposed. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. However.
of cut gray stone. took off his coat and emptied them. the houses were beautiful and ancient. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. his shoes squished. but the 78 . He moved and made a slopping noise. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. with enormous solidity. took off his shoes and emptied them. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. Though the castle had vanished. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. Then he sat down. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. adorned with cornices. His clothes hung to him. John Steinbeck. In the second.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. built. In the first. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. with formal walks under rows of trees. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.
the higher he went the wetter it grew. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. over some of the roughest ground in the country. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. left the house. Cecil Woocham – Smith.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and as the way is with Irish mountains. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone.
As one can easily notice.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. were to take down the name of every man.3 Sentence vs. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. yesterday and the day before yesterday. however distinguished. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.K. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. as shown in (9). (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (G. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. we should be seriously annoyed.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .
8. John and Mary are ready. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 7. plays football. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. 2. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Activity 2 sentences: 1. and even tennis. 10. / Joan plays many games.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Unit four Coordination example (7). 5. Her pet kitten is black and white. / Peter. but not John. Our flag is red. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. yellow and blue. John and Mary are the newly married couple. our respective examinations. / Bob and George are admired by their students. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Pratice Distinguish coordination. and I passed. 4. / Peter and John played football.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. John is ready and Mary is ready. 9. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 3.
whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Activity 4 2. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. 6. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. John loves and Bill hates cigars. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Jane 82 . (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. or deleted. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. 3. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out.) b. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. 5. as can be seen in (10b). John writes poetry and Bill prose. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend.) c. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.Nadina VIŞAN b.
e. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.) The common element. i. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. So. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. 7.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. than a longer repetitive one. the so-called Principle of Economy. can be reduced by substitution. the predication buy a pair of shoes. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. 10. Besides ellipsis. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. 9. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 8. 83 . these syntactical processes.
In certain cases. 4. 3. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. the old men and women 2. simple books and magazines for children 3. A citit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . using reduced structures: 1. some reason or another. 2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 4. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Translate the following sentences. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. George and Jane went back to their parents. one or (the) other method. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. George and Jane are separated. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not.
6. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. sweet and sour.You gain some things and you lose others.. they reached home………. 6. I need another 100$ ………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 12. 5. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 8. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.I searched ………. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 16. 15. . 5. Marks and Spencers. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. After all their adventures.… 14.. even though they have their little …………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. A pendulum swings ………. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. for my wallet.. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. only for damage. like: salt and pepper. 2.. it’s a case of ………… 7. the amount I’ve already saved up.. 11. 7. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. Can we discuss the ………….. of your proposals later on? 3. They get on quite well together. 8. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. fish and chips. 13.
Nor sun. as in: (17) a. In fact. 4. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. etc. the expressive function of coordination is.) There are. more often than not. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. For instance. b.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. and 86 . one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.4. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. of course.
) In certain cases. both … and .) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. or . 20 (b)). either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. too): (20) a. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. where the subordinator is repeated. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) c.) b. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. and cherished her.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. o respectau si o indrageau. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (I-am dat banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. etc).) 87 .g. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. sometimes but. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.
Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . I admire and like her. I like and admire her. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. I washed and ironed my pants. (Imi place si o admir.) b.) b.* I ironed and washed my pants. and you’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. (O admir si imi place. if we were to rewrite the example . one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. In this case. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. From this point of view. and hit my wife. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.
) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . he failed). Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Brown experiments with humans. (If you do that. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.Unit four Coordination 1.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) (While Dr.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.
1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. From the functional point of view. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.g. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. 5. e.) 101 .the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.which are based on coordination . Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. as the name suggests it. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.
We do not presuppose however something like. For instance.) 102 . indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. in certain cases. (I-a dat cartea. for instance. such as proud of. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. for example). (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. they are still presupposed by the speaker. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. we associate it with these objects. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. sentences) required by the verb (or. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. an adverbial item. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. In a way. by an adjective + preposition. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation.
(Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. to add something.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. an additional one. 103 . since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’.) b. In other words. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. which is the adverbial willingly. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to her) and one extra-item. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The second example. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. Thus. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. A second observation. related to example (4). i. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. I am afraid that he won’t come. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.e.
If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. like. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. etc. (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) 104 . So. such as want. am să mor.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.) (11) If you don’t marry me. make. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. a închis toate ferestrele. I’ll die. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.
obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. 4. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. 5. After I told her the story. They came to e.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. The book that because they home. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 3. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 2. she looked at me sadly. Susan disappeared without saying a word.She came to him of her own will.g. [. e.g. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 6. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. this to whomever wants it. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. Whoever did that was a genius.
Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. not object. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. which. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. was a novelty to Mitzi. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. You suggestion that we should. though it was largely politeness. As you can see. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. 4. FOR. etc. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms.) 106 .He took an intelligent interest in her. stating their function: Activity 2 1. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. 6. 3. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. at our age. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 2. WHETHER. but he declined.
who. why. when. which. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. Who did it was John. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) (16) a.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. 107 . (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. where.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. how.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (E de dorit să plece.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. Where he went is London. (15) It is John who did it.) b.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. etc.
and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In conclusion. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. consider the following table. for instance. In (18). the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. Compare.1. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. Unlike complement clauses. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. which sums up this classification. if. before. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.) (18) She told me this before she left. done from a structural point of view. As you will see. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. however. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. etc. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.
To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will go there because I feel like it. after. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.g. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.: e. at your young age. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.g. for.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. whether he will come when I feel like it. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. Introduced know e. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I will come back such as because. surely you cannot sincerely believe. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. etc. as. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. Dear Ludwig.g. 109 . back. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. you understand.
Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. 2. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.The day Monroe had died was in May. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. she stopped to speak to Monroe. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. Too. he said. But she thought that no one would call again. Accidental Man) b)1. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. As she left the house. a tightening in her breathing. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. Late that afternoon.
I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.2. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. a correspondence can be traced. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. interesting. However.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. That he loved e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.g.g.g.g. I told her everything after she arrived. As you have probably noticed already. că e.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. 111 .g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.
2.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. complements. whenever you identify a wh.e. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.1.complement. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. Secondly. So..) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. whereas wh complements are the 112 . Thirdly. In the fourth place. We will come back to that in the next chapter. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. (Cred că mă place. i. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.
I first thought to tell in 113 . A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. outbuildings. before. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. for no matter how she tried. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. She mistrusted her handwriting. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour.g. their introductory elements (e. a barn. because. and I do not know how things might stand between us. c) I am coming home one way or another. a house. but no idea what to do with them. Pratice Consider the following text. after. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes.
Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. According to a structural criterion. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.e. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. and I have not the will or the energy. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). it would make you fear to do such again.4. because they modify. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . these clauses can be complements. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function.
indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. answering the question to whom? So. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. interested in. îşi spuseseră că Anton. ce o fi având. după ce că are grâu puţin. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Alţii. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. (…) “Mă.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Nevasta secera în tăcere.g. însă. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi.e. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. think of. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. look at. O zbughi înapoi. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Pratice Translate the following. etc. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. 115 .) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. be very careful to use this term correctly.
nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. cât de bolnavă era. Toată lumea înţelesese că. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. de fapt. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Nici acum. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . timp de un ceas. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. izolate de sat. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. întâi.
din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. acum sunt desluşiţi. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. În realitate. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. aşa de oţetit. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Pace nu era. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Iată. amânase scrisul. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. deşi cam târziu. stricau totul. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. la nişte prieteni comuni. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. de pildă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. la Odobeşti. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti.
nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. întâia noapte de război) 118 . (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate.
accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses. etc). whose. 119 . etc.. of which. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.g.
7. Key Concepts . The Classification of Relative Clauses 220.127.116.11.5. The Co-reference Condition 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.4. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.1.
We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. 6. The Co-reference Condition . (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. 121 . relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.2. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.1.Unit six Relative clauses 6.
we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. John loves that woman. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. By combining these two clauses. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. 122 . Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.
The common element woman is present. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. 123 . The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. This way. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b.
He liked that book. frequently used in written language. He’s the author who received the prize. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. I had a book. Any of the students would answer to questions. 6. 2. Susan wants to meet Jane. The king was just passing by. I bought Jim a book. This is my husband. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. None of the students agreed with them. They met those students. The students like their teacher. therefore in spoken English. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. She came to London. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. WHO 5. 4. 8. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. by leaving behind a trace. 5. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 9.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. I love my husband very much. 3. WHO 124 . Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I lost the book’s cover. 10. WHICH 4. I introduced him to Jim. The students like their teacher. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 7. too. WHERE 3. He told Jim everything about his plans. John told his friend a story about the king. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. I went to London.
2. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. WHICH 8. WHOSE 7.e. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.Unit six Relative clauses 6. relative clauses are divided into 1. . WHOM 6. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. most of them were from England. (Cine strică plateşte. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 10. i. TO 11. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.
(Cel care strică plăteşte.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted.e. it is covert. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) So. in a manner of speaking. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. Unlike their sisters.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. unlike in the case of (14). as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. is no longer overtly expressed. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.
is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. they define it). who is the god of commerce. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. (Mercur. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.) (22) Mercury. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. who incidentally is the god of commerce. They can be thus divided into: 1.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. 127 . (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. este zeul meu favorit. care este zeul negoţului.) (Mercury. (Du-te unde pofteşti. is my favourite god. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.
Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. this type of relative clauses.e. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 6.This is the village where I spent my youth. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. i. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 2. then it is an attribute. They are what 128 . Independent I don’t know what you want. 8. As we were saying. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 9. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. 10. who came to see me. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. who is a genius. 7.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. restrictive relative clauses. She. on whom nobody could depend. On the day on which this occurred I was away. I have met him where I least expected. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. is a great playwright. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 5. Shakespeare. was the one we all welcomed and admired. is a genius.
etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. care a murit acum câţiva ani. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. etc.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. a. however sad this may be. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. . a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. who died a few years ago. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. composed The (Freddie Mercury. When the antecedent has no determiner. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.) 2.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. 6.
4. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 7. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. poftiţi în faţă. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. (Ei apeleaza la mine. but a peevish. Dintre toate personajele prezente. (Eu. iritabilă şi uscată. dried-up old maid. who am your son. 6.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who neither work nor am anxious. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. numai eu nu.) Pratice Translate the following. bătrînă morocănoasă. ill-tempered. 130 . 5. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. care nu sunt o femeie.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. can see your shortcomings only too well. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) (28) They come to me. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. Mie. îţi văd prea bine defectele. ci o fată a woman. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. 3. 2. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care-ţi sunt fiu.
. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. heard. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. (32) service finished late. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. were now in his possession.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. erau acum în posesia lui.Unit six Relative clauses 6. părăsi camera. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. than whom few more can be more crashing.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.
Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .5. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) b.) d. The genitive form with which is still in use. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. but it is typical of the formal. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără.) c. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.1.) b.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. literary style: (37) a. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. as can be seen in (36d). too.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. 6. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.
Unit six Relative clauses form of which. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Iris Murdoch. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.
Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. of which. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. … Italy. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. He is not the man which he used to be. (Nu mai este omul care era odată.) b. (45) (46) . animals. by the way.) • states. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.) b. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. ships (that can be personified) a. but to a type or a function: a.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.
It is poor what gets the punches. how. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. where. whom it concerned most closely. reason. while. Poland is the place where Christine was born.) b. time.5. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.) 6.2 Relative Adverbs: when. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. why. etc. etc. France. (Nu ştiam ce vor.) 135 (47) . şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) b) dialectal (49) a. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.Unit six Relative clauses b. pe care o privea direct. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.
A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.5. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.They left when they decided it was proper to. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) 6.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) b. The place whither he goes is unknown.) b. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.3.) 136 . (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) c.) e. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. He went where he had been before. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) When they introduce free relative clauses. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) b. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.
) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. Moreover. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.
but they are used very infrequently: as. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.4. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. I’ll get you such things as you may want. not any.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. any. .) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. every. much. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. 138 (64) his shoes. Honest man as he was. but • in standard language a.5. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.
There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. him as was in China … (Uncle George.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. And always on the buttered side. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. This is the same one that/as you had before. . să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) c. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. ăl de fusese in China…) b. Uncle George. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. It’s the dry weather does it. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.) c.) • in dialect a. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.
(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).
This is where we talk money. It seemed a thing 141 .3): (72) a. The man John spoke to is a genius. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.5. That which shows God out of me. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. 5. 6. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. fortifies me. What Inman remembered was this passage. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.” 4. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 7. 3. The man who John spoke to is a genius.) c. What I’m saying is.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. we all have to come to some terms.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. makes me a wart and a wen. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. 2. The man that John spoke to is a genius. Where he was from.
142 . that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 11. who had not witnessed many dawns. Whatever his fate was. 10. Ruby said. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 9. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 13.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. (…) Partly.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. The rudeness of eating. though. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. he had left Ruby high and dry. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 8. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. which is a lot. Oh. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. of living. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 12.
al carei strabunic. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. pe linie paterna. plutonier. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. (Iris Murdoch. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. divortata. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 .al lui. una din nepoatele unui inginer. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. un var primar. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. poate. Cumnatul meu avea. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. mort de tanar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. vasnic. cumnatul unui portughez. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. nu prea sarac. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. pirpiriu. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. fiu natural al unui morar.
The opposite phenomenon. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. By extension. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. insurat de trei ori la rand. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. c. b.2. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. 144 . another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. Teatru) 6. She was a woman. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Everybody listened to that woman.6. I lost the cover of the book.
We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 5. he requested that the public be excluded. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. acting again as a genuine pied piper. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. In the interest of public decency. The difference between (76) and (77). (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 4.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position.Unit six Relative clauses b. has been troubling them forever. 9. 6. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 2. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. 7. 8. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. no easy answers to which could be offered. 3. The problem of safe transportation. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.
This story. 4. has been deleted. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.His father’s friends. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). he rarely saw now. 2. as the case is). His friends. Irene. 5. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. 6. whose interest he most sincerely shared. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. no matter which. 3. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. 10.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. was now complete.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. They do not function as attributes. Activity 9 were now all gone. 146 .
4. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. 5. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. pentru dumneata bunăoară. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Toate sfârşeau. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. De douazeci de ani. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 7. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. închipuirea. Pentru alţii. Nelu. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 6. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. himeric. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. 2. 3.
speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. nici în searbăda mea versiune. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 9. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 8. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. a făcut el. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. 12. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. 10. cu surle şi cu tobe. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie.
fie la teatru. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. 16. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. despre care. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. deşi atât de aproape. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. roiuri de fetiţe. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. În spatele lor. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. de unde venea şi Marta. 18. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. 17.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. pe strada Icoanei. trăia larg de tot. 15. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. fie pe stradă. până mai adineauri. zise ea cu ochii mari. dinspre Maria Rosetti. toată lumea întreba cine e. 149 . care era foarte “mondenă”. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Dacă mă lovea. 14. apărură. din direcţia căreia apoi. Avea acum un fel de vertij. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. din care cauză pe Dora. 20.
23. Pentru mine însă. pe care eu nu-l aveam. după ce maşina a fost reparată. de sus de unde eram. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. 24. Pare-se că snobii. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. pe care ea îi admira acum. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. până în şosea. aveau un stil al lor. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 22. de mine. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. când au urcat râpa iar. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins.
Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 .
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.3.Clause Shift 7.Extraposition 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 126.96.36.199. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. That Deletion 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 188.8.131.52.Topicalization 7.2.2. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.3. Key Concepts . The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.7. That Complements as Subjects 184.108.40.206. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 220.127.116.11. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 18.104.22.168.3.
being found not only in the case of that-clauses. the clause is extraposed. (3) Tell me if you need anything. placed in a marginal position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. 153 .Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. 7. Apart from those introduced by that. but also of infinitival ones.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. In other words.
but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.
3. 4. 4. 5. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 2. 7. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It is nice to meet you. 8. 10. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It appears that no one voted for him. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 15. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 9.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 2. 9.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 7. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 3. 13. 10. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 6. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It is no use trying to convince her. 14. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 6. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 11. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 8. 11. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.
“ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 2. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. I don’t expect it that he will come back. They never expected it that he would come back. 6. 2. 3. în canal.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. sub poduri. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 4. 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. zice Lionel. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 3. mă ascundeam în grabă. în gropi. 2. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 4. 18. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 5. I guess it that he will come back. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. după porţi. atât 156 . paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. unde se nimerea.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 5.
Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 7. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. excelentă. 157 .” 4. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. vor căuta să o zdruncine. (Nu întotdeauna. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Mi s-a părut chiar că. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. fără îndoială. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. fără să cârteşti. 6. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. 5. Spunând cele ce-am spus. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade.
Pratice Read the following. Consequently. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. subject clauses are the frequent situation.2.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) While in the case of extraposition. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. this asymmetry is undone.1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. in the case of topicalization. 1.Nadina VIŞAN 7.
even today. 6. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. He did not blame Gracie. 2. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. he felt no spring of interest in her. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 5. This was another era. 3. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 4. She had always been the slave of chance. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 8. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . When this is so one is in extremity indeed. but not now. was inconceivable. 7. whether it would finally carry her off.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. He was utterly gone. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. mere chance would decide. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose.
3. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.) 160 .1. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.
161 . (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. we obtain. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. the verb to drive). clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.e.
He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 2. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 4. who had just returned from Africa.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 3. who had just returned from Africa. 7. 8. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 162 . / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 6. 5.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.
(Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.Unit seven That complements 7. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.
etc. (Cred că omul este vinovat. promise.1. He announced that they were engaged. deem. explain.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.Nadina VIŞAN 7. judge. They believe the man is guilty.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. predict. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) b.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.2. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. deny. state. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) b. He announced their engagement. They promised him that he would received a new house. estimate.: (25) a. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. They believe that the man is guilty. consider. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. communicate. desire. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) a.) 164 . prefer.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. suggest. etc. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. afirm.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.) I like him in that he is smart. In older stages of English. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.) 172 . cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) language. for example. on condition that. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.e. hope =>purpose. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. they lose their meaning. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.
He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.) b. He gave such an answer as had expected.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. să o vadă trecând.) (66) 173 a. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. . His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. He gave an answer such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. That can be deleted. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) When the structure contains the word such.
) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid.) 174 . 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. they were chained to each other forever.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. ibid.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. for better or worse. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch.) b. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.
(A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) c. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. He got word they were coming.) b. He said he had borrowed her money.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. tell). 175 .Unit seven That complements 7.1. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.3. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. for instance.3 ‘That Deletion 7.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. say. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A prins de veste că ei vin. (69) a. that he uses a relaxed tone. He showed he was able to do it. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.
7. for better or worse. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . I like it that he was here. because that has been deleted. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.3. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever.2.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. bune.3. rele. *I like it he was here.) b. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN 7. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.) (De asemenea. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. (Îmi place că e aici. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.3. (Iris Murdoch.
Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 7) They maintain. which is ungrammatical in English. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. that they were not too late to leave. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. simultaneity.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. he said. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. spuse el. (“Este acolo”. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.) 177 . posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) b)He told me that she was there.4. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 7. you want me to believe. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.
vine el. (A spus că o să o părăsească. o să vină el. până pleacă ea. I will leave her. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (Pâna să plece.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.) b. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. spuse el. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. In the example below. “She was here”. (A spus că. The Present complement).Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. (Am să o părăsesc. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. He said he would leave her.) Future Perfect -----.) b. He told me that she had been there.) b. he said. (“Era acolo”.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.
be amazed/concerned. show. wish. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. regret. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. insist. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. think. say. dream. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. etc. forget. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.etc.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. realize it). (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) On the other hand. With such factive verbs as realize. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. discover.) b. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. believe. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. whisper. hope. mention. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. notice. report. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. be aware.) 179 .
(Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.) b. She realized that all men are fools.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. feign habits which are not their own. in tender deference to each other. Consider also: (85) a. 180 .) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. cu un respect tandru reciproc. we notice that general truths. She believed that the earth is round. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) b.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Iris Murdoch. He knew that she thought all men were fools.
Unit seven That complements 2. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional.) b. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.) b.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Peter said that John will leave at 5.) In (88).) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. There are however cases. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. 181 . simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. such as a. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. 3.
) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. John said that Harry will leave. But 182 . b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. h) John thought that Harry had run. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. d) John said that Harry was leaving. Imagine. The time is 3 o’clock. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. for instance. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. / b) John said that his car is out of gas.
lack of pridefulness. jaybird. quail. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Crows will relish what presents itself.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. bluebird. a. nighthawk. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. She admired their keenness of wit. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. as evidenced by its drear plumage. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Translate the following. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. c. b. redtailed hawk. 183 . lark. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. slyness in a fight. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. love of practical jokes. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. kingfisher. Cooper’s hawk. geese both grey and white. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. whistling swan. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck.
in the very act of expiring. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. war hero though he was. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. He had fought hard through the war. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. with the hammer snapping on empty loads.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. he claimed. Now here he stood jailed. But as the battle raged around them. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. And they might just hang him. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. […] During the latter stages of the tale. the young officer. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.
A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). object ones up to the attributive function. on other occasions it has to stay there. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. 185 . The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.Unit seven That complements 7. On certain occasions that can be deleted. which they share with wh-complements. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. or else. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). from the very frequent subject.
Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. neconvenabil şi primejdios. 2. Fiind 186 . 4. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. cel mai mare. 3. Mama. Unul din ei. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. peste puţin. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1.
ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. de ce constata în sine. cel puţin pentru un timp. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. 5. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 6. un vis de acesta 187 . Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 8. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. luminos şi apropiat şi când. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. 7. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 9. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. va pleca din oraş la vie. Nu ţi-a trecut. ea. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. care îl pândise. Se mira. fericit. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. dacă va mai veni. venind de la avocat. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. aşa.
dar şi teama că. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. liniştit. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. lucrul era înfăptuit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . 11. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. şi mândria că a biruit. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Astfel de va fi. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Acesta. fireşte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. încă o dată. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. 12. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt.
Pe toate. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . fără o vorbă scrisă. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. să le lămurească pe toate.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. ci numai aşa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. mai puternic decât oricând. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. spre Jurubiţa. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. 14. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. după cum. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 22.214.171.124.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.9.3.A Classification of Infinitives 126.96.36.199.2.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.6.Key Concepts .The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.
I told her that she should be more careful in the future. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. From this perspective.1.) b. It is important for you to know what you need.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.) • like that complements. I told her to be more careful in the future. It is important that you should know what you need. Consider the following: • like that complements. To love her is something really wonderful. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (3) a. b.) b. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. 193 . (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (2) a. That you love her is something wonderful.
infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. d. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so.e. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. For instance. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. gerundial clauses. the Participle) (i. 194 . the Gerund. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. participial clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. the Conditional. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 2. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. moduri nepersonale) By convention. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. etc.) b. as opposed to the finite ones.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures.
Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.) b.) c. namely no ending. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.) 195 . To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.
She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. (7) They saw her leave. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 3. 9. 4.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 5. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.2. 7.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 8. 6.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 10. 8. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. the criterion of form. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.
/ L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. hear. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. 2. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. (10) 197 .
uncharacteristic for literary English. However. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. 198 (11) the universe. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. . / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. 3.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. Pratice Translate the following. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.
) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. 199 . In other words. to use the appropriate technical term. or the control constructions. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. Further on. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. as I have already mentioned.
So far.) 200 .) b. şi creştineşte să ierţi. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction.) b. I hoped for him to be there in time.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. It is important for him not to err. PRO to err is human. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.) Object: (18) a. the logical subject. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. PRO to forgive divine. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.) In this situation. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. namely the agent of the event.
) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. not to the infinitive. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . but the patient of the verb persuade.) b. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). In other words. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. Semantically. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. him is related to the main clause verb. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. him is not the agent of the infinitive.
nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. I hate animals to be tortured. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They tempted him to leave. \ They convinced her to come back. \ He persuaded her to come. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ She wanted him to leave. \ I would love them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ She promised him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. \ 202 . (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. Likewise.
and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. \ They really asked her to come back. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. • Last but not least. So. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.) In examples (25) and (26). 203 . there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. \ They did not wish her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.
In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. etc.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. appear. seem. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. hate. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. 204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine.). with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. To sum up the discussion. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. which are said to be free. that is not required by certain verbs. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. Pratice Translate the following sentences. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. to meet her.
/ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. aspire to.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. like. dislike. afford. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. deign.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. fail. arrange. decline. want.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. etc. presume. 8. venture. intend. etc. . scheme. endeavour. expect. care to. wish. omit. refuse. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. condescend.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. deserve.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. manage. prefer.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. bear. mean. propose.) 205 friend. need. hate. agree to.3 The Distribution of PRO . seek (= try). / E greu să îl suporţi. desire. etc. hope. Compare: (31) a. contrive. scorn. try.) b) verbs such as abide. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită.
however. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. desirable. unlikely.) b.) 206 .4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. I would like for him to become president of the country. bear. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. For all of them to have been killed is. be important. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. threaten. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. endeavour. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. I hate that you should say a thing like this. possible.) b.) 8. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. suggest. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. conclude. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. claim. etc. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.etc. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. ask. stand. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. verbs of liking and disliking. forget.
where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) b. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) 207 .) 8.) 2. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.
) 208 knowledge. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 5.Nadina VIŞAN 3. the preposition is deleted. Like in the case of that complements.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b.) b. Direct Objects (39) a.) 4. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. I decided for John to represent us. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. . (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. but the meaning remains.
He is a bastard to work for. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.: (42) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. You’re an idiot to go there. The stew is delicious to eat.) b. This paint is like concrete to work with. She is pretty to look at.) e. 6. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) d. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. etc. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. delicious. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) c) adverbial of result 209 . curious about.) c.
) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. conduci prost. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. drept să spun. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. să nu piardă trenul. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament.) I’ve never met him.) Oh. / Ehei./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. you’re a bad driver. / Pe şleau. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. to tell you the truth. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. (final) (Nu-l cunosc.
nu mai vreau să te vad. oblige. (49) a. influence. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. According to this. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. inform. promise. press.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.) b. induce. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. swear. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.: (51) a. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. etc.) .etc. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. b. enable. encourage. inspire. direct. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. urge. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. 8. need. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.
) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. name.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. allow. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. prevail on./ And now he 212 .) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. order. elect. nominate. permit.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. depend on. count on. vote. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.etc. choose. look to. command. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. etc. etc. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.
happen. etc. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (57) He is to come any day now. 213 (58) (59) .etc. (Iris Murdoch.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. An Accidental Man) 8. be going to. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). etc.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. seem. come. be about to. grow.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Se pare că îi place de el. this construction is lexically governed.verbs: appear. (O să întârzii/ leşin. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. i.e.: (55) She appears to like him.
8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. be thought. etc. that of intention. feel. . hence there is no control situation whatsoever. watch. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. etc. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.: (62) They heard him insult her.etc. overhear. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. perceive. observe. (L-au auzit insultând-o. hear. be rumoured. be considered. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. In (57).) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be reported.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. be claimed.) 8.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be alleged.
have. recollect. consider. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. know.) • with a full infinitive: get.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. However. etc. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities.) 215 (67) . discover. believe. judge. cause. deem. understand. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. picture. (Cred că este un geniu. imagine. occasion. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. prove. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. find. remember.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. presume. figure.
who wasn’t used to men with moods. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. etc.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. suffer. he hated anyone to comment 216 . command. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. choose. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. permit. want. order. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. they had depressed and fuddled him. prefer.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. love. if he himself was out of spirits.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. wish.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. desire. Harold. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.etc.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. expect. mean.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.
A little crossly. though he tended to look down on those below it.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same.P. Both seemed to him a little unreal. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. He suspected hostility at once. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. (L. he didn’t envy those above it. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. to make sure we attended strictly to business. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. so that we might get to the future and have done. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well.
The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. The last criterion. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. From this perspective. 218 . is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.Nadina VIŞAN 8. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.
dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. într-o zi. Şi tu să fii. e important ce întrebări pui. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. mai bine219 . ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. fireşte. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. de bună seamă. de asemenea. bunăoară. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. să-l capete. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. lovit şi umilit. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. e) Când doi oameni. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar să nu-ţi spună. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. un bărbat şi o femeie. E posibil. c) Călătoriile cu liftul.
aşa cum îi apăruse el. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. pe care deja o uitase. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în parte. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. De era vară. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. d-a lungul gâtului. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure.Nadina VIŞAN zis. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Însă Paul Achim trăise.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. în ploaie. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.Delavrancea. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. 220 . ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. că eşti tânăr.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. Să spui de pildă. un picior. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. mai pline de înţeles. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. (B. avusese dreptate. încă. . sau. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. să nu vrea să se şteargă. în parte. în jos. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.Şt.Şt. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. să traiesc numai cu tusea. mai bine de două decenii.
prin faţă e coborârea. Într-un cuvânt. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. un miros îngrozitor. biata Muti. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). o mizerie. deşi. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. de fapt. Mă laud singură. şi prin faţă.. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. ei..Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. (Al. şi nu un amant. nici ca să 221 . (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele.. orice-ar fi. fie ea şi grăbită. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. orice bucureştean ştie. sunt aici cu tot ce am.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă.
(Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . parcă la întâmplare.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles.
A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 188.8.131.52.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1.Characteristics of Gerunds 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.2.4.The Participle Contents: 224 9.The Verbal Noun 184.108.40.206.The Gerund 9.5 Key Concepts .2.Participial Constructions 220.127.116.11.
1.) 225 . Due to this situation. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. (Susan doarme. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Let us start with the Participle: 9. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.1.1. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.
In (2) the forms come. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Susan has come. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. 226 . it functions attributively. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). blood-shot and painted.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (A venit Susan) b. been and killed are past participle forms. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.) As you can see in this second case. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. i. Susan has been killed.e. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.) More infrequently. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. were closing. the past participle can appear after a noun. too: (6) Her eye-lids.
) b. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. (Ştiind cine era el. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. When singing. I will arrive there on time. o să ajung la timp.) c. I will arrive there on time. ea o luă la fugă. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. o să ajung la timp.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. they started singing.) c.) d. leul poate să atace. începură să cânte. Oh. God willing. Arriving here. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. people should pay attention to high notes. he will eventually marry her. she ran away. mother permitting. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. Knowing who the guy was. (Sosind aici.) b.) 227 . Weather permitting.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. a lion can attack. If provoked.
(L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. which stands for an adverbial clause. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) b.) ii. (L-am descoperit furând.) 228 . They found him killed by a bullet. smell. hear. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. He was found stealing. He was found killed by a bullet. respectively. I found him stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (L-au descoperit că fură. watch. notice. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. behold. (Am simţit-o tremurând. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) b.
(Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. I must get my hair cut. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.: a. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. set. recollect.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. confess. a.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. send. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. He’ll soon get things going.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. she knew herself dismissed.) c. have. have. feel. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. hear. find. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. leave.) b. recollect. etc. (A fost văzut plângând. know.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.) b. keep. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. make a. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . etc. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.) b. start.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.: When she heard his words. etc. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.) • Causative verbs: get.) • Causative verbs: get . I heard it said that men are a bore. etc.
/ Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. He wanted his car fixed immediately. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. Men like shopping made easy./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) b. lovit şi plin de sânge. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) • verbs of permission./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. command I ordered my bill made out./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / Nu după multă vreme./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ L-a trimis la cumpărături.
We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. sitting taut between her father and her sister. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / Dinny. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial.1. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / My Lord. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / In any case. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Unlike the gerund.e. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. with its lips drawn back. 231 . as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.2. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.
) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. The tree had fallen across the road. People were sleeping in the next room. using either a present participle. se va opri şi ploaia.She didn’t want to hear the story again.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. am plecat. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. am plecat. I turned on the light.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I knew that the murderer was still at large. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . I left. 3. (Văzând acestea. 6. She had heard it all before. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 2. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I left.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I have looked through the fashion magazine.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 5. It had been uprooted by the gale. the rain will stop. I was astonished at what I saw. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 7. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. (Desi nu ştia limba.
Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 2. his horse fell at the last jump. stony. straight. Read the sentences and try to correct them. cloth. one of the eggs broke. skinned. quick. three. Tied to the post. He sat down to his own dinner. minded (3 times). cornered. an idea suddenly occurred to me. eagle. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. open.shoulder. stricken. a pot of paint fell on my head. Leaving the cinema. dark. They began quarreling about how to divide it. empty. 11. coloured. eyed (3 times). b) Headed (5 times). Mother punished me for my mistake. wooden. 7. drunken. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. many. covered. open. Reading in bed. narrow. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 9. mown. 10. sharp. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Climbing down the tree. shaven. 8. I slammed the door of my room. 4. He fed the dog. 3. red (twice). hearted (twice). bald. a scorpion bit him. my hands often get very cold. 233 .Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 12. broad. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. roast. Barking furiously. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Riding in the first race. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. fishy. lion. 6. Dropped by parachute. lighted. 10. haired (twice). Getting out of bed.Running into the room. 5. Passing under a ladder. 8. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. I let the dog out of the room. handed. 9. a rug caught her foot and she fell. They found the treasure.
(grow) 4. Whales. stream. eyes. (admire) 5. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. lamb. / Swiss watches. hidden./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. duty. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 ._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. I stared at the canvas for ages. _______ for their elegance and precision. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. meaning. _______ for a bargain. the same verb is missing twice. / Many old people . ________ hiding in a barn.Spielberg. candle. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. head. _______ by S. (take) 2.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. were taken to hospital. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. (hunt). In the following pairs of sentences. 7. rotten. is expected to be a great hit. Translate into English: 1. are sold throughout the world. wealth. The film. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. bounden. (find) 6. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.I fell on the ice. graven. shrunken. plank. lead. The escaped prisoner. / Three people. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. b) grass. image. deer. man. (injure). are in grave danger of extinction. _______ my arm. meat. was today taken back to prison. ill-gotten. shorn. (produce) 3. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.
le fierbea. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. păsări tăiate. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Şi sufletul său. şi moi. O umbreluţă. 2. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. ca şi cum. când deschisă. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. trezit. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. întinse. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. 4. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. care le rânduia. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . nesigur şi moale. 3. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. legume date prin mai multe ape. După câtva timp. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. când strânsă. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. deodată sufocat. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. Şi.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. precum şi foile de plăcintă. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. le cocea. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul.
If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. crezi.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. (Dacă vezi. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.2. Likewise.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. 236 . (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. According to this criterion. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.2.1. The Gerund 9.
[+ verb] Participles [+ verb.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.2. Consider the following table. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Him winning and you losing was surprising. In that. gerunds differ from participles.2.) 9. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. That he won and you lost was surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.
Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised.) 2. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. *It was illegal growing a beard. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.) b. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. Consider (32). An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.) Unlike participles. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. It was illegal to grow a beard. as being verbal 238 .Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.
Just like in the case of noun phrases. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. as offered in the table below: 239 .) 9. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Participles vs.3. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) 3.2.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) b.) b. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. It’s no good talking to her.
Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles may function adverbials: house. forms: continuous . babies suck their thumb. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . passive ones She was crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. 2. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. 3. + noun] 1. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. (prepositional object clause) 5. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. (adverbial of time) 4. perfect.
/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic.
5. 14. 8. 4. shooting gallery / shooting star. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 10. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 12. 12. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 11. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 15. 9. It was worth trying to continue the efforts.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. eating habits/ eating people. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 7. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 13. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 2. He was spotted talking to her. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 6. 242 . He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. Gambling is his favourite pastime. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. swimming duck / swimming trunks. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. crying game / crying woman. 3. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.
e. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. but the presence of a direct object (i. a The absence of an of phrase. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.3. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.e.) The absence of a determiner like the.Unit nine Ing complements 9.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.
How can we tell? In the first case. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. Thus. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. These are features that normally characterize any noun. George’s shooting the attacker. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. In the second situation. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs.
Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. Jim left quietly. 245 . This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / His coming there puzzled her. very large./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock./ His sudden coming puzzled her. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.
Look. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. ING Forms and Infinitives. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.Nadina VIŞAN 9. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. With the infinitive. for example. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. It has been noticed that. the meaning is different. However. whenever we meet an –ing form.4. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. For instance. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).
The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. (S-a oprit din mâncat. the infinitive is future-oriented.) . (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. having left) is infrequently used in English. containing an infinitive.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) The first example.g. and the most well-known one. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. anterior to the verb in the main clause. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. On the other hand. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.) After looking at this example. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.
the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) As you can see.e. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. which means that they are similar in meaning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.) . i.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. recollect. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e.
In the second example.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. but that’s it.) .) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. the action is not completed.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the petrol tank is not filled yet. dar asta este. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.
) With [. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. The house needs to be repaired.human] objects. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.) wedding. e) need. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. want With [+ human] objects.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. (Casa trebuie reparată.) 250 . they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Casa trebuie reparată. mean has the sense signify. the event has not happened yet. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. The house needs repairing. In the second example.) b.
Lady Corven.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. (hold) up his pen and (speak). my Lord. however appearances were against us. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ ‘In any case. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. whereas in the second case. but they went by too quickly.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. it’s overrated. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. I did ask Mr. my Lord. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. (take) down her answer. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. gerund or infinitive. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ ‘Tell me. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. Croom (try) (follow) one.
suddenly. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ 252 . I spend all my time (hunt) a job. he addressed the note. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. I must go back now.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. I just used the word and they fell. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare.’ said Clare. licked the envelope with passion. Then.
whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. the 253 . don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Last but not least. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun).Unit nine Ing complements 9. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Participles mainly function as adverbials. Pratice In the following texts.5. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns.
Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. It was like a mist. hoping he would see somebody up there. but then he saw it billowing up from below. covering the girl’s head. the enormous split in the earth. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down into God knows where. according to the books he read. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. down. He looked up towards the daylight. Then he saw movement at his feet. then the noise and the cracking stone. She started coughing. The sight of the two children. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. it 254 . moving up towards his chest. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. slowly rising in a swirling motion. their edges crashing inwards. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. The two sides were moving apart. someone looking for survivors. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. At first.
brightening to winter brilliance. for Dornford was busy on an important case. my dear. and sunlight. slanted on to her cheek. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Having a French governess. 255 . Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath.
apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. într-o joi. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. ucenicul său necredincios. mama mea. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. totul se animă deodată. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. cei doi Mamona. În urma slugii. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Vaucher şi cu mine. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . and then went riding with her in the rain. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Ridicându-se. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. închizând ochii.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. 2.
despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. la mine. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. aplecându-se puţin. dar ştiutoare. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. după cum îi spusese mama. afară ploua în continuare. totul mi se părea cunoscut. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. pe mama mea părând absentă. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. aşezată cu spatele la noi. se duse lânga mama şi. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. auzit şi zadarnic. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. am ştiut şi cine. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. privit. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. 3. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. pe Vaucher. Neclintiţi. Şi deodată. o sărută pe frunte. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi.
Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. şi.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu stiva de lemne. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. camionul a plecat. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. cu tot cu baraca. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. Au coborât din camion încet. dar. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. 5. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu soba.
Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 4. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. and that 263 . 12. to retire early from my employment. in some way. since I have decided. without profound questioning. whereas if she went away she would get none. 3. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. because of pity. 9. You have been much in my thoughts. How much. 7. 13. and this particularly of late. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. he had been advised. I am sorry not to have seen you. he had not yet been able to estimate. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. was unclear to Mitzi. 10. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. apart from his distress for parents.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 11. How this time was to come. Having regard to the date of drafting. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 2. this would really hurt. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 5. and meet it right here at home. 6. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter.
/ He bought himself a new suit of clothes. looking forward had not yet taken place. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. even for months. 14. / Whenever I visited my aunt. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. one of the eggs broke. for attending his sister’s wedding. / In the end. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / Before you go on changing the subject. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. he did not come to see her. 264 . she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 17. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 19. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. please consider his proposition. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up.
said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. it was said. (and there he was. cotton mills at Manchester. of all people. rather than the hefty type. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Instead of which she had married. Though much in request before her marriage. Tony was a child. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. 265 .Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. and it was bound. she said. They hated trying on. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. her recklessness. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. She felt as when. of the quick and wiry. At country houses she had met them of course. They rushed into shops. Vulgar men did. quite unexpectedly. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. Essentially. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. Clarissa used to think. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. her old friend Hugh. a little girl. without discovery. centered in London and themselves. to end in some awful tragedy. an open-air person. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread.
short of the contacts of love. but lying in her bath. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. astfel. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. she professed. cre s-au nascut lent. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Bolnava nu se simtea. viguros si vesel in felul lui. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. she was uneasy. Reading many novels.Over the River) 2. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. nu a facut-o pentru asta. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. The closer she allowed him to come to her. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. De uitat. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. with all its impatience of restraint. to keep abreast of the current.Rindurile dvs. Cind l-a chemat. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. the more she would be torturing him. aveam tot mai 266 . Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. si in plus. (John Galsworthy . cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. ii faceau bine. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. indeed. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. era un bun sfatuitor. nu puteam sa le uit.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon.
Banulescu – ibid. se stie. o data sau de doua ori. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. lungimea picioarelor. mi-am zis.) 267 . sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. ca si tine.) 5. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Banulescu – ibid. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. pe scaunul lui tare. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. vaazut cindva. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia.) 7. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Banulescu – ibid. latimea si ascutisul labei. Banulescu – ibid. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. poate fi compensata.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Ce a iesit. nu pricep nimic. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Milionarule. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. (St. are nevoie. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Daca tu. (St. Personal. (St.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. 4. (St. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. fa-o. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 6. cit mai au de trait. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.
. to Emmanuel College. my grandfather. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Could he be blamed. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. 2. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. when I was even younger than you. Who. Who came home from the war. A story-book romance. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Who was may father. Translate them. Who told me. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Ernest Richard Atkinson. And had a brother killed in the same battle.. Arthur Atkinson M. a wounded soldier. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Cambridge.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. delivered from the holocaust. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Who when asked about his memories of the War. for being a renegade. (.P.
where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. to whom. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. Rachel Williams. a moody man. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. How 269 . mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. deep-set. Fabianism. and because – but this is mere speculation.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. he had already engaged himself? 3. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. 4. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles.
Ion. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a trăit el. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum au tăcut ei. om mare. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum a ajuns el. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. cu taina aceasta. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. la şcoală. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Ion. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. 270 . Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. satul. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.
Când actriţa. de mama lor. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cu sau fără voie. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. singurul lui stăpân. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. L-au derivat cei din teatru. 271 .pune totul in discuţie. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. greşeli dintr-astea. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. împotriva tuturor. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. când voi fi singur. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . din franţuzeşte. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară.
i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. dam buzna peste automobile. parcă începusem s-o uit. uneori şi astăzi chiar. ci un sistem de acomodare. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. tânăr şi frumos şi el. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Am început. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. fostă prietenă din copilărie. A devenit palid. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. 4. pe jumătate prezent. 3.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. traversând. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. 6. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. 5. e îndrăgostită de un actor. sau ridicole. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. privindu-mă în ochi. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Tot aşa. Într-o vreme. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. provocându-le. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. 272 . de pildă. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. nevasta-mea. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. continuând.
fireşte. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Am început. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. 8. De altminteri. Dacă nemţii înaintau. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. fără să mă opresc o clipă. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. iar. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. Aş vrea să mă las jos. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. şi să nu ameţesc. E o problemă. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. să merg întins. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. orice s-ar întâmpla. 9. 11. ca un acrobat. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. şi dacă merg întins. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. că nu m-am gândit la asta. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă.
Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme.. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. In curind. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ilie nu-l asculta. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. de la obiecte de pret. de la proces. parca i-ar fi fost frica. de la lucruri personale. nu mai pricepu nimic. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. 17. Auzindu-l.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. La un moment dat. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. se uita in jos. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. 13. eu am venit sa va intreb. Acum isi ferea privirea. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire.Ma. cu mirare. la fata locului. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 16. la carti. dar nu se mai putea. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Greu era din partea asta. 274 . nu mai semana. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. de uimire. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Uite.. nu trebuie sa va suparati. trebuia sa le spuna. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Adica tot trecutul. 15. la amintiri. Ii venea greu. 14. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani.
cum zicea Anghel.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. 20.Ce sa fac. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. 19. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. . Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. se indeparta nepasator. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. dar. Aici era ceva. asa cum facuse pina acum. i se paru ca aici e ceva. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. apoi se uitau la Ilie. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Zimbea siret. which was part of his rich outfit. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». comment on the underlined phrases: 1. There was even 275 . E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. vorbe asa si-asa. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Nu era nevoie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte.
It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. at least. for the instant. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. to take his way home on foot. conversationally. on this occasion. He felt then. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. But Daisy. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. asked for Mrs. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. paying no attention. a simplification. the young lady. She was one 276 .Miller at her hotel. to admit that she was a proud. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. 3.Nadina VIŞAN relief. resuming her walk. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. to move fast. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. rude woman. He walked a long time. gave an exclamation. 4. going astray. 5.
Advising with me. She appeared. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. in radiant loveliness. as it were. while residing abroad. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. She rustled forward.Walker. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. 6. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. smiling and chattering. 8. uncomfortably. and wondering what the deuce he meant. indeed. of studying European society. making Paul stop and look at her. in their own phrase. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. He left me musing. Her daughter. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. as text book. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. on the other hand. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. often. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. make a point.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. as to projected changes. 7.
which was deliberate. 11. The agent became a very familiar type to H. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. or at any rate not heeding. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. was only half satisfied with this. though E. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. 9. with his humorous density.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. and. and acute too. wondered what they were talking about. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. 10.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. was immensely struck with him.’ 278 . by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. and perceived that it must be something important. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. H. could see he was remarkable. not seeing. while Paul.
the affair having been quite a cause celebre. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. as he looked back. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. 13. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. 14. 15. appeared to fill his whole childhood. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. H. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. not glancing at him for a moment. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. But she gave him no chance. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. had the power to chain his sympathy. that the haunting wonder which now. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. which was very copious. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn.
who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. 18. as a general thing. 16. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. At the theatre. dragging herself on her knees. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. 17. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. It was very possible she was capricious. proudly. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. disheveled and distracted. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. that she must be on the contrary. The whole establishment. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. and to H. and there were others. H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. where the Pearl of Paraguay. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. yet 280 . ironically reserved.
(Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. 281 . *Old. Their mistakes and illusions. on which the damp breath of the streets. H. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. young men were invited. didn’t mind. 19. 3. and lurking within this nebulous design. 20./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. had blown a certain chill. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. It came over H. with the poor. 2. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. No one ever listens to her. would always be more or less irritating. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court.
I saw her as a vision. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. walking quickly. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 10. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 9. 5. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. I walked fast. c) When I saw her sitting there. 11. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 12. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. slipped on some steps. I blundered by. 282 . That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. her arms held out.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. 8. 6. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. striding like a Spartan maid. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Either John or he * have got to give in. Rachel. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. “Oh./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. her shining blue feet twinkling. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I was definitely going to be sick. 7.
Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.
could cook my meals. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 3. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. The old women spoke no English. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 .Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. which was really alarming. 5. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. but that we saw and pitied. if they were poor. And then I ventured to add that. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 2. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. 4. where my servant. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms.
He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. apart form his distress for parents. to settle. Constituents: how much. was anxious. distress. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. before they left town.g. he. at noon. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. etc. was anxious = was + anxious. this would really hurt. How much. on Saturday. was informed. would really hurt.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. etc. he had not yet been able to estimate. Munt. his. on a house. Constituents: He. 285 . had not been able to estimate. this. etc. apart from his distress for parents. to pay their annual visit. Constituents: Margaret.apart from his distress = apart from. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e.g.
– first clause is an ifclause. – comparison. – non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. negative. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. interrogative. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.. interrogative.. and is non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. it is assertive. second clause is non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. interrogative.. negative/ If you like jazz.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. The sentence is however 286 . which is not assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Second clause is an imperative. negative/ Come with me. listen to this. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to)./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – assertive/ Don’t do that. – first clause is non-assertive. don’t bother her./ She finally admitted. – non-assertive. / If you like her.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.
/ Susan did not get married to Jim . Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. – someone hates animals./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / You have never met 287 . Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ Not long ago. not even when it’s quiet around./ He was smart enough. / I don’t like her very much./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. everybody used to travel by coach. but it wasn’t them.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / She does like John./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ Hardly interested in the conference. / They didn’t leave. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. –double negation cancellation./ When he learned the news. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. the two brothers dared to protest. not even this thing./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. but nothing out of the ordinary.but to someone else. – they told the truth to somebody else. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but it isn’t Susan. only irresolute. / She does not hate animals. – I like somebody else. he was hardly pleased./ He was exceptionally cunning./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ They weren’t really confused. but not more than she does others. – someone did that. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday.
.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. not even in my dreams.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. they go skiing in the mountains. I could hardly wait to hear the news. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. not even when you were very young... – I cannot look him in the eye..negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing..negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.. / This is hardly the 288 . did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.Nadina VIŞAN her.. were they? / This boy is no good. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.. / Should they not have told her the truth. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.
– You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I hardly ever look at those paintings./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Never shall I trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / Few people came to see her.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / Hardly anybody liked him. never trust a man again. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. Activity 8 I shall never. / I seldom look at her like that. – Not many people came to see her. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – I never see her. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Almost nobody liked him../ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. but she also lent him a car. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – I don’t often look at her like that. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – I almost never look at those paintings. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether./ We seldom receive such generous praise. when we started our holiday..
/ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself./ Well. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Come on. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – Only on this man could she rely. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – Come on.. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – They don’t believe she likes them. – They say he never had anyone very close. – 290 ./ I expect he won’t come here again. – I don’t expect he will come here again. you can’t do anything about it any more. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / They say he once had someone very close. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / She could rely on nobody but him./ I somewhat like his proposal. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / They believe she does not like them. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / Don’t worry.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. –At no time did we leave the office. / You must on no account touch this machinery. you can still do something about it. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.I don’t like his proposal at all. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere.
/ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / You needn’t send her anything. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / You must pay that fine. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has.. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I can understand all of these ten English words. –Alice still lives here. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. 291 ./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – You can’t be telling lies. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – She almost always comes here. either. / Well. / You must be telling lies. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. too. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Bob is still living at that address. – You should send her something. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / She hardly ever comes here.
/ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. / Jim is so brave. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Nimic de facut. not yet./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ I don’t know why she’s crying. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Nobody told us a thing. It’s no wonder./ Am avut un car de necazuri. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ 292 ./ He was a tough man./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. to any of us./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Nu spune nu niciodata. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall.D./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. e un magar. ever since I got this ulcer. He isn’t that smart. I haven’t done anything. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. I haven’t seen her in years.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. / Please. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Norocul la noroc trage. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ He’s a happy man./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. / Don’t go on believing him./ E un baiat de zahar. has never studied anywhere. He didn’t move a muscle./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ You look so tired today./ You took his leaving you very hard. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Have they rung the bell? No./ Zis si facut./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ They say this Ph. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. Oh. give me a hand. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. His opinion isn’t worth a cent.
dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.’ ‘Nici o problema./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. that I was a decent man. one way or another. parasi camera. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. I hadn’t really expected miracles.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . without too much determination.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. We had nothing in common.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . nothing. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. with the same needs they had. for I thought this threatening. I had never had the opportunity to prove. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. slowly. feebly. thrown out./ Nu-i nici un deranj. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate ./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol.’/ Deloc descurajat. no memory. 293 .
the only 294 . I was sleepy and tired. • It was my turn to say something. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. We have to judge it as it is. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I’d be so happy if it were so. things you do any moment. Your judgement is false. it’s not words. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. let alone irritable. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people.. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. Unfortunately. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. I admit. It’s not made up of theories and the like. Radu had calmed down. You really made me mad. Not for a moment had I thought that.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. on the front seat. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. by coming here to the monastery. clear or confusing. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. your story. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. he immediately answered me patronizingly. or if you understood what I meant. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. bad. that’s what the world is about. but facts. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. he was sitting beside me. good. to say the least. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case.
me. and an inability to act. to fight. clears your way. you can go to Ursu’s. But what about you and Melania. But I was just wondering. either. no matter how huge they are. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. keep your conscience clean: you have one. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. behind these big. fear might be hiding. you do as you think fit. Anyway. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. or call the respect of others. although it was a difficult thing to do. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. did you ever step up front. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. soon we’ll be in town. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. too? A gun is power. Look. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. it’s yours. • So. I won’t interfere. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. it’s your problem. precious words. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. me. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. or you are lying hidden. just to please myself. as Baciu would have us be. it solves troubles. and if you like. 295 . your opponent would fear you and with good reason. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. keep it squeaky clean. we are leaving.
incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. or some other woman. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.. But it was not because I had no answer to give. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.. -correct 3.Negative incorporation 296 . they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. has yet arrived -correct 2. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. the sentence is incorrect 3.correct 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. but they gradually got used to it. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. because before is a positive polarity item 2. firmly determined not to answer immediately. has not arrived yet – double negation.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. as soon as he delivered it. . • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. will he?.Negative attraction b) 1.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . – incorrect. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. The villagers were not very religious. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. .correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. correlatives are mixed 2.incorrect.
she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Avea sufletul prea obosit. too troubled. her lack of motion would have to do (API). His spirit was too tired. she couldn’t marry him. either (NPI). prea răscolit. b) But it was rather (API) late. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. yet. much less ((NPI) for her. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Her stillness. Nu putea să se mişte. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. nu era 297 . (ibid. not happy at all (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Ştia că are dreptate. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. (ibid.
she looked younger than ever (NPI).Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. if anything (NPI). e) At length. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. Ba dimpotrivă. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. he made his way to the screen. his heart was beating fast. and not a little unsteadily. şi destul de hotărât. se îndreptă spre paravan. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. The Satanic Verses. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (Salman Rushdie. 298 . (ibid. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (ibid. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. inima îi batea năvalnic. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was.
but his father would have none of it (NPI). Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. (ibid.) C. Ce-i pasă lui C. the gift was useless. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. h) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. The point was. and probably an administrative headache as well. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. i) What did C. 299 . că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Home receded from the prodigal son. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. care if the school were willing to treat him. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva.
correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question.indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. . as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. 300 .
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Stavre Paici. she didn’t wear a ring. yes. you are in enough trouble as it is. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. She has an eye for gentle men. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Fenia. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. and then what do you 308 . for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Luca Horobet. she likes to entrance them. Fenia. to make them lust after her. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. all godfearing husbands and fathers. keep Condrat away from her. Vica. the bitch. “Now. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. they were. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. do you really think that this vixen. Chizlinski. now she was chatty.
You said: “Doesn’t this guy. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . her hair pinned with blue combs. He got him out of his mosque. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. with a railway station and a mosque. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. the minister of Tartars and Turks. have a girlfriend. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. The mullah. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. G. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. a seventy-eight year old lad. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. what’s her name. It even takes him a while to go to the window. dragging his feet listlessly.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. 3. 4. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. ankle-long flowered calico. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha.
But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic.
. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John and Mary are the newly married couple. John is ready and Mary is ready. our respective examinations. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . Her pet kitten is black and white. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.) 9. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are ready. Our flag is red. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . yellow and blue. and I passed. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – similar situation 10. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination 7.
her son and others. 10. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 7. your work and mine. 9. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 6. your proposal and his.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. much satisfaction or little 312 . – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Activity 4 1. many guest or few. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 5. 3. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). and even tennis. but John does not play football. but not John. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. We can and will demand payment.) Joan plays many games. 8. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. that method and those. 2. her idea and John’s. Activity 5 This book and the other.
High and low 2. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. 7. Over and above 13. Thick and thin 11. Life and soul 5. Bread and butter 16. Swings and roundabouts 7. Few and far between 14. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Pros and cons 4. The facts and figures 3. He snapped at him and slapped him. To and fro 15. I have always fought and will fight for progress. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Safe and sound 313 . Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. but not simple. Spick and span 9. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 8. Law and order 8. etc. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. He read. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Activity 8 1. 5. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Wear and tear 12. 3. Touch and go 10.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children.) 6. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Ups and downs 6. 4. magazines are only for children. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related.
A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 4. 7. My son and daughter are twins. 10. – symmetric 2. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. exclusive 17. – symmetric 10.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 6. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – symmetric. Not John but his two sons are to blame. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Asymmetric 20. – symmetric.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 8. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – similar situation 9. exclusive 15. Symmetric 13. b. – asymmetric 18. Cathy and David have arrived. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 6. 2. 10. Symmetric 21. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 7. There are some chairs and a table in the room. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 2. My son and heir is safe. 4. – symmetric. 8.. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 3. 5. 1. 3. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. inclusive 16. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 9. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 9. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 314 . Asymmetric 19. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 5. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12.symmetric 11.
clothes and all. We’ll stick together. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 15. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. for better or worse. 9. 11. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 3. 6. No drinking and driving. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 4. Jim thought it over for a while. Her husband is long dead and buried. 5. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. ‘Madam. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. They came to me. Should he pour water in the basin. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. thanks for asking. 12. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 2. Brother or no brother. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 3. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 14. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. There are doctors and doctors. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 10. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Not only should you rest 315 . He went to bed. it was too small. (2) 1. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 8. By hook or by crook. I’ll still finish this paper. 7. nor fowl. He’s neither fish. 2.
he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. Whatever she tried her hand at. From time to time she will launch a helping question. what’s its name. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. and then.’ (3) 1. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. and she listens to him. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. an important man.Nadina VIŞAN assured. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. as she always does. but she blinks in approval. she knows for sure. both dead and buried. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. Mrs. so he could leap in pursuit. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. 2. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. so he’d gone down and died in no time. tense like a bow. Her first husband had been a professor. What do you know? The moment Mrs. just like when he was thirty. And. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. it would work out fine. You know. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. but he’d come out a cripple. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. 316 . without mentioning financial matters. he’d leap high. at equal intervals. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. he starts lecturing her about life and things. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. So she’ll listen to him. stop dead in his tracks. she started doing a great job. They hadn’t kept him there too long. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. their common ground. This. tense with concentration.
functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. whomever wanted to listen. is aware. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . came. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .subordinate. she looked at me sadly. functioning as a modifier 3.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as an adjunct 2. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an object (direct). of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. at me Activity 2: 1.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . coordinated with first subordinate 317 . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. – Susan. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater .subordinate. cannot tell. – obligatory elements: she.subordinate. – she. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – she. – obligatory elements: I.subordinate. told. – she. you. looked.
Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.complement b) 1. remove our home yet again . that you are choosing exile . functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate.subordinate. at our age. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. since the main verb is think of something) 5.subordinate. that we should. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.
adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. a barn. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. outbuildings. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . direct object. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement.complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. a house. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial.
Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. direct object/ to sit there – complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. But other people. (…) ‘Well. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. staring at each other. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ and done – wh complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Activity 5 1. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. sickle in hand. (…) He dashed back. subject/ to do such again – complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement.wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. When Anton put the sickle down.A few days before the war. direct object. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. without straightening her back. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 .
And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. that was for sure. 321 . For no bold man really falters. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. 3. while they spoke from miles away. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Only he had Ana to think of. but also his sharp nose. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. or other more hidden means. as if they were at his beck and call. while on other occasions he would show caution. First. Ana could not stand a trip now. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. rather than a real threat. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. but he doesn’t spurn either. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. 2. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Not even at this point. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. which he doesn’t rely on completely. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Why! He was not of two minds.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. or if he does. you need courage even for this small thing.
are we getting off again? What is wrong. by the cars of some of us. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. We were going to drive to a vineyard. and twice we were requested to get out. it was the women. But it was not ok. 322 . although he could have said so earlier. So. In fact. Twice did we get in the car. he had postponed writing back. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. to see some mutual friends. 4. and on Monday followed another feast). and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. And here’s how this first day looked. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. in Odobesti. come on. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. they would ruin the arrangement. under the silliest of pretexts. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. without really knowing why. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. and when things didn’t go as planned.
John told his friend a story about the king. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 6. 8. Activity 2 1. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. These are people who we cannot tell much about.restrictive 2. when we first met . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 3. 6. which was a pity. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 10.free 8. 5. I bought Jim a book that he liked. You couldn’t join the party.She came to London where I went too. The students like their teacher. any of whom would answer to questions. This is my husband whom I love very much. which was silly of him. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. Activity 3 1. The students.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. where I spent my youth . 11. who was just passing by. 7. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 7. He is the author who they gave a prize to. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. all of whom would answer to his questions.restrictive 6.restrictive 7. He told her the secret. 8. why they all left . where I least expected 323 . 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 9. 2. most of whom were from England. 10. 4. 4. like their teacher. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. on which this occurred .restrictive 4. 5.
what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 .subject 9. Where he was from – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation.adjunct 6. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.restrictive 10. Where . come up front.free Activity 4 1. 7. the prince chose Cinderella. You. Which – subject 4. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. I. Activity 5 1. when . What I’m saying – subject. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Of all the persons there. 4. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. 3. What – direct object 2. where – predicative 7. where we talk money – predicative. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct.adjunct 11. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. 5. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. What Inman remembered – subject. Where . where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. 6. Of all the persons there you had to choose me.subject 8. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Why .adjunct 10. who think so highly of yourselves.adjunct 5. however sad .free 9. He who doesn’t work will never succeed.When Ada remarked – adjunct. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. When . Who .Nadina VIŞAN . 2. what their parents made them.adjunct 3. who cannot say a word. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. which . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .
the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. which is ungrammatical due to the[. which requires an accusative form.attribute 12.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what little she knew – direct object. what .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . whatever – predicative 13.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. how .
used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. due to its invariable character. a sergeant. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. in his turn. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. but whose second cousin. having changed quite a number of jobs. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. got married and had a daughter. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a rather tiny looking man. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose great-grandfather. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer.
The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.yes 3. – yes 6. This story. – obligatory pied piping 2. no easy answers to which could be offered. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The problem of safe transportation. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.obligatory 4. Irene. he requested that the public be excluded. . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. – no pied piping 5. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – no 9.yes 10. His friends. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. – yes. he rarely saw now. were now all gone. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.no 5. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. In the interest of public decency. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. with deletion of the noun friends]. was now complete. – no 4.yes 7. – no pied piping 327 .yes Activity 9 1. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.obligatory 3. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. . no matter which – [pied piped phrase. has been troubling them forever. – yes 2. . the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. whose interest he most sincerely shared. . .His father’s friends.
the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. For all the four children. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. the third born son. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. for instance. or as of a vast arena. For twenty years. Only an ugly endless dream remained. Everything was ending. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . I did so. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 8. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. where two teams battled every day… 5. irrespective of age and nature. yours. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 7. 328 . But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. In other people’s opinion. 2. Nelu. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. I am to be envied. 6. 4.and he couldn’t thank me enough. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 3.
You are newly arrived here. on Icoanei street. barely glittering in the distance. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 329 . He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. since I don’t really know which my true life is. 12. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 15. He was suffering from dizziness. which was why he saw Dora very far away. where from Marta was coming too. 10. staring aimlessly. she said. 16. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. All that you have read is rubbish. What you’re saying sounds very nice. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity.R. although she was standing quite close to him. leaving streets and houses behind.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 14. the tram was rattling along. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. Let me tell you my last conclusion. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. from MR street. 17. 13. 11. Behind them. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law.
21. who prompted everyone on the street. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. in her pursuits. 20. But for me. 330 . day by day. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. likes and dislikes. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. She was a woman of means. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. had a huge house in Bucharest. after the car was fixed. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. So. 23. I could see my woman falling away from me. While we were poor. which I did not posses. From the vantage point I was in. or the clash of stars above. 22. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. so optimistic and composed? 19. But. 24. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. had a personal style in clothes. who only lived once in this world.Nadina VIŞAN 18. If he had hit me. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. While some trees are still green. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. or the many Egyptian dynasties. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I don’t know what might have happened.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 3.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 331 . – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. – questionable. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. subject 9. object 6. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. for pragmatic reasons 5. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. 6. subject 7. object 5. 8. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – the same as 3. subject 2. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. – unextraposed. subject 8. 2. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. direct object 3. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. subject 4. direct object 10. – impossible 7. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.
– impossible. – grammatical. – impossible 11.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year.grammatical. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – the same as 12. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – impossible. I guess it that he will come back. 14. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use.correct 4. idiomatic formula 16. – grammatical. .It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Activity 3: 1. 10. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. but pragmatically impossible 4. although a bit intricate 2. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. but pragmatically impossible 3. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. It is nice to meet you. It is no use trying to convince her. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. They never expected it that he would come back. tense influences the 332 . I don’t expect it that he will come back. a bit too intricate 5. . – correct 2. – grammatical. – impossible. 9. same as 12. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. same as 12. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.grammatical. – same as 12. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – incorrect. same as 12. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 18.incorrect. 17. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. ..That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 15.
‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. in the pits on the road. – correct 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. in the ditch. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.’ Lionel says. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. 3. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . behind gates. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. thus. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. 333 . (Not always.’ 4. though. 5. under bridges. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.incorrect. 2.
As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. since the 334 . who had just returned from Africa. 7. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 2. 8. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. 3. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. By saying this.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence is questionable. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. prime-minister. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. Activity 7 1. It is less ambiguous than the first. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. without trying to protest too much. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser.Nadina VIŞAN 6. 4. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. – the first sentence is the better of the two. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. because it is less ambiguous. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister.
He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 6. 5. 8. so there is no need for extraposition. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – both sentences are grammatical. 335 . *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. extraposition is obligatory here. 7. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. The second and third sentences are grammatical. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.
– complement 2. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – relative 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – adverbial of sequence/result. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. for better or worse. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. The idea that he had had earned him good money. ibid. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.relative Activity 9 1.adverbial of sequence/result. they were chained to each other forever. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.prepositional object. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.) adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – prepositional object. (Iris Murdoch. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. . required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – complement that clause. – relative 5. – complement 5. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.We discovered that our map has disappeared.complement 4. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. ibid. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. required by deverbal noun 336 . – subject. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. coordinated. . – direct object. .) complement that clauses. .
for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. that deletion is obligatory. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . h) John thought that Harry had run. d) John said that Harry was leaving. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. you want me to believe. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.
a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. c. – grammatical sentences. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – both sentences are grammatical. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. a. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time.
While the first is possible because of the generalization. hawk. ciocârlii şi şoimi. geese both grey and white. lark. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. – generalization on habits of birds. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. quail. present perfect instead of past perfect. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. cenuşii şi albe. prepeliţe.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. present instead of simple past. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town.
which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. love of practical jokes. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. lack of pridefulness. She admired their keenness of wit. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. lipsa de vanitate. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. The generic present is used in this case. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. slyness in a fight. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Crows will relish what presents itself. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years.
Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. he claimed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . se ridicase în picioare. tragică şi eroică. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. He died erect. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. But as the battle raged around them. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. tânărul ofiţer. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Murise în picioare. El căzuse pe spate. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. He had fought hard through the war. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. in the very act of expiring. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer.
the oldest. When the boys saw that mother had left. They all had their hands in their pockets. to finish my drawing. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Now here he stood jailed. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. And they might just hang him. I realized I could not tell him the big news. he closed the album. – similar situation to the one under (c). He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. One of them. Activity 13 1. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. mother went home and I was left alone. 342 . nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. But when he reached me. în închisoare. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. How can I explain? I just felt shy. they gathered around my desk. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Acum stătea aici. A short while later. When he saw me. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. deşi era erou de război. susţinea el. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. war hero though he was. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. Luptase din răsputeri în război.
or if she would do so again. brightly and closely. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. All his senses were now keen. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. 6. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him.’ 5. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .’ Mr. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. for her vineyard. 4. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. as if he had been drunk.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. or fear his rage. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.
If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 9. thinking of him. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. And if things were so. 7. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. The last time when we met here you scared me. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 8. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . it meant that he would approve of him from then on. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. 10. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.Nadina VIŞAN to him. 11.
Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. which secretly drove him. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. without putting anything in a note. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 14. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. We either sell them or we don’t. namely the impatience of this young man. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. where he would run to confess everything. 12.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. 13. towards Jurubita. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. more urgently than ever.
/ I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – perfect infinitive. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 3.simple infinitive. It is vital this factory to be reopened.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / He was forced to send Tom on the front.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. 346 . grammatical 10. grammatical 7. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. 9. . To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. – simple infinitive. . / they saw her leave.. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – simple infinitive. grammatical 5. grammatical 2. / He had Mary clean her room. – infinitive continuous. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 6. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.
\ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ I would love [ them to come. \ I allowed [them to come. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ They did not wish [her to come back. – Test: They tempted him. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *I allowed them. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. – Test: They asked her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. \ She wanted [him to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. you need to try harder. Test: *I would love them. \ She promised him PRO to leave. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people. – Test: He persuaded her. Test: *They would have hated her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Test: *They did not wish her. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. / I want to never see you again. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / It is not too late for him to learn. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had.
/ She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is easy to live with. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / To make a long story short. / I want you to leave my house. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. .obligatory subject control verb 348 . – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / He is young enough to start again. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / He is hard to stand. / Oh. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. Activity 6 Oh. / He is easy to talk to. / I have a word to tell you. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. I don’t need you or your services. . not to miss the train. / You are to blame that the factory exploded.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. . / I have never known how to behave in her presence.
He suspected hostility at once. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 349 . so that we might get to the future and have done. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. 1 – PRO. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to.Accusative + Infinitive.to. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Predicative 4 . She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. If he himself was out of spirits. 1] A little crossly. he didn’t envy those above it. 1 – PRO-to. Subject. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Harold. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Subject. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.
Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. And you might also be hit and humiliated. more believable than evidence itself. PRO controlled by ‘she’. true. man and woman. 1 – PRO-to. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. But when we need to comfort others. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. PRO controlled by ‘me’. c) Unlike plane trips. object 2 – PRO –to. more meaningful. e) When two persons. PRO controlled by ‘him’. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. slowly. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. cautiously. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. f) The passing time is important. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. direct object 3 – PRO –to. or better said. 350 . but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. PRO controlled by ‘she’. One day. excitedly. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. we seem to forget about our own pain.
And to actually start to believe you are so. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. That is it. h) I want us to go. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. Mrs. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. Moroi says heavily. not to want to wipe it off. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. which he had already forgotten. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. or their talk that night. or. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. And I would care for this man so deeply. Stroescu. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. as he had appeared to him in the rain. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. for instance. If it was summer. while swearing to change my way of life. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. all down our neck. 351 . not even those parts where he had been half-right. my wish being only to please and serve. even when this love is hurried. k) With this considerable dowry. to live only with your coughing. He had not been able to leave Dr. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. tickled by the trickles of sweat. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. that you are young. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. in the street. S. I am indeed praising my own merits. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking.
met by squalor and terrible smells. she was suddenly so shocked. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. for that’s the door people get off by. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. or to speak so fast. here I am with all of my own. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. every Bucharester knows it. ready to submit to any demand.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. no matter what. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. haphazardly. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. 352 . If you will have what I can give you. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. Well. poor Muti.
so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. with its lips drawn back./ He went to have a tooth pulled. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand../ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Don’t keep him waiting. badly beaten and bloodied. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me./ She sent him shopping. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. 353 . / They found it thrown in a corner. – Attributive past participle. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper.
a rug caught her foot and she fell. they began quarreling about how to divide it. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 3. – As she was running into the room. he sat down to his own dinner. Activity 4 1. 7. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. 5. Sleeping in the next room. I slammed the door of my room. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. having been uprooted by the gale. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. she caught her foot in a rug and fell.Running into the room. I was astonished at what I saw. Turning on the light. 9. 8. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 6. Finding the treasure. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Accusative + present participle / In any case. – Attributive present participle. The tree had fallen across the road. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Having fed the dog. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny./ Running into the room. Having looked through the fashion magazine. 4. having heard it all before.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Attributive present participle. sitting taut between her father and her sister.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 2. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 10. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 .
/ Knowing me to be the fool of the family. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. three-coloured. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. stony-hearted. sharp-eyed/minded. wooden-headed. many-coloured. his horse fell at the last jump./ Reading in bed. – As he was getting out of bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. I often get very cold hands. a scorpion bit him. Tied to the post. Barking furiously. Leaving the cinema. 6. his horse fell at the last jump. narrow-minded. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. – As I was passing under a ladder. a scorpion bit him. open-minded. 8. my hands often get very cold. / Getting out of bed. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. one of the eggs broke. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. cloth-covered. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. empty-headed. fishy-eyed. 5. 12. 9. 7. broad-shouldered. he was bit by a scorpion. 3.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Riding in the first race. – When I read in bed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. Dropped by parachute. Reading in bed. he broke one of the eggs. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. an idea suddenly occurred to me. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 2. my hands often get very cold. 355 . 4. I let it out of the room. / Climbing down the tree. Passing under a ladder. 11. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. one of the eggs broke. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. – As the dog was barking furiously. – As he was climbing down the tree. – As he left the cinema. 10. – As he was tied to the post. I let the dog out of the room. the sea was tossing the post up and down. an idea suddenly occurred to me. the sea was tossing it up and down. lion-hearted. bald-headed. red-handed. Getting out of bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree.
is expected to be a great hit.Spielberg. shrunken stream. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. / Three people. (grow) 4.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. straight-shouldered. drunken man. lighted candle. mown grass. sunken eyes. produced by S. open-hearted. admired for their elegance and precision. graven image./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (admire) 5. Whales. 356 .I fell on the ice. 7. (injure). injured when their car crashed on the M1. shorn lamb. are sold throughout the world. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. dark-skinned. Activity 7 1. The film. roast meat. I stared at the canvas for ages. injuring my arm. The escaped prisoner.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. was today taken back to prison. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Many old people. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. bounden duty. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. eagle-eyed. (take) 2. are in grave danger of extinction. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (hunt). hunting for a bargain. found hiding in a barn. Activity 8 1. / Swiss watches. rotten plank. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. ill-gotten wealth. (find) 6. (produce) 3. were taken to hospital. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. shaven head. hidden meaning. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. stricken deer.
the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. flat and soft. the twice rinsed vegetables. 357 . hovering uncertain and soft. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. bake them. He felt close to his father. and the puffed pastry beds. A parasol. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. thrown in the pots. in charge of his house and lands. he were struggling for breath. After a while. seeking some promised land. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. So. streaked with yellow veins of fat. now taken down. 2. sprinkled with sticky flour. And his soul.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. and moreover. 3. yet left them room to sway free. he started peering anxiously around as if. its scales scraped off by the knife. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. the carved chicken. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. then put up. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. boil them. suddenly suffocated. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. 4. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. the fish. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves.
/ I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – participle (attribute) 2. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . – Accusative + participle 3./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings.gerund 5. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. . Gambling is his favourite pastime. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. he left the store without buying a thing. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. – gerund (subject) 4. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / I am sorry for being so late.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. Activity 10 1. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods.
The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 8. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. gerund (has a direct object) 359 .possessive ING (direct object) 9. – Nominative + participle 13. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. possessive ING (predicative) 7. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. He was spotted talking to her. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. preceded by preposition). participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. – gerund (half or full. . – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. She’s looking forward to having lots of children.participle vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (attribute. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people.
’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. Lady Corven. – gerund (full. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. adjective. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund or verbal noun. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. my Lord. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. adjective. take down her answer.’ 360 . Croom to try to follow one. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. however appearances were against us. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has adjective). hold up his pen and speak. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. but they went by too quickly.verbal noun (has determiner.’ ‘Tell me.
‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. suddenly. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. I spend all my time hunting a job. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I must go back now.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. licked the envelope with passion.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.’ said Clare. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. and went out to post it himself. I just used the word and they fell. he addressed the note. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. ‘I do hate asking for things. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ 361 . There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. my Lord. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. it’s overrated. Then.’ said Clare.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.
attribute. attribute) in a swirling motion. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. The two sides were moving apart. direct object). attribute. gerund. The sight of the two children. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. He looked up towards the daylight. functions as direct object) and then the ground. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. attribute. direct object) from below. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. (participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. village which is burning). direct object) towards him.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. hoping (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. adverbial of time. attribute). the enormous split in the earth. after verb of perception. the very earth opening up (half gerund. slightly 362 . down. down into God knows where. It was like a mist. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. First the crack snaking (half gerund. …while their edges were crashing inwards). the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. someone looking for survivors (participle. slowly rising (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. elliptical here. attribute). At first. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle.
PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split.e. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. one. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. i. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. has ‘of’ phrase). preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. you. covering (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. adverbial of reason). She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. my dear.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. etc. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .). according to the books he read. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. moving up (participle. direct object). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. early. prepositional object.
making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. which beckoned to 364 . the two Mamonas. a door was opened and as a servant entered. examining (participle. Young Mamona left the room without a word. and not only in my imagination or theirs. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. Standing up. So. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. And.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. preceded by preposition. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. reluctant or not. Vaucher and I. attribute) stopped dead. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. we were all gathered in that room. slanted on to her cheek. preceded by preposition. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. She finished what jobs there were. mother. for Dornford was busy on an important case. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. and everything got suddenly animated. and then went riding (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. attribute) to winter brilliance. adverbial of reason). and sunlight. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. brightening (participle. adverbial of manner).
He cast us a swift glance. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. and ended his life in the year 1821. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . And then. closing my eyes. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. about concentrating all our resources. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. killed by Young Mamona. kissed her forehead. sitting in his puddle. as mother had ordered him. I knew who it would be. to me. to Vaucher. her back towards us. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. bending a little. without taking his sack off his shoulders. 4. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. in the year 1812. 3. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. too. let alone greet us or say something. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. he looked like someone who did. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. for anyway. Vaucher might have known that too. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. And. Entering our house on a Thursday. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. 2. and to Young Mamona. about sparing no effort. So when Old Mamona came in. Not so unimaginable though. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. each carrying a wooden box. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . and smelling so hard of rain. he found us sitting each in his place. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. his disloyal apprentice. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. he went to mother and. who knows.
wood pile. And suddenly. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. everything seemed familiar. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. of taking notes and rewriting them. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. already seen and heard. futile. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. as an afterthought. And all around them was the great field 366 . the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. long board table. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. barrack. each pausing before jumping down. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. 5. But. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. stove. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. They got off the truck slowly.
The next thing was to go to the well.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
vol. Joan. . Complementation in English. English Word-Formation. 1983.. Aspect. 1982. 1976.. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. Mouton de Gruyter. Cornilescu. English Grammar. Cambridge University Press. The Transformational Syntax of English. 1989. 1976. I. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. Institutul European Cornilescu. Benveniste.II. English Syntax.. CUP. Bucuresti. A. Chicago. 2003. . TUB Cornilescu. Burnes and Noble. . Emile. Cornilescu. Bernard. Bybee. Comrie. 1964. Mimo and Marc Moens. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. TUB Curme. 51-103. 1966. 1994. 1. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. Joan and Osten Dahl. A. A. Accuracy and Fluency. 369 . . Al. 1994.References Bauer. Laurie. Gallimard. Caenepeel. G. Bybee. eds.University of Chicago Press.. 1996. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. Iclezan Dimitriu. Problemes de linguistique generale. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. The Evolution of Grammar. Studies in Linguistics 13-1.
1987. Tubingen. A. 1968. Advanced Grammar Practice. R.1993.Day. 1976. Hewing. Longman. 1999. vol. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 1968. Richard.. Hassan. Outlooks and Insights. Otto. et al. Aspects of English Morphology. Harris. 1968. 2000. Longmans. Jespersen. Bucureşti. Alexandru. Longman. An Advanced English Practice Course. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. 1993. . .S. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. Martin. Leo. . 1959. 1982: 42-70. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. Iordan. M. Bucureşti. & Alfred Rosa (eds). & R. 370 .. London and Copenhagen. 1931. Hornby.A. New York. Eschholz. M. Progress to Proficiency. 1987. 1967. St Martin’s Press. London. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Dutescu-Coliban. Jones. Bucureşti. London. Graver. eds. Hornby. 1963.K. Gunter Narr Verlag. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. Fenn. Peter.S. Gramatica limbii române. English Historical Syntax. P. London. I. Taina. Cohesion in English. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English.A. Alexandru Niculescu. Denison.. CUP. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. Graur. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Longman. Part IV. 1982. CUP. In Vincent and Harris. Advanced Grammar in Use. Longman. 1961. J. Gramatica Academiei. Halliday.
The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. An Introduction to Fiction. London. M. volume 68. 1973. L. Hans and Uwe Reyle. 1926. Grammar for English Language Teachers. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Wolfgang. 1964. vol. TUB. Nelson.. Groningen. Scott. H. Hans and Christian Rohrer. Number 3. 1982.. 1970. D. 1987.Kamp. (advanced).. Parrott. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Part II. G. . J. Schibsbye. R. Miller. OUP. Greenbaum. Language. Negation in English. English Syntax. M. 2000. From Discourse to Logic. eds. E. Literature. 323-352 O’Connell. CUP. McCarthy. Bauerle et al. 1992. I. J. Dordrecht. An Outline of English Lexicology.Katz. Transactions of the Philological Society. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. in Fodor. Kruisinga. Kennedy. Quirk. K. 1991. Klima. and Svartvik. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Groningen Lipka. 89:2 (2000). Kamp. Focus on Proficiency. Poutsma.. A Handbook of Present-day English. Leech. 1983. A Modern English Grammar. 1931. Poetry and Drama. X. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Jim.. Serban. Klein. 1990. and J. Seminar Press. Sue. 1993.. A Grammar of Late Modern English. S.J. E. Foresman and Company.. vol. & Felicity O’Dell.. 2000. 2002. CUP. Tense in Texts.
2003. 1999. Sentence Processes. Co. N. R.. London. Lectures in English Morphology. Rodopi. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Amsterdam. Smith. Vet. Carlota. 2003. A.) L’emprise du sens. In M. de Swart. 2003. Plenat (ed. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. Modes of Discourse. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. Visan. Vet.. Editura Credis. TUB. N. Zandvoort. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. 2001. 1978.Schwegler. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. 372 . 1957 and 1962. 347-385. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Conference on British and American Studies. 1990. Vişan. Mouton de Gruyter.. Le passe simple.. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Berlin. Co. 1992. editia 1.W. I. Henriette.. New York. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. a. e. 1998. Analyticity and Syntheticity.. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It.. Stefanescu. A Handbook of English Grammar.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.