NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.de rezolvări. 6 .

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

Complementary distribution . The Distribution of an Element 1.5. Constituent Phrase 1.1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.3.4.Contents: 8 1. Auxiliary verbs 1. Insertion 1.2.6.

(Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. very much. 1. Semantic. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Syntactic. loves. that is sequences fragmented at random.1. her mother. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Consequently. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. They are just strings. sequences of the kind her mother very.2. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. For instance.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.

e. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. should. be). 1. 1. must.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.4. we are dealing with a directive (i. an order given to an interlocutor). (Mi-a spus secretul. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.3.) 10 . (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. etc. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.

which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. live. an ‘empty’ there subject. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. for instance. Consider.6. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. etc. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. 1. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject.5.) 1.

semantic. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. Pratice Define and illustrate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. this would really hurt. he had not yet been able to estimate. distribution. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). syntactic. as the star indicates. complementary distribution. using your own examples: insertion. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. How much. pragmatic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Munt. whereas (7) is not. 12 . both (8) and (9) are correct structures. auxiliary Activity 1 verb.

To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).

Full – local negation 2. Negative vs.2. Key terms . Polarity Items 2. affirmative sentences. Instances of negation 2.1.8. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.6. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Tests for negativity 2.4.2.7. Key terms 2.5.3. Conclusion.

Consequently.Positive vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a. in that they do not state anything.Declarative vs.2. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. For instance.Unit two Sentence negation 2. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Negative . (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. it asserts something. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.) is said to be an assertion. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .) b. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. in the sense that it states something.

Nadina VIŞAN ./ She can’t wait to read that book.g. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. 16 . don’t bother her.positive and declarative secret. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.positive sentence . They told her the ( e./ We didn’t come here just to talk./ If you like her.) ./ Don’t do that.negative (e. / She finally admitted.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.g.interrogative (e.g.assertion . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. listen to this.other (if –clauses. / Come with me.) . Did they tell her the secret? ) . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.non-assertion . comparison.

In the case of the sentences under (4). (John nu e fericit) (4) a.) b. John is unhappy. Susan doesn’t like her friends. since the negative word not is not present there. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) 17 . whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. word negation. Susan dislikes her friends. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is not happy. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (Nu demult. I met a girl named Susan.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. For example.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (John e nefericit.

just like in the case of word negation. She was not an unattractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) b. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. these sentences look negative. In other words. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. where the word 18 .Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. I was not a little worried. but their meaning tells us a different story. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. In other words.) c. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. He was not without intelligence. since the negative word not is present inside them. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.

/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. semantic negation.e. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Când a aflat vestea. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Translate the following sentences into English. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema.

This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . dar nu neobişnuit. Negative vs. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. affirmative sentences. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu erau nelămuriţi.4. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. ci doar indecişi. dar nu în mod special. 2. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală.

in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. (Nu m-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). such as do insertion.1. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (M-am dus acolo.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.) (9) I didn’t go there. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. For instance. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (see subsection 1.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.). etc. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .

/ We don’t come here often. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / She does not hate animals. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. incorrect. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. 22 . *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / I don’t like her very much. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative./ They didn’t leave. / Susan did not get married to Jim. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1.

. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. 4. 3. Example (14) is syntactically negative. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. *not even the smart ones. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. which does not happen in the case of (18).Unit two Sentence negation 2. and neither do they like her. *and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. * and they don’t like her either.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. and they don’t like her either. which is ungrammatical. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. not even the smart ones. even the smart ones. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.

Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. they go skiing in the mountains. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / At no time was he able to solve the problem. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / They caused us no problems. In conclusion. / A few of them stayed behind. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / Few of them stayed behind.5. / This boy is no good. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / You have never met her. / No problems were caused after all. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. 2. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.

This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni).Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. Susan could not go to the theatre. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-a venit John). (27) a . (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (26) I saw nobody. I went nowhere.

) (29) a. 26 . b. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. Not all that glitters is gold. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) c. I didn’t see anybody.) b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. / I didn’t ever go to his place. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (N-am văzut nici un student.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. I didn’t see any student. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN b. All that glitters is not gold.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. No day passed without me thinking of him.) b. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. no incorporation takes place. I never went to his place. I didn’t go anywhere. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.

nici măcar din alea scurte. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. not even short ones.) We seldom watch T./ They never went there.) They barely read any novels.V. barely. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / I saw nobody. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / I showed him nothing. (Nu citesc romane. . / I didn’t see anybody. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not one of them came to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers. seldom. etc. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / No one ever listens to her.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / He should not be released. / Not a word fell from her lips. rarely.4. scarcely. / None of them liked house music.

and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / Few people came to see her. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) b. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / Hardly anybody liked him. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Never have I met a more horrible person. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. . Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / I scarcely ever see her. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor.) c. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) d. / I seldom look at her like that. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) 28 them. Not for the world would I do such a thing.

/ A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / She could rely on nobody but him. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You must on no account touch this machinery. never trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. As you can see from the translation of these examples./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. in the sense that the 29 . / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.) They don’t think that he likes them. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one.

be probable. although not negative in meaning. sound/feel like. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. choose. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. intention. be likely. we can very well say something like: (38) a. / I expect he won’t come here again. want. expect. / I suppose she doesn’t care. etc. suggest. probability. be supposed to. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. should be desirable. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / He reckoned he would not win her over.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. 2. / They believe she does not like them. the negative meaning is less strong. For example. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. etc. ought to.6.) 30 . seem. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. In sentence (37). cannot appear in an affirmative context. advise. appear.: think. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. barely. suppose. guess. imagine. etc. intend. look like. believe.) b.

and sentences such as: (39) a.*She lifted a finger to help me. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. b. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.2. That is 31 . for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. are clearly not grammatical. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. *She likes our chairman at all. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.

/ Well. / Well. / I like it . before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / He arrived before 5. / I have some money. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). too (I don’t like it. / I have already seen him. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. some (I haven’t any money. / I can understand both of these 32 . most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / They say he once had someone very close. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. already (I haven’t seen him yet.) At all vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. / Don’t worry. / I like you a lot. / You needn’t send her anything.). / I eat caviar most of the times. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / Come on.) Hardly ever vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Bob is still living at that address. still (I don’t love you any more. you can still do something about it.) Any more vs.) Much vs. / I somehow like him. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. either. / I still love you) Either vs. too. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.) Until vs. etc. a lot (I don’t like you much.) Yet vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / She hardly ever comes here. too.

know a single person. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. lift/raise/ stir a finger. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. hurt a fly. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. sleep a wink. / You must pay that fine. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Ajută-mă. / You must be telling lies. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. turn a hair. hear a peep. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. last a minute. Translate into English. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). bat an eye(lid). touch a drop. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea./ I can understand all of these ten English words. de când cu 33 . touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. move a muscle.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. nici unuia dintre noi. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. flinch. give a damn/darn. say / breathe/ understand a word. tell/ ask/speak to a soul./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. Ion nu e prea deştept. have a care/ friend in the world. mulţumesc. leave a stone unturned. crack a smile. see/ feel/ remember a thing. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. have/be worth a red cent. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. lay a finger on someone. find a trace. / I nearly always have to clean it myself.

/ He is no end of a fellow. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. he left the room. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No entry. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Hotărât lucru. / No admittance. / No man is wise all the time. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. but you really should do something about it. / I had no end of trouble. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No sooner said than done. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / He won’t make old bones. / Not that I care. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / No trouble at all. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. he’s a pig. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Nothing succeeds like success. B: Aşi. budge. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Never is a long word. / No hands wanted. As you have noticed from the exercises above. nu e vina mea. Translate into Romanian. n-a sunat încă.

N-am văzut pe nimeni. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.7. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. 2. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). say it. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). / I hate making any commitments. b) I love asking some funny remarks. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Normally.Unit two Sentence negation rather). Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord./ I saw no one. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. c) He is anxious to say something. as well: 35 .) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present.

Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. 36 . The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. B: Nu. however. I don’t. Key terms.) 2. from a syntactic point of view. The second negation is somehow independent. B: Not this poem.8.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu-mi place. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. nu poezia asta. Conclusion. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. I don’t like this poem. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. nu îmi place poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. (Nu. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .

3.2.1.2 Echo Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 3.4. Optional Exercises .2.1 Yes/No Questions 3.Questions 3.3.3. Direct vs.3 Alternative Questions 3.3.2.2. Key Terms. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2 Wh.

1. If we try to analyze the examples above. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. for a subsequent section. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .Unit three Questions 3. focusing on direct questions mainly. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.

Pratice Translate the following questions in English. pe mama. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. (3) and (4). and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (2). 48 .Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1).g. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e.

Since the question is not direct any more. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Likewise. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. 49 . Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. In the case of indirect questions. the sequence of the tenses is violated. in this case. because. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).

(Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. spune la un moment dat femeia. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / I don’t know who she is. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / He asked me who she is. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. ce culoare are pielea. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. identify the incorrect sentences. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me who she was. sau mai bine zis. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. c) Ştii ce.

Let us provide 51 . Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.Unit three Questions 3. as Quirk shows. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. In this case. being typical of spoken language. the type of answer the respective question requires. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.2.

(what time / shops close today) ? 7.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.1. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.2. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (which / you like best) ? 4. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. 3. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (who / talk to last night)? 5.

The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. are said to be positively – oriented. instead of Negative Polarity ones. they did. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (Da). it has. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes.

……………………………. A: You look down. A: What a lovely hairdo! ………………….. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 6. A: Your mother is shouting for you. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. …………………. 4. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. as in the example: 1.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. ……………? (hear her) B: …. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. A: You’ve been learning German for years. I’ve still got plenty of time. 3. 7. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. ……. because you always copy everything I do! 5. but I want to play basketball a little longer. (speak yet) B: ……. 2. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No.. .

I didn’t get home until late last night. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 ..Unit three Questions B: …………………. 9. where. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….2. . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. A: It’s past your bedtime. You could have mentioned it earlier.. 3.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . A: There was a terrible car crash.. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. how. what . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.2 Wh – questions Wh. which When. 10. ………………………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 8. . She’s got a reputation for being heartless.

/ David’s car was stolen./ I have French lessons twice a week. what ever. / Kay’s gone out shopping. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often./ She dropped her glasses. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.000dollars. I cannot do that. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. trying to find places where I resided in life. why ever. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / That’s my pen. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”./ We’ve lived here for ten years. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. of course. / My new car cost 10. / She lives in the suburbs. Nearly two hundred years. (Poppy Z. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / Shirley got married to Ben. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever./ Sara owns two cars. / There are six students in my class.

(A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.) 57 .2. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3.

shall we stay? 7. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. He used to work in a bank. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How far is it the cinema? 3. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Who did left the gate open? 18. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. He used to work in a bank. There was a fax for you this morning. shall we stay? 14. can you be? 58 . Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Let’s stay for another few days. Let’s stay for another few days. You can’t be serious. How far is it the cinema? 10.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. didn’t use he? 4. wasn’t it there? 17. How long is she be spending in America? 8.

acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Who did told you about the problem? 31. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. How long time does it take to get there? 28. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following.Unit three Questions 19. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. isn’t it this? 25. will you not? 27. Pot reveni. să-mi înfrâng frica. uneori disperat. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. ca şi cei ce au fost. Whose it is this book? 32. That’s your car. doesn’t he go? 23. plin de germeni virulenţi. will you not? 21. deci. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Ani întregi. deci. despre o lume dură. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. wasn’t it he? 22. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. dacă prin absurd 59 . That was Jeremy’s brother. Toate vechi. neliniştea infantilă. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. John goes jogging every morning.

negru. lung. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. puturos. de atunci. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. naiv. neîntrerupt. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Riscul? Ratarea. murdar. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. inactivii. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. picură apa roşietică. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. dar şi drumul. străină priceperii lor. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. ghiceam doar unde se află. Şi. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. B. laşii. “Spune! striga el. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 .Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. indiferent de risc. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. umed. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. iar proştii. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. pe sub bolţile din care. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. îi ştiu gustul. mă întreb. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci.

1. orbitor. la urma urmei.3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. domnule profesor. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. Tag Questions Tag questions. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.Unit three Questions viaţă. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. exclus. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. didn’t she? . shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. golul alb. will you? (38) She went to Prague. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. nu se poate. viaţa? Oare e drept. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. da? (37) Let’s go there. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. 3. care i-a determinat alegerea. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door.3.

e. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. is it? (Deci. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. The suggestion is that in this case. or falling. the tag is affirmative too. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. In this way. it’s all spent. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. the tag is negative too). or “comment tags”. hasn’t she? (Aha. au fost cheltuiţi. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. au fost cheltuiţi. aren’t they? 62 . if the host sentence is negative.) A: Oh. (Din păcate. sarcasm. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.

/ I may not see you tomorrow. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / She has a brother. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / You have been invited. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) • with a falling intonation.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Few people like her. / He hates his wife. / The boy often watched his sister.…/ Let me know. / They said he liked music. / Surely you have enough money. / Tell me. / I may see you tomorrow. / I am older than you. / You will pick me up. / I think you like my music. / Don’t leave without me. after all. / Activity 12 He will be on time. 63 . / I am dressed smartly enough. / He has to marry Susan. / She left an hour ago. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / He simply hates empty words. / I don’t think you like my music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / You will pick me up at 7. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Let’s eat dinner now. / A few people like her. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / You ought not to smoke. / Each of us is staying. / There is enough food for everyone. / I think you don’t like my music. / That’s your car over there. / That was your father. / I must go now. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / She used to talk a lot. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / The boy never watched his sister.

or what? 3.. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. 5. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. So you enjoyed my talk. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . He used to play squash. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. using a question tag at the end./ I’m right about this…. / He never used to study so hard…. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged.

as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.) B: Chinese? 65 .questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Grants… 3. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. Recapitulatory echo questions .Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.3. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.3. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.1.1. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2.

(Închide lumina aia.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.phrase is fronted.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. disbelief.3. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. of something just said. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. rather than the repetition.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. consternation.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.2. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. If the wh.

with recapitulatory echo questions.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.e. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. / We are looking for a pixie. / He is interested in music./ We are looking for a purse. which letter do you 67 . am pierdut scrisoarea. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. (i. dear. whereas with explicatory echo questions. rather than did you say. / I think I’ve found a solution./ He is interested in blue movies. intonation is rising. I’ve lost the letter. (Uită-te la asta. (Vai.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean.

Nadina VIŞAN 3. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.4.

şerpoaica. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. în general. acuma sporovăiala. oameni aşezaţi. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei.Nu ştiam unde mă duce.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. aşa. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. cu o casă de copii. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi care s-a aciuat. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. Fenio. lui Stavre Păici. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. cumnată Fenia. şi apoi Vica ce zice. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2.– Crezi tu. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. nu purta verighetă. lui Chizlinski. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . pe Condrat de Vica. lui Luca Horobeţ. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. în satul nostru. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. să se încolăcească mai bine. da. ca să zic aşa. după pofte. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. stricata. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri.

curat ca pereţii de Paşti. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. până la călcâie. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. sus. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. abia târându-şi picioarele. De asta erai. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. sau cum o chema. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. roşu şi galben. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. L-a scos din geamie. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. dar cum se face că a 70 . Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Hogea. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. deci. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate.

Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine.

72 .

FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .

Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Key Concepts .2.4.5.1.Contents: 74 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.6.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.

that elements are coordinated.e. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. on the other hand. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. Example (2). i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. present) in the sentence. 75 .e.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.1 Syndetic vs. cu repros. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. reproachfully. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. where there is no indication other than a comma. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.Unit four Coordination 4.

led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.) (4) If you hit my wife. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. 76 . (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. From the previously mentioned examples. vei muri.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Conversely. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.) Such examples. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. you will die.

a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. but presupposed. from a logical & semantic point of view. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. the second. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. respectively subordinated constituents. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. we need to specify that.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. However.

combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. Though the castle had vanished. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. adorned with cornices. took off his coat and emptied them. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. but the 78 . took off his shoes and emptied them. built. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. Then he sat down. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. with enormous solidity. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. In the second. of cut gray stone. He moved and made a slopping noise. In the first. John Steinbeck. his shoes squished. with formal walks under rows of trees. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. the houses were beautiful and ancient. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. His clothes hung to him. He wrung the bottom of his trousers.

and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. and as the way is with Irish mountains. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. left the house. Cecil Woocham – Smith. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. the higher he went the wetter it grew. over some of the roughest ground in the country. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 .

As one can easily notice. as shown in (9). Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. who was caught at a University Extension lecture.K. were to take down the name of every man.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .3 Sentence vs.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. yesterday and the day before yesterday. however distinguished. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (G. we should be seriously annoyed. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.

John and Mary are ready. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 5. Activity 2 sentences: 1. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 6 John sang and Mary danced.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. yellow and blue. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 8. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 10. Our flag is red. 4. John is ready and Mary is ready. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 3. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. / Joan plays many games. / Bob and George are admired by their students.Unit four Coordination example (7). and even tennis. plays football. / Peter and John played football. 7. and I passed. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. our respective examinations. but not John. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Her pet kitten is black and white. 9. / Peter. 2.

Jane 82 . 5. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. John loves and Bill hates cigars. 3. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 6. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend.) b.) c. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Activity 4 2. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. or deleted. as can be seen in (10b). Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.Nadina VIŞAN b.

) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Besides ellipsis. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. the so-called Principle of Economy. i. So. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. than a longer repetitive one. can be reduced by substitution. 7.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. these syntactical processes. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.e. 10. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 83 . as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.) The common element. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 9.

George and Jane went back to their parents. 2. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. George and Jane are separated. 4. using reduced structures: 1. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. simple books and magazines for children 3. 3. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 4. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . Translate the following sentences. In certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. one or (the) other method. some reason or another. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. the old men and women 2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. A citit.

Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. it’s a case of ………… 7. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 15. 7.I searched ………. only for damage. 6.. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time... Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. A pendulum swings ………. the amount I’ve already saved up. They get on quite well together. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….. they reached home………. 2. Marks and Spencers.You gain some things and you lose others. 11. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. sweet and sour. I need another 100$ ………. like: salt and pepper. 5. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 8. even though they have their little …………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 5.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. .. fish and chips. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. for my wallet. Can we discuss the …………. 12. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. of your proposals later on? 3. 6. 8. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.. 13. 16. After all their adventures. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.… 14.

more often than not. b. 4. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. the expressive function of coordination is. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. etc. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.4. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) There are. Nor sun. of course. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. In fact. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. as in: (17) a. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. and 86 . For instance.

(Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) 87 . etc). He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.g. 20 (b)). o respectau si o indrageau.) c. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (I-am dat banii. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. where the subordinator is repeated.) b. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. too): (20) a. and cherished her. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. both … and . or .) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.) In certain cases. sometimes but. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.

In this case. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. if we were to rewrite the example . (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. and you’ll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. I washed and ironed my pants. I admire and like her. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.* I ironed and washed my pants. From this point of view.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. and hit my wife. I like and admire her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. (Imi place si o admir. (O admir si imi place.) b.

(Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) (While Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. (If you do that. Brown experiments with humans. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. he failed). Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.Unit four Coordination 1.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.

(Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. e.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. as the name suggests it. From the functional point of view. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. 5. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.which are based on coordination .g.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.) 101 . takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.

we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. for example). (I-a dat cartea. In a way. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. by an adjective + preposition. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. such as proud of. an adverbial item. in certain cases.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. they are still presupposed by the speaker. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. we associate it with these objects. For instance.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. sentences) required by the verb (or.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) 102 . We do not presuppose however something like. for instance.

That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. I am afraid that he won’t come. In other words. an additional one. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.e. Thus. related to example (4). The term comes from the verb to adjoin. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. to add something. A second observation. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. to her) and one extra-item. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. 103 . and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. The second example.) b.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. i. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. which is the adverbial willingly.

we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. So. such as want. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.) 104 . (Înainte să plece din cameră. I’ll die. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. am să mor. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. a închis toate ferestrele.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (11) If you don’t marry me. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. like.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. make. etc. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.

[.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. After I told her the story. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 2. They came to e. The book that because they home. she looked at me sadly.g. 4. 6. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.g. this to whomever wants it. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.She came to him of her own will. 5. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . Susan disappeared without saying a word. e.g. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Whoever did that was a genius. 3.

You suggestion that we should. at our age. 3. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. 4. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. As you can see. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. but he declined. which. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. FOR. etc. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. stating their function: Activity 2 1. not object. was a novelty to Mitzi. though it was largely politeness. 2.He took an intelligent interest in her.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.) 106 . WHETHER. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. 5. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. 6.

) (16) a. Where he went is London.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Am vrut să plec imediat. when.) b.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. etc. where. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. how.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. which.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. Who did it was John. 107 . (15) It is John who did it.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. why. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. (E de dorit să plece. who.

As you will see. In (18). done from a structural point of view. consider the following table. for instance. which sums up this classification. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. before. however.) (18) She told me this before she left. Unlike complement clauses. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. Compare.1. etc. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In conclusion. if.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.

etc. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I will go there because I feel like it. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. Introduced know e. whether he will come when I feel like it. I will come back such as because. after.: e. at your young age. Dear Ludwig. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.g. you understand. for. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. surely you cannot sincerely believe.g. back. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.g. as. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. 109 . I cannot express to you how much we miss you.

She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. he said.The day Monroe had died was in May. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. a tightening in her breathing. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. But she thought that no one would call again. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. Accidental Man) b)1. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . she stopped to speak to Monroe. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Late that afternoon. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. 2. Too. As she left the house. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare.

Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. interesting. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. 111 .g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. However. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g. a correspondence can be traced.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.g. As you have probably noticed already. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. că e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.2.g. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g.g. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g. I told her everything after she arrived. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. That he loved e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.

. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. i.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. We will come back to that in the next chapter. (Cred că mă place. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. Secondly. Thirdly. whenever you identify a wh.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).1. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts.complement. In the fourth place. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. complements. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. whereas wh complements are the 112 . So.2.e. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.

after. but no idea what to do with them. for no matter how she tried. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. outbuildings. before.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. their introductory elements (e. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. and I do not know how things might stand between us. a house.g. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. Pratice Consider the following text. a barn. She mistrusted her handwriting. c) I am coming home one way or another. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. I first thought to tell in 113 . because.

offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany).Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. these clauses can be complements. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. because they modify. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . According to a structural criterion.4. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). and I have not the will or the energy.e. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. it would make you fear to do such again. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.

115 . be very careful to use this term correctly. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Nevasta secera în tăcere. answering the question to whom? So. etc.e. Alţii.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. după ce că are grâu puţin.g. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. însă. (…) “Mă. O zbughi înapoi.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. Pratice Translate the following. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. interested in. ce o fi având. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. look at. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. think of. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul.

decât cu ameninţare adevărată. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. de fapt. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. întâi. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Nici acum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. Toată lumea înţelesese că. timp de un ceas. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. izolate de sat.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. cât de bolnavă era. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul.

a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. deşi cam târziu. Iată. la nişte prieteni comuni. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. de pildă. Era bine de ştiut. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. aşa de oţetit.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. amânase scrisul. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. stricau totul. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. la Odobeşti. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. acum sunt desluşiţi. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Pace nu era. În realitate. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. frate.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 .

119 . subject relative clauses. etc)..g. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. whose.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. of which.

Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.4.6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.5. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.7. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.1.6.2.3. Key Concepts .

This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.Unit six Relative clauses 6. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The Co-reference Condition .) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.1. 6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. 121 .) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.2. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.

like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. By combining these two clauses. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. 122 . Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. John loves that woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.

John offered flowers to that woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. 123 . I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The common element woman is present. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. This way.

5. I went to London. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 6. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. I bought Jim a book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. WHERE 3. She came to London. They met those students. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHO 124 . I introduced him to Jim. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. too. None of the students agreed with them. This is my husband. 9. by leaving behind a trace. Any of the students would answer to questions. He’s the author who received the prize. 10. John told his friend a story about the king. He told Jim everything about his plans. 2. WHO 5. 4. He liked that book. I lost the book’s cover.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. frequently used in written language. Susan wants to meet Jane. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. I love my husband very much. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. I had a book. 3. The students like their teacher. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 8. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. WHICH 4. The king was just passing by. therefore in spoken English. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. The students like their teacher. 7.

WHICH 8. 2. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. (Cine strică plateşte. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. i. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. . This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.Unit six Relative clauses 6. most of them were from England. WHOSE 7. WHOM 6.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. WHOM 10. relative clauses are divided into 1. TO 11. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form.e.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.

where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. is no longer overtly expressed. it is covert.) So. Unlike their sisters. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.e. in a manner of speaking. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. these relatives cannot function as attributes.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Cel care strică plăteşte. unlike in the case of (14). they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.) • Predicative This was what she intended. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.

Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Mercury. (Mercur.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. care este zeul negoţului. They only provide supplementary information about it. (Du-te unde pofteşti.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (22) Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. is my favourite god. who is the god of commerce. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. they define it). they offer crucial information about this antecedent. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. este zeul meu favorit. They can be thus divided into: 1. 127 . who incidentally is the god of commerce.

this type of relative clauses. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. on whom nobody could depend. i.e. I have met him where I least expected. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. Independent I don’t know what you want. restrictive relative clauses. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 8. As we were saying. who is a genius. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met.This is the village where I spent my youth. 9. 5. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. Shakespeare. 2. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. is a great playwright. 7. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. 10. 6. is a genius. They are what 128 . then it is an attribute. was the one we all welcomed and admired. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. who came to see me. She. On the day on which this occurred I was away.

Consider the following points of discussion: 1.) 2. however sad this may be. care a murit acum câţiva ani. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. a.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. etc. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. who died a few years ago. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. etc. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. When the antecedent has no determiner. . We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. composed The (Freddie Mercury. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. 6. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.

5. ci o fată a woman. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. 4. dried-up old maid. poftiţi în faţă. who am your son. 2. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. iritabilă şi uscată. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Dintre toate personajele prezente.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. but a peevish. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. (Eu. who neither work nor am anxious. 6.) (28) They come to me. 3.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. care nu sunt o femeie. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. ill-tempered. Mie. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Pratice Translate the following. 130 . prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 7. can see your shortcomings only too well. care-ţi sunt fiu.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. bătrînă morocănoasă. numai eu nu. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. (Ei apeleaza la mine. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat.

) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. were now in his possession.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. părăsi camera. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. heard. than whom few more can be more crashing. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. .) (35) The compositions of Cardan. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. (32) service finished late. erau acum în posesia lui.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.

1. too. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) d. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. but it is typical of the formal.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără.5. 6. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. literary style: (37) a. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) b. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) c. The genitive form with which is still in use. as can be seen in (36d). The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.

) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Iris Murdoch. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .

(45) (46) . (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. but to a type or a function: a. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. … Italy.) b. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. of which.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. animals. He is not the man which he used to be.) • states. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. by the way.) b. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. ships (that can be personified) a. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.

) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. time.) b) dialectal (49) a.2 Relative Adverbs: when. etc. Poland is the place where Christine was born.Unit six Relative clauses b. It is poor what gets the punches. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.5. why. how. whom it concerned most closely. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) 6. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. France. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Nu ştiam ce vor. pe care o privea direct. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. etc.) b. while.) 135 (47) . and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. where. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. reason. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.

) 136 .) b. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) c.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.3.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.5. They returned to the land whence they had come. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) 6. The place whither he goes is unknown. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. He went where he had been before.) b. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) b. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) e. A system where by a new discovery will arise.

) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. Moreover.

not any.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. but • in standard language a. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. much.5.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. Honest man as he was. 138 (64) his shoes. but they are used very infrequently: as.4. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. .) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) b.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. every. any.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.

There’s not many as’ll say that. . It’s the dry weather does it.) c. Uncle George. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut.) • in dialect a. ăl de fusese in China…) b. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. This is the same one that/as you had before. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. And always on the buttered side. him as was in China … (Uncle George. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.) c.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.

(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.

What I’m saying is.” 4. That which shows God out of me. What Inman remembered was this passage. 7. b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. The man that John spoke to is a genius.) c. This is where we talk money.3): (72) a. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. 3. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. Where he was from. makes me a wart and a wen. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.5.) b. 5.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. It seemed a thing 141 . fortifies me. we all have to come to some terms. 6. The man John spoke to is a genius.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The man who John spoke to is a genius.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. 2. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity.

she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Oh. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 13. of living. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 10. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 8. 9. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. which is a lot. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Ruby said. though. 11. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. who had not witnessed many dawns. Whatever his fate was.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. (…) Partly. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 142 . g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. he had left Ruby high and dry. The rudeness of eating. 12. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came.

al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. al carei strabunic. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. una din nepoatele unui inginer.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. pirpiriu. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. vasnic. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. fiu natural al unui morar. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. poate. plutonier. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. pe linie paterna. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. un var primar. (Iris Murdoch. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. Cumnatul meu avea.al lui. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. cumnatul unui portughez. divortata. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. mort de tanar. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. nu prea sarac.

She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. b. By extension. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. c. The opposite phenomenon. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.6. insurat de trei ori la rand. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. Everybody listened to that woman. She was a woman.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. 144 . by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence.2. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. I lost the cover of the book. Teatru) 6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .

no easy answers to which could be offered. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The difference between (76) and (77). 9. acting again as a genuine pied piper. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 6. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 3. 4. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 7. 8. he requested that the public be excluded. 5. has been troubling them forever. In the interest of public decency. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover.Unit six Relative clauses b. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The problem of safe transportation. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 2.

His friends. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 5. was now complete. has been deleted. whose interest he most sincerely shared. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. no matter which. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Irene. 146 . Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 6. he rarely saw now.His father’s friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 3.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. This story. They do not function as attributes. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. as the case is). 2. 10. 4. Activity 9 were now all gone. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.

Toate sfârşeau. 4. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . De douazeci de ani.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 3. 7. Pentru alţii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. 6. himeric. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. 2. 5. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. închipuirea. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Nelu. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească.

Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. a făcut el. 9. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. cu surle şi cu tobe. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. 12. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 8. 10. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte.

Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. despre care. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. pe strada Icoanei. 15. din direcţia căreia apoi. zise ea cu ochii mari. roiuri de fetiţe. toată lumea întreba cine e. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. 14. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Dacă mă lovea. deşi atât de aproape.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. de unde venea şi Marta. 17. 16. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. trăia larg de tot. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 20. În spatele lor. Avea acum un fel de vertij. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 18. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. apărură. fie la teatru. din care cauză pe Dora. care era foarte “mondenă”. 149 . dinspre Maria Rosetti. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. până mai adineauri. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. fie pe stradă.

decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. până în şosea. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. 22. Pentru mine însă.Nadina VIŞAN 21. de sus de unde eram. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. Pare-se că snobii. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. când au urcat râpa iar. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. întâia noapte de război) 150 . (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 23. aveau un stil al lor. pe care ea îi admira acum. 24. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. pe care eu nu-l aveam. de mine. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă.

151 . by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.

3.3.4. That Complements as Subjects 7.2.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.Topicalization 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1. That Deletion 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.5. Key Concepts .2.Clause Shift 7.1. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.1.2.3.1.3. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2.3.1.1.4. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2.7.2. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.5.Extraposition 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.3.6.2.2. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.

) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. In other words. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. the clause is extraposed. Apart from those introduced by that. but also of infinitival ones.1.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. 153 . (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. placed in a marginal position. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.

but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.

Is it true that the children are sick? 5. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 2. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 10. 11. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 9. 4.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It appears that no one voted for him. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 3. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It is no use trying to convince her. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 7. 8. 15. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 6. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 13. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 3. 11. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 7. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 8. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 2. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 6. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 10. 4. 14. It is nice to meet you. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 5. 9.

She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 2. I guess it that he will come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. mă ascundeam în grabă. după porţi. 3. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. zice Lionel. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 5. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 4. 2. 5.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 18. în gropi. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 3. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 2. în canal. unde se nimerea. sub poduri. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 6. They never expected it that he would come back. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 4. 3. atât 156 .It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1.

Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. vor căuta să o zdruncine. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. fără îndoială. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 157 . excelentă.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. 6.” 4. (Nu întotdeauna. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Spunând cele ce-am spus. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. fără să cârteşti. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Mi s-a părut chiar că. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. 5. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. 7. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede.

since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. subject clauses are the frequent situation. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. 1. Pratice Read the following.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.1. this asymmetry is undone. Consequently. in the case of topicalization. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) While in the case of extraposition.2.

even today. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 8. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. This was another era. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. he felt no spring of interest in her. She had always been the slave of chance. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. 3. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 6. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 4. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. mere chance would decide. but not now. whether it would finally carry her off. He did not blame Gracie. 2. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. He was utterly gone. 5. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 7. was inconceivable. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina.

(A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.3. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.1. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.) 160 . A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.

Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.e. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. 161 . (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. we obtain.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. the verb to drive). because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.

6.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 8. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. who had just returned from Africa.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 162 . /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 5. 3./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 4. prime-minister. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 2. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 7.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.

The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.2. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.Unit seven That complements 7.

That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. (I-au promis o casă nouă. prefer.1.) a.: (25) a. desire.) 164 . communicate. He announced that they were engaged. He announced their engagement. They promised him that he would received a new house. predict. deem. explain. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. etc. promise.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. deny.) b. consider. suggest. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. judge. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. etc. They believe that the man is guilty. afirm.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) b. estimate. They believe the man is guilty.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. state.2.

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. ibid. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. In older stages of English.) I like him in that he is smart. they lose their meaning. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.) language.) 172 . The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. hope =>purpose. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. on condition that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.e. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. for example. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.

să o vadă trecând.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. . as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. That can be deleted.) (66) 173 a. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. He gave such an answer as had expected. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) When the structure contains the word such. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He gave an answer such.

) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ibid. (Iris Murdoch.) b. ibid. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.) 174 . 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. they were chained to each other forever. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. (Iris Murdoch. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. for better or worse. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.We discovered that our map has disappeared.

If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. that he uses a relaxed tone.Unit seven That complements 7. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c. He said he had borrowed her money.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (69) a.) b. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. say. He got word they were coming. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.1. tell). He showed he was able to do it. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. for instance.3. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. 175 . (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.

When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. *I like it he was here. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.3.) (De asemenea. bune. they were chained to each other forever. ibid. (Iris Murdoch. I like it that he was here. they were chained to each other forever.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. for better or worse. 7.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Îmi place că e aici. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. rele.) b.3. for better or worse. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.2. because that has been deleted. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3.

Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. that they were not too late to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 7. (“Este acolo”. you want me to believe. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.) 177 .4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. spuse el. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. simultaneity. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. he said. which is ungrammatical in English. 7) They maintain. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.) b)He told me that she was there.

până pleacă ea.) Future Perfect -----. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. he said. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (A spus că. spuse el.) b. (“Era acolo”. He told me that she had been there. The Present complement).) b. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. “She was here”.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (Am să o părăsesc. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. vine el. In the example below. o să vină el. (Pâna să plece. I will leave her. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.) b. He said he would leave her. (A spus că o să o părăsească. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.

etc. be aware. be amazed/concerned. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. forget. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.) b. whisper. notice. mention. wish.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) On the other hand. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. show. insist. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. etc. say. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. report. hope. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. discover. believe. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) 179 . only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. think. dream. regret. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. realize it). there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. With such factive verbs as realize.

She realized that all men are fools. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.) b.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. we notice that general truths. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Iris Murdoch.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. in tender deference to each other. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. feign habits which are not their own. He knew that she thought all men were fools. 180 . She believed that the earth is round.) b. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. cu un respect tandru reciproc. Consider also: (85) a. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.

181 . She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. Peter said that John will leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.Unit seven That complements 2. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. There are however cases.) b. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. such as a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. 3.) b. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) In (88). She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived.

f) John said that Harry would leave. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. But 182 . e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. d) John said that Harry was leaving. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. John said that Harry will leave. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. for instance. h) John thought that Harry had run. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Imagine. The time is 3 o’clock. c) John said that Harry is leaving.

All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. bluebird. kingfisher. geese both grey and white. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. jaybird. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. 183 . c. She admired their keenness of wit. nighthawk. slyness in a fight. redtailed hawk. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. whistling swan.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. lark. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a. as evidenced by its drear plumage. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. b. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Translate the following. love of practical jokes. lack of pridefulness. Crows will relish what presents itself. quail. Cooper’s hawk. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.

Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. […] During the latter stages of the tale. And they might just hang him. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. he claimed. in the very act of expiring. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Now here he stood jailed. He had fought hard through the war. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. He died erect. war hero though he was. the young officer. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. But as the battle raged around them. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her.

which they share with wh-complements. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). on other occasions it has to stay there. or else. object ones up to the attributive function. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. from the very frequent subject. 185 . topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.Unit seven That complements 7. On certain occasions that can be deleted.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.

neconvenabil şi primejdios. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Unul din ei. peste puţin. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. 4. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. cel mai mare. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Mama. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. 2. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Fiind 186 . Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă.

Se mira. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. un vis de acesta 187 . venind de la avocat.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. 6. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 8. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. care îl pândise. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Nu ţi-a trecut. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. 5. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. luminos şi apropiat şi când. 7. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. dacă va mai veni. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 9. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. cel puţin pentru un timp. de ce constata în sine. aşa. ea. fericit. va pleca din oraş la vie.

Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. dar şi teama că. încă o dată. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . 11. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. liniştit. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. şi mândria că a biruit. Astfel de va fi.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. lucrul era înfăptuit. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. fireşte. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. 12. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Acesta.

spre Jurubiţa. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Pe toate. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. mai puternic decât oricând. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. fără o vorbă scrisă. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . după cum. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. să le lămurească pe toate. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. 14. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. ci numai aşa.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

A Classification of Infinitives 8.1.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.5.7.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.4.8.2.3.Key Concepts .8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.6.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.9.

and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (3) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). I told her that she should be more careful in the future. To love her is something really wonderful. From this perspective. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.) b. It is important that you should know what you need. It is important for you to know what you need. That you love her is something wonderful.1. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (2) a. 193 . What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.) • like that complements. I told her to be more careful in the future. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). Consider the following: • like that complements.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.) b. b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).

(Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. gerundial clauses. the Conditional. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. For instance. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. participial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. d. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. 2. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. 194 . She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. as opposed to the finite ones. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.) b.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures.e. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Participle) (i. the Gerund. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. etc.

The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.) b. namely no ending. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 .) c.

6. 8. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 2. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 3.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 8. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 10. the criterion of form. 5. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. (7) They saw her leave. 4. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 9.2.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 7.

(10) 197 . watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. hear. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. 2. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră.

198 (11) the universe. . uncharacteristic for literary English. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following. However. 3. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction.

we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. or the control constructions.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. as I have already mentioned.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. 199 . By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. Further on. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. to use the appropriate technical term. In other words. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.

) b. It is important for him not to err. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. namely the agent of the event. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. the logical subject. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.) 200 . So far. I hoped for him to be there in time. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. şi creştineşte să ierţi. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. PRO to forgive divine. PRO to err is human. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) In this situation.) Object: (18) a. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b.

Semantically. He stepped aside for her to enter. him is related to the main clause verb.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. but the patient of the verb persuade. him is not the agent of the infinitive. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .) b. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . In other words. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. not to the infinitive. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.

from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ They tempted him to leave. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ 202 . \ They convinced her to come back.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. Likewise. \ She wanted him to leave. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. I hate animals to be tortured. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. but with the infinitive in the subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ He persuaded her to come. \ I allowed them to come. \ I would love them to come. \ She promised him to leave.

Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They really asked her to come back. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something.) In examples (25) and (26). 203 . hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. • Last but not least. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. So.) He seems to be a good linguist.

The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. with special semantic and syntactic properties.). Pratice Translate the following sentences. etc. hate. which are said to be free. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. seem. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. To sum up the discussion. that is not required by certain verbs. appear. to meet her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. 204 .

: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. deserve.) b) verbs such as abide. etc. seek (= try). prefer. desire. hate.) 205 friend. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. arrange. decline.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. aspire to. bear. deign. propose. want. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. condescend. need. wish. Compare: (31) a. etc. refuse. try. fail. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. scorn. afford./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. endeavour. like. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. / E greu să îl suporţi. manage. omit. agree to. expect. scheme. 8. care to. contrive. mean.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. intend. venture.3 The Distribution of PRO . aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. . hope. dislike. etc.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. presume.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.

(Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. claim. I would like for him to become president of the country. bear. stand. be important.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. forget. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. ask. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. For all of them to have been killed is. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. endeavour. however. desirable.) b. verbs of liking and disliking. I hate that you should say a thing like this. conclude. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) 8.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. threaten. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. suggest.) b. unlikely.) b. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.etc.) 206 .Nadina VIŞAN b. possible. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. etc.

(Era important ca ei să fie acolo. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 207 .) 8. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) 2. Predicative Clauses (39) a. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) b.

Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) b. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Like in the case of that complements. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. but the meaning remains. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) 5.) b.) 4.) 208 knowledge.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Direct Objects (39) a. the preposition is deleted. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. I decided for John to represent us. . (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.

6. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. This paint is like concrete to work with.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) c) adverbial of result 209 . The stew is delicious to eat. curious about. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.: (42) a. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. He is a bastard to work for.) b.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. She is pretty to look at.) d. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) c. delicious. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. You’re an idiot to go there. etc.) e.

(Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă.) I’ve never met him. conduci prost. final or introductory infinitive In this case. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. you’re a bad driver. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. să nu piardă trenul. drept să spun.) Oh. / Ehei. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Pe şleau. to tell you the truth.

) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. (49) a. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.etc. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.: (51) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. enable. encourage. inspire. 8. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. According to this. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. urge. swear. nu mai vreau să te vad. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. b.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. oblige. inform. induce.) . / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. etc. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. need. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. direct. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. promise. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. press. influence.) b. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife.

which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. choose. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. vote.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. count on. nominate. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. etc. depend on.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. elect. look to.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.etc. order. command. allow./ And now he 212 .) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. permit. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. etc. name. prevail on.

be going to. etc. be about to.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (Iris Murdoch. (56) She grew to like him in the end.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Se pare că îi place de el.: (55) She appears to like him.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. i.etc. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. etc. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.e.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. this construction is lexically governed. seem. happen. grow. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (57) He is to come any day now. come. 213 (58) (59) . (O să întârzii/ leşin. An Accidental Man) 8.verbs: appear.

be reported. feel.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). that of intention. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. be considered.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. In (57).etc. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. (L-au auzit insultând-o. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. . etc. be thought. hear. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. be alleged. observe. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. be rumoured. etc.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.: (62) They heard him insult her. watch. perceive. be claimed.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.) 8. overhear.

(Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. imagine. consider. understand. figure. However. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. remember. judge.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. picture. have. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. discover. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. (Cred că este un geniu.) 215 (67) . let I’ll have you learn this in no time. occasion. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence.) • with a full infinitive: get. know. cause. etc. recollect. believe. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. find.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. presume. deem. prove.

: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.etc. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. who wasn’t used to men with moods. etc. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. suffer. desire. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. wish. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. want.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. choose. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. Harold.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. mean. they had depressed and fuddled him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. command. expect. love.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. permit. order. prefer.

and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. so that we might get to the future and have done. Both seemed to him a little unreal. (L. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. though he tended to look down on those below it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. He suspected hostility at once. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. A little crossly. the herd instinct was very strong in him. he didn’t envy those above it. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. to make sure we attended strictly to business. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.P. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none.

The last criterion. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.Nadina VIŞAN 8. From this perspective.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. 218 . we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions.

d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. bunăoară. E posibil. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. lovit şi umilit. de asemenea. mai bine219 . cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. să-l capete. într-o zi. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. dar să nu-ţi spună. e) Când doi oameni. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. de bună seamă. fireşte. un bărbat şi o femeie.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. Şi tu să fii. e important ce întrebări pui. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu.

în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. d-a lungul gâtului. în jos.Şt.Nadina VIŞAN zis. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. . în parte. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Însă Paul Achim trăise. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. Să spui de pildă. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. mai pline de înţeles. sau. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.Şt.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. în parte. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. să nu vrea să se şteargă. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. 220 . De era vară. mai bine de două decenii. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. pe care deja o uitase. că eşti tânăr. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. avusese dreptate. să traiesc numai cu tusea. un picior. aşa cum îi apăruse el. (B. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. încă. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte.Delavrancea. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în ploaie.

Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. nici ca să 221 . fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). deşi. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. fie ea şi grăbită. (Al. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ei.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. un miros îngrozitor. şi nu un amant. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. orice bucureştean ştie. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. biata Muti. o mizerie. Mă laud singură.. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure.. şi prin faţă. prin faţă e coborârea.. Într-un cuvânt. sunt aici cu tot ce am.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. de fapt. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. orice-ar fi. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci.

niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. în realitate. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. parcă la întâmplare.

to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.

1.1.3.2. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.5 Key Concepts .3.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.The Verbal Noun 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Participial Constructions 9.9.The Gerund 9.1.2.2.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.4.2.2.1.1.

The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. (Susan doarme.) 225 . we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Due to this situation. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.1.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.

Susan has been killed. 226 . i. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. been and killed are past participle forms. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. it functions attributively. Susan has come.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. blood-shot and painted.e. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.) As you can see in this second case.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) More infrequently. In (2) the forms come. (A venit Susan) b. too: (6) Her eye-lids. were closing. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). the past participle can appear after a noun. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.

) 227 . If provoked.) c.) d. (Sosind aici. începură să cânte. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. ea o luă la fugă.) b. Arriving here. he will eventually marry her. o să ajung la timp. they started singing. o să ajung la timp.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. God willing.) b. (Ştiind cine era el.) c. leul poate să atace. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. she ran away.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. a lion can attack. When singing. Knowing who the guy was. Weather permitting. I will arrive there on time. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. people should pay attention to high notes. mother permitting. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. Oh.

(L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (Am simţit-o tremurând. respectively. I found him stealing.) ii. (L-au descoperit că fură. smell. hear. behold. They found him killed by a bullet.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found stealing.) 228 . (L-am descoperit furând. He was found killed by a bullet.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. notice. which stands for an adverbial clause.) b. watch. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.

keep. have.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • Causative verbs: get . He’ll soon get things going.) b. leave. (A fost văzut plângând.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. I must get my hair cut. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.) b. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.: a. etc. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. make a. etc. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. feel. etc. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . have. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. find. I heard it said that men are a bore. recollect.) c. confess. recollect. start. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. know.: When she heard his words. send. a. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. hear. set. she knew herself dismissed.) • Causative verbs: get.) b.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. etc.

(Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / Nu după multă vreme.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) b. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. lovit şi plin de sânge. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. command I ordered my bill made out. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. Men like shopping made easy./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.) • verbs of permission. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.

2. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear.e. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. 231 . heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / Dinny. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. with its lips drawn back. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.1. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. sitting taut between her father and her sister. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / In any case. / My Lord. Unlike the gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial.

They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. (Desi nu ştia limba. 3. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I have looked through the fashion magazine.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I knew that the murderer was still at large. The tree had fallen across the road. 5. People were sleeping in the next room.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. am plecat. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I left.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 2. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. She had heard it all before. I turned on the light. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (Văzând acestea. 6. 7. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 4. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. It had been uprooted by the gale. using either a present participle. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. the rain will stop. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . I was astonished at what I saw. am plecat. I left.She didn’t want to hear the story again. se va opri şi ploaia.

Riding in the first race. I let the dog out of the room. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. a pot of paint fell on my head. Climbing down the tree. 12. eagle. Getting out of bed. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. drunken. narrow. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. a scorpion bit him.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. shaven. dark. a rug caught her foot and she fell. sharp. handed. Tied to the post. cornered. cloth. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Leaving the cinema. my hands often get very cold. He sat down to his own dinner. 233 .shoulder. mown. broad. covered. Mother punished me for my mistake. open. 9. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. wooden. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. I slammed the door of my room. fishy. Reading in bed. stony. 10. red (twice). 8. Passing under a ladder. They found the treasure. He fed the dog. bald. lighted.Running into the room. 10. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. hearted (twice). 11. 7. Dropped by parachute. haired (twice). 9. 8. 4. 2. They began quarreling about how to divide it. empty. quick. minded (3 times). many. open. his horse fell at the last jump. roast. 3. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. three. Barking furiously. 5. skinned. b) Headed (5 times). an idea suddenly occurred to me. lion. one of the eggs broke. straight. eyed (3 times). 6. the sea was tossing the post up and down. stricken. coloured. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Read the sentences and try to correct them.

(grow) 4.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. lead. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. plank.Spielberg. graven. ________ hiding in a barn. deer. bounden. ill-gotten. / Swiss watches. the same verb is missing twice. (take) 2. 7. shorn. is expected to be a great hit. (hunt). are sold throughout the world. _______ for their elegance and precision. man. image. / Three people. b) grass. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. meat. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. lamb. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. hidden. meaning. was today taken back to prison. head. (produce) 3. _______ by S. _______ my arm. Translate into English: 1. rotten. In the following pairs of sentences. eyes. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. The escaped prisoner. (admire) 5. I stared at the canvas for ages.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. / Many old people . shrunken. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. The film. are in grave danger of extinction. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (injure). candle.I fell on the ice. wealth. (find) 6. stream. were taken to hospital. duty._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. _______ for a bargain. Whales.

Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. întinse. când deschisă. precum şi foile de plăcintă. le fierbea. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. După câtva timp. deodată sufocat. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. le cocea. 3. trezit. 4. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. care le rânduia. Şi.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. Şi sufletul său. păsări tăiate. nesigur şi moale. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. ca şi cum. şi moi. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. legume date prin mai multe ape. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. O umbreluţă. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. când strânsă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . 2.

) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. crezi. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. 236 .2. According to this criterion.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. The Gerund 9. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.Nadina VIŞAN 9. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. Likewise.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.2. (Dacă vezi. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.

) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Him winning and you losing was surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Consider the following table. In that.2. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising. gerunds differ from participles. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb.) 9. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His winning and your losing were both surprising. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.2.) b. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.

A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. It was illegal to grow a beard. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. Consider (32). which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.) b. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. *It was illegal growing a beard. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. as being verbal 238 . In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds.) 2. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.) Unlike participles. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.

(Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Participles vs. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. It’s no good talking to her. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) b. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. as offered in the table below: 239 .) b.) 9. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) 3.3. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. Just like in the case of noun phrases. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.2.

3. + noun] 1. (adverbial of time) 4. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. passive ones She was crying. babies suck their thumb. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. 2. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. forms: continuous . perfect. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying.

/ Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului.

13. 10. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 12. 15. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. crying game / crying woman. 9. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 14. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 8.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 7. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. eating habits/ eating people. 11. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. shooting gallery / shooting star. Gambling is his favourite pastime. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He was spotted talking to her. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 3. 2. 6. 12. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 242 . The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 5. 4.

(Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .e.3. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.e. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.Unit nine Ing complements 9.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.) The absence of a determiner like the.e. but the presence of a direct object (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. a The absence of an of phrase. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.

GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. In the second situation. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . How can we tell? In the first case. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. George’s shooting the attacker. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. These are features that normally characterize any noun.

Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. the sheriff. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock./ His sudden coming puzzled her. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. 245 ./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / His coming there puzzled her. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. Jim left quietly. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. very large. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.

With the infinitive. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. However. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).Nadina VIŞAN 9. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . Look. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. For instance. the meaning is different. ING Forms and Infinitives. for example. It has been noticed that.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. whenever we meet an –ing form. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.4.

The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. and the most well-known one. containing an infinitive. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. the infinitive is future-oriented.) The first example. On the other hand.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. (S-a oprit din mâncat. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.) After looking at this example. having left) is infrequently used in English.g. anterior to the verb in the main clause. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) .

both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. which means that they are similar in meaning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. i.e. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.) .e. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) As you can see. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. recollect. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.

(Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. but that’s it.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. In the second example. the action is not completed. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) . dar asta este.

s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Casa trebuie reparată. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) With [. In the second example.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. want With [+ human] objects. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. The house needs to be repaired. the event has not happened yet.) wedding.) b. mean has the sense signify.human] objects. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. The house needs repairing. (Casa trebuie reparată. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) 250 .Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. e) need.

but they went by too quickly. my Lord. my Lord. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. Lady Corven. (hold) up his pen and (speak). So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . whereas in the second case. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘In any case. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. it’s overrated. however appearances were against us. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. Croom (try) (follow) one.’ ‘Tell me. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. (take) down her answer. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. I did ask Mr. gerund or infinitive. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.

suddenly. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. and went out (post) it himself. I just used the word and they fell.’ 252 .’ said Clare. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I must go back now. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. Then.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. he addressed the note. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. licked the envelope with passion.’ said Clare.

Participles mainly function as adverbials. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). the 253 . although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Last but not least. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Pratice In the following texts.5. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms.

down. covering the girl’s head. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. moving up towards his chest. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the enormous split in the earth. hoping he would see somebody up there. according to the books he read. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. He looked up towards the daylight. their edges crashing inwards. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. someone looking for survivors. Then he saw movement at his feet. down into God knows where. then the noise and the cracking stone. It was like a mist. The two sides were moving apart. but then he saw it billowing up from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. At first. She started coughing. slowly rising in a swirling motion. it 254 . (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. The sight of the two children.

for Dornford was busy on an important case. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. She finished what jobs there were. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. brightening to winter brilliance.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. 255 . whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. Having a French governess. my dear. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks.

totul se animă deodată. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. În urma slugii. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. închizând ochii. Ridicându-se. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Vaucher şi cu mine. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . 2. într-o joi. ucenicul său necredincios. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. cei doi Mamona. mama mea.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. and then went riding with her in the rain. Aşa că vrând-nevrând.

Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. 3. pe mama mea părând absentă. dar ştiutoare. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. Şi deodată. totul mi se părea cunoscut. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . Neclintiţi. la mine. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. pe Vaucher. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. o sărută pe frunte. privit. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. am ştiut şi cine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. afară ploua în continuare. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aplecându-se puţin. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. auzit şi zadarnic. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. se duse lânga mama şi. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. după cum îi spusese mama. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr.

şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. 5. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. cu tot cu baraca. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. camionul a plecat. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu soba. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. dar. Au coborât din camion încet. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă.

Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. 259 . Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

4. was unclear to Mitzi. apart from his distress for parents. 3. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. You have been much in my thoughts. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. since I have decided. 2. I am sorry not to have seen you. without profound questioning. whereas if she went away she would get none. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. this would really hurt. in some way. 13. and meet it right here at home. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. and that 263 . because of pity. 12. 9. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. and this particularly of late. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 7. he had been advised.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. 6. How this time was to come. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 10. Having regard to the date of drafting. 5. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. to retire early from my employment. he had not yet been able to estimate. 11. How much.

but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. he did not come to see her. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. please consider his proposition. 19. / Whenever I visited my aunt. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. even for months. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 14. 264 . looking forward had not yet taken place. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. this always makes us feel embarrassed. I was made say Grace before every dinner. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. 17. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. for attending his sister’s wedding. / Before you go on changing the subject. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / In the end. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. one of the eggs broke. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up.

Vulgar men did. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. an open-air person. Clarissa used to think. (and there he was. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. a little girl. without discovery. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. Though much in request before her marriage. They rushed into shops. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. her recklessness. and it was bound. cotton mills at Manchester. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. 265 . it was said. Essentially. she said. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. to end in some awful tragedy.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. her old friend Hugh. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Tony was a child. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. of the quick and wiry. centered in London and themselves. of all people. Instead of which she had married. She felt as when. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. rather than the hefty type. quite unexpectedly. At country houses she had met them of course. They hated trying on. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) .

indeed. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. the more she would be torturing him. Bolnava nu se simtea. viguros si vesel in felul lui. nu a facut-o pentru asta. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. she was uneasy. The closer she allowed him to come to her. to keep abreast of the current. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. but lying in her bath. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. si in plus. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground.Rindurile dvs. dar vizitele acestui om din topor.Over the River) 2.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. nu puteam sa le uit. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. ii faceau bine. short of the contacts of love. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. era un bun sfatuitor. De uitat. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she professed. Cind l-a chemat. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. (John Galsworthy . with all its impatience of restraint.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. cre s-au nascut lent. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Reading many novels. aveam tot mai 266 . astfel.

mi-am zis. latimea si ascutisul labei. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. ca si tine. fa-o. (St. Banulescu – ibid. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. se stie. are nevoie. (St. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. nu pricep nimic. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Milionarule. 4. pe scaunul lui tare. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. o data sau de doua ori. Banulescu – ibid. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. lungimea picioarelor. Banulescu – ibid. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 267 . sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. vaazut cindva.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Banulescu – ibid. (St.) 6. (St. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Daca tu.) 7. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. poate fi compensata. Ce a iesit. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Personal.) 5. cit mai au de trait.

Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. (. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Who came home from the war. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.. my grandfather.P. Who told me. to Emmanuel College. Translate them. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Could he be blamed. delivered from the holocaust. 2. Arthur Atkinson M. for being a renegade. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Cambridge.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.. when I was even younger than you. Who. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Who was may father. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. a wounded soldier. Ernest Richard Atkinson. A story-book romance. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative.

How 269 . He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). and because – but this is mere speculation. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. Fabianism. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. to whom. 4. deep-set.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. he had already engaged himself? 3. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. Rachel Williams. a moody man.

omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. cu taina aceasta. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. om mare.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum a trăit el. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Ion. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a ajuns el. la şcoală. satul. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. 270 . Ion. Cum au tăcut ei. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.

cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. împotriva tuturor. când voi fi singur. de mama lor. din franţuzeşte. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. Când actriţa. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. cu sau fără voie.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. greşeli dintr-astea. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. 271 . Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. singurul lui stăpân. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună.pune totul in discuţie. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. L-au derivat cei din teatru.

nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. de pildă. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Am început. traversând. ci un sistem de acomodare. parcă începusem s-o uit. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. 3. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. 6. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. dam buzna peste automobile. sau ridicole. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. fostă prietenă din copilărie. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. Era să am din cauza asta un duel.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. pe jumătate prezent. Tot aşa. 5. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. 272 . e îndrăgostită de un actor. privindu-mă în ochi. nevasta-mea. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. 4. continuând. Într-o vreme. A devenit palid. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. provocându-le.

aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. 9. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. iar. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. 8. şi să nu ameţesc. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. că nu m-am gândit la asta. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. De altminteri. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. fireşte. Dacă nemţii înaintau. să merg întins. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. Aş vrea să mă las jos. orice s-ar întâmpla. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. fără să mă opresc o clipă. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. 11. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. E o problemă. ca un acrobat. Am început. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. şi dacă merg întins.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu.

274 . Uite. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. se uita in jos. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. eu am venit sa va intreb. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. trebuia sa le spuna. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. dar nu se mai putea. Auzindu-l. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. cu mirare. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie.. In curind. 17. Ii venea greu. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. 14. 13. Acum isi ferea privirea. la fata locului. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. de la obiecte de pret. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. nu mai semana. la carti. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. de la lucruri personale. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta.. de la proces. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. 15. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. La un moment dat. la amintiri. nu mai pricepu nimic. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Adica tot trecutul. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. de uimire. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent.Ma. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Greu era din partea asta. 16.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Ilie nu-l asculta.

Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. . In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Zimbea siret. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap.Ce sa fac. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Nu era nevoie. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. cum zicea Anghel. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. se indeparta nepasator. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». 20. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. 19. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. asa cum facuse pina acum. i se paru ca aici e ceva. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. vorbe asa si-asa. apoi se uitau la Ilie. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. which was part of his rich outfit. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. dar. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. There was even 275 . Aici era ceva. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou.

He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. asked for Mrs. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. the young lady. 5. going astray. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. conversationally. He felt then. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt.Nadina VIŞAN relief. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. for the instant. He walked a long time. gave an exclamation. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. 3. at least. paying no attention. rude woman.Miller at her hotel. a simplification. But Daisy. to move fast. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. on this occasion. She was one 276 . resuming her walk. and to declare that they needn’t mind her.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. to admit that she was a proud. 4. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. to take his way home on foot.

making Paul stop and look at her. 7. in their own phrase. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. smiling and chattering. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. She appeared. 6. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession.Walker. uncomfortably. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. 8.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. She rustled forward. make a point. and wondering what the deuce he meant. He left me musing. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. of studying European society. Advising with me. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. indeed. on the other hand. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. as it were. Her daughter. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. in radiant loveliness. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. as text book. often. while residing abroad. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. as to projected changes. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .

’ 278 . with his humorous density. which was deliberate. 10. wondered what they were talking about. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. and perceived that it must be something important. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. not seeing. The agent became a very familiar type to H. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. was only half satisfied with this. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. 11. and. could see he was remarkable. though E.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. or at any rate not heeding. H. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. was immensely struck with him. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. 9. H. H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. and acute too. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. while Paul. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M.

Unit ten Revision exercises 12. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. H. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. as he looked back. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. which was very copious. 14. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. But she gave him no chance. that the haunting wonder which now. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. 15. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. 13. appeared to fill his whole childhood. had the power to chain his sympathy. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. not glancing at him for a moment.

from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. that she must be on the contrary. 16. dragging herself on her knees. It was very possible she was capricious. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. 18. and to H. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. H. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. At the theatre. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. where the Pearl of Paraguay. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. disheveled and distracted. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 17. ironically reserved. yet 280 . and there were others. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. as a general thing. proudly. The whole establishment.

It came over H. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. on which the damp breath of the streets. H. young men were invited. didn’t mind. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 281 . No one ever listens to her. with the poor. would always be more or less irritating. Their mistakes and illusions. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. and lurking within this nebulous design. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. 3. had blown a certain chill./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. 2. *Old. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 19. 20.

slipped on some steps. I was definitely going to be sick. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. her shining blue feet twinkling. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 12. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. 282 . She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. Rachel. walking quickly. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. I walked fast. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. her arms held out. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. 5. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 6. 8. 10. “Oh. striding like a Spartan maid. 7. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. 9. 11. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I saw her as a vision. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. Either John or he * have got to give in. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out.Nadina VIŞAN 4. c) When I saw her sitting there. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I blundered by.

The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.

that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. if they were poor.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 2. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. could cook my meals. The old women spoke no English. And then I ventured to add that. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. but that we saw and pitied. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. which was really alarming. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. where my servant. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. 5. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . 3. 4. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment.

before they left town. at noon. would really hurt. was informed. apart form his distress for parents. Constituents: Margaret. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: He. Constituents: how much. was anxious = was + anxious.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. was anxious. 285 .g. Munt.g. apart from his distress for parents. etc. etc. to pay their annual visit. this. distress. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much. he had not yet been able to estimate. he. to settle. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. etc. on Saturday.apart from his distress = apart from. had not been able to estimate. his. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt.

nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / If you like her. Second clause is an imperative. which context is non-assertive. negative. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. it is assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.... don’t bother her./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. interrogative.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive/ Don’t do that. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. listen to this.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . second clause is non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. The sentence is however 286 . and is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. – first clause is non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. negative/ If you like jazz. negative/ Come with me. which is not assertive. – non-assertive. – comparison. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book./ She finally admitted. – non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. interrogative. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.

–double negation cancellation./ Hardly interested in the conference. / She does like John./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ They weren’t really confused. – they told the truth to somebody else. – someone did that. he was hardly pleased. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / You have never met 287 .but to someone else. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ He was exceptionally cunning./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. not even this thing./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. the two brothers dared to protest. everybody used to travel by coach. but it isn’t Susan. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. – I like somebody else. only irresolute. / She does not hate animals. – someone hates animals. but it wasn’t them. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. but not more than she does others. not even when it’s quiet around. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ When he learned the news. / I don’t like her very much./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / They didn’t leave.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. but nothing out of the ordinary./ He was smart enough./ Not long ago.

not even part of it? / Not infrequently. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. – I cannot look him in the eye. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. they go skiing in the mountains..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. were they? / This boy is no good. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem..negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.. not even when you were very young. – negative insertion. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.. / This is hardly the 288 . did they? / A few of them stayed behind..negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. did they? / No problems were caused after all. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released... not even in my dreams. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.Nadina VIŞAN her. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret..

/ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. never trust a man again.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / Few people came to see her. – I never see her. but she also lent him a car. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – I don’t often look at her like that. / Hardly anybody liked him. when we started our holiday. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her./ We seldom receive such generous praise.Never shall I trust a man again. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / I seldom look at her like that.. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. Activity 8 I shall never. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.. – Almost nobody liked him. – Not many people came to see her. – I almost never look at those paintings.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise..Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat.

/ You must on no account touch this machinery. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime.. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / She could rely on nobody but him. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. / We will see them again somewhere sometime./ I somewhat like his proposal. / He reckoned he would not win her over. you can’t do anything about it any more. / Come on./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – Come on.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – They say he never had anyone very close. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. –At no time did we leave the office. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – They don’t believe she likes them. / They believe she does not like them. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / Don’t worry. you can still do something about it./ Well. – 290 . – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / They say he once had someone very close. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – Only on this man could she rely.

I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ I can understand all of these ten English words. –Alice still lives here./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – You should send her something. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / Well. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / You must pay that fine. / She hardly ever comes here. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – You can’t be telling lies. 291 . too. – She almost always comes here. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. either. / You needn’t send her anything. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam./ I nearly always have to clean it myself./ Bob is still living at that address. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / You must be telling lies. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – I feel much better for having had a holiday./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences..

/ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. / Jim is so brave. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. He didn’t move a muscle.D./ Nobody told us a thing. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ He’s a happy man.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. I haven’t done anything. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ N-are nici cap nici coada. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. to any of us. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ E un baiat de zahar./ They say this Ph. He isn’t that smart. not yet./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. give me a hand./ I don’t know a thing about her./ 292 ./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ You look so tired today./ Zis si facut. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ You took his leaving you very hard./ Nimic de facut. I haven’t seen her in years. / Please. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. / Don’t go on believing him. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ I don’t know why she’s crying. has never studied anywhere. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ He was a tough man. ever since I got this ulcer./ Have they rung the bell? No. It’s no wonder. Oh. e un magar. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc.

’/ Deloc descurajat./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ Nu-i nici un deranj. without too much determination.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . one way or another. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. no memory. 293 . Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . I hadn’t really expected miracles.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. thrown out. for I thought this threatening. that I was a decent man./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. We had nothing in common. I had never had the opportunity to prove. slowly. parasi camera. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. with the same needs they had./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. feebly.’ ‘Nici o problema. nothing. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind.

and then I suddenly thought about those friends. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. on the front seat. let alone irritable. not as we would like it to be or some other way.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. by coming here to the monastery. Radu had calmed down. Your judgement is false. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. it’s not words. Not for a moment had I thought that. that’s what the world is about. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. I admit. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. • It was my turn to say something. to say the least. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. bad. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. Unfortunately. your story. You really made me mad. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. We have to judge it as it is. clear or confusing. but facts. he immediately answered me patronizingly. the only 294 . It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. things you do any moment. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. I was sleepy and tired.. It’s not made up of theories and the like. I’d be so happy if it were so. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. he was sitting beside me. or if you understood what I meant. good. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people.

me. Anyway. clears your way. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. no matter how huge they are. did you ever step up front. it’s your problem. me. we are leaving. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. keep it squeaky clean. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. • So. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. I won’t interfere. and if you like. and an inability to act. Look. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. you can go to Ursu’s. just to please myself. But I was just wondering. you do as you think fit. it solves troubles. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. as Baciu would have us be. to fight.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. although it was a difficult thing to do. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. or you are lying hidden. fear might be hiding. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. But what about you and Melania. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. behind these big. either. soon we’ll be in town. keep your conscience clean: you have one. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. too? A gun is power. or call the respect of others. precious words. 295 . it’s yours.

Negative incorporation 296 .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. The villagers were not very religious. . but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. but they gradually got used to it.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. – incorrect. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. correlatives are mixed 2. will he?. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . because before is a positive polarity item 2. as soon as he delivered it.. -correct 3. has yet arrived -correct 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. the sentence is incorrect 3. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. has not arrived yet – double negation. firmly determined not to answer immediately. or some other woman. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . .correct 3.Negative attraction b) 1.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. But it was not because I had no answer to give.

His spirit was too tired. Her stillness. (ibid.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Nu putea să se mişte. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. not happy at all (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. much less ((NPI) for her. b) But it was rather (API) late. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Avea sufletul prea obosit. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Ştia că are dreptate. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). yet. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. prea răscolit. either (NPI). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. her lack of motion would have to do (API). she couldn’t marry him. too troubled. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. nu era 297 . (ibid. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself.

) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. e) At length. (ibid. she looked younger than ever (NPI). slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. se îndreptă spre paravan. şi destul de hotărât. 298 . and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). arăta mai tânără ca oricând. he made his way to the screen. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Ba dimpotrivă. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie. The Satanic Verses. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. and not a little unsteadily. (ibid. inima îi batea năvalnic. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. if anything (NPI).

Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. i) What did C. the gift was useless. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Ce-i pasă lui C. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. 299 . Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. but his father would have none of it (NPI). told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. Home receded from the prodigal son. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. care if the school were willing to treat him. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. (ibid. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. and probably an administrative headache as well. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. The point was. h) C.) C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity.

correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. . correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question.indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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she didn’t wear a ring. all godfearing husbands and fathers. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Chizlinski. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. to make them lust after her. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. keep Condrat away from her. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. the bitch. yes. Fenia. Fenia. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. she likes to entrance them. do you really think that this vixen. Stavre Paici. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. now she was chatty. “Now. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. Vica. 2. you are in enough trouble as it is. Luca Horobet. they were. and then what do you 308 . She has an eye for gentle men. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village.

4. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. the minister of Tartars and Turks. He got him out of his mosque. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. her hair pinned with blue combs. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. ankle-long flowered calico. what’s her name. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. The mullah. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. a seventy-eight year old lad. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. have a girlfriend. G. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. dragging his feet listlessly. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. It even takes him a while to go to the window. with a railway station and a mosque. 3.

Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.

Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – similar situation 10. and I passed. yellow and blue. John and Mary are the newly married couple.phrasal coordination (in this case. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. Her pet kitten is black and white. – sentence coordination 7. – sentence coordination 2. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. Our flag is red.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . John and Mary are ready. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. our respective examinations..COORDINATION Activity 2 1. John is ready and Mary is ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 ..sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.) 9. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.

5. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 7. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 8. but not John. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 2. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 10. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 3. many guest or few. plays football. Activity 5 This book and the other.) Joan plays many games. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. but John does not play football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Activity 4 1. We can and will demand payment. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. your work and mine. that method and those. and even tennis. her son and others. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. much satisfaction or little 312 . your proposal and his. her idea and John’s. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 6.

He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Touch and go 10. 3. etc. 4. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. but not simple. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Thick and thin 11.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. 8. Spick and span 9. High and low 2. Ups and downs 6.) 6. Over and above 13. Wear and tear 12. The facts and figures 3. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Safe and sound 313 . Pros and cons 4. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Law and order 8. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Few and far between 14. 7. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Life and soul 5. 5. He read. Activity 8 1. Swings and roundabouts 7. magazines are only for children. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. To and fro 15. Bread and butter 16. He snapped at him and slapped him.

6. 3. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 4. 7. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire.. 8. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – similar situation 9. 6. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. cause-effect Activity 10 1. exclusive 15. – symmetric.symmetric 11. Asymmetric 20. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 3. inclusive 16. 1. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Not John but his two sons are to blame. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 10. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 8. 4. 2.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 9. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Asymmetric 19. b. 314 . My son and daughter are twins. Symmetric 13. Asymmetric – temporal sequence.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. 7. 2. My son and heir is safe. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric. 10. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – symmetric. Cathy and David have arrived. 5. – symmetric 10. exclusive 17. 9. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Either the child or the parents are to blame. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 5. – symmetric 2. – asymmetric 18. Symmetric 21.

I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. He’s neither fish. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 6. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. There are doctors and doctors. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 3. 11. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. No drinking and driving. 2. 15. it was too small. They came to me. 5.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. for better or worse. thanks for asking. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. We’ll stick together. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Should he pour water in the basin. 2. 14. 8. nor fowl. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. (2) 1.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Brother or no brother. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. Her husband is long dead and buried. clothes and all. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 4. 7. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 9. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 12. Not only should you rest 315 . I hope my letter finds you alive and well. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. 3. I’ll still finish this paper. ‘Madam. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. He went to bed. Jim thought it over for a while. By hook or by crook. 10.

so he could leap in pursuit. This. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. 2. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. Mrs. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. an important man. Whatever she tried her hand at. And. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs.’ (3) 1. both dead and buried. but she blinks in approval. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. and she listens to him. it would work out fine. just like when he was thirty. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. so he’d gone down and died in no time. tense with concentration. So she’ll listen to him. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. what’s its name. and she had this idea to ask Mrs.Nadina VIŞAN assured. as she always does. What do you know? The moment Mrs. You know. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. They hadn’t kept him there too long. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. stop dead in his tracks. he’d leap high. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. Her first husband had been a professor. but he’d come out a cripple. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. tense like a bow. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. From time to time she will launch a helping question. without mentioning financial matters. she started doing a great job. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. 316 . and then. she knows for sure. at equal intervals. their common ground. he starts lecturing her about life and things.

about her problems at home After I told her the story.subordinate. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. – she.subordinate. told. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as an object (direct). to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – Susan. – she. functioning as a modifier 3. came.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.subordinate. – she. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. cannot tell. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . – obligatory elements: she. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. looked.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. she looked at me sadly. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . you. functioning as an adjunct 2. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . at me Activity 2: 1. is aware.

functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.subordinate. remove our home yet again . that you are choosing exile . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate.subordinate.complement b) 1. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. that we should.Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . at our age. since the main verb is think of something) 5.

outbuildings. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement.complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. a house. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. a barn. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . direct object/ and seen – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2.

that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her.wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement.A few days before the war. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. staring at each other. Activity 5 1.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . without straightening her back. that kept her constantly tense and grim. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. direct object/ to sit there – complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. sickle in hand. When Anton put the sickle down. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. direct object. (…) ‘Well. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. But other people. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning.

Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. that was for sure. Only he had Ana to think of. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. as if they were at his beck and call. For no bold man really falters. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. you need courage even for this small thing. 2. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. First. Why! He was not of two minds. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. but also his sharp nose. or if he does. rather than a real threat.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. 3. he will turn back and no longer be daring. but he doesn’t spurn either. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Ana could not stand a trip now. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. which he doesn’t rely on completely. 321 . while they spoke from miles away. while on other occasions he would show caution. or other more hidden means. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. Not even at this point. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. for even swallowing your food is a big deal.

But it was not ok. and when things didn’t go as planned. by the cars of some of us. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. under the silliest of pretexts. We were going to drive to a vineyard. and on Monday followed another feast). are we getting off again? What is wrong. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. 4. it was the women. they would ruin the arrangement. to see some mutual friends. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. So. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. and twice we were requested to get out. although he could have said so earlier. come on. in Odobesti. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. In fact. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. Twice did we get in the car. 322 . although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. without really knowing why. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. he had postponed writing back. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. And here’s how this first day looked. Costel didn’t want to give up this job.

7. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. He told her the secret. most of whom were from England. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. The students like their teacher. These are people who we cannot tell much about. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo.free 8.restrictive 2. 3. He is the author who they gave a prize to.She came to London where I went too. where I spent my youth .RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 10. 2. I bought Jim a book that he liked. Activity 2 1. on which this occurred . 5. 4. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 8. 6. 3. who was just passing by.restrictive 6. John told his friend a story about the king. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. 7. 8. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . which was a pity. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. all of whom would answer to his questions. 11. 4. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . like their teacher. why they all left . 5. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.restrictive 4. 6. Activity 3 1. which was silly of him. 10. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. when we first met .restrictive 7. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. You couldn’t join the party. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. where I least expected 323 . Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. The students. This is my husband whom I love very much. 9. any of whom would answer to questions.

who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. 6. I. however sad .adjunct 10. who think so highly of yourselves.restrictive 10.Nadina VIŞAN . Of all the persons there. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. What I’m saying – subject. when . 2.adjunct 3. When . where we talk money – predicative. You.free 9. 5. which . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. 4. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Who . was very displeased with the situation. 3. Why .subject 9.adjunct 11. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. what their parents made them.subject 8. Where . What – direct object 2. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. come up front. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . where – predicative 7. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.free Activity 4 1.adjunct 6. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. who cannot say a word.When Ada remarked – adjunct. Where . Which – subject 4. Activity 5 1. Where he was from – adjunct. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. the prince chose Cinderella. 7.adjunct 5. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. What Inman remembered – subject.

attribute 12.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. which is ungrammatical due to the[. whatever – predicative 13. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. what little she knew – direct object. which requires an accusative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. how . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.

whose great-grandfather. a rather tiny looking man. due to its invariable character. got married and had a daughter. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. but whose second cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. in his turn. having changed quite a number of jobs. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. a sergeant. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine.

In the interest of public decency. .yes 3.obligatory 3.yes 7. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. whose interest he most sincerely shared.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. was now complete. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. . the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.yes Activity 9 1. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. – obligatory pied piping 2.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. His friends. . This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. no easy answers to which could be offered. he rarely saw now. – no 9. . . with deletion of the noun friends]. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. – no pied piping 327 . Irene. he requested that the public be excluded. – yes 2. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . – no 4.His father’s friends. – yes 6. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. The problem of safe transportation. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.obligatory 4. were now all gone. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – yes. – no pied piping 5.yes 10.no 5. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. has been troubling them forever. This story.

For twenty years.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. Nelu.and he couldn’t thank me enough. Everything was ending. I did so. irrespective of age and nature. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. where two teams battled every day… 5. 2. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 3. or as of a vast arena. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. In other people’s opinion. 4. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. I am to be envied. 8. 328 . For all the four children. for instance. 6. Only an ugly endless dream remained. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. the third born son. yours. 7. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth.

Let me tell you my last conclusion. 17. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 15. leaving streets and houses behind. 13. 329 . the tram was rattling along. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 11. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. since I don’t really know which my true life is. 14. barely glittering in the distance. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. from MR street. All that you have read is rubbish. she said. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. Behind them. 16. 12. staring aimlessly.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. You are newly arrived here. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. He was suffering from dizziness.R. on Icoanei street. where from Marta was coming too. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 10. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. although she was standing quite close to him.

24. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. From the vantage point I was in. had a personal style in clothes. But for me. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. after the car was fixed. likes and dislikes. 22. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. who only lived once in this world. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 20.Nadina VIŞAN 18. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. I don’t know what might have happened. in her pursuits. So. She was a woman of means. or the clash of stars above. If he had hit me. so optimistic and composed? 19. While some trees are still green. 23. which I did not posses. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. or the many Egyptian dynasties. While we were poor. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. But. 21. had a huge house in Bucharest. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 330 . I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. who prompted everyone on the street. I could see my woman falling away from me. day by day.

subject 4. – extraposed. direct object 10. – extraposed. – extraposed. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . subject 7. direct object 3. – impossible 7. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. subject 8. 6. It appears that no one voted for him. object 5. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 331 . It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. for pragmatic reasons 5. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. 2. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 2. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. 3. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. object 6. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. – the same as 3. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 9. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. 8. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. prepositional object 11. – questionable. – unextraposed.

9. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. . – impossible 11. 17. Activity 3: 1. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. It is nice to meet you.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. a bit too intricate 5. but pragmatically impossible 3. tense influences the 332 .correct 4. 15. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – same as 12. . – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 10. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – the same as 12. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13.grammatical. – grammatical. I don’t expect it that he will come back. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – impossible. 18. but pragmatically impossible 4. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible. – incorrect. I guess it that he will come back.incorrect. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. 14. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. idiomatic formula 16. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. same as 12. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. . – grammatical. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.grammatical. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. although a bit intricate 2.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner.. They never expected it that he would come back. – impossible.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – correct 2. – grammatical.

behind gates. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I hurriedly hid wherever I could.’ 4. 3. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 333 . 5. (Not always. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour.incorrect. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. under bridges. in the ditch. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. – correct 6. in the pits on the road. thus. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.’ Lionel says. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). 2. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. though. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane.

3. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 7. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. since the 334 . who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. – the second sentence is questionable. without trying to protest too much. – the first sentence is the better of the two. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 4. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.Nadina VIŞAN 6. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. 8. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. By saying this. 2. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. It is less ambiguous than the first. who had just returned from Africa. because it is less ambiguous. Activity 7 1. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. prime-minister. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa.

but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. 7. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. 6. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 5. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 8. 335 . – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. so there is no need for extraposition. extraposition is obligatory here. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. – both sentences are grammatical. The second and third sentences are grammatical. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved.

– prepositional object. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.We discovered that our map has disappeared. ibid. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. – complement 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers.complement 4. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. . – adverbial of sequence/result.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever.) adverbial of sequence/result. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. required by deverbal noun 336 . The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. for better or worse. – relative 3. . – direct object. . (Iris Murdoch. ibid. (Iris Murdoch.relative Activity 9 1. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.adverbial of sequence/result. – subject. – complement that clause.prepositional object. they were chained to each other forever. – relative 5. – complement 2.) complement that clauses. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. coordinated.

– that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. h) John thought that Harry had run. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. you want me to believe. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. f) John said that Harry would leave.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. that deletion is obligatory. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) John said that Harry was leaving. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.

a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – both sentences are grammatical. b. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . c. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. sequence of tenses is observed 4. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – grammatical sentences. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5.

quail. ciocârlii şi şoimi. geese both grey and white. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. – generalization on habits of birds. prepeliţe. hawk. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. present perfect instead of past perfect. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. present instead of simple past. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. cenuşii şi albe. lark.

A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. lipsa de vanitate. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. lack of pridefulness. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. She admired their keenness of wit. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. slyness in a fight. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. The generic present is used in this case. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. as evidenced by its drear plumage. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. love of practical jokes.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Crows will relish what presents itself.

and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. the young officer. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. in the very act of expiring. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. El căzuse pe spate. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. tragică şi eroică. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. He had fought hard through the war.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He died erect. Murise în picioare. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. tânărul ofiţer. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. se ridicase în picioare. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. But as the battle raged around them. […] During the latter stages of the tale. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. he claimed. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips.

Activity 13 1. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. And they might just hang him. deşi era erou de război. They all had their hands in their pockets. war hero though he was. Luptase din răsputeri în război. 2. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. A short while later. I realized I could not tell him the big news. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. susţinea el.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. But when he reached me. 342 . He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). When he saw me. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. mother went home and I was left alone. în închisoare. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. he closed the album. How can I explain? I just felt shy. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Acum stătea aici. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. they gathered around my desk. the oldest. When the boys saw that mother had left. – similar situation to the one under (c). Now here he stood jailed. around seventeen or eighteen years old. One of them. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. to finish my drawing. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt.

he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. for her vineyard. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. or fear his rage. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. 4. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. as if he had been drunk. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot.’ Mr. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.’ 5. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. or if she would do so again. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. brightly and closely. 6. All his senses were now keen. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him.

7. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 9. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. And if things were so. 10. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 8. claiming you had no ambition for the future. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 11. The last time when we met here you scared me. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. thinking of him.Nadina VIŞAN to him. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth.

And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. namely the impatience of this young man. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. 14. where he would run to confess everything. 12.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. 13. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. towards Jurubita. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. more urgently than ever. which secretly drove him. without putting anything in a note. We either sell them or we don’t. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates.

346 . . It is vital this factory to be reopened.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 10. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. grammatical 7. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 2.. / they saw her leave. – simple infinitive. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. grammatical 3. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 5. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – infinitive continuous. – simple infinitive.simple infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. – infinitive continuous. – perfect infinitive. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 9. – simple infinitive. grammatical 6. .

you need to try harder. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. – Test: They asked her. \ I allowed [them to come. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / It is not too late for him to learn. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: * I would like people. Test: *They did not wish her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I would love them. Test: *She wanted him. – Test: They tempted him. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. – Test: He persuaded her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: *I allowed them. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. ] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / I want to never see you again. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: She promised him. Test: *They would have hated her.

. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / Oh.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. I don’t need you or your services. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I have a word to tell you. / I want you to leave my house. Activity 6 Oh.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / He is easy to talk to. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / To make a long story short. / He is young enough to start again. not to miss the train. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. . to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. . / He is easy to live with.

She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. and as if they didn’t know what life was about.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 1 – PRO-to. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. he didn’t envy those above it. Subject. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. extraposed 2 – PRO-to.to. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. they had depressed and fuddled him. 1 – PRO.Accusative + Infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Predicative 4 . In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Harold. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. the herd instinct was very strong in him. 1] A little crossly. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. 349 . so that we might get to the future and have done. If he himself was out of spirits. Subject. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. He suspected hostility at once. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2].

but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. e) When two persons. or better said. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. more believable than evidence itself. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. 1 – PRO-to. true. cautiously. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. PRO controlled by ‘me’. man and woman. f) The passing time is important. One day. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. excitedly. slowly. PRO controlled by ‘she’. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. And you might also be hit and humiliated. PRO controlled by ‘she’. more meaningful.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. we seem to forget about our own pain. c) Unlike plane trips. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. object 2 – PRO –to. But when we need to comfort others. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. PRO controlled by ‘him’. 350 . direct object 3 – PRO –to.

for there is no shame in it when need drives you. all down our neck. That is it. or their talk that night. not to want to wipe it off. I am indeed praising my own merits. which he had already forgotten. k) With this considerable dowry. tickled by the trickles of sweat. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Moroi says heavily. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. even when this love is hurried. to live only with your coughing. Mrs. while swearing to change my way of life. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Stroescu. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. If it was summer. not even those parts where he had been half-right. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. that you are young. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. or. in the street. S. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. And to actually start to believe you are so. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. He had not been able to leave Dr. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Would you like me to look at you transfixed.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. 351 . h) I want us to go. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. as he had appeared to him in the rain. And I would care for this man so deeply. for instance. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. my wish being only to please and serve.

l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. 352 . poor Muti. If you will have what I can give you. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. here I am with all of my own. for that’s the door people get off by. haphazardly. every Bucharester knows it. met by squalor and terrible smells. Well. or to speak so fast. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. no matter what. she was suddenly so shocked. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. ready to submit to any demand. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers).

as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / They found it thrown in a corner. – Attributive past participle./ She sent him shopping../ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ He went to have a tooth pulled. 353 ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ Don’t keep him waiting./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. with its lips drawn back.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . badly beaten and bloodied. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.

5. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 7. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.She didn’t want to hear the story again. The tree had fallen across the road. 4. having heard it all before. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. a rug caught her foot and she fell. they began quarreling about how to divide it. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 6. Sleeping in the next room. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having fed the dog. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. having been uprooted by the gale. Turning on the light. 8. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. 9. I slammed the door of my room.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 3. – Attributive present participle. Attributive present participle. he sat down to his own dinner./ Running into the room.Running into the room. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Finding the treasure. a rug caught her foot and she fell. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 2. I was astonished at what I saw. – As she was running into the room. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. Accusative + present participle / In any case. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 10. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Having looked through the fashion magazine. Activity 4 1.

his horse fell at the last jump.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 10. 2. – As the dog was barking furiously. he was bit by a scorpion. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As he left the cinema. I let it out of the room. a pot of paint fell on my head. cloth-covered. the sea was tossing it up and down. the sea was tossing the post up and down. bald-headed. stony-hearted. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 7. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. my hands often get very cold. – As he was getting out of bed. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Leaving the cinema. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. / Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. a pot of paint fell on my head. 11. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 9. empty-headed. 4. Activity 5 Fair-haired. a scorpion bit him. he broke one of the eggs. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. 8. Passing under a ladder. I let the dog out of the room. – As he was riding in the first race. / Getting out of bed. Getting out of bed. I often get very cold hands. 355 . – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. Riding in the first race. sharp-eyed/minded. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 3. – As he was tied to the post. one of the eggs broke. – As he was climbing down the tree. 6. wooden-headed. broad-shouldered. Reading in bed. narrow-minded. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. three-coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. lion-hearted. many-coloured. a scorpion bit him. – As I was passing under a ladder. Barking furiously. my hands often get very cold. Climbing down the tree. red-handed. one of the eggs broke. Tied to the post. open-minded. 12. 5. his horse fell at the last jump. fishy-eyed./ Reading in bed. Dropped by parachute. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. – When I read in bed.

drunken man. injured when their car crashed on the M1. roast meat. sunken eyes. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. injuring my arm. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. were taken to hospital. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. (injure). (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. / Many old people. found hiding in a barn./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. is expected to be a great hit. (hunt). Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. dark-skinned. produced by S.Spielberg.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. mown grass. (find) 6. hunting for a bargain. shrunken stream. / Swiss watches. (produce) 3. bounden duty. open-hearted. (take) 2. lighted candle. rotten plank. I stared at the canvas for ages. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. straight-shouldered. ill-gotten wealth. The escaped prisoner. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. 7. admired for their elegance and precision. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. are sold throughout the world. (admire) 5. 356 . The film. (grow) 4. Activity 8 1. Activity 7 1. are in grave danger of extinction. Whales. / Three people. was today taken back to prison.I fell on the ice. eagle-eyed. hidden meaning. graven image. shaven head. stricken deer.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. shorn lamb.

Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. hovering uncertain and soft. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. And his soul. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. flat and soft. the fish. he were struggling for breath. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. He felt close to his father. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. thrown in the pots. and the puffed pastry beds. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. So. sprinkled with sticky flour. and moreover. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. he started peering anxiously around as if. 357 . 2. A parasol. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. 3. in charge of his house and lands. After a while. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. the carved chicken. seeking some promised land. yet left them room to sway free. now taken down. suddenly suffocated. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. 4. the twice rinsed vegetables. its scales scraped off by the knife. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. streaked with yellow veins of fat. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. bake them. boil them. then put up.

Activity 10 1. – participle (attribute) 2. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. – Accusative + participle 3. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. Gambling is his favourite pastime./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / I told him not to bother putting things back. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I am sorry for being so late. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – gerund (subject) 4. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned.gerund 5. . / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. he left the store without buying a thing. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. He smiled to hear her talking in that way.

participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute.participle vs. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. 8. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. . I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – gerund (half or full. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. He was spotted talking to her. She’s looking forward to having lots of children.possessive ING (direct object) 9. possessive ING (predicative) 7. preceded by preposition). The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12.

why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.. Croom to try to follow one.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. adjective. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. – gerund (full. Lady Corven. – gerund or verbal noun. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. however appearances were against us. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – verbal noun (has determiner.’ 360 . – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. hold up his pen and speak. my Lord. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. but they went by too quickly. I did ask Mr.’ ‘Tell me.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. take down her answer.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. adjective. – verbal noun (has adjective).verbal noun (has determiner.

’ said Clare. suddenly.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. I spend all my time hunting a job. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘I do hate asking for things. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. Then. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I must go back now. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. licked the envelope with passion. and went out to post it himself. my Lord. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.’ 361 . it’s overrated. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ said Clare. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. I just used the word and they fell.

direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. He looked up towards the daylight. after verb of perception. attribute). he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. down.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. attribute. The sight of the two children. Then he saw movement at his feet. At first. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) from below. adverbial of time. It was like a mist. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. attribute. attribute. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. attribute. elliptical here. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute). gerund. following the verb ‘remember’. the very earth opening up (half gerund. slowly rising (participle. slightly 362 . village which is burning). Has a complex subject) in the hole. direct object). …while their edges were crashing inwards). The collapsing shops (participle. hoping (participle. direct object) towards him. (participle. down into God knows where. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. attribute) in a swirling motion.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. someone looking for survivors (participle. functions as direct object) and then the ground. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. First the crack snaking (half gerund. The two sides were moving apart. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. the enormous split in the earth.

the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. covering (participle. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. you. moving up (participle.e. etc. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. my dear. early. prepositional object. i. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. one. adverbial of reason). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. direct object). adverbial of manner) towards his chest. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . direct object) that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. has ‘of’ phrase). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund.). has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. according to the books he read. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there.

whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. slanted on to her cheek. adverbial of reason). and sunlight. adverbial of manner). and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. She finished what jobs there were. Vaucher and I. brightening (participle. examining (participle. adverbial of manner). attribute) stopped dead. and not only in my imagination or theirs. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. attribute) a sudden whoop. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Having a French governess (participle. reluctant or not. and everything got suddenly animated. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. So. Young Mamona left the room without a word. for Dornford was busy on an important case. a door was opened and as a servant entered. attribute) to winter brilliance. the two Mamonas. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. Standing up. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. preceded by preposition.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. preceded by preposition. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. And. mother. we were all gathered in that room. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. which beckoned to 364 . and then went riding (participle.

bending a little. I knew who it would be. about concentrating all our resources.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. And then. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. to me. without taking his sack off his shoulders. kissed her forehead. to Vaucher. and ended his life in the year 1821. killed by Young Mamona. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. he found us sitting each in his place. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. let alone greet us or say something. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. about sparing no effort. for anyway. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. in the year 1812. who knows. sitting in his puddle. her back towards us. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . each carrying a wooden box. too. and to Young Mamona. 4. he looked like someone who did. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. Entering our house on a Thursday. closing my eyes. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. as mother had ordered him. So when Old Mamona came in. He cast us a swift glance. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. and smelling so hard of rain. 2. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. he went to mother and. 3. Vaucher might have known that too. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. his disloyal apprentice. Not so unimaginable though. And. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least.

And all around them was the great field 366 . 5. each pausing before jumping down. long board table. as an afterthought. barrack. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. stove. of taking notes and rewriting them. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. And suddenly. They got off the truck slowly. But. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. everything seemed familiar. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. wood pile. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. futile. already seen and heard. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better.

Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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A. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Editura Credis. 1998. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. 372 . Visan. 2003. 1990. Zandvoort. In M. Sentence Processes. Rodopi. Conference on British and American Studies. 1999.. A Handbook of English Grammar. 1957 and 1962. Plenat (ed. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. N.W. Amsterdam... Berlin. editia 1.. Vet. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001.. de Swart. I. e.) L’emprise du sens. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Le passe simple. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. Co. 347-385. Vet. R. Aspect Shift and Coercion. 2003. Smith. New York. 1978. Modes of Discourse. 2003.. TUB. Henriette. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. 1992. Vişan. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. a. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov.. Mouton de Gruyter. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Stefanescu. London. Co. N.Schwegler. Lectures in English Morphology. Carlota.

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