NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

2. Complementary distribution . Auxiliary verbs 1.5. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Insertion 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.Contents: 8 1.1. Constituent Phrase 1.4.3.

(Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.2. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . her mother. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. Semantic.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. that is sequences fragmented at random. 1. They are just strings. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Syntactic. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sequences of the kind her mother very.1.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. loves. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. For instance. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. very much. Consequently.

etc.e. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.4.3. we are dealing with a directive (i. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. 1. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. (Mi-a spus secretul. be). Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. should. an order given to an interlocutor). 1.) 10 . must.

1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.6.5. etc. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. live. an ‘empty’ there subject.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret.) 1. for instance. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. Consider. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.

Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. If the given context is the one under (6). Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. complementary distribution.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. this would really hurt. Munt. using your own examples: insertion. distribution. syntactic. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. 12 . whereas (7) is not. he had not yet been able to estimate. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. Pratice Define and illustrate. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. How much. as the star indicates. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. semantic. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. pragmatic.

13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

Polarity Items 2. Key terms 2.8.2. affirmative sentences.5.6. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.1. Instances of negation 2.7. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.3.4. Conclusion. Full – local negation 2.2. Negative vs. Tests for negativity 2. Key terms .

Negative .) b. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Declarative vs.Unit two Sentence negation 2. For instance. in the sense that it states something. in that they do not state anything. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.) is said to be an assertion.Positive vs. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .2. it asserts something. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Consequently. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a.

don’t bother her.positive sentence . listen to this./ If you like her. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ We didn’t come here just to talk. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .) . 16 .Nadina VIŞAN . Did they tell her the secret? ) .g.non-assertion ./ Don’t do that.negative (e.positive and declarative secret.other (if –clauses. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.interrogative (e. They told her the ( e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.assertion . / Come with me.g. comparison.g.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.) ./ She can’t wait to read that book. / She finally admitted. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.

the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.) b. John is unhappy. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. (Nu demult.) 17 . word negation. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. since the negative word not is not present there. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. Susan doesn’t like her friends. I met a girl named Susan. In the case of the sentences under (4).Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. John is not happy. For example. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.) b.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. Susan dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John nu e fericit) (4) a.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. (John e nefericit.

In other words. where the word 18 . since the negative word not is present inside them.) b. but their meaning tells us a different story. In other words. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. She was not an unattractive woman. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) c.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. these sentences look negative. I was not a little worried. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. just like in the case of word negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. He was not without intelligence.

/ Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. without intelligence./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. semantic negation. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative).e. Translate the following sentences into English. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Când a aflat vestea. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.

affirmative sentences. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.4. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. dar nu neobişnuit. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. Negative vs. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. ci doar indecişi. 2. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. dar nu în mod special. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Era el destul de isteţ.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală.

Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (M-am dus acolo.) (9) I didn’t go there. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. such as do insertion. (see subsection 1.1. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. For instance.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. (Nu m-am dus acolo. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.). etc.

The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / Susan was not bitten by a dog./ They didn’t leave. / She does not hate animals. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / Susan did not get married to Jim. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. 22 . The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / We don’t come here often. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / I don’t like her very much. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. incorrect.

(Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. 3. *and neither do they like her. which is ungrammatical. Example (14) is syntactically negative. and neither do they like her. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. and they don’t like her either. 4. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. *not even the smart ones. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. * and they don’t like her either.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. not even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. even the smart ones. which does not happen in the case of (18). . (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.

/ I haven’t ever seen such a thing.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / A few of them stayed behind. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / No problems were caused after all. In conclusion. 2. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains. / They caused us no problems. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / You have never met her. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / Not always a witty interlocutor.5. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / Few of them stayed behind. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / This boy is no good.

(27) a . a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (26) I saw nobody. (N-a venit John).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. I went nowhere. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner.

(N-am văzut nici un student.) c. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. Not all that glitters is gold. / I didn’t ever go to his place. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. I didn’t go anywhere. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. I didn’t see anybody. No day passed without me thinking of him. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. All that glitters is not gold.) b. I never went to his place. 26 . no incorporation takes place.) (29) a.) b.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.Nadina VIŞAN b. I didn’t see any student. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. b.

4. / I showed him nothing. rarely. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / He should not be released. / I didn’t see anybody. scarcely. / Not many women are famous opera composers. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / Not a word fell from her lips./ They didn’t come to meet her. etc.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative.V. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly./ They never went there.) They barely read any novels. not even short ones. / Not one of them came to meet her. seldom. / She said not a word when I spoke to her./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. nici măcar din alea scurte. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.) We seldom watch T. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / None of them liked house music. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / I saw nobody. barely.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / No one ever listens to her. . (Nu citesc romane.

which triggers inversion): (35) a. / I seldom look at her like that. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) b.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. Never have I met a more horrible person. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Few people came to see her. . / Hardly anybody liked him. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.) 28 them. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) d. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. Not for the world would I do such a thing. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) c. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I scarcely ever see her.

negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. in the sense that the 29 . / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You must on no account touch this machinery. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never./ We seldom receive such generous praise. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. never trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / She could rely on nobody but him.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation.) They don’t think that he likes them. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.

should be desirable. we can very well say something like: (38) a. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. appear. want. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte.6. suppose. intend.: think. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. etc. imagine. etc. believe.) 30 . although not negative in meaning. guess. be probable. expect. intention. In sentence (37). be supposed to. advise.) b. choose. etc. / He reckoned he would not win her over. suggest. the negative meaning is less strong. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. look like. barely. seem.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. cannot appear in an affirmative context. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. be likely.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. / I expect he won’t come here again. sound/feel like. probability. / I suppose she doesn’t care. ought to. / They believe she does not like them. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. 2. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. For example. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.

N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. and sentences such as: (39) a. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. are clearly not grammatical. *She likes our chairman at all. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items.*She lifted a finger to help me.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. b. That is 31 . They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence).2. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.

somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. some (I haven’t any money.).) Until vs. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / Bob is still living at that address. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / She hardly ever comes here. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I have some money. / I like you a lot. / I like it . / They say he once had someone very close. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.) Hardly ever vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Well. / Don’t worry. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / Well. / I still love you) Either vs. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I have already seen him. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / I eat caviar most of the times.) At all vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. either. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.) Yet vs. a lot (I don’t like you much.) Any more vs. / He arrived before 5. / I can understand both of these 32 . too. / Come on. too. you can still do something about it. still (I don’t love you any more. / I somehow like him.) Much vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. etc. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / You needn’t send her anything. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. too (I don’t like it.

find a trace. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. have a care/ friend in the world. / You must be telling lies. nici unuia dintre noi./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. leave a stone unturned. lift/raise/ stir a finger./ I can understand all of these ten English words. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. de când cu 33 . sleep a wink. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. flinch. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. mulţumesc. crack a smile. / Peter knows some English and so does John. give a damn/darn. turn a hair. lay a finger on someone. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. move a muscle. tell/ ask/speak to a soul.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. have/be worth a red cent. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. touch a drop. hurt a fly. Translate into English. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. say / breathe/ understand a word. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. last a minute. hear a peep. bat an eye(lid). / Ajută-mă. / You must pay that fine. know a single person. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has.

Translate into Romanian. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / He won’t make old bones. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. budge. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / No hands wanted. / No admittance. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / No sooner said than done. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Not that I care. / No trouble at all. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / I had no end of trouble. nu e vina mea. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. he left the room. / Never is a long word. he’s a pig.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. but you really should do something about it. / No entry. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / Hotărât lucru. B: Aşi. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / No man is wise all the time. încercând să prindă criminalul. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Nothing succeeds like success. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / He is no end of a fellow. As you have noticed from the exercises above. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. n-a sunat încă. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit.

In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). say it./ I saw no one.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / I hate making any commitments. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. as well: 35 . but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.Unit two Sentence negation rather). c) He is anxious to say something. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Normally.7. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. N-am văzut pe nimeni. 2.

8.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.) 2. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. nu poezia asta. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. from a syntactic point of view. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. nu-mi place. Key terms. (Nu. The second negation is somehow independent. however. B: Not this poem. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. I don’t. nu îmi place poezia asta. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. 36 . B: Nu. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. Conclusion. I don’t like this poem.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e. 45 .THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation).

3.2.2 Wh.2 Echo Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.3.3.1.2.1 Tag Questions 3.Questions 3. Direct vs.3.2.2.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Optional Exercises .3 Alternative Questions 3. Key Terms. Minor Types of Questions 3.4.

it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . If we try to analyze the examples above.1.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. for a subsequent section. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.Unit three Questions 3. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. focusing on direct questions mainly. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.

paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. (2). 48 . Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (3) and (4). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions.g. pe mama. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.

in this case. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). Likewise.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. In the case of indirect questions. 49 . Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. because. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Since the question is not direct any more. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.

identify the incorrect sentences. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. spune la un moment dat femeia. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / He asked me who she was. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me who she is. ce culoare are pielea. c) Ştii ce. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. sau mai bine zis. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / I don’t know who she is.

Unit three Questions 3.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. as Quirk shows. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.2. the type of answer the respective question requires. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. In this case. Let us provide 51 . those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. being typical of spoken language.

3. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (who / talk to last night)? 5. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.1. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (how long / wait for me?) 10.

which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. they did.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . are said to be positively – oriented. it has. (Da). (Da).

but I’ve got to babysit tonight. but I want to play basketball a little longer..... ……. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 6. 2. because you always copy everything I do! 5. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. . A: She had her tenants evicted. 4.. 3. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. I’ve still got plenty of time.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 7. A: You’ve been learning German for years. (speak yet) B: ……. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. as in the example: 1. …………………………….Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. A: You look down. …………………. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. ……………? (hear her) B: ….

. . A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. how.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 8. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. which When.. You could have mentioned it earlier.. 10. . A: There was a terrible car crash. . She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 3. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.2. what . where. 9. A: It’s past your bedtime.Unit three Questions B: …………………. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….2 Wh – questions Wh. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . ………………………………. I didn’t get home until late last night.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .

/ She lives in the suburbs. I cannot do that. Nearly two hundred years. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / My new car cost 10. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. (Poppy Z. why ever./ I have French lessons twice a week. of course. / There are six students in my class. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city./ She dropped her glasses. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / David’s car was stolen. / Shirley got married to Ben./ Sara owns two cars.000dollars. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / That’s my pen. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . trying to find places where I resided in life. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. what ever.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / Kay’s gone out shopping.

(A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.) 57 . de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.

He used to work in a bank. There was a fax for you this morning.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. didn’t use he? 4. wasn’t it there? 17. How long is she be spending in America? 8. shall we stay? 7. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. You can’t be serious. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. How far is it the cinema? 3. didn’t use he? 11. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. He used to work in a bank. How far is it the cinema? 10. Who did left the gate open? 18. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How long is she be spending in America? 15. can you be? 58 . Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Let’s stay for another few days. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16.

wasn’t it he? 22. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. neliniştea infantilă. How long time does it take to get there? 28. doesn’t he go? 23. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Whose it is this book? 32. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. plin de germeni virulenţi. Ani întregi. ca şi cei ce au fost. will you not? 21. dacă prin absurd 59 . uneori disperat. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. John goes jogging every morning. That’s your car.Unit three Questions 19. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. That was Jeremy’s brother. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. will you not? 27. isn’t it this? 25. Toate vechi. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. deci. How long have you be lived in London? 26. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Pot reveni. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. să-mi înfrâng frica. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. deci. despre o lume dură. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Don’t forget to take some spare socks.

picură apa roşietică. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. dar şi drumul. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. negru. ghiceam doar unde se află. mă întreb. naiv. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Şi. îi ştiu gustul. laşii. inactivii. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. pe care oricum am simţit-o. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. de atunci. pe sub bolţile din care. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. umed. indiferent de risc. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. puturos. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. străină priceperii lor. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. murdar. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. neîntrerupt. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. “Spune! striga el. B. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. iar proştii. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. lung. Riscul? Ratarea.

1. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. golul alb. domnule profesor. exclus. will you? (38) She went to Prague. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. da? (37) Let’s go there. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. care i-a determinat alegerea. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa.Unit three Questions viaţă. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. didn’t she? . chiar când prin absurd aş putea. la urma urmei. 3. viaţa? Oare e drept.3. orbitor. nu se poate.3. Tag Questions Tag questions.

) A: Oh. the tag is affirmative too. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. or falling. In this way.e. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. the tag is negative too). if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. if the host sentence is negative. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. au fost cheltuiţi. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. or “comment tags”. it’s all spent. hasn’t she? (Aha. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. The suggestion is that in this case. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. is it? (Deci. aren’t they? 62 . sarcasm. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. (Din păcate.

/ I may see you tomorrow.…/ Let me know. / You will pick me up. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / They said he liked music. 63 . / He simply hates empty words. / Don’t leave without me. / I am dressed smartly enough. / A few people like her. / That’s your car over there. / He hates his wife. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I think you like my music. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / That was your father. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / The boy often watched his sister. / Tell me. / You ought not to smoke. / Surely you have enough money. / She has a brother. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / You will pick me up at 7. / I am older than you. / I think you don’t like my music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I don’t think you like my music. / I must go now. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / There is enough food for everyone. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / You have been invited. / She left an hour ago. / Few people like her. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Each of us is staying. / The boy never watched his sister. / Let’s eat dinner now. / She used to talk a lot. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. after all. / He has to marry Susan. / Activity 12 He will be on time.

. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…./ I’m right about this…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . using a question tag at the end.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. So you enjoyed my talk. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. or what? 3. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. 5. / He never used to study so hard…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. He used to play squash. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences.

Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.3. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.1.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.1. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.) B: Chinese? 65 . Recapitulatory echo questions . as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.3.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Grants… 3. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.2.

) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.2. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.2.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. of something just said. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. rather than the repetition. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. disbelief. If the wh.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Închide lumina aia. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.phrase is fronted.3. consternation.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.

) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. / We are looking for a pixie. rather than did you say.e. (Uită-te la asta. intonation is rising. (i. (Vai. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. which letter do you 67 ./ He is interested in blue movies. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup./ We are looking for a purse. whereas with explicatory echo questions. am pierdut scrisoarea. I’ve lost the letter. dear.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. with recapitulatory echo questions. / He is interested in music.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a solution.

aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.4. she knows about it. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.

Fenio. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. şi care s-a aciuat. să se încolăcească mai bine. nu purta verighetă. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. oameni aşezaţi. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. acuma sporovăiala. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. stricata. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. Are gust de oameni blânzi. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2.– Crezi tu.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. cumnată Fenia. în general. lui Luca Horobeţ. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . aşa. lui Stavre Păici. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. cu o casă de copii. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. pe Condrat de Vica. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. în satul nostru. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. da. ca să zic aşa. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. şi apoi Vica ce zice. după pofte. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. şerpoaica. lui Chizlinski. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu.

scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. deci. dar cum se face că a 70 . Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. abia târându-şi picioarele. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. roşu şi galben. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. până la călcâie. sau cum o chema. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. L-a scos din geamie. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Hogea. De asta erai. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. sus. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri.

dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.

72 .

FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .

Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.2.3.Key Concepts .Coordinating Conjunctions 4.1.Contents: 74 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.5.Coordination and Subordination 4.4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.6.

cu repros. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. on the other hand. present) in the sentence. reproachfully.Unit four Coordination 4. where there is no indication other than a comma.1 Syndetic vs. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.e.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. 75 . Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.e.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Example (2). that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. that elements are coordinated. i.

(Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. you will die. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. 76 . subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. vei muri. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. From the previously mentioned examples. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.Nadina VIŞAN 4.) (4) If you hit my wife. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. Conversely. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.) Such examples.

(John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. from a logical & semantic point of view.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. but presupposed. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. we need to specify that. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. respectively subordinated constituents. the second. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. However.

his shoes squished. of cut gray stone. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. adorned with cornices. took off his coat and emptied them. took off his shoes and emptied them. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. John Steinbeck. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. but the 78 . In the first. built. He moved and made a slopping noise.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. His clothes hung to him. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. Then he sat down. the houses were beautiful and ancient. with enormous solidity. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. Though the castle had vanished. In the second. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. with formal walks under rows of trees.

and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. over some of the roughest ground in the country.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. the higher he went the wetter it grew. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. left the house. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and as the way is with Irish mountains. Cecil Woocham – Smith. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 .

3 Sentence vs. however distinguished. were to take down the name of every man. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. we should be seriously annoyed.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. as shown in (9). yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. As one can easily notice. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .K. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. (G. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. / Peter. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 8. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and I passed. 10. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed.Unit four Coordination example (7). Pratice Distinguish coordination. Her pet kitten is black and white. 6 John sang and Mary danced. and even tennis. plays football. Our flag is red. Activity 2 sentences: 1. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. our respective examinations. / Bob and George are admired by their students. / Joan plays many games. 3. 5. yellow and blue. John and Mary are ready. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. / Peter and John played football. 4. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. but not John. John is ready and Mary is ready. 9. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 2. 7. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.

whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Jane 82 . (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.) b. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Activity 4 2. or deleted. 5. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune.) c. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. 6. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. 3. John writes poetry and Bill prose.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out.Nadina VIŞAN b. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. as can be seen in (10b).

9.) The common element. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. i. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 83 . the predication buy a pair of shoes.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 8.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. So. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. these syntactical processes. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. can be reduced by substitution. the so-called Principle of Economy. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. than a longer repetitive one. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 10. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.e. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. Besides ellipsis. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 7. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.

S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. A citit. In certain cases. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 3. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. simple books and magazines for children 3. using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane went back to their parents. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. one or (the) other method. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. 2. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. George and Jane are separated. Translate the following sentences. 4. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. some reason or another. the old men and women 2.

like: salt and pepper. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. I need another 100$ ………. 7.. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. A pendulum swings ……….You gain some things and you lose others. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. it’s a case of ………… 7. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 2. 11. of your proposals later on? 3. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. they reached home………. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. fish and chips. They get on quite well together.I searched ………. 16. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. . She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party... 6. 5. Can we discuss the …………. only for damage. After all their adventures.. the amount I’ve already saved up. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4..… 14. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 13. 12. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. Marks and Spencers. even though they have their little …………. 8. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. for my wallet. sweet and sour. 5. 15. 8. 6.

more often than not.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. b. etc. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. as in: (17) a. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. and 86 . For instance.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. of course. 4. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. the expressive function of coordination is. Nor sun. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.4.) There are.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. In fact.

(Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. too): (20) a. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. sometimes but. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. 20 (b)). (Ei o placeau pe Susan. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. or . Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) 87 . o respectau si o indrageau. etc). both … and . where the subordinator is repeated.) b. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) c. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. (I-am dat banii. and cherished her.) In certain cases. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii.g.

and you’ll die. I like and admire her. (Imi place si o admir.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. From this point of view. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. In this case.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (O admir si imi place.* I ironed and washed my pants. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and hit my wife.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. I admire and like her. I washed and ironed my pants. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.) b. if we were to rewrite the example .

(A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Brown experiments with humans. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (If you do that. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.Unit four Coordination 1. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) (While Dr. he failed). you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.

This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. e.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. From the functional point of view.g. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.) 101 . the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. as the name suggests it. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.which are based on coordination . 5.

Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. In a way. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. We do not presuppose however something like. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). for instance. sentences) required by the verb (or. by an adjective + preposition. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. in certain cases.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. an adverbial item.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (I-a dat cartea. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) 102 . such as proud of. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. For instance. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. we associate it with these objects.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. for example).

The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. but its effect remains even after its wipeout.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. Thus. which is the adverbial willingly. to add something.) b.e. I am afraid that he won’t come. In other words. 103 . has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. i. The second example. related to example (4). (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. A second observation. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. to her) and one extra-item. an additional one.

So. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. such as want. like. make.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) 104 . (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (11) If you don’t marry me. a închis toate ferestrele.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. etc. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. I’ll die. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. am să mor.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.

They came to e. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 6. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 4. e. After I told her the story. this to whomever wants it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.She came to him of her own will. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. she looked at me sadly. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 5.g. [. 2. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 3. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart.g. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .g. The book that because they home. Whoever did that was a genius.

He took an intelligent interest in her. though it was largely politeness. As you can see. not object. 6. You suggestion that we should. was a novelty to Mitzi. but he declined. 5. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. etc. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. at our age. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject.) 106 . When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. stating their function: Activity 2 1.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. 2. which. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. FOR. WHETHER. 3. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God.

) b. how. Who did it was John. why.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. Where he went is London. (15) It is John who did it. which. when. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (E de dorit să plece. etc.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. where. who.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. 107 .) (16) a. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.

these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. In conclusion. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.1. however.) (18) She told me this before she left. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. consider the following table.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. Unlike complement clauses. As you will see. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . for instance. which sums up this classification. done from a structural point of view. Compare. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In (18). (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. etc. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. if. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. before.

g. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Dear Ludwig. etc. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. at your young age. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.g. back.g. 109 . Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. you understand. as. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. after. Introduced know e.: e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. whether he will come when I feel like it. for. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I will come back such as because. I will go there because I feel like it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. surely you cannot sincerely believe.

But she thought that no one would call again. As she left the house. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. she stopped to speak to Monroe. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. Too. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. a tightening in her breathing. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Accidental Man) b)1. 2. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. he said. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again.The day Monroe had died was in May. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. Late that afternoon.

că e.g.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. As you have probably noticed already. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. 111 .2. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. That he loved e. a correspondence can be traced.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. interesting.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g. I told her everything after she arrived. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. However.

Secondly.complement. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. (Cred că mă place. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). complements.1..) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. So. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. Thirdly.2. In the fourth place. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. We will come back to that in the next chapter. whenever you identify a wh. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. whereas wh complements are the 112 .e.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. i.

etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. after. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. I first thought to tell in 113 . None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. because. Pratice Consider the following text. c) I am coming home one way or another. their introductory elements (e. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour.g. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. a house. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. before. and I do not know how things might stand between us. She mistrusted her handwriting. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. but no idea what to do with them.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. for no matter how she tried. outbuildings. a barn.

subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. because they modify. and I have not the will or the energy. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.4. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. these clauses can be complements. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers.e. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). According to a structural criterion. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. it would make you fear to do such again. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 .

be very careful to use this term correctly. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Alţii. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. 115 .Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. Pratice Translate the following.g. interested in. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. ce o fi având. look at. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. (…) “Mă. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea.e. answering the question to whom? So. Nevasta secera în tăcere. think of. O zbughi înapoi. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. etc. însă. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. după ce că are grâu puţin.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart.

Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. Toată lumea înţelesese că. întâi. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. izolate de sat. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. cât de bolnavă era. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. de fapt.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Nici acum. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. timp de un ceas. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie.

care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. la Odobeşti. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. aşa de oţetit. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. stricau totul.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. În realitate. acum sunt desluşiţi. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Era bine de ştiut. Pace nu era. de pildă. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. la nişte prieteni comuni. deşi cam târziu. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. amânase scrisul. Iată. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. iar când nu izbuteau de la început.

nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 . Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. frate.

accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. 119 .SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). subject relative clauses.g. etc. of which. whose..

2.7. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.1. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.3.5. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Key Concepts .4.6.

a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).1.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. 6. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.2.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. 121 . (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The Co-reference Condition . It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.

By combining these two clauses. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. 122 . like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. John loves that woman. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed.

Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. John offered flowers to that woman. 123 . But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The common element woman is present. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. This way.

Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. 4. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 2. 6. The students like their teacher. None of the students agreed with them. 7. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. I lost the book’s cover. WHERE 3. too. The students like their teacher. WHO 5. 8. I bought Jim a book. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO 124 .Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. by leaving behind a trace. Any of the students would answer to questions. The king was just passing by. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. I introduced him to Jim. 10. 5. 9. I went to London. Susan wants to meet Jane. This is my husband. I love my husband very much. He told Jim everything about his plans. He’s the author who received the prize. She came to London. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I had a book. They met those students. therefore in spoken English. frequently used in written language. John told his friend a story about the king. 3. He liked that book. WHICH 4.

It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.e. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 10. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.Unit six Relative clauses 6. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. 2. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOM 6. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. WHOSE 7.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. most of them were from England. (Cine strică plateşte. i. TO 11. WHICH 8. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. relative clauses are divided into 1. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. .

is no longer overtly expressed. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. in a manner of speaking. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. these relatives cannot function as attributes.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) So. it is covert. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. Unlike their sisters. (Cel care strică plăteşte.e.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. unlike in the case of (14).

They can be thus divided into: 1. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (Mercur. who incidentally is the god of commerce. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. 127 . Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (22) Mercury. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. este zeul meu favorit. is my favourite god. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. they define it). care este zeul negoţului. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. They only provide supplementary information about it. who is the god of commerce. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want.) (Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (Du-te unde pofteşti.

A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 2. is a genius. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 10. Independent I don’t know what you want. who came to see me. As we were saying. who is a genius. 9. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. on whom nobody could depend. On the day on which this occurred I was away. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. They are what 128 . restrictive relative clauses. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. I have met him where I least expected. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. is a great playwright. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man.This is the village where I spent my youth. 7. this type of relative clauses. i. She.e. 8. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. then it is an attribute. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. was the one we all welcomed and admired. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Shakespeare. 6. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 5.

composed The (Freddie Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. a. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. however sad this may be. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.) 2. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. When the antecedent has no determiner. etc. care a murit acum câţiva ani.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. etc. who died a few years ago.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. . First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. 6.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star.

3. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. Mie. numai eu nu. care nu sunt o femeie.) Pratice Translate the following. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală.) (28) They come to me.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). (Ei apeleaza la mine. ci o fată a woman. who neither work nor am anxious. care-ţi sunt fiu. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. bătrînă morocănoasă. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. dried-up old maid. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. who am your son. iritabilă şi uscată. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 4. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. 2. Dintre toate personajele prezente. îţi văd prea bine defectele. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. poftiţi în faţă. 6. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. (Eu. 130 . 7. but a peevish. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. can see your shortcomings only too well. ill-tempered. 5.

Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. erau acum în posesia lui. heard. were now in his possession. (32) service finished late. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. than whom few more can be more crashing.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. .) (33) He was a railway fanatic. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. părăsi camera. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.

The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) b. The genitive form with which is still in use.) b.) c. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. 6. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. but it is typical of the formal. too. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.5. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. as can be seen in (36d). The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) d.1.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. literary style: (37) a. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .

) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.

(Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. but to a type or a function: a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. He is not the man which he used to be.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. of which. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) b.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.) • states. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. … Italy. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. by the way.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) b. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. ships (that can be personified) a. (45) (46) . animals. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.

(one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. reason. (Nu ştiam ce vor. etc. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.5. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) b.) b) dialectal (49) a. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. It is poor what gets the punches. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) 6.) 135 (47) . pe care o privea direct. etc.Unit six Relative clauses b. where. how. France. time. whom it concerned most closely.2 Relative Adverbs: when. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. while. why. Poland is the place where Christine was born. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.

(Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.5.They left when they decided it was proper to. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. He went where he had been before.) When they introduce free relative clauses.) 6. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) c.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) b. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. no antecedents are required: (52) a.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. The place whither he goes is unknown. This is the place wherefrom they came. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) 136 .3. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) e.) b.

] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.

Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. but • in standard language a. but they are used very infrequently: as. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. much. every.4. Honest man as he was. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. .) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. any. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. 138 (64) his shoes.5.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. not any. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want.

) c. There’s not many as’ll say that.) c.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. him as was in China … (Uncle George. And always on the buttered side. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. It’s the dry weather does it. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. ăl de fusese in China…) b. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. This is the same one that/as you had before.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. Uncle George.) • in dialect a. . There is no man but feels pity for starving children. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.

(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) 140 . (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.) b. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).

It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. The man who John spoke to is a genius.3): (72) a.*The man John spoke to is an idiot.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. 3. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 5. It seemed a thing 141 . What I’m saying is. 7. fortifies me.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. That which shows God out of me.) b. The man John spoke to is a genius. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. makes me a wart and a wen. b. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. 6. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. This is where we talk money. Where he was from. What Inman remembered was this passage. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.5.) c. The man that John spoke to is a genius. we all have to come to some terms. 2.” 4.

9. who had not witnessed many dawns. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. Ruby said. Oh. he had left Ruby high and dry.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 10. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. though. The rudeness of eating. 13. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. which is a lot. 142 . e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 12. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 8. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. of living. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 11. Whatever his fate was. (…) Partly.

una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. Cumnatul meu avea. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. plutonier. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. un var primar. (Iris Murdoch. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. poate. vasnic. cumnatul unui portughez. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. divortata.al lui. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . pe linie paterna. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. mort de tanar. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. nu prea sarac. pirpiriu. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei strabunic. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. fiu natural al unui morar.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage.

Everybody listened to that woman. c. insurat de trei ori la rand. By extension. The opposite phenomenon. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. This is the book. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.2. I lost the cover of the book. 144 . you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. b. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. Teatru) 6.6. She was a woman.

She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 6. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The problem of safe transportation.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. has been troubling them forever. 9. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . The difference between (76) and (77). apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 7. 3. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 5.Unit six Relative clauses b. no easy answers to which could be offered. he requested that the public be excluded. In the interest of public decency. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 2. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 8. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 4.

Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. has been deleted. Activity 9 were now all gone.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 5. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 3. This story. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. no matter which. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. 4. His friends. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. They do not function as attributes. was now complete. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. Irene. as the case is). 10. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). he rarely saw now. 6.His father’s friends. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 2. 146 .

De douazeci de ani. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Nelu. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Pentru alţii. 5. 3. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 2. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. himeric. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. închipuirea. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 6. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 4. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. Toate sfârşeau. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. sunt vrednic de invidiat. pentru dumneata bunăoară. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 7. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…).

Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. a făcut el. 10. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. cu surle şi cu tobe. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. nici în searbăda mea versiune. 12. 9. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. 8. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11.

de unde venea şi Marta. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. despre care. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 14. din care cauză pe Dora. deşi atât de aproape. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. care era foarte “mondenă”. În spatele lor. 15. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. trăia larg de tot. 16. pe strada Icoanei. 149 . 18. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. toată lumea întreba cine e. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Dacă mă lovea. 17. zise ea cu ochii mari. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. din direcţia căreia apoi. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. până mai adineauri.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. 20. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. roiuri de fetiţe. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. apărură. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. fie pe stradă. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. fie la teatru. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Avea acum un fel de vertij.

întâia noapte de război) 150 . decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. pe care eu nu-l aveam. de sus de unde eram. când au urcat râpa iar. după ce maşina a fost reparată. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. pe care ea îi admira acum. aveau un stil al lor. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Pare-se că snobii. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. 23. Pentru mine însă. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. 22. până în şosea. de mine. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. 24.Nadina VIŞAN 21.

151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.

2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.1.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2.1.1.3.3.6.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.2. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1.5.2.2. That Deletion 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2.1.Clause Shift 7.5.2.Topicalization 7. Key Concepts .2. That Complements as Subjects 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.Extraposition 7.1.4.7.3.1.2.

being found not only in the case of that-clauses.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. placed in a marginal position.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. 7. 153 .1. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. but also of infinitival ones. In other words.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). (3) Tell me if you need anything. Apart from those introduced by that. the clause is extraposed.

) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.

2. 7. 13. 5. 9. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 15. 10. 3. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 9. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 6. 8. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It will be soon announced when you can leave. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 6. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is no use trying to convince her. 4. It is nice to meet you. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It appears that no one voted for him. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 11. 3.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 10. 2. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 8. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 14. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 4. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 7.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 11.

Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 4.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. în gropi. 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. atât 156 . unde se nimerea. They never expected it that he would come back. 4. sub poduri. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 5. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. I guess it that he will come back. după porţi. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 2. 6. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. 18. 5. I don’t expect it that he will come back. în canal. 2. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. zice Lionel. mă ascundeam în grabă.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 3. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”.

dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Spunând cele ce-am spus. excelentă. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. fără să cârteşti. 5. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. vor căuta să o zdruncine.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. 7. (Nu întotdeauna. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. fără îndoială. 6. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei.” 4. 157 . Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede.

Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Pratice Read the following. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. in the case of topicalization. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. this asymmetry is undone. subject clauses are the frequent situation. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.) While in the case of extraposition. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Consequently. 1. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.2.1.

7. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. even today. was inconceivable. mere chance would decide. 8. This was another era. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. whether it would finally carry her off. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. She had always been the slave of chance. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. he felt no spring of interest in her. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 3. 5. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 4. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. but not now. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. 6. He did not blame Gracie. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 2. He was utterly gone.

1. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) 160 .3.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.

(Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. 161 . (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. we obtain. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. the verb to drive).) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.e. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.

/ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 5. who had just returned from Africa.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 7. 6.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 8. 2. 3. prime-minister. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 4. 162 . / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.

The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.Unit seven That complements 7. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.2.

He announced that they were engaged. explain. They promised him that he would received a new house. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. (Cred că omul este vinovat. prefer. consider. judge. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. deem. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.: (25) a. (I-au promis o casă nouă. state. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.1.) b.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. deny. communicate.) 164 .Nadina VIŞAN 7. They believe that the man is guilty.) b. afirm. etc. predict.2. They believe the man is guilty. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. estimate.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. etc. suggest. He announced their engagement. desire.) a.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. promise.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.e. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. In older stages of English.) I like him in that he is smart.) 172 . (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. ibid. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. hope =>purpose. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. they lose their meaning. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. on condition that.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) language. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. for example.

His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) (66) 173 a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. să o vadă trecând. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave an answer such.) b.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. . (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) When the structure contains the word such.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. That can be deleted.) b. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. He gave such an answer as had expected. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.

8) I am afraid that I have to go now.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. they were chained to each other forever. ibid. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. (Iris Murdoch. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) 174 . 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. ibid. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. (Iris Murdoch. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. for better or worse. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) b. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.

(A dovedit că poate să facă asta.3 ‘That Deletion 7. He said he had borrowed her money. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. He got word they were coming. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.Unit seven That complements 7. for instance. He showed he was able to do it. say.1. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (69) a. tell). that he uses a relaxed tone. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.3. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. 175 .) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.) b. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) c.

erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. for better or worse. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. I like it that he was here.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3. because that has been deleted. ibid. (Îmi place că e aici.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. *I like it he was here.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) (De asemenea. rele. 7. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever.2. bune.) b. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. they were chained to each other forever.

simultaneity. that they were not too late to leave. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. he said. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. which is ungrammatical in English. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. (“Este acolo”. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.) b)He told me that she was there. 7) They maintain. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. spuse el. 7.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. you want me to believe. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause.) 177 .4. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.

In the example below. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. I will leave her. spuse el. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. He said he would leave her. (A spus că o să o părăsească.) b. he said. (A spus că. până pleacă ea.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (“Era acolo”. vine el. “She was here”.) b.) Future Perfect -----.) b. He told me that she had been there. o să vină el. (Pâna să plece. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. The Present complement). (Am să o părăsesc. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .

whisper. report. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. be amazed/concerned.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. believe.) On the other hand. mention. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. With such factive verbs as realize. insist. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. hope. discover. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. realize it). (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. etc. regret.) b. dream. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. think. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. say. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) 179 . there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know.etc. notice. show. be aware. forget. wish.

The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. we notice that general truths.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. cu un respect tandru reciproc. She still believed that the earth was flat. He knew that she thought all men were fools. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) b.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. in tender deference to each other.) b. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. 180 . Consider also: (85) a. She realized that all men are fools. She believed that the earth is round. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Iris Murdoch. feign habits which are not their own.

Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. There are however cases. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) b.Unit seven That complements 2. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. 181 . (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. such as a. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) b.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) In (88). 3.

Imagine. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. for instance.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) John said that Harry was leaving. The time is 3 o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. f) John said that Harry would leave. But 182 . John said that Harry will leave.

Translate the following. love of practical jokes. bluebird. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. b. Crows will relish what presents itself. Cooper’s hawk. 183 .Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. redtailed hawk. She admired their keenness of wit. kingfisher. slyness in a fight. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. jaybird. a. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. lack of pridefulness. geese both grey and white. whistling swan. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. quail. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. nighthawk. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. c. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town.

He died erect. He had fought hard through the war. war hero though he was. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. And they might just hang him. Now here he stood jailed. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. in the very act of expiring. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. But as the battle raged around them. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. the young officer. he claimed. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. […] During the latter stages of the tale.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Noble beyond all her powers of expression.

185 . or else. which they share with wh-complements. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). on other occasions it has to stay there. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. from the very frequent subject. On certain occasions that can be deleted. object ones up to the attributive function. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).Unit seven That complements 7.

2. Mama. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. 4. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. peste puţin. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Fiind 186 . Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Unul din ei. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 3. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. cel mai mare. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă.

niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. aşa. 8. un vis de acesta 187 . cel puţin pentru un timp. luminos şi apropiat şi când. 6. Nu ţi-a trecut. 9. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. ea. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. 7. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 5. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. dacă va mai veni. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. va pleca din oraş la vie. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. venind de la avocat. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Se mira. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. de ce constata în sine. fericit. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. care îl pândise.

Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. dar şi teama că. Astfel de va fi. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. şi mândria că a biruit. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. fireşte. liniştit. lucrul era înfăptuit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. 11. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. încă o dată.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Acesta. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. 12. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.

spre Jurubiţa. după cum. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. să le lămurească pe toate. fără o vorbă scrisă. mai puternic decât oricând. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Pe toate. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . unde alerga să mărturisească totul. ci numai aşa. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. 14.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

5.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.9.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.2.1.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.3.7.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.8.8.6.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Key Concepts .What Are Infinitive Complements 8.4.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.

infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (3) a. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. From this perspective. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). It is important that you should know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. It is important for you to know what you need. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). To love her is something really wonderful.) • like that complements.) b. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). 193 . (2) a. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. Consider the following: • like that complements.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. I told her to be more careful in the future. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.1. That you love her is something wonderful.) b. b.

For instance. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Participle) (i. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. 194 . participial clauses. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. d. etc.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. 2. gerundial clauses.) b. as opposed to the finite ones. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. the Conditional. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. moduri nepersonale) By convention. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. the Gerund. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.e.

(Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) c.) 195 . If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. namely no ending.) b. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.

It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. the criterion of form.2. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. 3. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 5. (7) They saw her leave. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 7.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 10. It is vital this factory to be reopened. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 8. 9. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 2. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 6.

(10) 197 . / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Au văzut-o că pleaca.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. hear. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. 2. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization.

trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. . uncharacteristic for literary English.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. 3.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. However. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. 198 (11) the universe. Pratice Translate the following.

Further on. In other words. 199 . (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. as I have already mentioned. or the control constructions. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. to use the appropriate technical term. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.

we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) b. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. So far. PRO to forgive divine.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. I hoped for him to be there in time.) In this situation. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. namely the agent of the event. It is important for him not to err. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.) 200 . the logical subject. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. PRO to err is human.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) Object: (18) a. şi creştineşte să ierţi. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.

Semantically. but the patient of the verb persuade. him is related to the main clause verb. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter. In other words.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.) b. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. not to the infinitive. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.

\ She wanted him to leave. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ They convinced her to come back. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ She promised him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ They tempted him to leave. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ He persuaded her to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ 202 . I hate animals to be tortured. Likewise. \ I allowed them to come. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ I would love them to come. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals.

and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. So. 203 . Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. • Last but not least. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They did not wish her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They really asked her to come back. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb.

/ Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. appear. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. that is not required by certain verbs. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. 204 .). + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. with special semantic and syntactic properties. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. which are said to be free./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. seem. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. hate. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. To sum up the discussion. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. to meet her. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. Pratice Translate the following sentences. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. etc.

venture.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. seek (= try). prefer. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. hate. bear. need. want. deserve. aspire to. refuse. contrive. endeavour. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. etc. agree to. scheme. presume. dislike.3 The Distribution of PRO . care to./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. try. etc. deign. scorn. fail.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. . (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. Compare: (31) a. mean.) 205 friend. arrange. afford.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. expect. desire.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. propose. intend.) b) verbs such as abide. condescend. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. hope. 8. manage. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. decline. omit. / E greu să îl suporţi. etc. wish. like.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.

) 8. unlikely. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. I hate that you should say a thing like this. For all of them to have been killed is.etc. forget. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. endeavour. be important. suggest. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. stand.) b. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. bear. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. threaten. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. I would like for him to become president of the country. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. ask. possible. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. conclude. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) 206 . however. verbs of liking and disliking. desirable. claim.) b. etc. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) b.

(E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. Predicative Clauses (39) a. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 8. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) b.) 207 .) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) 2.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.

Like in the case of that complements. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. I decided for John to represent us. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. . but the meaning remains.) b.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) 5.) 4. Direct Objects (39) a. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. the preposition is deleted.) 208 knowledge. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.

bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) d. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. This paint is like concrete to work with.: (42) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. The stew is delicious to eat. etc. delicious. 6. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. curious about. He is a bastard to work for. She is pretty to look at. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. You’re an idiot to go there.) e.) b. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.) c) adverbial of result 209 .) c. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.

Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch.) I’ve never met him. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . you’re a bad driver. to tell you the truth. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. drept să spun. / Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. să nu piardă trenul.) Oh. / Pe şleau. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.

promise.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. b. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.) . etc. enable.: (51) a. influence. press. inform. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. inspire. 8. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. need. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. According to this. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. induce.) b. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. nu mai vreau să te vad. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. swear.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. direct. oblige.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. (49) a. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. urge. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. encourage.etc. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.

I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. command. elect. count on. permit. choose. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.etc. vote. look to. etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral./ And now he 212 . etc. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. name.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. order. prevail on.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. nominate. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. allow. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. depend on.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell.

(Se pare că îi place de el. 213 (58) (59) . etc. (57) He is to come any day now.etc.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (O să întârzii/ leşin. come. An Accidental Man) 8. etc. (56) She grew to like him in the end.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.e. be about to. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. this construction is lexically governed. happen. seem.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. be going to. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. i.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. grow. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Iris Murdoch. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.verbs: appear.: (55) She appears to like him.

that of intention. hear. watch.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. be rumoured. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. In (57). hence there is no control situation whatsoever. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.) 8.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. overhear.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. perceive.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be reported. be considered. . etc. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be thought. observe.etc.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be claimed. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. feel. etc. be alleged. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.: (62) They heard him insult her.

presume.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. picture. understand. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. cause. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.) 215 (67) . However. consider. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. judge. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. believe. discover.) • with a full infinitive: get.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. know. occasion. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. (Cred că este un geniu. recollect. deem. find. have. prove. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. etc. remember.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. figure. imagine.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.

) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. Harold.etc. etc. who wasn’t used to men with moods. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. prefer. want. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. choose. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. desire. if he himself was out of spirits.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. permit. mean. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. suffer. they had depressed and fuddled him. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. wish. order. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. command. love. he hated anyone to comment 216 . expect.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.

and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. the herd instinct was very strong in him.P. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. A little crossly. he didn’t envy those above it. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. though he tended to look down on those below it. so that we might get to the future and have done. (L. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. to make sure we attended strictly to business. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . Both seemed to him a little unreal. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. He suspected hostility at once.

9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The last criterion. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.Nadina VIŞAN 8. From this perspective. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. 218 . about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.

mai bine219 . E posibil. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. să-l capete. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. Şi tu să fii. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. într-o zi. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. bunăoară. dar să nu-ţi spună. e) Când doi oameni. de bună seamă. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. un bărbat şi o femeie. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. e important ce întrebări pui. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. lovit şi umilit. fireşte. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. de asemenea.

mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. . să traiesc numai cu tusea.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. avusese dreptate. 220 . Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. De era vară. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. sau. în parte. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. că eşti tânăr. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea.Nadina VIŞAN zis. în parte. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Să spui de pildă.Şt. un picior. încă. Însă Paul Achim trăise. mai bine de două decenii. pe care deja o uitase. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. (B. aşa cum îi apăruse el. ca să nu şi-o amintească. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare.Şt. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în ploaie. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. în jos. mai pline de înţeles. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. d-a lungul gâtului.Delavrancea. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. să nu vrea să se şteargă.

Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă.. biata Muti. fie ea şi grăbită. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. şi prin faţă. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. Mă laud singură. prin faţă e coborârea. Într-un cuvânt. o mizerie. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.. (Al.. deşi. sunt aici cu tot ce am. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ei. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. orice-ar fi.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. de fapt. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. un miros îngrozitor. şi nu un amant. orice bucureştean ştie. nici ca să 221 .

parcă la întâmplare. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . în realitate. niciodată ea nu i le pune.

to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles. verbal nouns.

2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.Participial Constructions 9.The Verbal Noun 9.2.1.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.9.2.2.3.5 Key Concepts .4.1.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.3.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1.1.The Gerund 9.

Due to this situation. (Susan doarme. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.1. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us start with the Participle: 9.) 225 . Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.

it functions attributively. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. 226 . i. been and killed are past participle forms. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. blood-shot and painted. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.e. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.) As you can see in this second case.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.) More infrequently. Susan has been killed. Susan has come.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. were closing. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). (A venit Susan) b. the past participle can appear after a noun. In (2) the forms come. too: (6) Her eye-lids. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.

(Sosind aici.) b.) c.) c. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. When singing. they started singing. people should pay attention to high notes. Oh. Weather permitting. o să ajung la timp. she ran away. ea o luă la fugă. God willing.) b. (Ştiind cine era el. If provoked. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. a lion can attack. Arriving here. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I will arrive there on time. Knowing who the guy was. începură să cânte.) d. leul poate să atace. he will eventually marry her. mother permitting.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) 227 . I will arrive there on time.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.

which stands for an adverbial clause. He was found stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) 228 . notice.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.) b. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-am descoperit furând. (L-au descoperit că fură.) ii. watch. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. behold. I found him stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. They found him killed by a bullet. hear. respectively. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. (Am simţit-o tremurând. He was found killed by a bullet. smell.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.

) b. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. He’ll soon get things going.) • Causative verbs: get . (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. etc. recollect. etc. recollect. feel.: a. I heard it said that men are a bore. start. I must get my hair cut. a. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. find. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 .) c.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. make a. (A fost văzut plângând.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. know. have.: When she heard his words. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. etc.) b. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. confess.) • mental perception verbs: remember. she knew herself dismissed. have. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. etc. send. hear.) • Causative verbs: get. leave. keep. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. set.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.) b. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.

lovit şi plin de sânge. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. command I ordered my bill made out. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / Nu după multă vreme./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.) b. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 .Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. Men like shopping made easy. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.) • verbs of permission./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.

sitting taut between her father and her sister. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).1. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. 231 . feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.2. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. with its lips drawn back.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her.e. Unlike the gerund. / My Lord. / Dinny. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / In any case. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.

) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. I left. I have looked through the fashion magazine. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. 4. (Văzând acestea. I was astonished at what I saw.She didn’t want to hear the story again. The tree had fallen across the road. I knew that the murderer was still at large. It had been uprooted by the gale. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I left. the rain will stop. 6. 7. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. se va opri şi ploaia. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . She had heard it all before. 3. she enjoyed her trip to Spain.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. (Desi nu ştia limba. 2. 5. People were sleeping in the next room.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. am plecat. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. am plecat.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I turned on the light. using either a present participle.

one of the eggs broke. stony. many. 3. bald. 10. a pot of paint fell on my head. wooden. Read the sentences and try to correct them. skinned. Leaving the cinema. 8. eagle. Tied to the post. stricken. empty. lighted. narrow. 233 . open. haired (twice). Riding in the first race.Running into the room. 4. hearted (twice). Barking furiously. 7. He sat down to his own dinner. fishy. 9. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. coloured. I let the dog out of the room. cornered. They found the treasure. Mother punished me for my mistake. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 5. They began quarreling about how to divide it. handed. Dropped by parachute. open. roast. straight.shoulder. covered. red (twice). lion. 6. mown. broad. drunken. eyed (3 times). Reading in bed. 9. three. 2. his horse fell at the last jump. He fed the dog. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. dark. cloth. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. Climbing down the tree. 11. I slammed the door of my room. minded (3 times). 10. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. b) Headed (5 times). 12. a scorpion bit him. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. shaven. Getting out of bed. 8. sharp. quick. Passing under a ladder. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. my hands often get very cold. the sea was tossing the post up and down.

_______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (hunt). Whales. / Many old people . was today taken back to prison. hidden. ________ hiding in a barn. Translate into English: 1. ill-gotten. plank. The escaped prisoner. / Three people. rotten. In the following pairs of sentences. lead. deer. (produce) 3. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. _______ my arm. The film./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (injure). b) grass. _______ by S. image. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (admire) 5. shrunken. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. lamb. (find) 6.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (take) 2. were taken to hospital. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. is expected to be a great hit. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. _______ for a bargain. shorn. head. meat. man.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. _______ for their elegance and precision.Spielberg. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . 7. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (grow) 4. I stared at the canvas for ages. stream. graven. meaning. are sold throughout the world. candle. / Swiss watches. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. wealth. are in grave danger of extinction. the same verb is missing twice.I fell on the ice. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. duty. bounden. eyes.

S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. care le rânduia. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. când strânsă. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. când deschisă. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. 3. şi moi. 4. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . biruit veşnic de o îndoială. 2. deodată sufocat. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Şi sufletul său. trezit.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. le fierbea. întinse. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. păsări tăiate. nesigur şi moale. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. ca şi cum. precum şi foile de plăcintă. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. După câtva timp. Şi. O umbreluţă. le cocea. legume date prin mai multe ape. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori.

function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. The Gerund 9.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.1. Likewise. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. (Dacă vezi. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.2. 236 .Nadina VIŞAN 9.2. According to this criterion. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. crezi. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.

His winning and your losing were both surprising. In that. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. gerunds differ from participles. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.2.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Him winning and you losing was surprising. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Consider the following table. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) 9. That he won and you lost was surprising.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.) b.2.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.

(31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.) 2. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. as being verbal 238 .) b. It was illegal to grow a beard. Consider (32). (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. *It was illegal growing a beard. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.) Unlike participles. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.

) b. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.) 3. It’s no good talking to her. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Participles vs. as offered in the table below: 239 . Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.2.3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) 9.) b.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.

(adverbial of time) 4. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. forms: continuous . passive ones She was crying. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. 2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . 3. perfect.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. (prepositional object clause) 5. babies suck their thumb. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participles may function adverbials: house. + noun] 1.

Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri.

2. eating habits/ eating people. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He was spotted talking to her. 3. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 10. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 7. 14. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 11. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 242 . boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. crying game / crying woman. 15. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 12. 5. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 13. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 6. 12. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 4. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. shooting gallery / shooting star. 9. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 8. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.

Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.3. but the presence of a direct object (i. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.e. a The absence of an of phrase.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.

George’s shooting the attacker. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. In the second situation. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . if we were to go back to our incomplete table. How can we tell? In the first case. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.

/ The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. 245 . very large.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ His sudden coming puzzled her. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. Jim left quietly./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / His coming there puzzled her. the sheriff./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.

we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. Look.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. It has been noticed that. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. However. ING Forms and Infinitives. For instance. for example. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. With the infinitive. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. the meaning is different. whenever we meet an –ing form. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.4.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 .Nadina VIŞAN 9. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.

) . This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. anterior to the verb in the main clause. containing an infinitive. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented. and the most well-known one.g. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. future-oriented value of the infinitive). having left) is infrequently used in English. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.) After looking at this example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. (S-a oprit din mâncat.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.) The first example. On the other hand. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.

Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. recollect.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. which means that they are similar in meaning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.) . having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) As you can see. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).e. i.

In the second example. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. the action is not completed.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. but that’s it.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. the petrol tank is not filled yet. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. dar asta este. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.) . (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.

s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. e) need. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Casa trebuie reparată. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. The house needs repairing. want With [+ human] objects.) wedding.human] objects. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) With [. mean has the sense signify. the event has not happened yet.) b. In the second example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) 250 . (Casa trebuie reparată. The house needs to be repaired.

Croom (try) (follow) one. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. it’s overrated. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. my Lord. (hold) up his pen and (speak). only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. but they went by too quickly. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Lady Corven.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. whereas in the second case. gerund or infinitive.’ ‘In any case. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. my Lord. (take) down her answer. however appearances were against us. I did ask Mr.’ ‘Tell me. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.

d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. licked the envelope with passion. he addressed the note. Then.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. I must go back now. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.’ said Clare.’ 252 . I spend all my time (hunt) a job. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. suddenly. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. I just used the word and they fell. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.

although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. the 253 . The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Participles mainly function as adverbials.5.Unit nine Ing complements 9. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Last but not least. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects.

slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. moving up towards his chest. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. according to the books he read. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. down into God knows where. Then he saw movement at his feet. it 254 .Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. hoping he would see somebody up there. At first. then the noise and the cracking stone. He looked up towards the daylight. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. the enormous split in the earth. It was like a mist. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The two sides were moving apart. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. down. She started coughing. someone looking for survivors. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The sight of the two children. their edges crashing inwards. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. but then he saw it billowing up from below. slowly rising in a swirling motion. covering the girl’s head.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. my dear. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. and sunlight. slanted on to her cheek. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Having a French governess.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. brightening to winter brilliance. She finished what jobs there were. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. 255 . looking idly out over the Temple lawn.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.

veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Ridicându-se. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. într-o joi. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. and then went riding with her in the rain. Vaucher şi cu mine. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . mama mea. ucenicul său necredincios. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. închizând ochii.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. 2. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. cei doi Mamona. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. totul se animă deodată. În urma slugii. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând.

continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. totul mi se părea cunoscut. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. o sărută pe frunte. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. aşezată cu spatele la noi. pe mama mea părând absentă. se duse lânga mama şi. Neclintiţi. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. la mine. dar ştiutoare. auzit şi zadarnic. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. pe Vaucher. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. afară ploua în continuare. 3. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. Şi deodată. privit. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. aplecându-se puţin. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . am ştiut şi cine. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. după cum îi spusese mama.

După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu soba. şi. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. dar. camionul a plecat. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Au coborât din camion încet. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. 5. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. cu tot cu baraca. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 .Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. şi cu masa lungă de scândură.

Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

this would really hurt. and this particularly of late. How much. was unclear to Mitzi. whereas if she went away she would get none. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 11.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. he had been advised. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. because of pity. since I have decided. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 10. How this time was to come. to retire early from my employment. 7. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. without profound questioning. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 12. apart from his distress for parents. 6. Having regard to the date of drafting. in some way. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 3. 2. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 9. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 13. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. and meet it right here at home. and that 263 . I am sorry not to have seen you. he had not yet been able to estimate. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 4. You have been much in my thoughts. 5. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8.

14. / In the end. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / Whenever I visited my aunt. he did not come to see her. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 17. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. please consider his proposition. / Before you go on changing the subject. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. I was made say Grace before every dinner. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 19. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. looking forward had not yet taken place. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. for attending his sister’s wedding. one of the eggs broke. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 264 .Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. even for months. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession.

Clarissa used to think. of all people. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. a little girl. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. of the quick and wiry. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. Essentially. Tony was a child. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. without discovery. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. quite unexpectedly. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. (and there he was. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Instead of which she had married. her recklessness. an open-air person. it was said. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. They rushed into shops. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. 265 . Though much in request before her marriage. She felt as when. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. to end in some awful tragedy. her old friend Hugh. At country houses she had met them of course. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. and it was bound. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. centered in London and themselves. Vulgar men did. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. she said. cotton mills at Manchester. rather than the hefty type. They hated trying on.

It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. she professed. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. (John Galsworthy . Bolnava nu se simtea. cre s-au nascut lent. to keep abreast of the current. si in plus. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. with all its impatience of restraint. De uitat. aveam tot mai 266 . il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. the more she would be torturing him. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. viguros si vesel in felul lui.Over the River) 2. but lying in her bath. nu a facut-o pentru asta. Cind l-a chemat. The closer she allowed him to come to her. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. short of the contacts of love. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Reading many novels. she was uneasy. indeed.Rindurile dvs. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. era un bun sfatuitor. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. astfel. nu puteam sa le uit. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. ii faceau bine. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.

(St. se stie. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. latimea si ascutisul labei. Daca tu. cit mai au de trait. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Ce a iesit. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.) 6. Personal. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. are nevoie. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. (St. nu pricep nimic. pe scaunul lui tare.) 5. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. 4. Banulescu – ibid. Banulescu – ibid.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. vaazut cindva. mi-am zis. o data sau de doua ori. ca si tine. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. (St. poate fi compensata.) 267 . chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. (St. Milionarule. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Banulescu – ibid. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. fa-o. Banulescu – ibid.) 7. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. lungimea picioarelor.

Ernest Richard Atkinson. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. (. for being a renegade. Cambridge. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Who came home from the war.. Translate them. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Could he be blamed. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who was may father. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Arthur Atkinson M. Who told me. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And had a brother killed in the same battle.P. A story-book romance. delivered from the holocaust. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. to Emmanuel College. my grandfather. Who. when I was even younger than you. a wounded soldier.

That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. Fabianism. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. deep-set. Rachel Williams. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. and because – but this is mere speculation. he had already engaged himself? 3. daughter of an ill-paid journalist.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. 4. How 269 . he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. a moody man. to whom. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows.

omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. satul. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. cu taina aceasta.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. 270 . Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a trăit el. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Ion. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a ajuns el. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. la şcoală. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. om mare. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum au tăcut ei. Ion.

singurul lui stăpân. de mama lor. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. greşeli dintr-astea. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Când actriţa. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu .pune totul in discuţie. când voi fi singur. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. împotriva tuturor. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cu sau fără voie. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. L-au derivat cei din teatru. din franţuzeşte. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. 271 . (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6.

5. 6. nevasta-mea. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. ci un sistem de acomodare. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. pe jumătate prezent. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Într-o vreme. privindu-mă în ochi. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. sau ridicole. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. e îndrăgostită de un actor. 3. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. continuând. 272 . ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. tânăr şi frumos şi el. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. de pildă. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. parcă începusem s-o uit. dam buzna peste automobile. provocându-le. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. A devenit palid. Am început. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Tot aşa. traversând. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. 4.

sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. 9. Aş vrea să mă las jos. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. orice s-ar întâmpla. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. şi dacă merg întins. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. Dacă nemţii înaintau. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. fireşte. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. ca un acrobat. şi să nu ameţesc. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. 11. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. iar. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. că nu m-am gândit la asta. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. De altminteri. să merg întins. fără să mă opresc o clipă. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. 8. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. E o problemă. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Am început.

Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. eu am venit sa va intreb. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. nu mai pricepu nimic. nu mai semana. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Acum isi ferea privirea.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 13. 17. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Ilie nu-l asculta. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Auzindu-l. 15. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. 14. Adica tot trecutul. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . la amintiri.Ma. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. de uimire. la fata locului. Uite. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. 16. dar nu-i spuse si de ce.. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. cu mirare. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. In curind. se uita in jos. Greu era din partea asta. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. de la lucruri personale. trebuia sa le spuna. La un moment dat. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. de la proces. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Ii venea greu. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. de la obiecte de pret. dar nu se mai putea. 274 . dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu.. la carti.

Aici era ceva. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain.Ce sa fac. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. asa cum facuse pina acum.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Nu era nevoie. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. dar. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . There was even 275 . . Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. apoi se uitau la Ilie. cum zicea Anghel. 20. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Zimbea siret. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. se indeparta nepasator. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». 19. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. vorbe asa si-asa. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. which was part of his rich outfit.

It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. conversationally. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room.Miller at her hotel. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. and to declare that they needn’t mind her.Nadina VIŞAN relief.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. She was one 276 . He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. at least. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. on this occasion. He walked a long time. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. rude woman. for the instant. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. 5. 4. resuming her walk. a simplification. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. the young lady. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. to take his way home on foot. asked for Mrs. going astray. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He felt then. 3. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. gave an exclamation. to admit that she was a proud. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. But Daisy. to move fast. paying no attention. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence.

smiling and chattering. and wondering what the deuce he meant. 8. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. 6. as it were. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. uncomfortably. She appeared. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. make a point. making Paul stop and look at her. while residing abroad. often. indeed. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. Her daughter. in radiant loveliness. 7.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. as text book. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. in their own phrase. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. of studying European society.Walker. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. He left me musing. as to projected changes. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . She rustled forward. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. on the other hand. Advising with me. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno.

and perceived that it must be something important. though E. H. 11. 10. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. with his humorous density. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. could see he was remarkable. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. wondered what they were talking about. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. and acute too. was immensely struck with him.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. The agent became a very familiar type to H.’ 278 . and. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. which was deliberate. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. H.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. while Paul. H. was only half satisfied with this. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. not seeing. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. or at any rate not heeding. 9.

he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 13. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. But she gave him no chance. not glancing at him for a moment. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. had the power to chain his sympathy. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. that the haunting wonder which now. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. appeared to fill his whole childhood. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. which was very copious. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . H. 15. as he looked back. 14. why his question had broken out at that particular moment.

and there were others. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. dragging herself on her knees. ironically reserved. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. H. disheveled and distracted. and to H. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. proudly. The whole establishment. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. 18. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. 17. It was very possible she was capricious. that she must be on the contrary. where the Pearl of Paraguay. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. as a general thing. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. At the theatre. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. yet 280 . from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. 16.

Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. had blown a certain chill. didn’t mind. No one ever listens to her. young men were invited. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 3. on which the damp breath of the streets. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. It came over H. 19. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. and lurking within this nebulous design. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 2. would always be more or less irritating. with the poor. 281 . 20. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. Their mistakes and illusions. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. *Old. H./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction.

I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have.Nadina VIŞAN 4./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 5. striding like a Spartan maid. 9. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. I was definitely going to be sick. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Rachel. her shining blue feet twinkling. 8. 12. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. slipped on some steps. 6. Either John or he * have got to give in. walking quickly. 7. I blundered by. 11. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 10. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. “Oh. I walked fast. 282 . c) When I saw her sitting there. her arms held out. I saw her as a vision.

The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.

but that we saw and pitied. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. if they were poor. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. And then I ventured to add that. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 2. 3. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. which was really alarming. The old women spoke no English. 5. 4. could cook my meals. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. where my servant.

Constituents: how much. Constituents: Margaret.apart from his distress = apart from. 285 . was anxious. this. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. etc. Munt. had not been able to estimate. on Saturday. would really hurt. on a house. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. apart form his distress for parents.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. he had not yet been able to estimate. apart from his distress for parents. to settle. this would really hurt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. before they left town. etc. distress. was informed. etc.g. How much. he. to pay their annual visit. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. was anxious = was + anxious. Constituents: He. at noon. his.g.

/ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 . second clause is non-assertive. interrogative. don’t bother her.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – first clause is an ifclause. Second clause is an imperative. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE .semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – non-assertive. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to)..syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. it is assertive./ She finally admitted. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. which context is non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. and is non-assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – non-assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. which is not assertive. negative. interrogative. listen to this. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.. / If you like her. negative/ Come with me. – comparison. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first clause is non-assertive.

he was hardly pleased. not even this thing. the two brothers dared to protest./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ He was smart enough. – I like somebody else. only irresolute. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. everybody used to travel by coach. but nothing out of the ordinary. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / He wasn’t unusually bright. – someone did that./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. –double negation cancellation. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ Not long ago. but it wasn’t them./ He was exceptionally cunning. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. – someone hates animals./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ They weren’t really confused. / You have never met 287 . / She does not hate animals. but not more than she does others. – they told the truth to somebody else. / She does like John. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / Not really convinced by what the had heard.but to someone else. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. but it isn’t Susan. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ Hardly interested in the conference. / They didn’t leave./ When he learned the news. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. not even when it’s quiet around.

negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. did they? / No problems were caused after all. were they? / This boy is no good. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. – I cannot look him in the eye. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. – negative insertion. / This is hardly the 288 .negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.. not even when you were very young. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.. / Should they not have told her the truth. not even in my dreams.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. they go skiing in the mountains. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.Nadina VIŞAN her.... not even part of it? / Not infrequently. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.

/ One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – Not many people came to see her. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. Activity 8 I shall never. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. never trust a man again. – Almost nobody liked him. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.. / I seldom look at her like that..Never before did anything like that happen in our street. but she also lent him a car. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – I almost never look at those paintings.Never shall I trust a man again. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / Hardly anybody liked him. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – I don’t often look at her like that./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / Few people came to see her. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – I never see her.. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. when we started our holiday./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.

– I didn’t think I had to do it myself. –At no time did we leave the office. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / They say he once had someone very close. – They don’t believe she likes them. – 290 . / They believe she does not like them. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ Well. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. you can still do something about it. – They say he never had anyone very close. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – I don’t expect he will come here again. you can’t do anything about it any more. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself./ I somewhat like his proposal. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / He reckoned he would not win her over. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Come on. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / She could rely on nobody but him.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – Come on. – Only on this man could she rely. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim./ I expect he won’t come here again. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime.. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Don’t worry. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.I don’t like his proposal at all. / You must on no account touch this machinery.

291 . / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ I can understand all of these ten English words. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. / She hardly ever comes here./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Bob is still living at that address. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. either. / You needn’t send her anything. / You must pay that fine. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. –Alice still lives here. / Well.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. too. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You must be telling lies. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – She almost always comes here./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – You should send her something. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – You can’t be telling lies./ Peter knows some English and so does John./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences..

I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ They say this Ph. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. give me a hand./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ 292 ./ Zis si facut. I haven’t seen her in years./ I don’t know why she’s crying. He didn’t move a muscle./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ I don’t know a thing about her. / Don’t go on believing him. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. It’s no wonder./ You look so tired today. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Norocul la noroc trage. to any of us./ He’s a happy man. Oh. / Nu chema necazul asuprati.D./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. ever since I got this ulcer. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. / Please. / He can’t have done a thing like that. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ He was a tough man. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ E un baiat de zahar. / Jim is so brave. I haven’t done anything./ Have they rung the bell? No. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Nimic de facut.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. has never studied anywhere./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. He isn’t that smart. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Nobody told us a thing. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. not yet./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. e un magar./ You took his leaving you very hard. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket.

’/ Deloc descurajat. without too much determination. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. I had never had the opportunity to prove.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. 293 . nothing.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . for I thought this threatening./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. no story. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. no memory. slowly.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze.’ ‘Nici o problema. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. I hadn’t really expected miracles. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. with the same needs they had./ Nu-i nici un deranj. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . thrown out. parasi camera. feebly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. We had nothing in common. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. that I was a decent man. one way or another.

I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. things you do any moment. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. by coming here to the monastery. not as we would like it to be or some other way. on the front seat. he was sitting beside me.. We have to judge it as it is. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. or if you understood what I meant. let alone irritable. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. clear or confusing. You really made me mad. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. it’s not words. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. I’d be so happy if it were so. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. bad. good. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. • It was my turn to say something. Radu had calmed down. It’s not made up of theories and the like. Your judgement is false. I admit. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. Unfortunately. he immediately answered me patronizingly. to say the least. the only 294 . I was sleepy and tired. that’s what the world is about. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. Not for a moment had I thought that. your story. but facts. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B.

Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. it’s your problem. or call the respect of others. precious words. you can go to Ursu’s. you do as you think fit.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. me. 295 . hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. just to please myself. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. too? A gun is power. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. Anyway. and if you like. it solves troubles. Look. I won’t interfere. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. no matter how huge they are. But I was just wondering. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. But what about you and Melania. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. or you are lying hidden. soon we’ll be in town. behind these big. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. although it was a difficult thing to do. • So. either. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. fear might be hiding. me. clears your way. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. keep it squeaky clean. to fight. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. keep your conscience clean: you have one. we are leaving. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. and an inability to act. as Baciu would have us be. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. it’s yours. did you ever step up front.

correct 3. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . firmly determined not to answer immediately. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . or some other woman. – incorrect. has not arrived yet – double negation. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. because before is a positive polarity item 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. correlatives are mixed 2. will he?. But it was not because I had no answer to give..incorrect. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.. .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. the sentence is incorrect 3.Negative attraction b) 1. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. . has yet arrived -correct 2. -correct 3.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . The villagers were not very religious.Negative incorporation 296 . but they gradually got used to it.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. as soon as he delivered it.

N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. much less ((NPI) for her. Her stillness. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. too troubled. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Avea sufletul prea obosit. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Nu putea să se mişte. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. nu era 297 . not happy at all (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. she couldn’t marry him. yet.) Însă era cam târziu. His spirit was too tired. prea răscolit.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. (ibid. (ibid. b) But it was rather (API) late. either (NPI). Ştia că are dreptate. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. her lack of motion would have to do (API).

if anything (NPI). arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. and not a little unsteadily. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. şi destul de hotărât. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. (Salman Rushdie. his heart was beating fast.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. e) At length. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. she looked younger than ever (NPI). 298 . The Satanic Verses.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). se îndreptă spre paravan. (ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid. inima îi batea năvalnic. he made his way to the screen.

îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. care if the school were willing to treat him. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. and probably an administrative headache as well.) C.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. i) What did C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. (ibid. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). He wrote to his father refusing the offer. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. 299 . but his father would have none of it (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. the gift was useless. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. h) C. Ce-i pasă lui C. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. The point was. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Home receded from the prodigal son. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.

300 . correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. . correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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all godfearing husbands and fathers. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. keep Condrat away from her. to make them lust after her. yes.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. and then what do you 308 . but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. now she was chatty. do you really think that this vixen. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Fenia. Luca Horobet. she didn’t wear a ring. Vica. you are in enough trouble as it is. Fenia. she likes to entrance them. She has an eye for gentle men. Chizlinski. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. the bitch. they were. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. 2. Stavre Paici. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. “Now.

too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. what’s her name. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . It even takes him a while to go to the window. her hair pinned with blue combs. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. G. ankle-long flowered calico. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. The mullah. a seventy-eight year old lad.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. 4. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. dragging his feet listlessly. the minister of Tartars and Turks. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. with a railway station and a mosque. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. 3. He got him out of his mosque. have a girlfriend.

But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.

– elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . and I passed. our respective examinations. – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. yellow and blue.. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.COORDINATION Activity 2 1.. Her pet kitten is black and white.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John and Mary are the newly married couple.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. John and Mary are ready. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.) 9.phrasal coordination (in this case.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination 2. Our flag is red. John is ready and Mary is ready. – sentence coordination 7.

7. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. that method and those. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. and even tennis. 9. 5. your proposal and his. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 8. We can and will demand payment. 6. Activity 4 1.) Joan plays many games. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. much satisfaction or little 312 . her son and others. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). plays football. many guest or few. her idea and John’s. 10.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 3. 2. but John does not play football. but not John. Activity 5 This book and the other. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane.

Spick and span 9. He snapped at him and slapped him. High and low 2.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. To and fro 15. The facts and figures 3. 4. Thick and thin 11. but not simple. (I have always fought for progress and always will. magazines are only for children. Bread and butter 16. Pros and cons 4. 8. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Law and order 8. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. 3.) 6. Over and above 13. Ups and downs 6. Activity 8 1. Touch and go 10. Life and soul 5. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. 5. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Safe and sound 313 . Wear and tear 12. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. etc. Swings and roundabouts 7. Few and far between 14. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. 7. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He read.

4. 6. 6. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. My son and heir is safe. 4. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Symmetric 21. – symmetric. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – symmetric. Either the child or the parents are to blame. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 10. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 2. 1. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 5. My son and daughter are twins. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 3.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 2. – asymmetric 18. 5.. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 3. – symmetric. 9. 8. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. Symmetric 13. exclusive 15. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric 2. Cathy and David have arrived. Asymmetric 20. b. Asymmetric 19. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 7. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 9. – similar situation 9. exclusive 17. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 10. 314 . 8. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – symmetric 10. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. inclusive 16. 7.symmetric 11.

2. There are doctors and doctors. 14. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 12. 7. clothes and all. No drinking and driving. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Her husband is long dead and buried. it was too small.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. (2) 1. 11. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. Brother or no brother. 15. 9. 5. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. I’ll still finish this paper. By hook or by crook. Jim thought it over for a while. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 3. He went to bed. They came to me. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. He’s neither fish. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. nor fowl. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 4. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. thanks for asking. 2. Not only should you rest 315 . Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 8. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 6. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 10. We’ll stick together. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. ‘Madam. 3. for better or worse. Should he pour water in the basin.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking.

and she had this idea to ask Mrs. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. it would work out fine. as she always does. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Whatever she tried her hand at. their common ground. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. Her first husband had been a professor.Nadina VIŞAN assured. but he’d come out a cripple. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. an important man. without mentioning financial matters. 2. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. stop dead in his tracks. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. tense with concentration. And. You know. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. tense like a bow. 316 . at equal intervals. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again.’ (3) 1. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. he’d leap high. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. They hadn’t kept him there too long. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. what’s its name. she started doing a great job. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. and then. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. so he could leap in pursuit. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. she knows for sure. and she listens to him. just like when he was thirty. but she blinks in approval. both dead and buried. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. This. So she’ll listen to him. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. he starts lecturing her about life and things. What do you know? The moment Mrs.

is aware. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. functioning as an object (direct). – obligatory elements: she.subordinate.subordinate. looked. came. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . whomever wanted to listen. you. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days .THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness .subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . told. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as a modifier 3.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . she looked at me sadly. – she. about her problems at home After I told her the story.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . cannot tell. – she. functioning as an adjunct 2. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – she.subordinate. – Susan.

that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that you are choosing exile .Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that we should. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate. remove our home yet again .subordinate.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age.complement b) 1.

complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. outbuildings. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. direct object. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. a barn. a house. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object b) to dry it – complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. but no idea – relative that complement.

direct object/ to write that tale – complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. (…) He dashed back. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me .A few days before the war. without straightening her back. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. When Anton put the sickle down. sickle in hand. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. (…) ‘Well. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. But other people. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long.wh complement. Activity 5 1. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. staring at each other. subject/ to do such again – complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done.

2. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. Why! He was not of two minds. First. rather than a real threat. 3. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Only he had Ana to think of. Not even at this point. or other more hidden means. For no bold man really falters. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. you need courage even for this small thing. but also his sharp nose. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. that was for sure. or if he does. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. as if they were at his beck and call. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. but he doesn’t spurn either. he will turn back and no longer be daring. 321 .Key To Chapter Five Practice already. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. while they spoke from miles away. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. while on other occasions he would show caution. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Ana could not stand a trip now.

322 . But it was not ok.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. they would ruin the arrangement. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. 4. without really knowing why. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. In fact. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. it was the women. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. and on Monday followed another feast). and when things didn’t go as planned. And here’s how this first day looked. to see some mutual friends. come on. Twice did we get in the car. by the cars of some of us. So. in Odobesti. under the silliest of pretexts. are we getting off again? What is wrong. he had postponed writing back. although he could have said so earlier. and twice we were requested to get out. We were going to drive to a vineyard. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply.

7. You couldn’t join the party. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. like their teacher. which was silly of him. The students like their teacher. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 5. all of whom would answer to his questions. 3.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 6. 10.restrictive 4.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1.She came to London where I went too. Activity 3 1. The students. 9. 4. 3. 6. where I spent my youth . 8.restrictive 2. He told her the secret. 4. I bought Jim a book that he liked.restrictive 6. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 7. 10. 5. who was just passing by. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. most of whom were from England. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 2. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. where I least expected 323 . Activity 2 1. which was a pity. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. on which this occurred . any of whom would answer to questions.free 8. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. why they all left . 8. John told his friend a story about the king. when we first met . 11. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo.restrictive 7. This is my husband whom I love very much. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. These are people who we cannot tell much about.

Who . when . 3. 4.free Activity 4 1. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.subject 9. Activity 5 1. 2. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. 6. Where .Nadina VIŞAN . Which – subject 4.adjunct 5. who think so highly of yourselves. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.adjunct 6. Of all the persons there. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. When . the prince chose Cinderella.restrictive 10. Why . This isn’t the Bucharest I know. 5. what their parents made them. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. was very displeased with the situation. What Inman remembered – subject. where – predicative 7. Where he was from – adjunct. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .When Ada remarked – adjunct.adjunct 3. come up front. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. I. where we talk money – predicative.adjunct 10. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. who cannot say a word. Where . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. What – direct object 2. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. What I’m saying – subject. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. You. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. 7.subject 8.adjunct 11. however sad .free 9. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. which .

whom is ungrammatical due to the [. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. what little she knew – direct object. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how .adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical due to the[.attribute 12. whatever – predicative 13. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. which requires an accusative form. what .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .

whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. in his turn. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. having changed quite a number of jobs. got married and had a daughter. whose great-grandfather. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. due to its invariable character. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who. but whose second cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. a rather tiny looking man. a sergeant.

no 5.yes 10. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes 7. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. with deletion of the noun friends].obligatory 4. . . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no pied piping 327 . were now all gone. – no 9.obligatory 3. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. . – no 4. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – obligatory pied piping 2. – yes 2.yes 3. . the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. was now complete. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. . His friends. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. he rarely saw now. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. This story.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. he requested that the public be excluded. – yes 6. has been troubling them forever. Irene. no easy answers to which could be offered.yes Activity 9 1. – no pied piping 5. The problem of safe transportation. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. – yes.His father’s friends. . . In the interest of public decency.

I am to be envied. For all the four children. Everything was ending. irrespective of age and nature. 6. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. I did so. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. Only an ugly endless dream remained. where two teams battled every day… 5. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. 328 . In other people’s opinion. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. For twenty years.and he couldn’t thank me enough. or as of a vast arena. 4. 8. 7. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . yours. 2. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. Nelu. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. for instance. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. the third born son. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly.

staring aimlessly. from MR street. leaving streets and houses behind. where from Marta was coming too. 329 . He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H.R. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 16. which was why he saw Dora very far away. All that you have read is rubbish.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. although she was standing quite close to him. 15. since I don’t really know which my true life is. 14. 17. You are newly arrived here. 12. she said. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. He was suffering from dizziness. 13. on Icoanei street. Behind them. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 11. Let me tell you my last conclusion. barely glittering in the distance. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 10. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. the tram was rattling along.

who only lived once in this world. had a huge house in Bucharest. in her pursuits. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. or the many Egyptian dynasties. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. likes and dislikes. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 22. From the vantage point I was in. had a personal style in clothes. 330 . While we were poor. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. after the car was fixed. While some trees are still green. If he had hit me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. But. day by day. I don’t know what might have happened. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. 23. But for me. So. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. 20. or the clash of stars above. 21. I could see my woman falling away from me. which I did not posses. who prompted everyone on the street. 24. so optimistic and composed? 19. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. She was a woman of means.

– extraposed. – extraposed. object 6. – questionable. – impossible 7. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – extraposed. 8. 2. direct object 10. for pragmatic reasons 5. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. subject 4. subject 2. subject 7. 331 .It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. – extraposed. direct object 3. – extraposed. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. It will be soon announced when you can leave.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. subject 9. 3. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. prepositional object 11. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . It so happens that I know the secret cipher. subject 8. 6. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – unextraposed. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. object 5. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. – the same as 3. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It was suggested that they should meet the President.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.

– the same as 12. I guess it that he will come back. same as 12. same as 12. 10. – impossible. 15. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. a bit too intricate 5.. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 18. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – incorrect. tense influences the 332 . . – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. but pragmatically impossible 4. . Activity 3: 1. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. although a bit intricate 2. 17.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – impossible. . 9. but pragmatically impossible 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible.grammatical. 14. – impossible 11. – grammatical. idiomatic formula 16. – impossible. They never expected it that he would come back. same as 12. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. It is nice to meet you.incorrect. It is no use trying to convince her. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – correct 2. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – grammatical.grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use.correct 4. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – same as 12. – grammatical. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.

‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can.’ 4. 2. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. in the pits on the road. behind gates. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.incorrect. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast.’ Lionel says. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. 333 . thus. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. (Not always. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. under bridges. 5. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. – correct 6. though. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. in the ditch. 3. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.

/ ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. – the first sentence is the better of the two. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. without trying to protest too much. Activity 7 1. 2. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return.Nadina VIŞAN 6. 3. 7. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. since the 334 . / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. It is less ambiguous than the first. – the second sentence is questionable. because it is less ambiguous. 8. By saying this. 4. who had just returned from Africa. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations.

6. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. 8. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 5. extraposition is obligatory here./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 335 . /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – both sentences are grammatical. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 7. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. so there is no need for extraposition. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. The second and third sentences are grammatical.

ibid. . – relative 3. – complement 2. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – prepositional object.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. . (Iris Murdoch. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. .We discovered that our map has disappeared. for better or worse. – direct object.prepositional object. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. they were chained to each other forever. coordinated. (Iris Murdoch. – complement that clause. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. required by deverbal noun 336 . – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – complement 5. The idea that he had had earned him good money.) complement that clauses.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – adverbial of sequence/result.) adverbial of sequence/result. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.relative Activity 9 1. – subject. – relative 5. ibid. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.complement 4. . required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.

f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . that deletion is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. that they were not too late to leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that is obligatory. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. you want me to believe. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.

But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. b. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. c. sequence of tenses is observed 4. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – both sentences are grammatical. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – grammatical sentences. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie.

present perfect instead of past perfect. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. present instead of simple past. While the first is possible because of the generalization. cenuşii şi albe. ciocârlii şi şoimi. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. hawk. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. – generalization on habits of birds. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. lark. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. geese both grey and white. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. prepeliţe. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. quail.

The generic present is used in this case. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lipsa de vanitate. She admired their keenness of wit. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. slyness in a fight. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. lack of pridefulness. love of practical jokes. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Crows will relish what presents itself. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei.

Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. […] During the latter stages of the tale. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Murise în picioare. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. se ridicase în picioare. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. tragică şi eroică. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. he claimed. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. the young officer. But as the battle raged around them. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. in the very act of expiring. He had fought hard through the war.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. He died erect. El căzuse pe spate. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. tânărul ofiţer. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze.

they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. they gathered around my desk. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. Activity 13 1. around seventeen or eighteen years old. When the boys saw that mother had left. 2. Now here he stood jailed.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. he closed the album. One of them. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. And they might just hang him. war hero though he was. deşi era erou de război. But when he reached me. mother went home and I was left alone. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. susţinea el. to finish my drawing. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. în închisoare. They all had their hands in their pockets. Acum stătea aici. When he saw me. 342 . He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. How can I explain? I just felt shy. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). I realized I could not tell him the big news. A short while later. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Luptase din răsputeri în război. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. the oldest. – similar situation to the one under (c). nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen.

for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand.’ 5. or fear his rage. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. All his senses were now keen. for her vineyard. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. 6. or if she would do so again. as if he had been drunk. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. brightly and closely. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently.’ Mr. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. 4. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.

Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. claiming you had no ambition for the future. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. thinking of him. 11. The last time when we met here you scared me. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. 10. And if things were so. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 9. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. 7.Nadina VIŞAN to him. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 8. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal.

13. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. more urgently than ever. without putting anything in a note. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 14. 12. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . which secretly drove him. where he would run to confess everything. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. towards Jurubita. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. namely the impatience of this young man. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. We either sell them or we don’t. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned.

346 .ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 3. grammatical 6. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.simple infinitive.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. / He had Mary clean her room. . / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. – simple infinitive. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 9. . grammatical 2. grammatical 7. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. – infinitive continuous.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – simple infinitive. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.. grammatical 5. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / they saw her leave. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. grammatical 10. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. – infinitive continuous.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical. – perfect infinitive.

– Test: They convinced her. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ She promised him PRO to leave. \ I allowed [them to come. Test: *They would have hated her. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. – Test: She promised him. you need to try harder. / He is believed to have known her 347 . \ I would love [ them to come. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. – Test: They tempted him. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: *She wanted him. Test: *I allowed them. Test: *I would love them. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They asked her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / I want to never see you again.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *They did not wish her. / It is not too late for him to learn. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. Test: * I would like people.

obligatory subject control verb 348 . / Oh. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / He is young enough to start again.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He is easy to talk to. . / He is easy to live with.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. .Nadina VIŞAN for years. / I want you to leave my house. / I have a word to tell you. / To make a long story short. . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. . to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. not to miss the train. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / He is hard to stand. I don’t need you or your services. Activity 6 Oh. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.

In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Harold. 1 – PRO-to. he didn’t envy those above it. Subject. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Subject. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. so that we might get to the future and have done. the herd instinct was very strong in him. they had depressed and fuddled him. Both seemed to him a little unreal. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. If he himself was out of spirits. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].Accusative + Infinitive.to. 1 – PRO. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Predicative 4 . who wasn’t used to men with moods. He suspected hostility at once. 1] A little crossly.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 349 . he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.

more believable than evidence itself. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. object 2 – PRO –to. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. But when we need to comfort others. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. excitedly. 1 – PRO-to. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. true. more meaningful. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. And you might also be hit and humiliated. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. e) When two persons. f) The passing time is important. PRO controlled by ‘she’. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘him’. slowly. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. man and woman. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. 350 . PRO controlled by ‘me’. c) Unlike plane trips. we seem to forget about our own pain.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. One day. PRO controlled by ‘she’. direct object 3 – PRO –to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. or better said. cautiously.

even when this love is hurried. I am indeed praising my own merits. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. Mrs. for instance. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. That is it. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. as he had appeared to him in the rain. h) I want us to go. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. to live only with your coughing. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. while swearing to change my way of life. Stroescu. my wish being only to please and serve. S. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. tickled by the trickles of sweat. which he had already forgotten.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. Moroi says heavily. or their talk that night. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. in the street. not to want to wipe it off. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. If it was summer. He had not been able to leave Dr. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. And I would care for this man so deeply. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. k) With this considerable dowry. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. all down our neck. that you are young. or. 351 . You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. And to actually start to believe you are so. not even those parts where he had been half-right.

If you will have what I can give you. met by squalor and terrible smells. or to speak so fast. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. no matter what. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. haphazardly. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. poor Muti. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). she was suddenly so shocked. every Bucharester knows it.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. 352 . as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. ready to submit to any demand. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. here I am with all of my own. Well. for that’s the door people get off by.

/ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. with its lips drawn back. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother./ Don’t keep him waiting./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / They found it thrown in a corner.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. badly beaten and bloodied. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ He went to have a tooth pulled. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ She sent him shopping. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . – Attributive past participle. 353 . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.

/ Running into the room.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. having been uprooted by the gale. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1.Running into the room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I slammed the door of my room. they began quarreling about how to divide it. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Activity 4 1.She didn’t want to hear the story again. – As she was running into the room. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 10. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. 6. 8. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. 2. Finding the treasure. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 7. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Accusative + present participle / In any case. The tree had fallen across the road. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having fed the dog. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 9. 3. he sat down to his own dinner. Attributive present participle. I was astonished at what I saw. 5. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. having heard it all before. Sleeping in the next room. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. a rug caught her foot and she fell. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – Attributive present participle. Turning on the light. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.

the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As he was riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. a pot of paint fell on my head. the sea was tossing the post up and down. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. I often get very cold hands. his horse fell at the last jump. 2. I let it out of the room. / Climbing down the tree. the sea was tossing it up and down. three-coloured. wooden-headed. I let the dog out of the room. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. broad-shouldered. 9. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 5. Riding in the first race. – As he was getting out of bed. 4. sharp-eyed/minded. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was bit by a scorpion. his horse fell at the last jump. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. many-coloured. Passing under a ladder. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. empty-headed. my hands often get very cold./ Reading in bed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 12. lion-hearted. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 8. a pot of paint fell on my head. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 11. Reading in bed. Tied to the post. he broke one of the eggs. a scorpion bit him. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 355 . / Getting out of bed. Dropped by parachute. – As he left the cinema. one of the eggs broke. Barking furiously. bald-headed. – As he was climbing down the tree. 3. one of the eggs broke. stony-hearted. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 7. 10. – When I read in bed. – As he was tied to the post. red-handed. open-minded. cloth-covered.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. Getting out of bed. Leaving the cinema. narrow-minded. my hands often get very cold. – As the dog was barking furiously. – As I was passing under a ladder. a scorpion bit him. Activity 5 Fair-haired. fishy-eyed. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. 6.

are in grave danger of extinction. mown grass. graven image.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. open-hearted. lighted candle. bounden duty. (grow) 4./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. were taken to hospital. shaven head. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (produce) 3. (injure). Activity 8 1. I stared at the canvas for ages. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. shrunken stream. drunken man. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (hunt). found hiding in a barn. 7. 356 . hunting for a bargain. (find) 6. / Swiss watches. straight-shouldered. is expected to be a great hit. (admire) 5. produced by S. shorn lamb. Whales. injuring my arm. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. hidden meaning. roast meat. ill-gotten wealth. The escaped prisoner. dark-skinned. Activity 7 1. / Many old people. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. stricken deer. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. eagle-eyed. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. The film. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. injured when their car crashed on the M1. rotten plank. are sold throughout the world. admired for their elegance and precision. sunken eyes.I fell on the ice. / Three people. was today taken back to prison.Spielberg. (take) 2.

barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. and moreover. 3. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. now taken down. 2. bake them. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the carved chicken. And his soul. boil them. 357 . a strange thrill shot through Bubi. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. seeking some promised land. the twice rinsed vegetables. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. So. he were struggling for breath. A parasol. sprinkled with sticky flour.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. its scales scraped off by the knife. 4. thrown in the pots. hovering uncertain and soft. suddenly suffocated. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. After a while. in charge of his house and lands. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. He felt close to his father. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. flat and soft. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. the fish. he started peering anxiously around as if. streaked with yellow veins of fat. then put up. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. and the puffed pastry beds. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. yet left them room to sway free.

/ The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. – participle (attribute) 2.gerund 5. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – Accusative + participle 3. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. – gerund (subject) 4./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. he left the store without buying a thing./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. Activity 10 1. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . . / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / I am sorry for being so late. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea.

possessive ING (predicative) 7. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He was spotted talking to her. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11.possessive ING (direct object) 9. . attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. 8. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – gerund (attribute. – Nominative + participle 13. preceded by preposition). – gerund (prepositional object) 15.participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs.

but they went by too quickly.’ ‘Tell me. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. adjective. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – verbal noun (has adjective). – gerund or verbal noun. hold up his pen and speak. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. Lady Corven.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.verbal noun (has determiner. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. take down her answer. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. my Lord. however appearances were against us. – gerund (full..’ 360 . has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. I did ask Mr. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – verbal noun (has determiner. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. adjective. Croom to try to follow one. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.

’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ said Clare.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and went out to post it himself. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. ‘I do hate asking for things. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. I must go back now. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. Then. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. suddenly. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I spend all my time hunting a job. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow.’ said Clare.’ 361 . And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. it’s overrated.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. I just used the word and they fell. he addressed the note. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. licked the envelope with passion. my Lord.

… which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute. village which is burning). The collapsing shops (participle. At first. then the noise and the cracking stone. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. direct object). but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute. He looked up towards the daylight. the enormous split in the earth. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. someone looking for survivors (participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. First the crack snaking (half gerund. slowly rising (participle. attribute). direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. elliptical here. after verb of perception. (participle. adverbial of time. hoping (participle. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. down. following the verb ‘remember’. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. functions as direct object) and then the ground. It was like a mist.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. The sight of the two children. down into God knows where. gerund. attribute) in a swirling motion. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. The two sides were moving apart. the very earth opening up (half gerund. …while their edges were crashing inwards). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. slightly 362 . attribute). direct object) towards him. attribute. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. direct object) from below. attribute.

one. i. my dear. moving up (participle.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. direct object). adverbial of reason). prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. etc.). according to the books he read. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has ‘of’ phrase). early. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. covering (participle. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. you. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. the chief occupation of the people of these islands.e. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.

So. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. Vaucher and I. She finished what jobs there were. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. we were all gathered in that room. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) to winter brilliance. adverbial of manner). the two Mamonas. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. reluctant or not. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. brightening (participle. for Dornford was busy on an important case. and everything got suddenly animated. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of manner). waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. Standing up. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. examining (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. Young Mamona left the room without a word. slanted on to her cheek. a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. mother. preceded by preposition. and not only in my imagination or theirs.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. preceded by preposition. and sunlight. and then went riding (participle. which beckoned to 364 . And. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) stopped dead. adverbial of reason). and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips.

his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. in the year 1812. for anyway. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. about concentrating all our resources. each carrying a wooden box. without taking his sack off his shoulders. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. And. So when Old Mamona came in. and to Young Mamona. Not so unimaginable though. I knew who it would be. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. he found us sitting each in his place. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. 4. Vaucher might have known that too. as mother had ordered him. closing my eyes. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. who knows. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. his disloyal apprentice. and smelling so hard of rain. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. sitting in his puddle. too. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . He cast us a swift glance. to Vaucher. her back towards us. he looked like someone who did. kissed her forehead. 3. Entering our house on a Thursday. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . 2. let alone greet us or say something. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. to me. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. and ended his life in the year 1821. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. killed by Young Mamona. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. about sparing no effort. he went to mother and. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. And then. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. bending a little.

ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. as an afterthought. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. wood pile. But. 5. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. futile. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. of taking notes and rewriting them. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. each pausing before jumping down. And suddenly. And all around them was the great field 366 . one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. They got off the truck slowly. everything seemed familiar. stove. barrack. already seen and heard. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. long board table. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them.

The next thing was to go to the well. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. 367 . They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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