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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
de rezolvări. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.
7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
Constituent Phrase 1. Auxiliary verbs 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.1. Complementary distribution .Contents: 8 220.127.116.11. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.5. Insertion 1.6.
if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. very much. that is sequences fragmented at random.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Syntactic. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. her mother. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. For instance. Consequently.1. loves. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. They are just strings. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. 1. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 .2. sequences of the kind her mother very. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Semantic.
semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. an order given to an interlocutor).4. should. (Mi-a spus secretul. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.) 10 . we are dealing with a directive (i. be). 1.3. must. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. 1.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).e. etc.
Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret.5. an ‘empty’ there subject.) 1. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . This element cannot appear in any kind of context. live. Consider. etc. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. 1. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.6. for instance. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.
semantic. this would really hurt. using your own examples: insertion. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. he had not yet been able to estimate. both (8) and (9) are correct structures.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much. 12 . whereas (7) is not. syntactic. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. Pratice Define and illustrate. distribution. pragmatic. Munt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. as the star indicates. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs.
13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.2. Tests for negativity 2.3. Key terms .1. Polarity Items 2. Conclusion. Negative vs. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.5. Instances of negation 18.104.22.168. Full – local negation 2. affirmative sentences.6. Key terms 2.
The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .Declarative vs.2. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .) is said to be an assertion. This example can be compared to: (2)a.) b.Positive vs. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. in the sense that it states something. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Negative . in that they do not state anything. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Consequently. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. it asserts something. For instance. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.
other (if –clauses.g.Nadina VIŞAN ./ We didn’t come here just to talk. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . / She finally admitted. don’t bother her.interrogative (e.positive sentence . comparison. / Come with me.g. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive and declarative secret./ She can’t wait to read that book. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.non-assertion .negative (e.assertion .) ./ If you like her.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. They told her the ( e. listen to this. 16 . Did they tell her the secret? ) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.g.) ./ Don’t do that. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.
For example. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. John is not happy.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Susan dislikes her friends.) 17 . (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the negative word not is not present there. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.) b. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. I met a girl named Susan.) b. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Susan doesn’t like her friends. (John e nefericit. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. John is unhappy. word negation.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (Nu demult. In the case of the sentences under (4). There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.3. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.
We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. since the negative word not is present inside them. She was not an unattractive woman. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) b. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. these sentences look negative. more precisely the phrase it is part of.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. but their meaning tells us a different story. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. In other words. I was not a little worried. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. He was not without intelligence. where the word 18 . just like in the case of word negation. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) c.
/ I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. semantic negation. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / Când a aflat vestea. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. without intelligence. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive.e. Translate the following sentences into English. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs.
/ Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Era el destul de isteţ.4. dar nu neobişnuit. dar nu în mod special. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. 2. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. ci doar indecişi.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat.
(Nu m-am dus acolo. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. such as do insertion. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.). (M-am dus acolo.1. (see subsection 1. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) (9) I didn’t go there. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. For instance. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. etc. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).
since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. 22 . / She does not hate animals.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. incorrect. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan did not get married to Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends./ They didn’t leave. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / We don’t come here often.
which does not happen in the case of (18). Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. 3.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. *not even the smart ones. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which is ungrammatical. *and neither do they like her.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. not even the smart ones. * and they don’t like her either. and they don’t like her either. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Example (14) is syntactically negative. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 4. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. even the smart ones. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. .Unit two Sentence negation 2.
/ Not always a witty interlocutor. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / Few of them stayed behind. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / A few of them stayed behind. / They caused us no problems.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / This boy is no good. / No problems were caused after all. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . they go skiing in the mountains. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. In conclusion. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. 2. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / You have never met her. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.5.
Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-a venit John). (26) I saw nobody. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (27) a .Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (N-am văzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. I went nowhere. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English.
Not all that glitters is gold. I didn’t see anybody. 26 .) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. All that glitters is not gold. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. no incorporation takes place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.Nadina VIŞAN b. No day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) b. (N-am văzut nici un student. b. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) c.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) (29) a.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. I never went to his place. I didn’t go anywhere. I didn’t see any student.
/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / Not one of them came to meet her. rarely. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / I showed him nothing. etc. / I saw nobody.4.) We seldom watch T. / I didn’t see anybody./ They never went there. not even short ones.) They barely read any novels. seldom.V. barely. (Nu citesc romane. and we don’t go to the theatre either. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / He should not be released.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. scarcely. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / No one ever listens to her. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. nici măcar din alea scurte. / Not a word fell from her lips./ They didn’t come to meet her. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / None of them liked house music. .
/ This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.) b. / Few people came to see her. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. which triggers inversion): (35) a. .) c. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I scarcely ever see her. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.) d. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. Never have I met a more horrible person. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor.) 28 them. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. / Hardly anybody liked him. / I seldom look at her like that. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.
the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. in the sense that the 29 . / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.) They don’t think that he likes them. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / You must on no account touch this machinery.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ We seldom receive such generous praise. never trust a man again. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.
choose. imagine. be likely. believe. look like. suggest. intend. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. we can very well say something like: (38) a. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. 2. etc. sound/feel like. cannot appear in an affirmative context. seem. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. suppose.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. She didn’t lift a finger to help me.6.: think. appear. advise. the negative meaning is less strong. / He reckoned he would not win her over. barely.) 30 . be probable. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / They believe she does not like them. expect.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. / I suppose she doesn’t care. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. should be desirable. In sentence (37). intention. be supposed to. probability. guess. want. ought to. etc. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. although not negative in meaning. / I expect he won’t come here again.) b. etc. For example.
* Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.2. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. and sentences such as: (39) a. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. b. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. That is 31 . N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical.*She lifted a finger to help me. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. *She likes our chairman at all.
/ I think I can help him (to) some (extent). still (I don’t love you any more.) Much vs. a lot (I don’t like you much.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I have some money. / They say he once had someone very close. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. too. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I have already seen him. / I eat caviar most of the times. etc. / She hardly ever comes here. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.) Hardly ever vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / Bob is still living at that address. some (I haven’t any money. / I somehow like him. / Come on. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / Well. you can still do something about it. / He arrived before 5.) At all vs. / I like you a lot.) Any more vs. too (I don’t like it. too.) Until vs.). / I still love you) Either vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) Yet vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. either. / I like it . / I somewhat like his proposal. / Well. / You needn’t send her anything. / Don’t worry. / I can understand both of these 32 . /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.
know a single person. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. hear a peep. flinch. leave a stone unturned. lift/raise/ stir a finger. mulţumesc. sleep a wink. move a muscle. crack a smile. touch a drop. Ion nu e prea deştept. de când cu 33 . / Ajută-mă. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. hurt a fly. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. find a trace. Translate into English. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / You must pay that fine. have/be worth a red cent. bat an eye(lid). touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. say / breathe/ understand a word. give a damn/darn. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Peter knows some English and so does John. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. have a care/ friend in the world. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / You must be telling lies. lay a finger on someone. nici unuia dintre noi. turn a hair./ I can understand all of these ten English words. see/ feel/ remember a thing. last a minute.
n-a sunat încă. Translate into Romanian. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Never is a long word. / Nothing succeeds like success.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. B: Aşi. / Not that I care. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. budge. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No man is wise all the time. / He won’t make old bones. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / He is no end of a fellow. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / I had no end of trouble. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. he’s a pig. / No hands wanted. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / No trouble at all. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / No admittance. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. he left the room. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Hotărât lucru. / No entry. nu e vina mea. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / No sooner said than done. but you really should do something about it. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui.
b) I love asking some funny remarks. c) He is anxious to say something./ I saw no one. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.7. 2. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). / I hate making any commitments.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present.Unit two Sentence negation rather). say it. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. as well: 35 . d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. Normally. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences.
) 2. however. nu poezia asta. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. from a syntactic point of view. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. I don’t like this poem. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. Conclusion. I don’t. nu îmi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. The second negation is somehow independent. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. B: Not this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. nu-mi place. B: Nu. (Nu.8. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. 36 . Key terms.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
e. 45 . interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.
2.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2.2 Echo Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3. Optional Exercises .3.2 Wh.3.1 Tag Questions 3.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Direct vs.4.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Key Terms. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.1.3.Questions 3.2.
This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.Unit three Questions 3. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.1. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . for a subsequent section.
and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English.g. pe mama.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). 48 . (3) and (4). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. (2). Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.
(A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. In the case of indirect questions. Since the question is not direct any more.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. in this case. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Likewise. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. 49 . because. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).
/ He asked me who she was. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. sau mai bine zis. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. / He asked me who she is. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. c) Ştii ce. identify the incorrect sentences. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. spune la un moment dat femeia. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / I don’t know who she is. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. ce culoare are pielea. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta.
In this case. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 .2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. the type of answer the respective question requires.Unit three Questions 3.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. as Quirk shows. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. being typical of spoken language. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.
3. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (who / talk to last night)? 5.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8.1. (how long / wait for me?) 10. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (which / you like best) ? 4.
except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. they did. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da). A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (Da).Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. it has. instead of Negative Polarity ones. are said to be positively – oriented.
but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: You’ve been learning German for years. 6. …….? (a mean thing to do) 54 . (speak yet) B: ……. 2.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. because you always copy everything I do! 5. 4. ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. .. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. I’ve still got plenty of time.. A: She had her tenants evicted. …………………. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 3. …………………………….. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.. A: You look down. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. 7. as in the example: 1. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.
…………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. I didn’t get home until late last night. 10. . A: It’s past your bedtime..2 Wh – questions Wh. what .questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….. 8.Unit three Questions B: …………………. . You could have mentioned it earlier. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… .2. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. how. where.. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 3. ………………………………. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. 9. A: There was a terrible car crash. . which When.
/ My new car cost 10. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. what ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. of course. / Kay’s gone out shopping./ She dropped her glasses. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / She lives in the suburbs.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. Nearly two hundred years. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. trying to find places where I resided in life. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / Shirley got married to Ben. / David’s car was stolen. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city.000dollars./ Sara owns two cars. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / That’s my pen./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / There are six students in my class. why ever. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. (Poppy Z./ I have French lessons twice a week. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. I cannot do that.
) 57 .3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.
He used to work in a bank. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. How far is it the cinema? 3. didn’t use he? 4. How long is she be spending in America? 15. How far is it the cinema? 10. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. can you be? 58 . didn’t use he? 11. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. shall we stay? 14. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Let’s stay for another few days.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Let’s stay for another few days. There was a fax for you this morning. shall we stay? 7. Who did left the gate open? 18. You can’t be serious. wasn’t it there? 17. How long is she be spending in America? 8. He used to work in a bank. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2.
uneori disperat. dacă prin absurd 59 . despre o lume dură. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Who did told you about the problem? 31. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Ani întregi. That’s your car. isn’t it this? 25. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. deci. neliniştea infantilă. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. will you not? 21. plin de germeni virulenţi. Pot reveni. Whose it is this book? 32. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. ca şi cei ce au fost. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. Toate vechi. How long time does it take to get there? 28. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. That was Jeremy’s brother. wasn’t it he? 22. să-mi înfrâng frica. John goes jogging every morning. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. How long have you be lived in London? 26. will you not? 27.Unit three Questions 19. doesn’t he go? 23. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. deci. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine.
indiferent de risc. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. îi ştiu gustul. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. iar proştii. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. lung. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. puturos. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. dar şi drumul. B. mă întreb. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. inactivii. Şi. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Riscul? Ratarea. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. murdar. negru. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. străină priceperii lor. “Spune! striga el. laşii. naiv. umed. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. ghiceam doar unde se află. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. neîntrerupt. de atunci. pe care oricum am simţit-o. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. pe sub bolţile din care. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. picură apa roşietică.
nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. orbitor. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. exclus.3. la urma urmei. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. domnule profesor. da? (37) Let’s go there.Unit three Questions viaţă. 3. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. când nu-i pot face nici un bine.3. will you? (38) She went to Prague. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. Tag Questions Tag questions. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. didn’t she? . care i-a determinat alegerea.1. golul alb. viaţa? Oare e drept. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.
since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony.) A: Oh. the tag is negative too).e. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. au fost cheltuiţi.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. the tag is affirmative too. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. or “comment tags”. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. au fost cheltuiţi. is it? (Deci. if the host sentence is negative. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. The suggestion is that in this case. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. hasn’t she? (Aha. aren’t they? 62 . Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. In this way. sarcasm. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. (Din păcate. or falling. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. it’s all spent.
/ Activity 12 He will be on time. after all. / A few people like her. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Surely you have enough money. / He hates his wife. / You will pick me up at 7. / You will pick me up. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / I may see you tomorrow. / I am older than you. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / You ought not to smoke. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago.…/ Let me know. / Tell me. / I must go now. / The boy never watched his sister. / I don’t think you like my music. / I think you don’t like my music. / She left an hour ago. / I am dressed smartly enough. 63 . / They said he liked music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Each of us is staying. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. …/ Ann can’t speak French.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / The boy often watched his sister. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Don’t leave without me. / You have been invited. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I think you like my music. / That’s your car over there. / There is enough food for everyone. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Few people like her. / That was your father. / She has a brother. / He has to marry Susan. / She used to talk a lot. / He simply hates empty words. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul.
Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. 5. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . using a question tag at the end. or what? 3. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / He never used to study so hard…. So you enjoyed my talk. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1./ I’m right about this…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. He used to play squash. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….
Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Grants… 3.3. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.) B: Chinese? 65 .1. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.questions which repeat part or all of the message.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. Recapitulatory echo questions .1.3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.
phrase is fronted. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Închide lumina aia. rather than the repetition. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.2.2. of something just said. consternation. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.3. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. disbelief. If the wh.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.
/ We are looking for a purse.e./ He is interested in blue movies. (Vai. whereas with explicatory echo questions. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. (Uită-te la asta. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. I’ve lost the letter.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. rather than did you say. am pierdut scrisoarea. which letter do you 67 . / He is interested in music. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. with recapitulatory echo questions. intonation is rising. / We are looking for a pixie. dear. / I think I’ve found a solution. (i.
Nadina VIŞAN 3. she knows about it. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.4.
că iepuşoara asta de Vica. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. ca să zic aşa. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. acuma sporovăiala. în satul nostru. Fenio. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. cu o casă de copii. şi care s-a aciuat. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi apoi Vica ce zice. şerpoaica. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. lui Stavre Păici. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. după pofte. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. în general. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. stricata. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. cumnată Fenia. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. oameni aşezaţi. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. pe Condrat de Vica. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. lui Luca Horobeţ. lui Chizlinski. nu purta verighetă. aşa. da.– Crezi tu. să se încolăcească mai bine. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 .Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri.
Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. abia târându-şi picioarele. deci. L-a scos din geamie. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Hogea. sau cum o chema. De asta erai. până la călcâie. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. roşu şi galben. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. dar cum se face că a 70 . atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. sus.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
2.Coordinating Conjunctions 22.214.171.124.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Key Concepts .6.Contents: 74 4.4.
1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. reproachfully. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. where there is no indication other than a comma. that elements are coordinated. on the other hand. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.e. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. 75 . present) in the sentence. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.Unit four Coordination 4.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. i.e. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. cu repros. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. Example (2).) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.
namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. you will die. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. From the previously mentioned examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. 76 . coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.) (4) If you hit my wife.) Such examples.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.Nadina VIŞAN 4. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Conversely. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. vei muri. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.
Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. we need to specify that.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. but presupposed. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the second. respectively subordinated constituents. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. However. from a logical & semantic point of view. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted.
He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. with formal walks under rows of trees. adorned with cornices. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. took off his shoes and emptied them. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. the houses were beautiful and ancient. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. of cut gray stone. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. built. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. He moved and made a slopping noise. In the second. took off his coat and emptied them. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. His clothes hung to him. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. In the first. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. his shoes squished. with enormous solidity. but the 78 . Though the castle had vanished.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Then he sat down. John Steinbeck.
The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. left the house. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. Cecil Woocham – Smith.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. the higher he went the wetter it grew. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and as the way is with Irish mountains. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged.
who was caught at a University Extension lecture.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. we should be seriously annoyed. (G. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. yesterday and the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. as shown in (9).3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.K. were to take down the name of every man. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. As one can easily notice. however distinguished. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.
/ Peter. our respective examinations. / Bob and George are admired by their students. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. plays football. and I passed. 4. 2. but not John. / Joan plays many games. yellow and blue. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 6 John sang and Mary danced. Our flag is red. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John and Mary are the newly married couple.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Her pet kitten is black and white. 10. 7. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Pratice Distinguish coordination.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. / Peter and John played football. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.Unit four Coordination example (7). and even tennis. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. John and Mary are ready. 8. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John is ready and Mary is ready. 3. Activity 2 sentences: 1. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 5. 9. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.
) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. as can be seen in (10b). 3. John loves and Bill hates cigars. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Activity 4 2. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. 6. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. John writes poetry and Bill prose. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.) b. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. or deleted. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. 5. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.) c. Jane 82 .Nadina VIŞAN b.
Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. than a longer repetitive one. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 8. the so-called Principle of Economy. 83 . Besides ellipsis. 7.e.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 10. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. can be reduced by substitution. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. So. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 9. these syntactical processes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.) The common element. the predication buy a pair of shoes. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. i. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences.
ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. 2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. one or (the) other method. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. using reduced structures: 1. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. Translate the following sentences. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. George and Jane are separated. George and Jane went back to their parents. A citit. simple books and magazines for children 3.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. 4. the old men and women 2. some reason or another. In certain cases. 3. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 4.
8. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. . He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. of your proposals later on? 3... A pendulum swings ………. it’s a case of ………… 7. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. After all their adventures. Can we discuss the …………. like: salt and pepper. I need another 100$ ……….. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 12. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.. fish and chips.I searched ………. 16. 13.You gain some things and you lose others. sweet and sour.. only for damage. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 6. even though they have their little …………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. they reached home………. 6. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. They get on quite well together. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 5. Marks and Spencers. 11. for my wallet. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 7. 8.… 14. 2. the amount I’ve already saved up.. 5. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 15.
semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. as in: (17) a. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. etc. In fact.) There are.4. the expressive function of coordination is. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. For instance. b. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. Nor sun. more often than not. 4.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. and 86 . *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. of course.
etc). (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. o respectau si o indrageau.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) In certain cases. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. and cherished her. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. (I-am dat banii. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. sometimes but. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.g. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.) c.) 87 . I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. where the subordinator is repeated. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. too): (20) a.) b. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. or . (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. both … and . If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. 20 (b)).
one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.* I ironed and washed my pants. From this point of view.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. (Imi place si o admir. if we were to rewrite the example . and hit my wife. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. In this case. and you’ll die. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. I like and admire her. I washed and ironed my pants.) b. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. (O admir si imi place. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I admire and like her.
Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) (While Dr.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed). you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Dr.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.Unit four Coordination 1.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. (If you do that. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Brown experiments with humans. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. 97 .
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.
(Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) 101 . subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . as the name suggests it. e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.g. From the functional point of view. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. 5.which are based on coordination .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.
such as proud of. In a way. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. they are still presupposed by the speaker.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. sentences) required by the verb (or. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. For instance. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. in certain cases. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. for example). They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) Whenever we think of this particular verb.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. we associate it with these objects. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. for instance. (I-a dat cartea.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. by an adjective + preposition.) 102 . We do not presuppose however something like. an adverbial item.
since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. i. 103 . related to example (4). it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. to her) and one extra-item. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. A second observation. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The second example. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. which is the adverbial willingly.) b. In other words. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. an additional one.e. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. to add something. Thus. I am afraid that he won’t come. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a.
am să mor. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. such as want. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. (Înainte să plece din cameră. So.) (11) If you don’t marry me. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. etc. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele. like. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. make.) 104 . I’ll die. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 4. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. Susan disappeared without saying a word. this to whomever wants it.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.She came to him of her own will. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. They came to e. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 3. 2.g. 5. After I told her the story.g. e. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. The book that because they home.g. 6. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. [. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . she looked at me sadly. Whoever did that was a genius.
Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. 6. 4. etc. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. stating their function: Activity 2 1.) 106 . but he declined. which. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. though it was largely politeness. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. You suggestion that we should. was a novelty to Mitzi. at our age. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 3. 2. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. As you can see. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. WHETHER. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 5. FOR.He took an intelligent interest in her. not object. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still.
etc. (E de dorit să plece. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (Am vrut să plec imediat. why. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) b. when. Who did it was John.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. 107 .) (16) a. how.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (15) It is John who did it. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. where. Where he went is London. which.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. who.
consider the following table. however. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. if.1. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. Compare. In (18). before. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. done from a structural point of view.) (18) She told me this before she left. for instance. Unlike complement clauses. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. which sums up this classification. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. etc. In conclusion. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. As you will see. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4.
surely you cannot sincerely believe. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. Introduced know e.g. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. whether he will come when I feel like it. as. I will come back such as because.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. back. at your young age. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I will go there because I feel like it.g. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. 109 . Dear Ludwig.: e. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.g. after. you understand. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. etc. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. for.
It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. But she thought that no one would call again. he said. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. Too. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. a tightening in her breathing. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Late that afternoon.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. she stopped to speak to Monroe. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. Accidental Man) b)1. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening.The day Monroe had died was in May. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . 2. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. As she left the house. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.
Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. 111 . a correspondence can be traced. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. că e.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I told her everything after she arrived. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. However.g.g. interesting.g. That he loved e. As you have probably noticed already. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.2.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.
e.. whenever you identify a wh. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. i. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.complement. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). Thirdly. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. So. complements. whereas wh complements are the 112 .2.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. We will come back to that in the next chapter. Secondly. In the fourth place. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. (Cred că mă place.1. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.
a barn. Pratice Consider the following text. a house. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. for no matter how she tried. but no idea what to do with them. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. their introductory elements (e. and I do not know how things might stand between us.g. outbuildings. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. after. c) I am coming home one way or another. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. She mistrusted her handwriting. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. I first thought to tell in 113 . because. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. before.
e. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. and I have not the will or the energy.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. it would make you fear to do such again. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. these clauses can be complements. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. because they modify.4. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. According to a structural criterion.
Alţii. interested in. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. answering the question to whom? So. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. (…) “Mă. think of. 115 . Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Pratice Translate the following. după ce că are grâu puţin. ce o fi având. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. O zbughi înapoi. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. însă. etc. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea.e. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. îşi spuseseră că Anton. look at.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. be very careful to use this term correctly. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Nevasta secera în tăcere. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.
Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. izolate de sat. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. timp de un ceas. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. întâi.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Toată lumea înţelesese că. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. de fapt. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. cât de bolnavă era. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Nici acum.
Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. acum sunt desluşiţi. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Pace nu era. deşi cam târziu. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. stricau totul. Iată. În realitate. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. la nişte prieteni comuni. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. aşa de oţetit. amânase scrisul. de pildă. la Odobeşti. Era bine de ştiut. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. din cauza lui G… Anişoara.
(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. frate. întâia noapte de război) 118 . nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile.
the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. 119 . accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.g. whose. of which..SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. subject relative clauses. etc). etc.
4. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.3. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 126.96.36.199.2. Relative Clause Introducers 6.6. Key Concepts .7. The Co-reference Condition 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.
It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.2. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. The Co-reference Condition . 121 . We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.1. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. 6. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.
reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. By combining these two clauses.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. John loves that woman. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. 122 .
we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. This way. The common element woman is present. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. 123 . John offered flowers to that woman.
The students like their teacher. They met those students. He liked that book. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. I introduced him to Jim. by leaving behind a trace. John told his friend a story about the king. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. This is my husband. Any of the students would answer to questions. 7. 3. 10. 9. I bought Jim a book. too. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. He told Jim everything about his plans. WHO 124 . Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. She came to London. WHICH 4. None of the students agreed with them. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I had a book. Susan wants to meet Jane. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. 8. I lost the book’s cover. 2. I went to London. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. WHO 5. 5. The king was just passing by. 6. He’s the author who received the prize. therefore in spoken English. 4. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. WHERE 3. frequently used in written language. I love my husband very much. The students like their teacher.
Unit six Relative clauses 6. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. . It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOSE 7.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. (Cine strică plateşte. 2. i. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. most of them were from England. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHOM 6. TO 11. WHICH 8. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 10.e. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.
) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) So.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. unlike in the case of (14).) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. these relatives cannot function as attributes. in a manner of speaking. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. Unlike their sisters. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. is no longer overtly expressed.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. it is covert. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Cel care strică plăteşte.e.
) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.) (Mercury. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Mercur. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. They only provide supplementary information about it. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. they define it). They can be thus divided into: 1. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. who incidentally is the god of commerce. este zeul meu favorit. (Du-te unde pofteşti.) (22) Mercury. who is the god of commerce.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. care este zeul negoţului. 127 . and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. is my favourite god.
5.This is the village where I spent my youth. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Shakespeare. is a genius. restrictive relative clauses. 6. this type of relative clauses. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. who is a genius. then it is an attribute. is a great playwright. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 8. On the day on which this occurred I was away.e. who came to see me. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 7. They are what 128 . 10. i. I have met him where I least expected. As we were saying. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. 9. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Independent I don’t know what you want. 2. on whom nobody could depend. She.
the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.) 2.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. . When the antecedent has no determiner. etc. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. etc. who died a few years ago. however sad this may be. a. care a murit acum câţiva ani. 6. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. composed The (Freddie Mercury. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.
but a peevish. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. Dintre toate personajele prezente. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. care-ţi sunt fiu.) Pratice Translate the following. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care nu sunt o femeie. 7. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. can see your shortcomings only too well. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. poftiţi în faţă. 2.) (28) They come to me. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who am your son. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. ill-tempered. who neither work nor am anxious. 3. (Eu. (Ei apeleaza la mine. iritabilă şi uscată. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 5. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. ci o fată a woman. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. bătrînă morocănoasă. 6. 4. numai eu nu. Mie. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 130 . dried-up old maid.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.
(32) service finished late. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. . erau acum în posesia lui. părăsi camera. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. heard.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. than whom few more can be more crashing. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. were now in his possession.
The genitive form with which is still in use. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. 6. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . as can be seen in (36d). but it is typical of the formal.5. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. literary style: (37) a.) b. too.1. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) d.) b.) c.
(Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Iris Murdoch.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.
(Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. animals. (45) (46) . of which. … Italy.) b. but to a type or a function: a. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. by the way.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.) • states.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. ships (that can be personified) a. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.) b. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. He is not the man which he used to be. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.
Unit six Relative clauses b.2 Relative Adverbs: when. where. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. pe care o privea direct. reason. why. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. It is poor what gets the punches. (Nu ştiam ce vor. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) 135 (47) .) 6. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. etc. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. how.) b. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. France. etc. Poland is the place where Christine was born. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) b) dialectal (49) a. while. time. whom it concerned most closely.5. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.
3. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) 6. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. This is the place wherefrom they came. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.They left when they decided it was proper to.) When they introduce free relative clauses. He went where he had been before.5.) 136 . Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. no antecedents are required: (52) a. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b.) c. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) b. The place whither he goes is unknown.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) e. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.
) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. Moreover.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.
.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. any.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. I’ll get you such things as you may want.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.4. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. much. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. not any.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. but they are used very infrequently: as. Honest man as he was. but • in standard language a. 138 (64) his shoes. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. every.5.
) c. This is the same one that/as you had before.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. There’s not many as’ll say that. And always on the buttered side. Uncle George. ăl de fusese in China…) b. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.) c. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. It’s the dry weather does it. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat.) • in dialect a. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. . him as was in China … (Uncle George.
Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) b. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.
6.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1.” 4. 3. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. It seemed a thing 141 . 7.3): (72) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man who John spoke to is a genius.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. 2. What I’m saying is. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.5. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. That which shows God out of me. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. fortifies me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 5.) b.) c. Where he was from. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. This is where we talk money. The man that John spoke to is a genius. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. What Inman remembered was this passage. we all have to come to some terms. The man John spoke to is a genius. makes me a wart and a wen.
that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 13. which is a lot. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Oh. he had left Ruby high and dry. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 12.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. (…) Partly. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 10. The rudeness of eating. 9. 8. who had not witnessed many dawns. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Whatever his fate was. though. Ruby said. 142 . (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 11.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. of living.
fiu natural al unui morar. (Iris Murdoch. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. divortata. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. pe linie paterna. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. pirpiriu. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. plutonier. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carei strabunic. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. Cumnatul meu avea. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. nu prea sarac. cumnatul unui portughez. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. mort de tanar. poate. un var primar.al lui. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. vasnic.
Teatru) 6. Everybody listened to that woman. By extension. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. c. This is the book. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.6.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. The opposite phenomenon. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. insurat de trei ori la rand. b. I lost the cover of the book. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was a woman. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. 144 . you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.2. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses.
acting again as a genuine pied piper. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. he requested that the public be excluded. 9. 4. The problem of safe transportation. 2.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 7. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. no easy answers to which could be offered. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 3. 8. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 6. 5. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.Unit six Relative clauses b. In the interest of public decency. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The difference between (76) and (77). has been troubling them forever. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.
2. as the case is). Activity 9 were now all gone. 3. This story. 5. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. They do not function as attributes. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 10. has been deleted. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. he rarely saw now. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. no matter which. was now complete.His father’s friends. 6. Irene. His friends. whose interest he most sincerely shared. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. 146 .Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. 4. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.
as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. 7. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). De douazeci de ani. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 6. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 2. 5. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 4. pentru dumneata bunăoară. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Toate sfârşeau. himeric. Nelu. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 3. închipuirea. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pentru alţii.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată.
la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. nici în searbăda mea versiune. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. a făcut el. cu surle şi cu tobe. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. 9. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. 12. 10. 8. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea.
14. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. până mai adineauri. pe strada Icoanei. despre care. din direcţia căreia apoi. de unde venea şi Marta. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 20. zise ea cu ochii mari. deşi atât de aproape. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. 17. fie la teatru. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. 149 . cu sclipiri abia vizibile. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. Avea acum un fel de vertij. fie pe stradă. dinspre Maria Rosetti. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. din care cauză pe Dora. roiuri de fetiţe. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. În spatele lor. trăia larg de tot. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. care era foarte “mondenă”. 18. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. Dacă mă lovea. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. 15. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. apărură. toată lumea întreba cine e. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. 16.
care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. când au urcat râpa iar. după ce maşina a fost reparată. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. până în şosea. 23. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. pe care eu nu-l aveam. 24. Pentru mine însă. pe care ea îi admira acum. de mine. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. Pare-se că snobii. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el.Nadina VIŞAN 21. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 22. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. aveau un stil al lor. de sus de unde eram. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.
by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.7.Clause Shift 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.3.1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 188.8.131.52.2.2. Key Concepts .3. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3.2.Topicalization 18.104.22.168.2. That Deletion 22.214.171.124.3.1. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.Extraposition 7.3. That Complements as Subjects 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1.5.
(3) Tell me if you need anything. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. placed in a marginal position. 153 . but also of infinitival ones. In other words. Apart from those introduced by that. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. 7. the clause is extraposed.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.
Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.
3. 6.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 15. 11. 13. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 8. 11. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 8. 6. 9. It is no use trying to convince her. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 4. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 7.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 4. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 10. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 9. 5. 2. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 7. 14. 10. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 3. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It appears that no one voted for him. It was suggested that they should meet the President. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 2. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It is nice to meet you. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life.
I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 2. 5. sub poduri. după porţi. în canal. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 2.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. zice Lionel. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 18. 6. unde se nimerea. 3. 4. 4. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They never expected it that he would come back. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. mă ascundeam în grabă.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 3. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I guess it that he will come back. 5. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. în gropi. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. atât 156 . 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 3.
Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). fără îndoială. vor căuta să o zdruncine. 6. 5. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Spunând cele ce-am spus. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele.” 4. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. 157 . E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. (Nu întotdeauna. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. excelentă. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. 7. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. fără să cârteşti.
in the case of topicalization. Consequently.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. this asymmetry is undone.2.1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .) While in the case of extraposition. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.Nadina VIŞAN 7. 1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Pratice Read the following. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.
whether it would finally carry her off. 3. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 5. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 8. 6. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. He was utterly gone. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. even today. 4. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 2. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. She had always been the slave of chance. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. was inconceivable. This was another era. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. but not now. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 7. He did not blame Gracie. he felt no spring of interest in her. mere chance would decide. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . When this is so one is in extremity indeed.
) 160 .3. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.
clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. 161 . (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.e. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. we obtain. the verb to drive). From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.
/ He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. /? He appointed Mr Hugh./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 7. 4.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 162 . who had just returned from Africa.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 5.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa. prime-minister. 2. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 6. 3. 8.
) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.2. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.
(with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. afirm. communicate.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.) b. estimate. (Cred că omul este vinovat. desire.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. judge. deem. promise. explain.Nadina VIŞAN 7. state. They promised him that he would received a new house.1. predict. suggest. (I-au promis o casă nouă.: (25) a. deny. consider. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) b.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) a. He announced their engagement. prefer. etc. etc.2. They believe the man is guilty. He announced that they were engaged. They believe that the man is guilty. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.) 164 .
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
(this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. hope =>purpose.) language.) 172 . similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. for example. they lose their meaning.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. on condition that. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) I like him in that he is smart. In older stages of English. ibid. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.e.
the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. . That can be deleted. He gave such an answer as had expected.) When the structure contains the word such. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) b. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. să o vadă trecând. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) b.) (66) 173 a. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. He gave an answer such. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.
6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. ibid. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. He gave an answer such that I had expected.) b. they were chained to each other forever. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) 174 . 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. for better or worse. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. ibid. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch.
) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (69) a. He said he had borrowed her money. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. He showed he was able to do it.) c. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.3. 175 . When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.1. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.3 ‘That Deletion 7. He got word they were coming. say.) b. (A prins de veste că ei vin.Unit seven That complements 7. tell). that he uses a relaxed tone. for instance.
(Iris Murdoch.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. rele. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.) (De asemenea. bune. 7. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . ibid. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.3. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.2. I like it that he was here.) b. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. *I like it he was here.3. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever. they were chained to each other forever.3. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. because that has been deleted. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Îmi place că e aici.
4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.) b)He told me that she was there. which is ungrammatical in English. spuse el. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. he said. you want me to believe. (“Este acolo”. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. simultaneity.4. 7.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) 177 . 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 7) They maintain. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. that they were not too late to leave. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.
vine el. “She was here”. până pleacă ea.) b. spuse el.) Future Perfect -----. In the example below. (Pâna să plece.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) b. he said.) b.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (A spus că. He told me that she had been there. The Present complement). o să vină el. (“Era acolo”. He said he would leave her. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că o să o părăsească. (Am să o părăsesc. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. I will leave her. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .
be aware. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. realize it). forget. say.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. With such factive verbs as realize. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. etc. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. mention. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) 179 . (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. dream. insist. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. discover. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. notice. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a.) b.) On the other hand. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. be amazed/concerned. believe. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. hope. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. think. report. whisper.etc. show. regret.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. wish.
with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. feign habits which are not their own.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) b. She believed that the earth is round. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. we notice that general truths. Consider also: (85) a. She realized that all men are fools. (Iris Murdoch.) b. She still believed that the earth was flat.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. 180 . He knew that she thought all men were fools. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. cu un respect tandru reciproc. in tender deference to each other. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.
She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. such as a. 181 .) In (88). Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. There are however cases. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) b.Unit seven That complements 2. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. 3.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.
c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. The time is 3 o’clock. f) John said that Harry would leave. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. for instance. h) John thought that Harry had run. g) John thought that Harry ran. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) John said that Harry is leaving. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. But 182 . that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. Imagine.
redtailed hawk. She admired their keenness of wit. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. whistling swan. kingfisher. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Cooper’s hawk. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. c.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. love of practical jokes. Crows will relish what presents itself. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. quail. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. geese both grey and white. bluebird. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. nighthawk. lark. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. slyness in a fight. a. b. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. lack of pridefulness. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. Translate the following. jaybird. as evidenced by its drear plumage. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. 183 . B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky.
He died erect. He had fought hard through the war. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Now here he stood jailed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. But as the battle raged around them. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. in the very act of expiring. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. […] During the latter stages of the tale. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. war hero though he was.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. And they might just hang him. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. he claimed. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. the young officer. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.
185 . That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. which they share with wh-complements. on other occasions it has to stay there. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains.Unit seven That complements 7. or else. from the very frequent subject. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). adjective or by a de-verbal noun. object ones up to the attributive function. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). On certain occasions that can be deleted.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).
Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Fiind 186 . care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. 4. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Când au văzut că mama a plecat.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. 2. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Mama. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Unul din ei. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. cel mai mare. 3. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. peste puţin. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani.
un vis de acesta 187 . de ce constata în sine. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 9. 5. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. fericit. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. venind de la avocat. Se mira. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 6. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. care îl pândise. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 8. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. va pleca din oraş la vie. aşa. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. luminos şi apropiat şi când. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. ea. cel puţin pentru un timp. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. 7. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. dacă va mai veni. Nu ţi-a trecut. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios.
tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. şi mândria că a biruit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Astfel de va fi. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. 12. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. liniştit. 11. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Acesta. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. încă o dată. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. dar şi teama că. fireşte. lucrul era înfăptuit.
Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. mai puternic decât oricând. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Pe toate. să le lămurească pe toate. spre Jurubiţa. 14. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. fără o vorbă scrisă. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. ci numai aşa. după cum. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Key Concepts .126.96.36.199.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.2.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.7.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.3.A Classification of Infinitives 8.9.5.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.
and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) • like that complements.) b. 193 . infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.1. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (3) a. Consider the following: • like that complements. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).) b. I told her to be more careful in the future. From this perspective. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. It is important that you should know what you need. To love her is something really wonderful. That you love her is something wonderful.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (2) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. It is important for you to know what you need. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.
that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. For instance. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Conditional. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea.e. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. 2. participial clauses. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. 194 . moduri nepersonale) By convention. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. the Gerund. d. the Participle) (i. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. etc. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. gerundial clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.) b. as opposed to the finite ones.
He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. namely no ending. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.) c. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.) b. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) 195 . (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.
It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 8. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. (7) They saw her leave. 7.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 10. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 5. 8. 9.2. the criterion of form. 2. 3. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 6.
/ A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. 2. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (10) 197 . / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. hear. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / Au văzut-o că pleaca.
/ A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. 198 (11) the universe./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. However. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. Pratice Translate the following. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. uncharacteristic for literary English. . 3. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.
so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. 199 . to use the appropriate technical term. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. as I have already mentioned.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. or the control constructions. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. Further on. In other words. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form.Unit eight Infinitive complements because.
That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. the logical subject. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.) 200 .) b. şi creştineşte să ierţi. So far. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) Object: (18) a. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) b. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. PRO to forgive divine. PRO to err is human.) In this situation. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. It is important for him not to err. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. I hoped for him to be there in time. namely the agent of the event.
Semantically. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. In other words. him is related to the main clause verb. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. but the patient of the verb persuade.) b. He stepped aside for her to enter. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. not to the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .
(Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ I allowed them to come. \ She wanted him to leave. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ He persuaded her to come. \ They convinced her to come back. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ 202 . Likewise. \ I would love them to come.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. I hate animals to be tortured. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ She promised him to leave.
Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. • Last but not least. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.) In examples (25) and (26). it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. \ They really asked her to come back.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. 203 . This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. So. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.) He seems to be a good linguist.
/ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. Pratice Translate the following sentences. appear. that is not required by certain verbs. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. 204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. To sum up the discussion. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. which are said to be free. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.). with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. to meet her. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. seem. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. etc. hate. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs.
) b) verbs such as abide. like. prefer.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. mean. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.3 The Distribution of PRO .TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. propose. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. / E greu să îl suporţi. manage.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. afford. contrive. seek (= try). (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. venture. decline. intend. scheme. wish. care to. aspire to. fail.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. deserve. deign. endeavour. dislike. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. omit. etc. Compare: (31) a. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. arrange. desire. hope.) 205 friend. presume. need.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. try. agree to. hate. bear. etc. scorn. . 8. etc. expect. condescend. refuse. want. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită.
threaten. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.etc.) b. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) 206 . (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. forget.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.Nadina VIŞAN b. desirable. verbs of liking and disliking. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. endeavour. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) b. conclude. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. For all of them to have been killed is. etc. ask. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. suggest. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. I hate that you should say a thing like this. unlikely. I would like for him to become president of the country.) 8.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. claim. possible. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) b. however. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. be important. stand. bear.
5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 2.) b. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) 207 . Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. Predicative Clauses (39) a. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 8. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.
Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) 208 knowledge. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Like in the case of that complements. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) b. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. but the meaning remains. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.) 5. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Direct Objects (39) a.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) b. . the preposition is deleted. I decided for John to represent us.) 4.
(I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. The stew is delicious to eat. 6.) d.) c. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. You’re an idiot to go there. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. He is a bastard to work for. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.: (42) a. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) e.) b. She is pretty to look at. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. delicious. etc. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. curious about. This paint is like concrete to work with.) c) adverbial of result 209 .) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.
Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. drept să spun./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. să nu piardă trenul. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. / Pe şleau. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.) Oh. conduci prost. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to tell you the truth.) I’ve never met him. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . final or introductory infinitive In this case. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Ehei. you’re a bad driver.
Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. encourage.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. promise. b. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. According to this. 8. enable. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. press. oblige. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.etc. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.) . etc. inform. direct. urge.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.) b. swear. (49) a. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. induce.: (51) a. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. influence. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. nu mai vreau să te vad. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. inspire. need. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.
name. choose. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. count on. etc.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.etc. vote. order./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. nominate. prevail on. command. etc. depend on. look to. allow./ And now he 212 . I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. elect.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. permit. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.
(Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). this construction is lexically governed. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. come. be about to.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (56) She grew to like him in the end.verbs: appear.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (Se pare că îi place de el.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. be going to. (Iris Murdoch.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (O să întârzii/ leşin. seem. An Accidental Man) 8. i. etc. grow.e. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.: (55) She appears to like him. (57) He is to come any day now. happen.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.etc. etc. 213 (58) (59) .
(Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.) 8.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. hear.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. feel. be rumoured.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.: (62) They heard him insult her. that of intention. . that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. be thought. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. (L-au auzit insultând-o. In (57). be reported. overhear. observe.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. etc. perceive.etc. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. watch. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. etc. be alleged. be considered.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be claimed.
cause. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. prove. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. presume. believe. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. imagine.) • with a full infinitive: get. understand. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. occasion. know. consider.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. picture. recollect. (Cred că este un geniu.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. have. etc. discover. judge. deem. find. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities.) 215 (67) . since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. figure. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. However. remember.
expect. who wasn’t used to men with moods.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. want. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. choose. command. permit.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.etc. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. love.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. wish. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. desire.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. prefer.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. mean. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. Harold. if he himself was out of spirits. order. etc. he hated anyone to comment 216 . suffer.
he didn’t envy those above it. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. He suspected hostility at once. Both seemed to him a little unreal. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. though he tended to look down on those below it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. to make sure we attended strictly to business.P. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. so that we might get to the future and have done. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. the herd instinct was very strong in him. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. A little crossly. (L. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes.
is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. 218 . The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The last criterion. we can speak about bare and full infinitives.Nadina VIŞAN 8. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. From this perspective.
de asemenea. Şi tu să fii. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. e important ce întrebări pui. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. E posibil. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. într-o zi. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. bunăoară. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. mai bine219 . making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. de bună seamă. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. un bărbat şi o femeie. lovit şi umilit. fireşte. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. să-l capete. dar să nu-ţi spună. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. e) Când doi oameni. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens.
un picior. pe care deja o uitase. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Delavrancea. mai pline de înţeles. în ploaie. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. Să spui de pildă. . aşa cum îi apăruse el. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. De era vară. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. mai bine de două decenii. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Însă Paul Achim trăise. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. să nu vrea să se şteargă. ca să nu şi-o amintească. sau. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. (B. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.Şt.Nadina VIŞAN zis. în parte. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. 220 . avusese dreptate. că eşti tânăr. în parte. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure.Şt.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. în jos. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. încă. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. d-a lungul gâtului.
Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. un miros îngrozitor. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. şi nu un amant. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. deşi. biata Muti. şi prin faţă. ei. o mizerie. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. prin faţă e coborârea.. nici ca să 221 . vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. (Al. Într-un cuvânt.. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă.. Mă laud singură. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. fie ea şi grăbită. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. orice-ar fi. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). sunt aici cu tot ce am. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. orice bucureştean ştie. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. de fapt. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte.
niciodată ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare.
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.
ING Forms and Infinitives 188.8.131.52.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 184.108.40.206.The Verbal Noun 9.5 Key Concepts .1.Participial Constructions 9.2.2.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.The Gerund 220.127.116.11.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 18.104.22.168.The Participle Contents: 224 9.
Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Due to this situation. (Susan doarme.) 225 . we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.1. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.
(Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. 226 . (A venit Susan) b. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.) More infrequently.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.e. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. were closing. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. In (2) the forms come. Susan has come.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. too: (6) Her eye-lids. i. blood-shot and painted.) As you can see in this second case. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. it functions attributively. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. been and killed are past participle forms. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. Susan has been killed. the past participle can appear after a noun.
Oh. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. (Sosind aici. (Ştiind cine era el. When singing. If provoked. she ran away. I will arrive there on time.) c. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) 227 . (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. o să ajung la timp.) c.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. mother permitting. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. Arriving here. people should pay attention to high notes. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. God willing. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. începură să cânte. he will eventually marry her. ea o luă la fugă. they started singing. o să ajung la timp.) b.) d. leul poate să atace. a lion can attack. Knowing who the guy was. Weather permitting.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) b.
smell. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-au descoperit că fură. notice. (L-am descoperit furând. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b.) b. He was found killed by a bullet. respectively. hear. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) 228 . watch. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. He was found stealing. (Am simţit-o tremurând. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. I found him stealing.) ii. which stands for an adverbial clause. behold. They found him killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.
confess.) b.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. leave.) b.: When she heard his words. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. I heard it said that men are a bore. etc.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. a. know. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) b. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. set.: a.) • mental perception verbs: remember. have.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. etc. hear. feel. make a.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. start. she knew herself dismissed.) • Causative verbs: get . (A fost văzut plângând. He’ll soon get things going. find. send. I must get my hair cut. keep. etc. have.) • Causative verbs: get. recollect. etc. recollect. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.) c.
/ A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. command I ordered my bill made out.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. Men like shopping made easy. lovit şi plin de sânge.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.) b. He wanted his car fixed immediately. / Nu după multă vreme./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul.) • verbs of permission./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.
the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. with its lips drawn back. / In any case. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.2. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / Dinny. sitting taut between her father and her sister. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.e. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. Unlike the gerund. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / My Lord.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.1. 231 .
a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 4. 6. am plecat. I turned on the light.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I left. the rain will stop. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. It had been uprooted by the gale. I left. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 7.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 5. I was astonished at what I saw.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. using either a present participle. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. se va opri şi ploaia.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. am plecat. 3. People were sleeping in the next room. (Văzând acestea. (Desi nu ştia limba. 2. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I have looked through the fashion magazine. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.She didn’t want to hear the story again. The tree had fallen across the road. I knew that the murderer was still at large. She had heard it all before.
cornered. 10. eyed (3 times). handed. skinned. hearted (twice). stony. haired (twice). How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. 6. dark. quick. He sat down to his own dinner. broad. 9. wooden. empty. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. red (twice). roast. b) Headed (5 times). coloured.Running into the room. 4. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. my hands often get very cold. covered. Tied to the post. a pot of paint fell on my head. 9. his horse fell at the last jump. minded (3 times). fishy. 2. I let the dog out of the room. Barking furiously. lion. open. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. eagle. bald. 11. Dropped by parachute. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. mown. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Reading in bed. 3. one of the eggs broke. They began quarreling about how to divide it. shaven. straight. a scorpion bit him. 12. I slammed the door of my room. Passing under a ladder. Leaving the cinema. narrow. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Mother punished me for my mistake. He fed the dog. Climbing down the tree. 233 . stricken. 8. 5. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar.shoulder. lighted. 7. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. open. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. drunken. many. cloth. Riding in the first race. They found the treasure. sharp. 10. Read the sentences and try to correct them. Getting out of bed. three. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 8.
the same verb is missing twice. _______ by S. _______ for their elegance and precision. was today taken back to prison. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. The escaped prisoner. shorn. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. is expected to be a great hit. are sold throughout the world. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. eyes. hidden. wealth. are in grave danger of extinction. plank._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. graven. (admire) 5. (grow) 4. candle./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (produce) 3. meat. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. ill-gotten. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. / Three people. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.I fell on the ice. (hunt). Whales. (injure). _______ for a bargain. were taken to hospital. rotten. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . duty. head. lamb.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. Translate into English: 1.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. ________ hiding in a barn. I stared at the canvas for ages. lead.Spielberg. b) grass. 7. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / Swiss watches. In the following pairs of sentences. deer. stream. (find) 6. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. meaning. image. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. man. _______ my arm. (take) 2. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. bounden. / Many old people . The film. shrunken.
precum şi foile de plăcintă. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. întinse. 3. După câtva timp. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. care le rânduia. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. când strânsă. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. şi moi. 4. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. deodată sufocat. Şi sufletul său. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. ca şi cum. Şi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. O umbreluţă. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. când deschisă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. 2. trezit. legume date prin mai multe ape. le cocea. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. le fierbea. păsări tăiate. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. nesigur şi moale.
The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.2.1. Likewise.2. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.Nadina VIŞAN 9. crezi.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. 236 . (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. The Gerund 9. (Dacă vezi. According to this criterion.
just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.2. That he won and you lost was surprising. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. His winning and your losing were both surprising. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.) b. In that. Consider the following table. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) 9. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. gerunds differ from participles.) b. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. Him winning and you losing was surprising. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.2.
extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) Unlike participles. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. *It was illegal growing a beard. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.) b. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. Consider (32). In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) 2. as being verbal 238 . It was illegal to grow a beard. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.
(S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) b. as offered in the table below: 239 . gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. Just like in the case of noun phrases. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.2.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b.3. It’s no good talking to her. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. Participles vs.) 9. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.) 3.
passive ones She was crying. 3. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. babies suck their thumb. 2. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (adverbial of time) 4. + noun] 1. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. forms: continuous . he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 .
/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi.
The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 12. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 11. 4. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 3. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 5. 9. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 12. 242 . 14. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 8. 10. 13. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. eating habits/ eating people. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 2. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 15. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. shooting gallery / shooting star. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. He was spotted talking to her. crying game / crying woman. 7.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 6.
3.) The absence of a determiner like the. a The absence of an of phrase. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. but the presence of a direct object (i.Unit nine Ing complements 9. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.
we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. These are features that normally characterize any noun. In the second situation. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. George’s shooting the attacker.
very large./ His sudden coming puzzled her. 245 . / His coming there puzzled her./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. Jim left quietly. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. the sheriff.
at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. ING Forms and Infinitives.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). For instance.4. It has been noticed that. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. With the infinitive. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. for example. Look. the meaning is different. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. However.Nadina VIŞAN 9. whenever we meet an –ing form. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.
prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. anterior to the verb in the main clause.) After looking at this example. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) The first example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) . (S-a oprit din mâncat. On the other hand. containing an infinitive. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. the infinitive is future-oriented. future-oriented value of the infinitive). we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.g. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. and the most well-known one. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. having left) is infrequently used in English.
the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.e.) As you can see. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). recollect. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. which means that they are similar in meaning. i.e. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).) . (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.
In the second example. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. dar asta este.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. the action is not completed. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) . (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. but that’s it. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.
In the second example. (Casa trebuie reparată. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) 250 . s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. mean has the sense signify.) b.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) wedding.) With [. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.human] objects. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. The house needs to be repaired. want With [+ human] objects. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. (Casa trebuie reparată. The house needs repairing. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. the event has not happened yet. e) need. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.
what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. Lady Corven. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. (hold) up his pen and (speak). So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. whereas in the second case.’ ‘Tell me. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. I did ask Mr. however appearances were against us.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. but they went by too quickly. (take) down her answer.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare.’ ‘In any case.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. gerund or infinitive. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. it’s overrated. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. my Lord. Croom (try) (follow) one. my Lord.
he addressed the note. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.’ said Clare. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. and went out (post) it himself. licked the envelope with passion. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). I must go back now.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ said Clare. I just used the word and they fell. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. suddenly. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ 252 . Then. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.
since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features.Unit nine Ing complements 9. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Pratice In the following texts. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground.5. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Last but not least. Participles mainly function as adverbials. the 253 .
slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. but then he saw it billowing up from below. The two sides were moving apart. it 254 . according to the books he read. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. covering the girl’s head. someone looking for survivors. It was like a mist. then the noise and the cracking stone. At first. The sight of the two children. She started coughing. Then he saw movement at his feet. slowly rising in a swirling motion. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. He looked up towards the daylight.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. moving up towards his chest. down. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. their edges crashing inwards. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. down into God knows where. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. hoping he would see somebody up there. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the enormous split in the earth.
they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. She finished what jobs there were. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. and sunlight.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. for Dornford was busy on an important case. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. my dear. brightening to winter brilliance. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. 255 . slanted on to her cheek.
Ridicându-se. and then went riding with her in the rain. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. închizând ochii. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. În urma slugii. totul se animă deodată. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . într-o joi. Vaucher şi cu mine. mama mea. ucenicul său necredincios. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. 2. cei doi Mamona. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821.
la mine. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Neclintiţi. se duse lânga mama şi. o sărută pe frunte. privit. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. am ştiut şi cine. pe Vaucher. afară ploua în continuare. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. aşezată cu spatele la noi. pe mama mea părând absentă. aplecându-se puţin. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. dar ştiutoare. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. 3. Şi deodată. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. auzit şi zadarnic. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. după cum îi spusese mama. totul mi se părea cunoscut.
Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Au coborât din camion încet. cu tot cu baraca. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. dar. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. 5. camionul a plecat. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 .Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu stiva de lemne. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu soba.
Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. 259 .
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
6. How much. in some way. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. How this time was to come. 2. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 12. he had been advised. 5. was unclear to Mitzi. I am sorry not to have seen you. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. Having regard to the date of drafting. since I have decided. and meet it right here at home. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. apart from his distress for parents. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. because of pity. to retire early from my employment. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. and this particularly of late. whereas if she went away she would get none. he had not yet been able to estimate. this would really hurt. 7. You have been much in my thoughts. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 13. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 9. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. and that 263 . 3. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 10. 11. without profound questioning. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to.
I was made say Grace before every dinner. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / In the end. this always makes us feel embarrassed. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. for attending his sister’s wedding. 19. looking forward had not yet taken place. / Before you go on changing the subject. please consider his proposition. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. one of the eggs broke. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / Whenever I visited my aunt. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 264 . 14. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 17. he did not come to see her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. even for months.
a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. a little girl. quite unexpectedly. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. Vulgar men did. it was said. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. to end in some awful tragedy. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. her old friend Hugh. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. of all people. (and there he was. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. They rushed into shops. rather than the hefty type. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. she said. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. They hated trying on. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. She felt as when. and it was bound. her recklessness. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Instead of which she had married. 265 . without discovery. Essentially. At country houses she had met them of course. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. of the quick and wiry. cotton mills at Manchester. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. centered in London and themselves. Though much in request before her marriage. Tony was a child. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . an open-air person. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. Clarissa used to think.
It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. Bolnava nu se simtea. era un bun sfatuitor. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. nu a facut-o pentru asta. viguros si vesel in felul lui. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. nu puteam sa le uit. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. but lying in her bath. indeed. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. short of the contacts of love. astfel. she was uneasy. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Cind l-a chemat. aveam tot mai 266 . il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.Over the River) 2. The closer she allowed him to come to her. De uitat. ii faceau bine. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. cre s-au nascut lent. to keep abreast of the current.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. with all its impatience of restraint. si in plus. Reading many novels. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she professed.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. the more she would be torturing him. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. (John Galsworthy . Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita.Rindurile dvs.
cit mai au de trait. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. (St. nu pricep nimic. Banulescu – ibid. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. se stie. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Banulescu – ibid. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. (St. Banulescu – ibid. lungimea picioarelor. vaazut cindva. 4.) 6. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. ca si tine. Personal. Ce a iesit. (St. Milionarule.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. o data sau de doua ori. (St. Banulescu – ibid. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. fa-o. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. latimea si ascutisul labei. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 5. poate fi compensata. mi-am zis.) 267 . pe scaunul lui tare. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. are nevoie. printr-o asistenta activa din afara.) 7. Daca tu.
that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Who was may father. Who when asked about his memories of the War. And had a brother killed in the same battle. delivered from the holocaust. A story-book romance. Translate them. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man.. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who came home from the war.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.P. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Arthur Atkinson M.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. (. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Cambridge. for being a renegade. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who told me. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . a wounded soldier. Could he be blamed. 2. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. when I was even younger than you. to Emmanuel College.. my grandfather.
daughter of an ill-paid journalist. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. he had already engaged himself? 3. a moody man.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. 4. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. Rachel Williams. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. How 269 . He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. and because – but this is mere speculation. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. deep-set. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. Fabianism. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. to whom.
Cum au tăcut ei. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Ion. om mare.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. la şcoală. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Ion. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum a trăit el. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. 270 . Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. satul. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum a ajuns el. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. cu taina aceasta. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta.
E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. greşeli dintr-astea. L-au derivat cei din teatru. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. cu sau fără voie. Când actriţa. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. 271 . singurul lui stăpân. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . de mama lor. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. din franţuzeşte.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. împotriva tuturor.pune totul in discuţie. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. când voi fi singur.
Era să am din cauza asta un duel. 3. nevasta-mea. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Am început. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. uneori şi astăzi chiar. 5. parcă începusem s-o uit. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Tot aşa. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. traversând. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. 4. e îndrăgostită de un actor. de pildă.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. continuând. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. dam buzna peste automobile. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Într-o vreme. ci un sistem de acomodare. privindu-mă în ochi. 272 . care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. pe jumătate prezent. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. sau ridicole. 6. A devenit palid. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. provocându-le.
ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. să merg întins. că nu m-am gândit la asta. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. şi dacă merg întins. 11. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. ca un acrobat. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. fireşte. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. Aş vrea să mă las jos. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. E o problemă. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. 9. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Dacă nemţii înaintau. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. iar. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. şi să nu ameţesc. Am început. De altminteri. 8. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . orice s-ar întâmpla.
Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. dar nu se mai putea. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. 274 . dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. In curind. La un moment dat. 16. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. nu mai semana. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Ii venea greu. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. la carti. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. 17. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. cu mirare. de la proces. trebuia sa le spuna. 14. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . 13. de la lucruri personale. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. de la obiecte de pret.. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Uite. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. nu mai pricepu nimic. la amintiri. Auzindu-l. de uimire. se uita in jos. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. nu trebuie sa va suparati. 15. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. la fata locului. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire.. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea.Ma. Ilie nu-l asculta. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Adica tot trecutul. eu am venit sa va intreb. Greu era din partea asta. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Acum isi ferea privirea.
« Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Zimbea siret.Ce sa fac. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. cum zicea Anghel. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. i se paru ca aici e ceva. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. There was even 275 . Aici era ceva. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. dar. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. apoi se uitau la Ilie. 20. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. 19. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. vorbe asa si-asa. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. asa cum facuse pina acum. Nu era nevoie.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. se indeparta nepasator. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. . which was part of his rich outfit. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea.
He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. to admit that she was a proud. conversationally. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. resuming her walk. He walked a long time. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. 4. going astray. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. at least. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. He felt then.Miller at her hotel. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. 5. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. asked for Mrs. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. She was one 276 . paying no attention. the young lady. 3. a simplification. for the instant. But Daisy. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. gave an exclamation. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. on this occasion.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. to take his way home on foot. to move fast. rude woman.Nadina VIŞAN relief.
6. indeed. uncomfortably. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. on the other hand. 7. smiling and chattering. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. He left me musing. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. often. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. of studying European society. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. Her daughter. in radiant loveliness. making Paul stop and look at her. make a point. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. as it were. in their own phrase. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. while residing abroad. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. She rustled forward. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. as to projected changes. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. She appeared. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. and wondering what the deuce he meant.Walker. 8. Advising with me. as text book. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival.
for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. was immensely struck with him. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. 11.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. 10. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. and. H. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. not seeing. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. while Paul. which was deliberate. 9. with his humorous density. and acute too. The agent became a very familiar type to H. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. could see he was remarkable. H. or at any rate not heeding. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair.’ 278 . It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. though E. wondered what they were talking about. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. H. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. was only half satisfied with this. and perceived that it must be something important.
the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. But she gave him no chance. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. H. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. 15. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. which was very copious. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. 13. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. that the haunting wonder which now. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. appeared to fill his whole childhood.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. as he looked back. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. had the power to chain his sympathy. not glancing at him for a moment. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. 14. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off.
Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. and there were others. 18. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. 16. yet 280 . At the theatre. where the Pearl of Paraguay. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. as a general thing. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. H. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. dragging herself on her knees. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. and to H. 17. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. It was very possible she was capricious. ironically reserved. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. disheveled and distracted. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. proudly. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. that she must be on the contrary. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. The whole establishment.
but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 19. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. didn’t mind. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. *Old. had blown a certain chill. on which the damp breath of the streets. would always be more or less irritating. H. Their mistakes and illusions. with the poor. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. and lurking within this nebulous design. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. 281 . that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. It came over H. young men were invited. 2. 3. 20. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. No one ever listens to her. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage.
/ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. c) When I saw her sitting there. “Oh. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. Either John or he * have got to give in. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. Rachel. 12. 6. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. 8. 11. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 10. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. her shining blue feet twinkling. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 9. I blundered by. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I walked fast. 282 . her arms held out.Nadina VIŞAN 4. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. walking quickly. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 5. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. slipped on some steps. I was definitely going to be sick. striding like a Spartan maid. I saw her as a vision. 7.
The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. One or more solutions can be valid: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6.
It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 3. The old women spoke no English. could cook my meals. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. where my servant. if they were poor. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . And then I ventured to add that. but that we saw and pitied. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 2. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. which was really alarming. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. 4. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen.
would really hurt. etc.apart from his distress = apart from. at noon. he had not yet been able to estimate.g. his. How much. Constituents: how much. etc. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. was informed. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to pay their annual visit. etc. had not been able to estimate. Constituents: He. he. was anxious. distress. on Saturday. Constituents: Margaret. this. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. was anxious = was + anxious. apart form his distress for parents. before they left town. this would really hurt.g. to settle. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart from his distress for parents. on a house. Munt. 285 .
semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. negative. – assertive/ Don’t do that.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . interrogative. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. listen to this. / If you like her.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. it is assertive.. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). and is non-assertive. Second clause is an imperative./ She finally admitted. – first clause is non-assertive. interrogative. – first clause is an ifclause. negative/ Come with me./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – non-assertive. interrogative. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. which is not assertive..semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. negative/ If you like jazz.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – comparison. don’t bother her.. second clause is non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 . negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – non-assertive.
/ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. everybody used to travel by coach. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. only irresolute. the two brothers dared to protest. but not more than she does others. –double negation cancellation. / She does not hate animals. not even when it’s quiet around./ Not long ago./ He was exceptionally cunning./ Hardly interested in the conference./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. – they told the truth to somebody else. but it wasn’t them. / He wasn’t unusually bright. – someone hates animals. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night.but to someone else./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ He was smart enough. / She does like John. – I like somebody else./ When he learned the news. not even this thing. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ They weren’t really confused. but nothing out of the ordinary./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / They didn’t leave. he was hardly pleased. / I don’t like her very much.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. – someone did that. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / You have never met 287 . but it isn’t Susan.
Nadina VIŞAN her. – negative insertion. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. not even when you were very young.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers..negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.. were they? / This boy is no good. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Should they not have told her the truth.. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. they go skiing in the mountains. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody..negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / This is hardly the 288 ..negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. I could hardly wait to hear the news..negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.. not even in my dreams.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. – I cannot look him in the eye. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. *did he?/ They caused us no problems..negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her..
– You haven’t eaten a thing. – I don’t often look at her like that.. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life..Never shall I trust a man again. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. but she also lent him a car. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. Activity 8 I shall never. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. never trust a man again. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / I seldom look at her like that.. / Few people came to see her. – Not many people came to see her. / I didn’t leave the 289 . –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – I never see her. – Almost nobody liked him. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. when we started our holiday./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – I almost never look at those paintings.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.
/ She could rely on nobody but him. / They believe she does not like them./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over.. – I don’t expect he will come here again. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime./ I somewhat like his proposal. you can’t do anything about it any more. / Don’t worry. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – On no account must you touch this machinery. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – Nowhere could the keys be found. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / They say he once had someone very close. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him./ Well. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – 290 . / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – Only on this man could she rely./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. you can still do something about it. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / Come on. – They don’t believe she likes them. –At no time did we leave the office.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent)./ I expect he won’t come here again. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Come on.
– Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. either. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / You must be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Bob is still living at that address./ I can understand all of these ten English words./ I nearly always have to clean it myself./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – You can’t be telling lies./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. 291 . – You should send her something. / She hardly ever comes here. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – Well her husband has always been a good person. too. / You must pay that fine./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – She almost always comes here. / You needn’t send her anything. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives.. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. –Alice still lives here. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / Well. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t.
/ Nimic de facut. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Nu spune nu niciodata. I haven’t seen her in years. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ 292 . He isn’t that smart./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. / Don’t go on believing him./ You took his leaving you very hard./ They say this Ph./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ I don’t know a thing about her. / Jim is so brave./ Have they rung the bell? No./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Please./ Am avut un car de necazuri. He didn’t move a muscle. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ You look so tired today./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. Oh./ Nobody told us a thing. has never studied anywhere. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ E un baiat de zahar./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ He’s a happy man. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. I haven’t done anything. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Zis si facut. not yet. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. to any of us. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ He was a tough man. give me a hand. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. It’s no wonder./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. ever since I got this ulcer. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. e un magar.D.
slowly. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . for I thought this threatening. thrown out. that I was a decent man. parasi camera./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. nothing.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. with the same needs they had. feebly. 293 . I had never had the opportunity to prove. We had nothing in common. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. one way or another. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light./ Nu-i nici un deranj.’ ‘Nici o problema. no memory. I hadn’t really expected miracles.’/ Deloc descurajat.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. without too much determination.
It’s not made up of theories and the like. to say the least. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. I’d be so happy if it were so.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Unfortunately. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. You really made me mad. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. We have to judge it as it is. it’s not words. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. he was sitting beside me. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. Your judgement is false. the only 294 . I was sleepy and tired. clear or confusing. but facts. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. on the front seat. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. Not for a moment had I thought that. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. by coming here to the monastery. bad. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. Radu had calmed down. • It was my turn to say something. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. your story. or if you understood what I meant. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. not as we would like it to be or some other way. that’s what the world is about. let alone irritable. good. things you do any moment. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently.. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I admit.
But what about you and Melania. did you ever step up front. clears your way. or call the respect of others. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. and an inability to act. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. you can go to Ursu’s. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. it’s yours. or you are lying hidden. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. we are leaving. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. me. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. either. it’s your problem. me. as Baciu would have us be. you do as you think fit. keep it squeaky clean. no matter how huge they are. although it was a difficult thing to do. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. it solves troubles. Look. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. to fight. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. keep your conscience clean: you have one. soon we’ll be in town. Anyway. I won’t interfere. precious words. fear might be hiding. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. just to please myself. 295 . because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. behind these big. But I was just wondering. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. and if you like. too? A gun is power. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. • So.
incorrect. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. has not arrived yet – double negation. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things... She admires neither Susan nor Jane.correct 3.Negative attraction b) 1. will he?. the sentence is incorrect 3. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. has yet arrived -correct 2. -correct 3. correlatives are mixed 2. because before is a positive polarity item 2.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . The villagers were not very religious. . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. – incorrect. But it was not because I had no answer to give.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. as soon as he delivered it. but they gradually got used to it. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. firmly determined not to answer immediately.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. .Negative incorporation 296 . or some other woman. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.
much less ((NPI) for her. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). His spirit was too tired. either (NPI). nu era 297 . (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. she couldn’t marry him. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. b) But it was rather (API) late. Avea sufletul prea obosit. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Ştia că are dreptate.) Însă era cam târziu. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Her stillness. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. (ibid. too troubled. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. her lack of motion would have to do (API). not happy at all (NPI). yet. prea răscolit. Nu putea să se mişte. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).
cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. if anything (NPI). The Satanic Verses. and not a little unsteadily. he made his way to the screen. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. şi destul de hotărât. his heart was beating fast.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. 298 . inima îi batea năvalnic. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. she looked younger than ever (NPI). Ba dimpotrivă. (Salman Rushdie. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. (ibid. (ibid. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). (ibid.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. se îndreptă spre paravan. e) At length. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni.
Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. the gift was useless.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. and probably an administrative headache as well. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Home receded from the prodigal son. h) C. care if the school were willing to treat him. Ce-i pasă lui C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. but his father would have none of it (NPI). Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). The point was. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. (ibid. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. i) What did C. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). 299 .) C. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el.
correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question.indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. . 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
now she was chatty. yes. they were. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Fenia. Chizlinski. all godfearing husbands and fathers. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. She has an eye for gentle men. keep Condrat away from her. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Fenia. do you really think that this vixen.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. and then what do you 308 . Stavre Paici. Vica. 2. Luca Horobet. she likes to entrance them. she didn’t wear a ring. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. “Now. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. the bitch. to make them lust after her. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. you are in enough trouble as it is. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village.
Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. with a railway station and a mosque. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. 3. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. ankle-long flowered calico. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. G. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. The mullah. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. the minister of Tartars and Turks. He got him out of his mosque. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. what’s her name. dragging his feet listlessly. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. her hair pinned with blue combs. a seventy-eight year old lad. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. 4.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. It even takes him a while to go to the window. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. have a girlfriend.
But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .
– sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.) 9.phrasal coordination (in this case. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation 10. Our flag is red. our respective examinations. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. John and Mary are ready.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .. and I passed. yellow and blue.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Her pet kitten is black and white. John is ready and Mary is ready.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – sentence coordination 7. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.
her idea and John’s. your proposal and his. 5. 2. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Activity 5 This book and the other. but John does not play football. 9. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. your work and mine.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. but not John. We can and will demand payment. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. 7. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 6. that method and those. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Activity 4 1. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. many guest or few. 8. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 3. much satisfaction or little 312 . and even tennis. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words).) Joan plays many games. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. her son and others. 10. plays football.
He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Few and far between 14. Pros and cons 4. magazines are only for children. Safe and sound 313 . Touch and go 10. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Bread and butter 16. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Swings and roundabouts 7. 7. Law and order 8. To and fro 15. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Life and soul 5. (I have always fought for progress and always will. He read. He snapped at him and slapped him. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 5. Thick and thin 11. 4. but not simple. etc. Ups and downs 6. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. The facts and figures 3. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. High and low 2.) 6. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Wear and tear 12. Spick and span 9. 8. Activity 8 1. 3. Over and above 13.
His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 9. 6. – similar situation 9. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 10. 5. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. Symmetric 13.There is a table and some chairs in the room. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Either the child or the parents are to blame. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street.symmetric 11. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. inclusive 16. 2. – symmetric. 4. Asymmetric 19. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – asymmetric 18. 5. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 3. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – symmetric. 2. – symmetric 10. – symmetric 2. 6. 9. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. Cathy and David have arrived. exclusive 17. Symmetric 21. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. cause-effect Activity 10 1.. There are some chairs and a table in the room. My son and daughter are twins. 7. 8. 3. 314 . 10. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 4. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Asymmetric 20. 1. Not John but his two sons are to blame. b. My son and heir is safe. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 7. exclusive 15. 8. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric.
I hope my letter finds you alive and well. Jim thought it over for a while. it was too small. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 5. Should he pour water in the basin. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. Not only should you rest 315 . 9. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. clothes and all. 12. Her husband is long dead and buried. 11. 7.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. They came to me. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. thanks for asking. He’s neither fish. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. for better or worse. 3. No drinking and driving. 3. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. I’ll still finish this paper. nor fowl. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. He went to bed. 2. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. We’ll stick together. 14. 8. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 10. By hook or by crook. Brother or no brother. 4. 2. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. There are doctors and doctors. 6. ‘Madam. (2) 1. 15. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can.
it would work out fine. but she blinks in approval. Her first husband had been a professor. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. an important man. From time to time she will launch a helping question. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. just like when he was thirty. So she’ll listen to him. so he could leap in pursuit. but he’d come out a cripple. This. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. both dead and buried.Nadina VIŞAN assured. their common ground. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. You know. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Mrs. What do you know? The moment Mrs. 2. Whatever she tried her hand at. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses.’ (3) 1. and then. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. tense with concentration. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and she listens to him. so he’d gone down and died in no time. They hadn’t kept him there too long. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. 316 . he starts lecturing her about life and things. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. stop dead in his tracks. And. she knows for sure. she started doing a great job. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. tense like a bow. he’d leap high. what’s its name. as she always does. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. without mentioning financial matters. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. at equal intervals. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem.
she looked at me sadly. about her problems at home After I told her the story. you. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness .subordinate. functioning as an object (direct). functioning as a modifier 3. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – she. came. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.subordinate. – she. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct 2. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days .THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . is aware. looked. – obligatory elements: I. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. told. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. cannot tell.subordinate.subordinate. – Susan.
Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that you are choosing exile . at our age.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5. remove our home yet again .subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that we should.complement b) 1.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.subordinate.
adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement.complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. a house. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. direct object. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . a barn. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement.
that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . without straightening her back. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.wh complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. Activity 5 1. (…) He dashed back. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning.A few days before the war. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ and done – wh complement. direct object. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. staring at each other. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. (…) ‘Well. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. sickle in hand. But other people. that kept her constantly tense and grim. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. When Anton put the sickle down. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object/ to sit there – complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly.
saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. or if he does. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Only he had Ana to think of. which he doesn’t rely on completely. as if they were at his beck and call. that was for sure. or other more hidden means. 321 . had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. 3. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. For no bold man really falters. rather than a real threat. Why! He was not of two minds. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. while they spoke from miles away. First. while on other occasions he would show caution. Ana could not stand a trip now. Not even at this point. he will turn back and no longer be daring. 2. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. you need courage even for this small thing. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. but he doesn’t spurn either. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. but also his sharp nose. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila.
come on. 322 . He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. without really knowing why. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. under the silliest of pretexts. and when things didn’t go as planned. although he could have said so earlier. are we getting off again? What is wrong. it was the women. by the cars of some of us. We were going to drive to a vineyard. So. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. he had postponed writing back.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. Twice did we get in the car. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. and on Monday followed another feast). and twice we were requested to get out. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. And here’s how this first day looked. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. to see some mutual friends. in Odobesti. In fact. 4. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. they would ruin the arrangement. But it was not ok.
A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.free 8. 6. He is the author who they gave a prize to. all of whom would answer to his questions. 7. who was just passing by. where I spent my youth . They met those students none of whom agreed with them. He told her the secret. 5. 3. The students like their teacher. 8. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 3. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. on which this occurred . You couldn’t join the party. 8. 7. which was silly of him. John told his friend a story about the king. 4. like their teacher. 5. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. most of whom were from England.restrictive 4.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. where I least expected 323 .restrictive 6.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 10. 11. any of whom would answer to questions. which was a pity. Activity 3 1. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. why they all left . 9. The students. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 6. when we first met .restrictive 7. I bought Jim a book that he liked.restrictive 2. These are people who we cannot tell much about. Who are you writing this letter to? 9.She came to London where I went too. Activity 2 1. This is my husband whom I love very much. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 2. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 4. 10.
where we talk money – predicative. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. come up front.adjunct 11. 3. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . who cannot say a word. 6. Where . What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition.When Ada remarked – adjunct.adjunct 5. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. the prince chose Cinderella.free Activity 4 1. Of all the persons there. Who . where – predicative 7. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.adjunct 10. 2. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. 4. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. You. I. What Inman remembered – subject. which . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. however sad .Nadina VIŞAN . when . who think so highly of yourselves. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. was very displeased with the situation. what their parents made them.free 9. Which – subject 4. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. What I’m saying – subject. Where he was from – adjunct.adjunct 6.adjunct 3. Where . Activity 5 1. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. When .subject 8.restrictive 10. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. 5.subject 9. 7. What – direct object 2. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Why .
that is ungrammatical because it 325 . – which is ungrammatical due to the [. which requires an accusative form.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.attribute 12. what little she knew – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. whatever – predicative 13. how .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. what . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.
the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. got married and had a daughter. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . whose great-grandfather. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. a rather tiny looking man. a sergeant. having changed quite a number of jobs. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who. in his turn. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. but whose second cousin. due to its invariable character. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician.
with deletion of the noun friends].obligatory 3.obligatory 4. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.yes 7.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.yes Activity 9 1. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. This story. – yes. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. His friends.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. . no matter which – [pied piped phrase. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. . – yes 6. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. – no pied piping 5. .His father’s friends. was now complete. The problem of safe transportation. – no pied piping 327 . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. . – no 9.yes 3. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.no 5. no easy answers to which could be offered. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. he rarely saw now. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. were now all gone. – no 4. In the interest of public decency. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. he requested that the public be excluded. – obligatory pied piping 2. . has been troubling them forever. – yes 2.yes 10. Irene. whose interest he most sincerely shared. .
yours. 3. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. Everything was ending. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 328 . or as of a vast arena. I did so. For all the four children. 2. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 4. 7. Only an ugly endless dream remained. for instance. I am to be envied. irrespective of age and nature. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. For twenty years. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. where two teams battled every day… 5. the third born son.and he couldn’t thank me enough.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. Nelu. 8. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. In other people’s opinion. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 6.
Let me tell you my last conclusion. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. from MR street. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. 329 . to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. barely glittering in the distance. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. 11. 10. What you’re saying sounds very nice. leaving streets and houses behind. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. the tram was rattling along. although she was standing quite close to him. since I don’t really know which my true life is. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 14. where from Marta was coming too. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. on Icoanei street. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 16. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 12. 13. staring aimlessly.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 15. 17. she said. He was suffering from dizziness.R. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. You are newly arrived here. All that you have read is rubbish. Behind them.
which I did not posses. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. or the clash of stars above. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. after the car was fixed. While some trees are still green. or the many Egyptian dynasties. day by day. 330 . 22. 24. 21. So. But. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. had a personal style in clothes. I don’t know what might have happened. From the vantage point I was in. I could see my woman falling away from me. While we were poor. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. likes and dislikes. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. If he had hit me. had a huge house in Bucharest. But for me. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 20. so optimistic and composed? 19. She was a woman of means. 23.Nadina VIŞAN 18. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. in her pursuits. who prompted everyone on the street. who only lived once in this world.
object 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . direct object 10. – extraposed. object 5. – questionable. subject 7. subject 9. – impossible 7. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. 6. – the same as 3. – extraposed. direct object 3. It appears that no one voted for him.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – unextraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 3. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – extraposed. 331 . – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – extraposed. subject 4. prepositional object 11. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 2. 8. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. subject 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. subject 2.
It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. but pragmatically impossible 4.grammatical. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – incorrect. I don’t expect it that he will come back. idiomatic formula 16. tense influences the 332 . .correct 4. 10. – grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – impossible. . a bit too intricate 5. – grammatical. I guess it that he will come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. 18. same as 12. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – impossible. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – grammatical. Activity 3: 1. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. They never expected it that he would come back. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – the same as 12.grammatical. although a bit intricate 2.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 9. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. 14. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.incorrect. – same as 12. . same as 12. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. but pragmatically impossible 3. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 17. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 15. – impossible 11. It is nice to meet you. – correct 2. – impossible. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible.
in the pits on the road. behind gates. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. though.’ 4. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. 5. under bridges. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. 333 . Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. 2. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . (Not always. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.incorrect. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.’ Lionel says. in the ditch. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. 3. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. thus. – correct 6. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1.
– the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Activity 7 1. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. – the first sentence is the better of the two. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. since the 334 . / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 2. prime-minister. because it is less ambiguous. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 7. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. without trying to protest too much. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations.Nadina VIŞAN 6. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence is questionable. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. It is less ambiguous than the first. 3. 8. 4. who had just returned from Africa. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. By saying this. who had just returned from Africa. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it.
/ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 5. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. The second and third sentences are grammatical. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 7.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 6. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – both sentences are grammatical. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 335 . They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. so there is no need for extraposition. extraposition is obligatory here. 8. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.
The idea that he had had earned him good money. – relative 5. (Iris Murdoch. – complement 5. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.prepositional object. they were chained to each other forever. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – direct object. – relative 3. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. coordinated. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – prepositional object. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.adverbial of sequence/result. .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.We discovered that our map has disappeared. – complement 2. . required by deverbal noun 336 .) adverbial of sequence/result.relative Activity 9 1. – subject. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – complement that clause. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) complement that clauses.complement 4. (Iris Murdoch. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. ibid. . ibid. for better or worse.
– that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. f) John said that Harry would leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. h) John thought that Harry had run. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. you want me to believe. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. that they were not too late to leave. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 .(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. that deletion is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory.
c. sequence of tenses is observed 4. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – both sentences are grammatical. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – grammatical sentences.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. a. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. b. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5.
Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. ciocârlii şi şoimi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. present perfect instead of past perfect. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . While the first is possible because of the generalization. – generalization on habits of birds. quail. cenuşii şi albe. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. hawk.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. lark. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. present instead of simple past. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. prepeliţe. geese both grey and white. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow.
Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Crows will relish what presents itself. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. love of practical jokes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. lack of pridefulness. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. She admired their keenness of wit. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). The generic present is used in this case. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. slyness in a fight. lipsa de vanitate. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Noble beyond all her powers of expression.
She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. […] During the latter stages of the tale. He had fought hard through the war. in the very act of expiring. se ridicase în picioare. tragică şi eroică. he claimed. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. tânărul ofiţer. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. He died erect. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. the young officer. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. But as the battle raged around them.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Murise în picioare. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . El căzuse pe spate. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei.
Now here he stood jailed. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. war hero though he was. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. 342 . Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. în închisoare. I realized I could not tell him the big news. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. When he saw me. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. 2. Activity 13 1. deşi era erou de război. the oldest. Luptase din răsputeri în război. But when he reached me. they gathered around my desk. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. They all had their hands in their pockets. When the boys saw that mother had left. around seventeen or eighteen years old. to finish my drawing. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. he closed the album. Acum stătea aici. And they might just hang him. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. How can I explain? I just felt shy. susţinea el. mother went home and I was left alone. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. jumped off the bench and ran towards me.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. One of them. – similar situation to the one under (c). A short while later.
he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. 6. as if he had been drunk.’ 5. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. All his senses were now keen. for her vineyard. or if she would do so again. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. one might think that you sought refuge by her side.’ Mr. 4. or fear his rage. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. brightly and closely.
Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great.Nadina VIŞAN to him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. claiming you had no ambition for the future. The last time when we met here you scared me. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. And if things were so. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 10. 11. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 7. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 8. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. 9. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. thinking of him.
And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. namely the impatience of this young man. 13. 14. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. 12. where he would run to confess everything. We either sell them or we don’t. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. which secretly drove him. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. without putting anything in a note. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. towards Jurubita. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . more urgently than ever. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while.
the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – simple infinitive. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 5. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 3. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / He had Mary clean her room. – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – infinitive continuous. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. 9. .INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. grammatical 2. – simple infinitive. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. .simple infinitive. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. – perfect infinitive. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. grammatical 10. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical. 346 . – infinitive continuous. grammatical 6. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. / they saw her leave.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. grammatical 7.
/ It is not too late for him to learn. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: *She wanted him. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / I want to never see you again. Test: * I would like people. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: *I would love them. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I allowed [them to come. – Test: He persuaded her. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. you need to try harder. – Test: They tempted him. Test: *I allowed them. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / He is believed to have known her 347 .Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *They did not wish her. – Test: They convinced her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: She promised him. – Test: They asked her.] – Accusative + Infinitive.
I don’t need you or your services. / He is easy to live with. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. . . – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. Activity 6 Oh. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / I have never known how to behave in her presence.Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. . / Oh. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. . / I have a word to tell you.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is easy to talk to. / To make a long story short. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / He is young enough to start again. / He is hard to stand. not to miss the train. / I want you to leave my house. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.obligatory subject control verb 348 .
Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. so that we might get to the future and have done. he didn’t envy those above it. Harold. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. He suspected hostility at once. Subject. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. 1] A little crossly. If he himself was out of spirits. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].Accusative + Infinitive. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Subject. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Predicative 4 . 349 . thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 1 – PRO-to. 1 – PRO. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. who wasn’t used to men with moods.to. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. they had depressed and fuddled him. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.
One day. 350 . as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. more meaningful. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. direct object 3 – PRO –to. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. e) When two persons. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. 1 – PRO-to. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. f) The passing time is important. or better said. PRO controlled by ‘me’. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. we seem to forget about our own pain. PRO controlled by ‘him’. But when we need to comfort others. true. object 2 – PRO –to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. man and woman.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. c) Unlike plane trips. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. And you might also be hit and humiliated. cautiously. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. slowly. more believable than evidence itself. PRO controlled by ‘she’. excitedly. PRO controlled by ‘she’. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality.
for instance. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. or their talk that night. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. k) With this considerable dowry. Mrs. He had not been able to leave Dr. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. in the street. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. tickled by the trickles of sweat. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. that you are young. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. all down our neck. Moroi says heavily. to live only with your coughing. my wish being only to please and serve. S. not even those parts where he had been half-right. That is it. Stroescu. or. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. And to actually start to believe you are so. not to want to wipe it off. I am indeed praising my own merits. 351 . Although that talk deserved to be remembered. while swearing to change my way of life.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. If it was summer. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. And I would care for this man so deeply. as he had appeared to him in the rain. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. even when this love is hurried. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. which he had already forgotten. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. h) I want us to go.
ready to submit to any demand. Well. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. poor Muti. 352 . o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. no matter what. or to speak so fast. If you will have what I can give you. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. met by squalor and terrible smells. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). she was suddenly so shocked.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. haphazardly. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. here I am with all of my own. every Bucharester knows it. for that’s the door people get off by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before.
/ She sent him shopping. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. 353 . / They found it thrown in a corner. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Don’t keep him waiting. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. badly beaten and bloodied. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper..’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. – Attributive past participle. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ He went to have a tooth pulled.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back.
I was extremely reluctant to open the door. I slammed the door of my room. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 10. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I was astonished at what I saw. sitting taut between her father and her sister.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 5. Having fed the dog. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 4. Activity 4 1. The tree had fallen across the road. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her.She didn’t want to hear the story again. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. 7. 6. Turning on the light. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. Having looked through the fashion magazine. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . – As she was running into the room. 3. 9. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. having been uprooted by the gale. Sleeping in the next room. they began quarreling about how to divide it. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 2. Finding the treasure. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. having heard it all before. he sat down to his own dinner. – Attributive present participle. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Attributive present participle. 8.Running into the room. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny./ Running into the room.
the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. many-coloured. Tied to the post. my hands often get very cold. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was riding in the first race. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. I often get very cold hands. he broke one of the eggs. 355 . I let it out of the room. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was getting out of bed. one of the eggs broke. Riding in the first race. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Reading in bed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 9. – As he was climbing down the tree. open-minded. an idea suddenly occurred to me. a pot of paint fell on my head. a scorpion bit him. / Climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. an idea suddenly occurred to me. a scorpion bit him. broad-shouldered. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. three-coloured. 3. – As I was passing under a ladder. 7. 8. 10. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. cloth-covered. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. bald-headed. 11. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 5. Leaving the cinema. Passing under a ladder. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 2. Barking furiously./ Reading in bed. red-handed. wooden-headed. narrow-minded. lion-hearted. his horse fell at the last jump. Getting out of bed. Climbing down the tree. stony-hearted. fishy-eyed. my hands often get very cold. – As the dog was barking furiously. 6. – As he was tied to the post. / Getting out of bed. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. empty-headed. – As he left the cinema. sharp-eyed/minded. 12. Dropped by parachute. he was bit by a scorpion. the sea was tossing it up and down. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. I let the dog out of the room. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – When I read in bed. 4. his horse fell at the last jump.
bounden duty. Activity 7 1. (admire) 5. sunken eyes. Activity 8 1. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. are sold throughout the world. 356 .Spielberg. straight-shouldered. / Swiss watches. injured when their car crashed on the M1. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (grow) 4. were taken to hospital. shaven head. (take) 2. (injure).Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. ill-gotten wealth. mown grass. / Many old people. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. lighted candle. shrunken stream. admired for their elegance and precision. was today taken back to prison. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. hunting for a bargain. hidden meaning. (find) 6. are in grave danger of extinction. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. drunken man. stricken deer./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. eagle-eyed. I stared at the canvas for ages. 7. (hunt). The film.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (produce) 3. rotten plank. Whales. is expected to be a great hit. open-hearted. / Three people. The escaped prisoner. found hiding in a barn. roast meat. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. produced by S. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. injuring my arm. shorn lamb. dark-skinned.I fell on the ice. graven image. hunted for their valuable oil and meat.
He felt close to his father. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. the fish. and moreover. its scales scraped off by the knife. 4. suddenly suffocated. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. 357 . hovering uncertain and soft. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. yet left them room to sway free. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. flat and soft. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. in charge of his house and lands. And his soul. seeking some promised land. then put up. 2. 3. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. So. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. now taken down. After a while. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. he started peering anxiously around as if. thrown in the pots. boil them. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. bake them. sprinkled with sticky flour. the carved chicken. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. streaked with yellow veins of fat. he were struggling for breath. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. A parasol. and the puffed pastry beds. the twice rinsed vegetables. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired.
/ The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. . / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I am sorry for being so late. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. he left the store without buying a thing. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. Activity 10 1. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action.gerund 5. / I told him not to bother putting things back. – Accusative + participle 3. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. – gerund (subject) 4. Gambling is his favourite pastime. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. – participle (attribute) 2. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day.
participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – Nominative + participle 13. 8.possessive ING (direct object) 9. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. preceded by preposition). – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14.participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – gerund (attribute. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. He was spotted talking to her. . – gerund (prepositional object) 15. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – gerund (half or full. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.
my Lord. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. however appearances were against us. hold up his pen and speak. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. Croom to try to follow one. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.’ 360 . Lady Corven. adjective.. – gerund (full. I did ask Mr. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has adjective). of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – verbal noun (has determiner.’ ‘Tell me. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – gerund or verbal noun. but they went by too quickly. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. take down her answer. adjective.
I spend all my time hunting a job. suddenly. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. it’s overrated. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ 361 . c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.’ said Clare. and went out to post it himself.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. I must go back now. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I just used the word and they fell. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. licked the envelope with passion. my Lord.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘I do hate asking for things. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. he addressed the note. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. Then.
the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. He looked up towards the daylight. The two sides were moving apart. attribute. the very earth opening up (half gerund. The sight of the two children. following the verb ‘remember’. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. the enormous split in the earth. …while their edges were crashing inwards). (participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. It was like a mist. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. attribute).’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. hoping (participle. attribute. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. village which is burning). gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. adverbial of time. First the crack snaking (half gerund. elliptical here. direct object) towards him. slightly 362 . attribute). after verb of perception. then the noise and the cracking stone. At first. direct object). slowly rising (participle. direct object) from below. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. down.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. someone looking for survivors (participle. down into God knows where. functions as direct object) and then the ground. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle.
). adverbial of manner) towards his chest. one. you. adverbial of reason). according to the books he read.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. direct object). moving up (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. i. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. early. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. etc. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. prepositional object. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. subject of ‘being’) being (participle.e. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. covering (participle. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. has ‘of’ phrase). my dear. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.
and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. the two Mamonas. and not only in my imagination or theirs. Young Mamona left the room without a word. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. reluctant or not. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner). mother. attribute) to winter brilliance. Having a French governess (participle. So. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. and sunlight. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. She finished what jobs there were. adverbial of reason). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. brightening (participle. Standing up. examining (participle. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. And. Vaucher and I. preceded by preposition. attribute) a sudden whoop. and then went riding (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. which beckoned to 364 . preceded by preposition.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. attribute) stopped dead. a door was opened and as a servant entered. and everything got suddenly animated. we were all gathered in that room. slanted on to her cheek.
a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. as mother had ordered him. 4. to me. to Vaucher. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. 3. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. bending a little. her back towards us. and to Young Mamona. let alone greet us or say something. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. closing my eyes. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . Not so unimaginable though. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. about concentrating all our resources. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. sitting in his puddle. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. and smelling so hard of rain. he looked like someone who did. too. for anyway.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. who knows. I knew who it would be. he went to mother and. his disloyal apprentice. without taking his sack off his shoulders. each carrying a wooden box. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. Entering our house on a Thursday. kissed her forehead. and ended his life in the year 1821. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. about sparing no effort. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . Vaucher might have known that too. He cast us a swift glance. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. And. And then. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. 2. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. killed by Young Mamona. he found us sitting each in his place. So when Old Mamona came in. in the year 1812.
without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. They got off the truck slowly. futile.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. stove. as an afterthought. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. wood pile. And suddenly. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. 5. But. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. each pausing before jumping down. already seen and heard. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. And all around them was the great field 366 . When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. of taking notes and rewriting them. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. long board table. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. everything seemed familiar. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. barrack. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing.
The next thing was to go to the well. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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