NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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6 . materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.de rezolvări. titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

5. Auxiliary verbs 1.3.2.6.1. The Distribution of an Element 1. Insertion 1. Constituent Phrase 1.Contents: 8 1.4. Complementary distribution . Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.

(Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. very much. loves. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Consequently. sequences of the kind her mother very.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Semantic. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . her mother. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. For instance. They are just strings. that is sequences fragmented at random.2. Syntactic.1.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. 1. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words.

) 10 . 1. an order given to an interlocutor). 1. etc. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.4.3. should. we are dealing with a directive (i. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. must. (Mi-a spus secretul.e. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. be).

) 1. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. etc. 1. live. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Consider. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. for instance.5. an ‘empty’ there subject.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.6. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.

auxiliary Activity 1 verb. whereas (7) is not. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. syntactic. How much. this would really hurt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. he had not yet been able to estimate. semantic.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. If the given context is the one under (6). pragmatic. Pratice Define and illustrate. distribution. Munt. using your own examples: insertion. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. 12 . complementary distribution. as the star indicates.

13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

3.1. Tests for negativity 2.6. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.8.5.7. Conclusion. Negative vs. Polarity Items 2.2. Key terms 2. Key terms . Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Full – local negation 2. affirmative sentences. Instances of negation 2.2.4.

The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Consequently. in that they do not state anything. This example can be compared to: (2)a.Unit two Sentence negation 2. it asserts something. in the sense that it states something. Negative . (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. For instance. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .2. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.) is said to be an assertion. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.Declarative vs.Positive vs. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.) b.

Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . / She finally admitted. don’t bother her./ Don’t do that. / Come with me.assertion .g. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.other (if –clauses. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.negative (e. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much./ She can’t wait to read that book./ If you like her.g.) . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. They told her the ( e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.g. 16 .positive sentence ./ We didn’t come here just to talk.Nadina VIŞAN .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. listen to this.positive and declarative secret. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.interrogative (e.non-assertion . Did they tell her the secret? ) . comparison.) .

we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. John is not happy.Unit two Sentence negation 2.3. I met a girl named Susan. (John e nefericit. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. John is unhappy. since the negative word not is not present there. Susan doesn’t like her friends. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). (John nu e fericit) (4) a. (Nu demult.) 17 . Susan dislikes her friends. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. In the case of the sentences under (4). whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. word negation.) b. For example. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.

since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. but their meaning tells us a different story. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. these sentences look negative. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. since the negative word not is present inside them. where the word 18 . just like in the case of word negation. He was not without intelligence.) b. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.Nadina VIŞAN In this case.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) c. She was not an unattractive woman. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. I was not a little worried. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.

/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence. semantic negation. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.e./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. / Când a aflat vestea.

/ Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. 2. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. affirmative sentences. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.4. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. Negative vs. ci doar indecişi. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. dar nu în mod special.

). we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. etc. (see subsection 1. For instance. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.) (9) I didn’t go there. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.1. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (M-am dus acolo. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. such as do insertion.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (Nu m-am dus acolo.

22 ./ They didn’t leave. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / We don’t come here often. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. incorrect. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan did not get married to Jim. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / She does not hate animals. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical.

Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. .) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. * and they don’t like her either. even the smart ones. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 3. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. *and neither do they like her. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. and neither do they like her. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which is ungrammatical. *not even the smart ones. not even the smart ones.Unit two Sentence negation 2. 4. Example (14) is syntactically negative. which does not happen in the case of (18). Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. and they don’t like her either. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag.

The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / Few of them stayed behind. they go skiing in the mountains. In conclusion. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / You have never met her. / A few of them stayed behind. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / No problems were caused after all. / Not always a witty interlocutor. 2. / I can hardly understand what they are saying.5. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / This boy is no good. / They caused us no problems. / At no time was he able to solve the problem.

Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (26) I saw nobody. Susan could not go to the theatre. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (27) a . b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-a venit John). I went nowhere. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre.

no incorporation takes place. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. / I didn’t ever go to his place.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b.) (29) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) b. I didn’t go anywhere. I didn’t see anybody. 26 . Not a day passed without me thinking of him. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I didn’t see any student. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. I never went to his place. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. No day passed without me thinking of him.) c. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. (N-am văzut nici un student.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. All that glitters is not gold. Not all that glitters is gold.

/ They never went there. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.) They barely read any novels. seldom.) We seldom watch T. / Not one of them came to meet her. (Nu citesc romane. not even short ones. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / He should not be released. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.4. / I showed him nothing. / I saw nobody. / I didn’t see anybody.V. rarely. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. and we don’t go to the theatre either. nici măcar din alea scurte. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. scarcely.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. barely. / Not a word fell from her lips. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. etc. . / No one ever listens to her.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / None of them liked house music.

/ I hardly ever look at those paintings. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) b. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) 28 them.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Hardly anybody liked him. . / I scarcely ever see her. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) c.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. which triggers inversion): (35) a. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. Never have I met a more horrible person. / I seldom look at her like that.) d. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Few people came to see her.

sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. in the sense that the 29 . As you can see from the translation of these examples. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. never trust a man again. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We seldom receive such generous praise. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She could rely on nobody but him.) They don’t think that he likes them. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.

/ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. choose. sound/feel like. / I expect he won’t come here again. ought to. barely. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. seem. advise. should be desirable. believe. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. etc. / They believe she does not like them. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. intend.: think. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. suppose. imagine. the negative meaning is less strong. / He reckoned he would not win her over. look like. 2. guess.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. In sentence (37). appear. be probable. / I suppose she doesn’t care. expect.) but also by the existence of certain elements that.6. although not negative in meaning. For example. etc.) 30 . probability. want. be supposed to. we can very well say something like: (38) a. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. intention. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.) b. etc. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. be likely. suggest. cannot appear in an affirmative context.

The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. That is 31 . This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). *She likes our chairman at all. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. and sentences such as: (39) a. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.*She lifted a finger to help me. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. b.2. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. are clearly not grammatical. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items.

) Hardly ever vs. / I have some money. too (I don’t like it. / I somewhat like his proposal. etc. / I eat caviar most of the times. too. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). a lot (I don’t like you much. some (I haven’t any money. / You needn’t send her anything. / Well. still (I don’t love you any more. / I like you a lot. / I can understand both of these 32 . / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / She hardly ever comes here. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I have already seen him. too. / Don’t worry. / Well. you can still do something about it. / I like it .) Yet vs. / Bob is still living at that address. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I somehow like him. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / He arrived before 5. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.) Any more vs.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / They say he once had someone very close.). / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. either. / I still love you) Either vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.) Much vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. already (I haven’t seen him yet. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) At all vs. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.) Until vs. / Come on.

/ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. mulţumesc. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. lay a finger on someone. have a care/ friend in the world. / You must be telling lies. find a trace. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / Peter knows some English and so does John. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. nici unuia dintre noi. hear a peep. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. flinch. de când cu 33 ./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. sleep a wink. lift/raise/ stir a finger. move a muscle. give a damn/darn./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. Ion nu e prea deştept. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. leave a stone unturned. Translate into English. hurt a fly. say / breathe/ understand a word.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. crack a smile. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Ajută-mă. last a minute. have/be worth a red cent. know a single person. / You must pay that fine. see/ feel/ remember a thing. touch a drop. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. bat an eye(lid). turn a hair.

/ Never is a long word. nu e vina mea. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / No hands wanted. he’s a pig. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. As you have noticed from the exercises above. Translate into Romanian. / No admittance. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / Not that I care. / Hotărât lucru. / He won’t make old bones. / Nothing succeeds like success. / No trouble at all. he left the room. B: Aşi. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. n-a sunat încă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / I had no end of trouble. încercând să prindă criminalul. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / He is no end of a fellow. / No entry. but you really should do something about it. / No man is wise all the time. budge. / No sooner said than done. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat.

say it. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Normally. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English).Unit two Sentence negation rather).) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. as well: 35 . 2. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences./ I saw no one. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). c) He is anxious to say something. / I hate making any commitments. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone.7. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.

B: Not this poem. Key terms. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. B: Nu. The second negation is somehow independent. nu îmi place poezia asta. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. nu poezia asta. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. I don’t. however. from a syntactic point of view. 36 .Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. (Nu. Conclusion. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. nu-mi place.) 2. I don’t like this poem. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.8.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
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Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .e. interrogation).

1 Yes/No Questions 3.3.1 Tag Questions 3.2.3.4. Direct vs.3. Key Terms.3. Optional Exercises . Minor Types of Questions 3.2 Wh.2 Echo Questions 3.1.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 3.2.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.

focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .Unit three Questions 3. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.1.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. If we try to analyze the examples above.

due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. (3) and (4). paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. (2). Pratice Translate the following questions in English. 48 .g. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. pe mama. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e.

and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. in this case. In the case of indirect questions.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. 49 . Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Likewise. because. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Since the question is not direct any more. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5).

ce culoare are pielea. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / He asked me who she was. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. identify the incorrect sentences. c) Ştii ce.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. spune la un moment dat femeia. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / I don’t know who she is. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. sau mai bine zis. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / He asked me who she is. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / I don’t know whom she fancies.

the type of answer the respective question requires. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 .2. In this case. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. being typical of spoken language. as Quirk shows. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.Unit three Questions 3. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.

(how long / wait for me?) 10. 3. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (who / talk to last night)? 5.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2.1. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.

that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . are said to be positively – oriented. they did. (Da). it has.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes.

but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. 4. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. (speak yet) B: ……. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. …………………………….. A: You look down. …….. 6.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . ……………? (hear her) B: …. I’ve still got plenty of time. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. . but I want to play basketball a little longer.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. A: Your mother is shouting for you.. A: She had her tenants evicted. 7. A: You’re still in your pyjamas.. as in the example: 1. …………………. A: You’ve been learning German for years. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. 2.. because you always copy everything I do! 5. 3.

You could have mentioned it earlier. what . A: There was a terrible car crash..? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . 9. . ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.Unit three Questions B: …………………. which When.. ………………………………. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 ..2. 3. A: It’s past your bedtime.2 Wh – questions Wh. where. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. I didn’t get home until late last night. 10. . why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. 8. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. how. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.

Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. I cannot do that. Nearly two hundred years. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. trying to find places where I resided in life. / Kay’s gone out shopping. what ever./ I have French lessons twice a week. / She lives in the suburbs./ Sara owns two cars. / My new car cost 10. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. of course. / David’s car was stolen. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair.000dollars. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death./ She dropped her glasses. / There are six students in my class. (Poppy Z. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / That’s my pen. why ever. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / Shirley got married to Ben.

2. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.) 57 .3. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.

Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. wasn’t it there? 17. He used to work in a bank. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. shall we stay? 7. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. shall we stay? 14. didn’t use he? 4. Let’s stay for another few days. can you be? 58 . Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. How far is it the cinema? 10. Who did left the gate open? 18. There was a fax for you this morning. He used to work in a bank. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. You can’t be serious. Let’s stay for another few days. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. How far is it the cinema? 3.

John goes jogging every morning. How long time does it take to get there? 28. will you not? 27. That’s your car. That was Jeremy’s brother. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Whose it is this book? 32. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. dacă prin absurd 59 . doesn’t he go? 23. Don’t forget to ring the dentist.Unit three Questions 19. Pot reveni. Ani întregi. uneori disperat. neliniştea infantilă. să-mi înfrâng frica. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. will you not? 21. plin de germeni virulenţi. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. deci. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Who did told you about the problem? 31. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. despre o lume dură. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. How long have you be lived in London? 26. deci. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. ca şi cei ce au fost. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. wasn’t it he? 22. Toate vechi. isn’t it this? 25.

Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. iar proştii. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. murdar. neîntrerupt. negru. de atunci. Riscul? Ratarea. naiv. “Spune! striga el. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. pe sub bolţile din care. inactivii. ghiceam doar unde se află. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. laşii. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. B. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. lung. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . îi ştiu gustul. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. picură apa roşietică. mă întreb. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. dar şi drumul. Şi. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. pe care oricum am simţit-o. indiferent de risc. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. străină priceperii lor. puturos. umed. “Ai fost în parc noaptea.

care i-a determinat alegerea. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. will you? (38) She went to Prague. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo.3. golul alb. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.3. didn’t she? . ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. da? (37) Let’s go there. la urma urmei. viaţa? Oare e drept. domnule profesor. 3. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. exclus. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. orbitor.1. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. nu se poate.Unit three Questions viaţă. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. Tag Questions Tag questions.

deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host sentence is negative. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. or falling. is it? (Deci. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. sarcasm. the tag is affirmative too.e. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. it’s all spent. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. hasn’t she? (Aha. The suggestion is that in this case. aren’t they? 62 . hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. the tag is negative too). or “comment tags”. In this way. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. au fost cheltuiţi. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. au fost cheltuiţi.) A: Oh. (Din păcate.

/ Each of us is staying.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / The boy often watched his sister. / You will pick me up. / She used to talk a lot. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / That was your father. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / I must go now. / The boy never watched his sister. / He has to marry Susan. / You will pick me up at 7. 63 . / You ought not to smoke. / He hates his wife. / You have been invited. / Tell me. / She has a brother. nu?) • with a falling intonation. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / Few people like her. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That’s your car over there. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room.…/ Let me know. / Let’s eat dinner now. / A few people like her. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / She left an hour ago. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / I am dressed smartly enough. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He simply hates empty words. / Don’t leave without me. / Surely you have enough money. / I think you like my music. / I think you don’t like my music. / There is enough food for everyone. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Everyone felt happy about it. after all. / I am older than you. / I don’t think you like my music. / They said he liked music. / I may see you tomorrow.

b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . using a question tag at the end. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. or what? 3. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1./ I’m right about this…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. He used to play squash. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. / He never used to study so hard…. So you enjoyed my talk. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. 5. isn’t it? / Is this a great party.

Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.) B: Chinese? 65 . / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.1.3.3.questions which repeat part or all of the message.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. Recapitulatory echo questions . (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.1. / Grants… 3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2.2. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.

2. (Închide lumina aia. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. If the wh. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.phrase is fronted. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. disbelief.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. rather than the repetition. of something just said.3.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. consternation. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.

with recapitulatory echo questions. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. (Vai./ We are looking for a purse. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. intonation is rising. (i.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. / I think I’ve found a solution. I’ve lost the letter. am pierdut scrisoarea. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. whereas with explicatory echo questions.e. dear.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean./ He is interested in blue movies. (Uită-te la asta. / He is interested in music. which letter do you 67 . / We are looking for a pixie. rather than did you say.

she knows about it. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.4. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .Nadina VIŞAN 3. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.

crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. Are gust de oameni blânzi. stricata. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. lui Chizlinski. în satul nostru. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. să se încolăcească mai bine. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. şerpoaica. după pofte. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie.– Crezi tu. Fenio.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . ca să zic aşa. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. şi apoi Vica ce zice. nu purta verighetă. cumnată Fenia. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. în general. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. acuma sporovăiala. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. cu o casă de copii. oameni aşezaţi. da. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. lui Stavre Păici. şi care s-a aciuat. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. lui Luca Horobeţ. pe Condrat de Vica. aşa. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri.

curat ca pereţii de Paşti. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. roşu şi galben. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. deci. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Hogea. abia târându-şi picioarele. sus. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. până la călcâie. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. sau cum o chema. De asta erai. L-a scos din geamie. dar cum se face că a 70 . tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani.

furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.3.5.Coordination and Subordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Key Concepts .4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.2.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.1.6.

reproachfully. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination.e. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.Unit four Coordination 4.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.1 Syndetic vs. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. i. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. Example (2). which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. that elements are coordinated. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. present) in the sentence. cu repros. where there is no indication other than a comma. 75 . on the other hand.

Conversely. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. you will die. From the previously mentioned examples. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.) Such examples. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.) (4) If you hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN 4. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. vei muri. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. 76 .

the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. the second. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. respectively subordinated constituents.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . but presupposed. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. However. from a logical & semantic point of view. we need to specify that. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.

Though the castle had vanished. with enormous solidity. his shoes squished. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. In the second. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. but the 78 . this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. built. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. He moved and made a slopping noise. Then he sat down. the houses were beautiful and ancient.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. His clothes hung to him. John Steinbeck. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. adorned with cornices. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. took off his coat and emptied them. of cut gray stone. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. with formal walks under rows of trees. In the first. took off his shoes and emptied them.

and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Cecil Woocham – Smith. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. the higher he went the wetter it grew. and as the way is with Irish mountains. over some of the roughest ground in the country. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . left the house. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again.

As one can easily notice. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. (G. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. were to take down the name of every man. however distinguished. yesterday and the day before yesterday.K. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. as shown in (9). Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. we should be seriously annoyed.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . where we are dealing with a compound constituent.3 Sentence vs.

7. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. and even tennis. but not John. Her pet kitten is black and white. / Bob and George are admired by their students. / Joan plays many games.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. our respective examinations. / Peter. 8. John and Mary are ready. 4. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. 10. and I passed. 3. 9. yellow and blue. Activity 2 sentences: 1.Unit four Coordination example (7). plays football. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. 2. John and Mary are the newly married couple. / Peter and John played football. John is ready and Mary is ready. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. Pratice Distinguish coordination. 5. Our flag is red. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic.

whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case.) b. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. John writes poetry and Bill prose. John loves and Bill hates cigars. or deleted. as can be seen in (10b). Jane 82 . Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. 6.Nadina VIŞAN b. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. 3. Activity 4 2. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.) c. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. 5.

Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. i. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Besides ellipsis. these syntactical processes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. the predication buy a pair of shoes. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. than a longer repetitive one.) The common element. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 8. 7. the so-called Principle of Economy. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.e. 9.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. So. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 10. can be reduced by substitution. 83 .

A citit. Translate the following sentences. some reason or another. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. 4. George and Jane are separated. 4. using reduced structures: 1. 2. the old men and women 2. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . simple books and magazines for children 3. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 3. one or (the) other method. In certain cases. George and Jane went back to their parents.

6. 16. A pendulum swings ………. like: salt and pepper. After all their adventures. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.I searched ……….. 2. 6. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 15.. the amount I’ve already saved up.. only for damage. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 12.You gain some things and you lose others. Marks and Spencers. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 5.. they reached home………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 5.. sweet and sour. 8. They get on quite well together. . Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. fish and chips. even though they have their little …………. Can we discuss the …………. I need another 100$ ………. 13. it’s a case of ………… 7. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. of your proposals later on? 3. 11.. for my wallet.… 14. 8. 7.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time.

Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. and 86 . Nor sun.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. 4. b. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.4.) There are. as in: (17) a. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. of course. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. In fact. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. For instance.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. etc. the expressive function of coordination is. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. more often than not.

(I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. too): (20) a. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (I-am dat banii. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. and cherished her. 20 (b)). (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. sometimes but. o respectau si o indrageau.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.g.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. or .) In certain cases. etc). where the subordinator is repeated.) c. both … and . Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) b. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.) 87 .

Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. I admire and like her. and you’ll die.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. From this point of view. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. (Imi place si o admir.* I ironed and washed my pants. I like and admire her. I washed and ironed my pants. if we were to rewrite the example . In this case. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) b. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.) b.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. and hit my wife. (O admir si imi place.

) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) (While Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Brown experiments with humans. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.Unit four Coordination 1. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (If you do that. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. he failed). Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. 97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.4 Key Concepts .

subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.) 101 . (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. as the name suggests it. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.g. 5. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . From the functional point of view.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.which are based on coordination . e.

Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. for instance.) 102 . We do not presuppose however something like. (I-a dat cartea.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. for example). by an adjective + preposition. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. in certain cases. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). such as proud of. they are still presupposed by the speaker. an adverbial item. In a way. sentences) required by the verb (or.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. we associate it with these objects. For instance. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.

e.) b. The second example. related to example (4). A second observation. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. i. to her) and one extra-item. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. In other words. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. which is the adverbial willingly. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. Thus. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to add something. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. an additional one. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. 103 . I am afraid that he won’t come. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted.

(Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. make. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. like.) 104 . we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. a închis toate ferestrele. So.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. I’ll die. am să mor. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (11) If you don’t marry me. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. etc. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. such as want.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.

g. After I told her the story. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. [. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . 5.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. this to whomever wants it.She came to him of her own will. e. They came to e. 2. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 4. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.g. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.g. she looked at me sadly. 3. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 6. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. The book that because they home. Whoever did that was a genius.

(the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. FOR. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. WHETHER. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. 6. was a novelty to Mitzi. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. 2. which. etc. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. 3. at our age. not object.He took an intelligent interest in her. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. though it was largely politeness. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. stating their function: Activity 2 1. but he declined.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless.) 106 . 4. As you can see. You suggestion that we should.

Who did it was John. how. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. when.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. where. why.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. which.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. 107 .) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. etc. Where he went is London. (15) It is John who did it.) (16) a. who.) b. (E de dorit să plece.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.

done from a structural point of view. Compare. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. Unlike complement clauses. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. for instance. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. however. In (18). (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .1. if.) (18) She told me this before she left. which sums up this classification.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. etc. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. before. As you will see. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. In conclusion. consider the following table.

Dear Ludwig. back. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.g. for. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. you understand. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. 109 . whether he will come when I feel like it. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.: e.g. as. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. surely you cannot sincerely believe. after. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. I will come back such as because. I will go there because I feel like it. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. etc.g. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Introduced know e. at your young age.

a tightening in her breathing. 2. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. But she thought that no one would call again.The day Monroe had died was in May. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 .It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. As she left the house. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. Too. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. she stopped to speak to Monroe. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. he said. Accidental Man) b)1. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. Late that afternoon.

As you have probably noticed already. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.2. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. That he loved e. 111 . Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. interesting. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. I told her everything after she arrived. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.g. However.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g.g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. că e.g. a correspondence can be traced. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.

whereas wh complements are the 112 .) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. So. (Cred că mă place. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. complements. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. Thirdly. i. whenever you identify a wh.1. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. Secondly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.. In the fourth place. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.2.e. We will come back to that in the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.complement.

for no matter how she tried. outbuildings. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. their introductory elements (e. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. a house. I first thought to tell in 113 . she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. but no idea what to do with them. after. She mistrusted her handwriting. before. c) I am coming home one way or another.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. and I do not know how things might stand between us.g. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. a barn. because. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Pratice Consider the following text. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour.

But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. According to a structural criterion. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. it would make you fear to do such again. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). and I have not the will or the energy. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. these clauses can be complements. because they modify.e. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 .4.

) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. interested in. look at. think of.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. ce o fi având.g. Alţii. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Nevasta secera în tăcere. O zbughi înapoi. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. după ce că are grâu puţin. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei.e. be very careful to use this term correctly. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. Pratice Translate the following. însă. 115 . etc. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. (…) “Mă. answering the question to whom? So. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea.

Toată lumea înţelesese că. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. izolate de sat. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. de fapt. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. întâi. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. cât de bolnavă era. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. Nici acum. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. timp de un ceas. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana.

din cauza lui G… Anişoara. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. la nişte prieteni comuni. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. deşi cam târziu. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Pace nu era. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. Era bine de ştiut. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. stricau totul. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Iată. În realitate. amânase scrisul. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. la Odobeşti. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. acum sunt desluşiţi. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. de pildă. aşa de oţetit. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. întâia noapte de război) 118 . ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.

of which.g. subject relative clauses.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.. whose. etc). the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. etc. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. 119 .

The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.6.2. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.7.6. Key Concepts .3.5. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.4. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.1.

The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.1.2. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. 6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. 121 . b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. The Co-reference Condition .) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.Unit six Relative clauses 6. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.

We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. John loves that woman. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. By combining these two clauses. 122 .Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause.

we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The common element woman is present. 123 . This way. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman.

John told his friend a story about the king. The students like their teacher. 8. The king was just passing by. too. 6. He’s the author who received the prize. frequently used in written language. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 9. 10. I lost the book’s cover. by leaving behind a trace. WHO 124 . therefore in spoken English. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. They met those students. WHO 5. WHERE 3. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. I went to London. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 2. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. He told Jim everything about his plans. Any of the students would answer to questions. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I had a book. 3. 5. I introduced him to Jim. 7. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. I love my husband very much. None of the students agreed with them. WHICH 4. She came to London. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. This is my husband. The students like their teacher. 4. Susan wants to meet Jane. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. He liked that book. I bought Jim a book.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position.

) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. 2. most of them were from England. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. .3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. WHOSE 7. i. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. relative clauses are divided into 1. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. WHICH 8. WHOM 6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. (Cine strică plateşte. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOM 10. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.e.Unit six Relative clauses 6. TO 11.

we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) So. these relatives cannot function as attributes. Unlike their sisters. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. it is covert. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.e. unlike in the case of (14). (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. in a manner of speaking. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. is no longer overtly expressed.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.

Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who is the god of commerce. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Mercur. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. este zeul meu favorit. care este zeul negoţului.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. They only provide supplementary information about it. (Du-te unde pofteşti.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. is my favourite god.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.) (Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. They can be thus divided into: 1. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. 127 . they define it).) (22) Mercury. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. who incidentally is the god of commerce.

They are what 128 . Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. I have met him where I least expected. who is a genius. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 2.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 5.e. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Shakespeare. Independent I don’t know what you want. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. On the day on which this occurred I was away. is a great playwright. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). is a genius. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. restrictive relative clauses.This is the village where I spent my youth. 9. was the one we all welcomed and admired. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 7. 6. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. i. She. 10. this type of relative clauses. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. then it is an attribute. on whom nobody could depend. 8. who came to see me. As we were saying.

composed The (Freddie Mercury. however sad this may be. care a murit acum câţiva ani. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. . etc.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.) 2. etc. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. a. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. who died a few years ago. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. 6. When the antecedent has no determiner.

Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. Dintre toate personajele prezente. 4. care nu sunt o femeie. who neither work nor am anxious. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. ill-tempered. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. who am your son. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 5. (Ei apeleaza la mine. Mie. 2. 7. can see your shortcomings only too well. 3. 6. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. poftiţi în faţă.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). care-ţi sunt fiu. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. 130 .) Anybody else would have done something except myself. dried-up old maid. ci o fată a woman. (Eu. iritabilă şi uscată.) Pratice Translate the following. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1.) (28) They come to me. numai eu nu. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. but a peevish. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. bătrînă morocănoasă. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate.

) (35) The compositions of Cardan. (32) service finished late. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. părăsi camera. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. erau acum în posesia lui.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. than whom few more can be more crashing.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. . (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. heard. were now in his possession.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) (33) He was a railway fanatic.

The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.1. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. but it is typical of the formal. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. too. 6.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. The genitive form with which is still in use.) d. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .5.) b. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.) c. literary style: (37) a.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) b. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. as can be seen in (36d). (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.

but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.Unit six Relative clauses form of which.

but to a type or a function: a. animals.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.) b. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) • states. … Italy.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. ships (that can be personified) a. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. by the way. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) b. (45) (46) . This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. He is not the man which he used to be. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. of which. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.

It is poor what gets the punches. while. how. whom it concerned most closely.) b) dialectal (49) a. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. where.) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. why.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (Nu ştiam ce vor. etc. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) 135 (47) . (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. time. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) 6. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. pe care o privea direct.Unit six Relative clauses b. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. France. etc. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. reason. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.

Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. He went where he had been before. The place whither he goes is unknown. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) 6. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.3.They left when they decided it was proper to.5.) e. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) 136 . Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) b. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) c.) b. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. This is the place wherefrom they came. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.

) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . Moreover. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.

little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. I’ll get you such things as you may want.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.4.5. much. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. Honest man as he was. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. 138 (64) his shoes. but • in standard language a. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. not any. every. but they are used very infrequently: as. . any.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.

.) c.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. There’s not many as’ll say that. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. And always on the buttered side. This is the same one that/as you had before. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.) • in dialect a. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. It’s the dry weather does it.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. him as was in China … (Uncle George. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. Uncle George. ăl de fusese in China…) b.

For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.

The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. b. we all have to come to some terms. The man that John spoke to is a genius.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. This is where we talk money.) b. 5. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. What Inman remembered was this passage. That which shows God out of me.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. It seemed a thing 141 .5. fortifies me. Where he was from. The man who John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 3.” 4. makes me a wart and a wen. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 7. 2. 6.) c.3): (72) a. What I’m saying is. The man John spoke to is a genius.

d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. (…) Partly. though. he had left Ruby high and dry. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 13.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. The rudeness of eating. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said. of living. who had not witnessed many dawns. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. Oh. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 10. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 142 . c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. which is a lot. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 8. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 11.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. 9. Whatever his fate was. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 12.

dar care avea un var de-al doilea.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. poate. pe linie paterna. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . pirpiriu. plutonier. fiu natural al unui morar. nu prea sarac. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. un var primar. divortata. Cumnatul meu avea. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. (Iris Murdoch. vasnic. cumnatul unui portughez. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa.al lui. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. mort de tanar. al carei strabunic. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru.

you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi.6. c. The opposite phenomenon.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. This is the book.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.2. She was a woman. I lost the cover of the book. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Everybody listened to that woman. Teatru) 6. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. 144 . b. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. insurat de trei ori la rand. By extension. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.

the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.Unit six Relative clauses b. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 9. 4. 6. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. he requested that the public be excluded. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . In the interest of public decency. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 2. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The difference between (76) and (77). 8. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. acting again as a genuine pied piper. The problem of safe transportation. 3. 5. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 7. has been troubling them forever. no easy answers to which could be offered. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti.

The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Activity 9 were now all gone. They do not function as attributes. was now complete. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 5. 146 . 4. 2. no matter which. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. has been deleted. 10. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. 6. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. whose interest he most sincerely shared. Irene.His father’s friends. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. This story. as the case is). His friends. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). he rarely saw now. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 3.

închipuirea. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. 3. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 2. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Nelu. De douazeci de ani. 7. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 4. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Pentru alţii. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Toate sfârşeau. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. 6. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 5. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. himeric. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi.

Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. a făcut el. 12. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. 9. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 8. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. 10. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. nici în searbăda mea versiune. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. cu surle şi cu tobe.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg.

care era foarte “mondenă”. de unde venea şi Marta. toată lumea întreba cine e. roiuri de fetiţe. din care cauză pe Dora. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. 149 . apărură. trăia larg de tot. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. dinspre Maria Rosetti. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. despre care. 14. până mai adineauri. 17. 20. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Avea acum un fel de vertij. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. zise ea cu ochii mari.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Dacă mă lovea. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. În spatele lor. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. fie la teatru. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 18. pe strada Icoanei. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 15. deşi atât de aproape. 16. fie pe stradă. din direcţia căreia apoi. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate.

aveau un stil al lor. până în şosea. pe care eu nu-l aveam. 22. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. pe care ea îi admira acum. 24. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. de mine. Pentru mine însă. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 23. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. când au urcat râpa iar. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. întâia noapte de război) 150 . vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Pare-se că snobii. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. de sus de unde eram. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.

Topicalization 7.3.1.2.1. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.2.2.3. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.Extraposition 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.1. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.4.2.2.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.1. Key Concepts .1.3.7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.Clause Shift 7.2.2.5. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.2.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.4.6.1.1.2.5. That Complements as Subjects 7. That Deletion 7.

(2) I don’t know whether he will recover. Apart from those introduced by that. 7.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. 153 . being found not only in the case of that-clauses. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. the clause is extraposed. In other words.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything. but also of infinitival ones.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. placed in a marginal position.

but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.

It was suggested that they should meet the President. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 2. 4. 7. 13. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 11. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 8. 6. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 8. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 10.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 3. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 5. 9. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 9. It appears that no one voted for him. 2. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 7. 10. It is no use trying to convince her. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 4. 11. 14. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 15. 6.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is nice to meet you.

3. 18. 3. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. unde se nimerea.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. în gropi. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 5. 6. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. mă ascundeam în grabă. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. sub poduri. în canal. 4. 4. zice Lionel. I guess it that he will come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 5. după porţi.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 2. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. atât 156 . 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. They never expected it that he would come back. 2. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.

Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Spunând cele ce-am spus. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. vor căuta să o zdruncine. (Nu întotdeauna. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. 157 . 7. fără îndoială. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. 5. excelentă.” 4. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. fără să cârteşti. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. 6. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi.

) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. in the case of topicalization. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. this asymmetry is undone. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.) While in the case of extraposition.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.Nadina VIŞAN 7. 1. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Consequently. Pratice Read the following. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.2. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.

3. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. but not now. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. whether it would finally carry her off. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 8. This was another era. 4. She had always been the slave of chance. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. he felt no spring of interest in her. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 5. He was utterly gone. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. was inconceivable. even today. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 6.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. mere chance would decide. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. He did not blame Gracie. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 2. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 7.

Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.1. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.3.) 160 . (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.

The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. the verb to drive).) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. we obtain.e. 161 .

prime-minister. 4.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 3. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. 162 .He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. 7. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 6.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa. 8.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 2. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.

) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.2. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .Unit seven That complements 7.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.

judge. desire.2. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. afirm.) b. promise.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. prefer. deem. He announced their engagement. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat. consider. communicate. etc.) b. explain.) a.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.Nadina VIŞAN 7. estimate. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. They believe the man is guilty. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. deny. predict. (I-au promis o casă nouă. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.1.: (25) a. They believe that the man is guilty. suggest. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. They promised him that he would received a new house.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. etc.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. state. He announced that they were engaged.) 164 .

Unit seven

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. In older stages of English. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. they lose their meaning. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. hope =>purpose. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. for example. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.e. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) I like him in that he is smart.) 172 . ibid. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.) language.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. on condition that.

(Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. That can be deleted. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. să o vadă trecând. . He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. He gave an answer such. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. He gave such an answer as had expected. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) (66) 173 a.) b. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) When the structure contains the word such. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) b.

ibid. they were chained to each other forever. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared.) b. for better or worse. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.) 174 . He gave an answer such that I had expected. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. (Iris Murdoch.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.

(67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. He showed he was able to do it. say. He said he had borrowed her money. tell). (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (A prins de veste că ei vin. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.Unit seven That complements 7.1.3.) b. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (69) a. 175 . (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c. that he uses a relaxed tone. He got word they were coming. for instance.

(Îmi place că e aici.) (De asemenea. for better or worse. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. they were chained to each other forever. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. *I like it he was here.3. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.Nadina VIŞAN 7. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever.2. (Iris Murdoch.3. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.3. I like it that he was here. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 7.) b. bune. rele. because that has been deleted. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. ibid. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .

he said. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.) b)He told me that she was there.4. (“Este acolo”. 7) They maintain.) 177 . 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. which is ungrammatical in English. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. simultaneity. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. you want me to believe. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. spuse el. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 7. that they were not too late to leave.

până pleacă ea. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (A spus că.) b.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (A spus că o să o părăsească. He told me that she had been there. he said. In the example below.) Future Perfect -----. He said he would leave her. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (Am să o părăsesc.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (“Era acolo”. vine el.) b. spuse el. (Pâna să plece. I will leave her. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. “She was here”. o să vină el. The Present complement).) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.

think. regret. believe. With such factive verbs as realize. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. dream. hope. whisper. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. be amazed/concerned.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. say. mention. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. notice. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) b. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. report.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius.) 179 . insist. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.etc. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. realize it). Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. etc. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. forget. be aware. discover.) On the other hand. show. wish. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same.

expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. Consider also: (85) a. He knew that she thought all men were fools.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. in tender deference to each other. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. She believed that the earth is round. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. feign habits which are not their own. She realized that all men are fools. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. cu un respect tandru reciproc. we notice that general truths. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) b.) b.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Iris Murdoch. She still believed that the earth was flat. 180 .

181 .) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. 3. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. Peter said that John will leave at 5.Unit seven That complements 2. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) In (88). (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. such as a. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. There are however cases. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) b. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) b. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.

/ b) John said that his car is out of gas. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. for instance. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. g) John thought that Harry ran. d) John said that Harry was leaving. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. John said that Harry will leave. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. Imagine. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. But 182 . b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. h) John thought that Harry had run. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. The time is 3 o’clock. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. c) John said that Harry is leaving.

redtailed hawk. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. slyness in a fight. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. lack of pridefulness. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. bluebird. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Cooper’s hawk. as evidenced by its drear plumage. b. c. She admired their keenness of wit. 183 . Translate the following. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. whistling swan. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Crows will relish what presents itself. love of practical jokes. nighthawk. kingfisher. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. jaybird. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. geese both grey and white. quail. lark. a. John told Mary that she should bake a pie.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy.

But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. But as the battle raged around them. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. And they might just hang him. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. Now here he stood jailed. He had fought hard through the war. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. […] During the latter stages of the tale. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. the young officer. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. he claimed. He died erect. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. in the very act of expiring. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. war hero though he was.

which they share with wh-complements. On certain occasions that can be deleted. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.Unit seven That complements 7. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. or else. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it).5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. on other occasions it has to stay there. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). adjective or by a de-verbal noun. 185 . object ones up to the attributive function. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). from the very frequent subject.

Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Fiind 186 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 3. 2. neconvenabil şi primejdios. cel mai mare. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. 4. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. peste puţin. Mama. Unul din ei. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat.

luminos şi apropiat şi când. 5. un vis de acesta 187 . 7. care îl pândise. 6. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. va fi mai interesant pentru ea.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. cel puţin pentru un timp. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 9. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. va pleca din oraş la vie. aşa. ea. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. de ce constata în sine. venind de la avocat. Nu ţi-a trecut. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 8. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Se mira. dacă va mai veni. fericit. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor.

Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. 11.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. lucrul era înfăptuit. 12. dar şi teama că. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. încă o dată. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Astfel de va fi. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Acesta. şi mândria că a biruit. fireşte. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. liniştit. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte.

mai puternic decât oricând. 14. să le lămurească pe toate. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. fără o vorbă scrisă. Pe toate. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. ci numai aşa. după cum. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . spre Jurubiţa.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .

Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.5.9.2.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.4.8.8.3.Key Concepts .1.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.7.6.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.

(3) a. To love her is something really wonderful. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions.) b. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) • like that complements. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. From this perspective. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).) b. I told her to be more careful in the future.1. It is important that you should know what you need. That you love her is something wonderful. Consider the following: • like that complements. It is important for you to know what you need. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (2) a. b. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. 193 .

(Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. d. 194 . etc. 2. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart.) b. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. as opposed to the finite ones. moduri nepersonale) By convention. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.e. participial clauses. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. the Conditional. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. the Participle) (i. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. the Gerund. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. gerundial clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. For instance.

(Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) b. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) c. namely no ending. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 .

It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 3. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 4. 7. 8. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 2. 8. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 10. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. the criterion of form.2. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. (7) They saw her leave. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 5.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. It is vital this factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 9.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.

we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. 2.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. hear. (10) 197 .

Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. However. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. ./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. Pratice Translate the following. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. uncharacteristic for literary English. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. 198 (11) the universe. 3. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting.

Further on.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. to use the appropriate technical term. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. as I have already mentioned. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. In other words. or the control constructions. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. 199 .) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave.

şi creştineşte să ierţi. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.) 200 . That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.) b.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. PRO to forgive divine. It is important for him not to err. I hoped for him to be there in time.) Object: (18) a. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. PRO to err is human. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. So far. the logical subject. namely the agent of the event.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (E important ca el să nu greşească. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a.) In this situation. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.

) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. In other words. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive. him is related to the main clause verb. Semantically.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. not to the infinitive.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.) b. but the patient of the verb persuade. He stepped aside for her to enter. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.

\ 202 . This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ They convinced her to come back. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. I hate animals to be tortured. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. Likewise. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ I allowed them to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ I would love them to come. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ They tempted him to leave. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ He persuaded her to come.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ She wanted him to leave. \ She promised him to leave.

) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. 203 . (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. • Last but not least. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. So. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) In examples (25) and (26). and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. \ They really asked her to come back. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist.

/ N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. Pratice Translate the following sentences. to meet her. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. 204 . / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. with special semantic and syntactic properties. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. To sum up the discussion./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. that is not required by certain verbs. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. appear. which are said to be free. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. etc. seem. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her.). hate. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.

Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. etc. agree to. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. afford. bear. scorn.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. deign. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. propose. try. dislike. manage. fail. mean. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. / E greu să îl suporţi. care to. need. refuse. scheme. etc. like. omit. decline. hate. prefer. .) b) verbs such as abide. arrange. contrive. deserve.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) 205 friend. wish./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. want.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. venture. endeavour. seek (= try). etc.3 The Distribution of PRO . intend. presume. hope. 8. condescend. desire. Compare: (31) a.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. expect. aspire to.

(Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. claim.) b. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. I would like for him to become president of the country.etc. bear. stand. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. desirable.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. I hate that you should say a thing like this. possible. endeavour.) 206 . (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. suggest. conclude.Nadina VIŞAN b.) 8. be important.) b. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. threaten. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. For all of them to have been killed is.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. forget. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) b. ask. unlikely. verbs of liking and disliking. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. etc. however.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.

(A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) 8. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) b.) 2. Predicative Clauses (39) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) 207 .) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.

I decided for John to represent us. Direct Objects (39) a. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. the preposition is deleted. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 5. . Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 208 knowledge.) b. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Like in the case of that complements. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. but the meaning remains.) 4.Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.

(Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. You’re an idiot to go there. The stew is delicious to eat. curious about.) c.) d. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. He is a bastard to work for.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. This paint is like concrete to work with.) b.: (42) a. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) e. She is pretty to look at. delicious. 6. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.

să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Ehei. to tell you the truth. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. să nu piardă trenul.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. you’re a bad driver. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp.) I’ve never met him. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . drept să spun. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / Pe şleau.) Oh. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank.

that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. etc. need. nu mai vreau să te vad. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. induce.: (51) a. urge. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. promise. oblige. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. 8. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. influence.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. According to this.etc. inspire.) b. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. swear. b.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. direct.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.) . (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. (49) a. enable. press. encourage. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. inform. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.

/ … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. etc. count on. order.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. command. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. permit.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. prevail on. vote.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. etc. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. nominate. choose.etc. allow.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. elect. look to./ And now he 212 . name.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. depend on.

7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.e. i. be going to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. seem. etc. (Iris Murdoch.etc.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). An Accidental Man) 8. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. be about to.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. etc. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. 213 (58) (59) . (Se pare că îi place de el. grow. (O să întârzii/ leşin.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. this construction is lexically governed.: (55) She appears to like him. happen. (57) He is to come any day now.verbs: appear.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. (56) She grew to like him in the end. come.

8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.: (62) They heard him insult her. hear.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.etc. overhear. be alleged. watch. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. etc. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. In (57). be rumoured. be thought. be reported. be considered. .) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. observe.) 8. feel. perceive. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. that of intention. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be claimed.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. etc. (L-au auzit insultând-o.

) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.) 215 (67) . etc. However. know. understand. (Cred că este un geniu. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. figure. picture. find. prove. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. consider.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. remember. have. imagine.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.) • with a full infinitive: get. believe. occasion. presume. discover. judge. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. cause. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. recollect. deem. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities.

(Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. prefer. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. love. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. order. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. who wasn’t used to men with moods. permit. expect.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. command. wish. choose. Harold. etc. suffer. they had depressed and fuddled him. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.etc. he hated anyone to comment 216 . mean.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. want.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. desire.

Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. A little crossly. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . Both seemed to him a little unreal. to make sure we attended strictly to business. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. he didn’t envy those above it. though he tended to look down on those below it. so that we might get to the future and have done. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence.P. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. the herd instinct was very strong in him. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. (L. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. He suspected hostility at once. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays.

The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. From this perspective. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.Nadina VIŞAN 8.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The last criterion. 218 . We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.

ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. E posibil. Şi tu să fii. un bărbat şi o femeie. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. dar să nu-ţi spună. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. de bună seamă. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. mai bine219 . c) Călătoriile cu liftul. de asemenea. să-l capete. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. e) Când doi oameni. fireşte. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. bunăoară. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. lovit şi umilit. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. e important ce întrebări pui.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. într-o zi.

sau. în parte. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. pe care deja o uitase. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. mai bine de două decenii. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. să traiesc numai cu tusea. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. că eşti tânăr. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. (B. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. în jos. 220 . Însă Paul Achim trăise. în ploaie. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. De era vară. aşa cum îi apăruse el. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. . să nu vrea să se şteargă. un picior.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Să spui de pildă. d-a lungul gâtului. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. mai pline de înţeles. în parte. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri.Şt. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. încă.Nadina VIŞAN zis.Şt. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. avusese dreptate. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.Delavrancea. ca să nu şi-o amintească.

deşi. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. Într-un cuvânt. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). şi nu un amant. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji.. de fapt. orice bucureştean ştie. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. prin faţă e coborârea.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta.. Mă laud singură. şi prin faţă. biata Muti. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. (Al. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. un miros îngrozitor. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. orice-ar fi. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. fie ea şi grăbită. ei. sunt aici cu tot ce am. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. o mizerie. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele...Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. nici ca să 221 .

niciodată ea nu i le pune.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare.

to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns. participles.

2.2.2.3.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.1.1.3.2.2.The Gerund 9.5 Key Concepts . ING Forms and Infinitives 9.9.Participial Constructions 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.2.The Verbal Noun 9.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.4.1.1.

1. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.) 225 . This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. (Susan doarme. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Due to this situation. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.1.

blood-shot and painted.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. i. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. been and killed are past participle forms. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. were closing. 226 . the past participle can appear after a noun. too: (6) Her eye-lids. (A venit Susan) b. it functions attributively. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). This situation is also characteristic for past participles.) As you can see in this second case. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.) More infrequently. Susan has come. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. In (2) the forms come.e. Susan has been killed. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.

Weather permitting. Oh. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. (Ştiind cine era el.) c. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) c. When singing.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. people should pay attention to high notes. I will arrive there on time. they started singing. o să ajung la timp. începură să cânte. he will eventually marry her.) b. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.) d.) b. God willing.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. ea o luă la fugă.) 227 . Arriving here. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. a lion can attack. leul poate să atace. she ran away. mother permitting. If provoked. (Sosind aici. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.

) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) ii. respectively. He was found stealing. hear. I found him stealing.) b. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. (L-au descoperit că fură. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (Am simţit-o tremurând. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) 228 .) b. which stands for an adverbial clause. He was found killed by a bullet. watch. (L-am descoperit furând. behold.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. smell. notice. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.

etc. (A fost văzut plângând.) • mental perception verbs: remember.: When she heard his words. etc. have. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.) • Causative verbs: get. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon.) b. etc. hear. feel. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. etc. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. recollect. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. make a. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. have. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. set. send. I heard it said that men are a bore. she knew herself dismissed. I must get my hair cut. confess. recollect. He’ll soon get things going.) b.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. leave.) b. find. know.) • Causative verbs: get . start. keep. a.: a.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.) c.

Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • verbs of permission. He wanted his car fixed immediately. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. command I ordered my bill made out. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . Men like shopping made easy./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. lovit şi plin de sânge. / Nu după multă vreme.) b.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi.

2. Unlike the gerund. 231 . if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.1. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / Dinny. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom.e. / In any case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). with its lips drawn back. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / My Lord.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. sitting taut between her father and her sister. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her.

People were sleeping in the next room. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. She had heard it all before.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. the rain will stop. I left. 2. It had been uprooted by the gale.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 7. 4. I knew that the murderer was still at large. using either a present participle. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. 5. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (Desi nu ştia limba. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . 6.She didn’t want to hear the story again. (Văzând acestea.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. The tree had fallen across the road.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. am plecat.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. I turned on the light. am plecat. 3. I was astonished at what I saw. se va opri şi ploaia. I left. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul.

12. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. 10. drunken. handed. haired (twice). They found the treasure. shaven. roast. 10. 11. empty. 9. Riding in the first race. eagle. I slammed the door of my room. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Tied to the post. skinned. 233 . many. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Barking furiously. sharp.shoulder. eyed (3 times). bald. open. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. lighted. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Climbing down the tree. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. coloured. broad. I let the dog out of the room. cloth. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. covered. 2. Getting out of bed.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Mother punished me for my mistake. red (twice). quick. 8. dark. Dropped by parachute. minded (3 times). 7. my hands often get very cold. hearted (twice). fishy. open. lion. wooden. Read the sentences and try to correct them. He sat down to his own dinner. a pot of paint fell on my head. Leaving the cinema. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten.Running into the room. 9. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. three. 3. 8. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. b) Headed (5 times). 4. Passing under a ladder. stony. a scorpion bit him. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. cornered. stricken. one of the eggs broke. straight. He fed the dog. 6. mown. his horse fell at the last jump. narrow. 5. Reading in bed.

candle. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . graven. (find) 6. hidden.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. I stared at the canvas for ages. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. bounden. are sold throughout the world. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. (produce) 3. (admire) 5. The escaped prisoner._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. are in grave danger of extinction. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (grow) 4. duty. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite.Spielberg. stream./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. deer. _______ for a bargain. was today taken back to prison. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. _______ for their elegance and precision. / Swiss watches. ill-gotten. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Many old people . Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. image. wealth. shorn. were taken to hospital. (injure). rotten. Translate into English: 1. _______ my arm. In the following pairs of sentences. ________ hiding in a barn. / Three people. plank. is expected to be a great hit. meaning. eyes. meat. head. 7. lead. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. lamb. shrunken. (take) 2. man. The film. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. _______ by S. (hunt). Whales. the same verb is missing twice. b) grass. _______ for their valuable oil and meat.I fell on the ice.

silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. care le rânduia. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. când strânsă. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Şi. le cocea. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. şi moi. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. păsări tăiate. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. deodată sufocat. întinse. când deschisă. trezit. le fierbea. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . legume date prin mai multe ape. nesigur şi moale. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. ca şi cum. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. După câtva timp. 2. O umbreluţă. 3. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. Şi sufletul său. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. 4. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. precum şi foile de plăcintă.

According to this criterion. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. crezi. 236 . the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.Nadina VIŞAN 9. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.2.2. (Dacă vezi.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. Likewise. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.1. The Gerund 9.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.

Him winning and you losing was surprising.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. His winning and your losing were both surprising.) b. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. gerunds differ from participles. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .2. That he won and you lost was surprising. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.) b.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. Consider the following table. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. In that. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) 9.2. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.

This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. as being verbal 238 . gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised.) b. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. Consider (32). A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) Unlike participles. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. *It was illegal growing a beard. It was illegal to grow a beard.) 2. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.

3.) 3.2. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b.) b. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. It’s no good talking to her. Participles vs. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. as offered in the table below: 239 . and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) 9. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.

passive ones She was crying. Participles may function adverbials: house. babies suck their thumb. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. perfect. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. forms: continuous . he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . + noun] 1. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. 3. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. 2.

/ Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie.

I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. swimming duck / swimming trunks. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 12. 4. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. crying game / crying woman. eating habits/ eating people. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 6. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 5. 7. 10. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 3. 14.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. He was spotted talking to her. 12. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 242 . The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 8. 13. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 11. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 9. 15. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 2. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. shooting gallery / shooting star. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1.

the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e.Unit nine Ing complements 9. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.) The absence of a determiner like the. a The absence of an of phrase.e.3. but the presence of a direct object (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.

(Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. How can we tell? In the first case. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. In the second situation. George’s shooting the attacker. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . These are features that normally characterize any noun. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it.

/ The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. very large. Jim left quietly. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb./ His sudden coming puzzled her. 245 . This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / His coming there puzzled her. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.

(A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. Look.Nadina VIŞAN 9. whenever we meet an –ing form. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). the meaning is different. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. for example.4.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . However. It has been noticed that. For instance. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. With the infinitive. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. ING Forms and Infinitives. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place.

) After looking at this example. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. anterior to the verb in the main clause. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) The first example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. having left) is infrequently used in English. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. containing an infinitive. On the other hand. and the most well-known one.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.g. future-oriented value of the infinitive). (S-a oprit din mâncat. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. the infinitive is future-oriented.) .

) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.e. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. which means that they are similar in meaning. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. i.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. recollect. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.) . forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) As you can see. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.

(Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. but that’s it. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet.) . apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. In the second example. dar asta este.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. the action is not completed.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.

) wedding. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. e) need. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. want With [+ human] objects.) 250 . The house needs to be repaired.) With [.) b. The house needs repairing. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. In the second example.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. mean has the sense signify.human] objects. the event has not happened yet. (Casa trebuie reparată. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. (Casa trebuie reparată.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.

‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. it’s overrated. my Lord.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. however appearances were against us. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. (take) down her answer. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. whereas in the second case.’ ‘In any case. my Lord. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. but they went by too quickly. Lady Corven. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. I did ask Mr. gerund or infinitive. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Croom (try) (follow) one. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ ‘Tell me. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.

suddenly. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ 252 .’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I must go back now. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note. and went out (post) it himself. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ said Clare. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. licked the envelope with passion.’ said Clare.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. I just used the word and they fell.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. Then. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.

Pratice In the following texts. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.Unit nine Ing complements 9. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Last but not least. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. the 253 . since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns.5. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Participles mainly function as adverbials.

First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. At first. according to the books he read. down. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. but then he saw it billowing up from below. Then he saw movement at his feet. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. covering the girl’s head. moving up towards his chest. then the noise and the cracking stone. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. down into God knows where. It was like a mist. hoping he would see somebody up there. their edges crashing inwards. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. The sight of the two children. someone looking for survivors. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. the enormous split in the earth. He looked up towards the daylight. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. The two sides were moving apart. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. it 254 . She started coughing. slowly rising in a swirling motion.

Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. brightening to winter brilliance. 255 . they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. She finished what jobs there were. slanted on to her cheek. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. and sunlight. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. for Dornford was busy on an important case.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. Having a French governess. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.

mama mea. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. and then went riding with her in the rain. ucenicul său necredincios. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Ridicându-se. cei doi Mamona. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. închizând ochii. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher şi cu mine. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. 2. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. În urma slugii. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. într-o joi. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. totul se animă deodată. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 .

parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. o sărută pe frunte. pe mama mea părând absentă. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. se duse lânga mama şi. 3. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. am ştiut şi cine. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. Neclintiţi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. aplecându-se puţin. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. privit. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. Şi deodată. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. auzit şi zadarnic. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. pe Vaucher. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. totul mi se părea cunoscut.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. după cum îi spusese mama. afară ploua în continuare. la mine. dar ştiutoare. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. aşezată cu spatele la noi.

şi cu soba. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. dar. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. şi cu stiva de lemne. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. cu tot cu baraca. Au coborât din camion încet. şi. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. camionul a plecat. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. 5.

259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 6. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 12. and meet it right here at home. and that 263 . without profound questioning. in some way. You have been much in my thoughts. this would really hurt. 7. he had not yet been able to estimate. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. Having regard to the date of drafting. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 9. to retire early from my employment. 11. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. I am sorry not to have seen you. 5. How much. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. and this particularly of late. 4. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 3. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. since I have decided. he had been advised. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. because of pity. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. was unclear to Mitzi. 10. whereas if she went away she would get none. apart from his distress for parents. How this time was to come. 13. 2.

(Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. looking forward had not yet taken place. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. he did not come to see her. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. please consider his proposition. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 264 . for attending his sister’s wedding. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / Whenever I visited my aunt. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. even for months. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. I was made say Grace before every dinner. 14. 17. / Before you go on changing the subject. 19.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / In the end. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. one of the eggs broke.

said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. She felt as when. to end in some awful tragedy. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. centered in London and themselves. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. of the quick and wiry. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . it was said.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. without discovery. Instead of which she had married. (and there he was. and it was bound. rather than the hefty type. Essentially. cotton mills at Manchester. They hated trying on. of all people. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. she said. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. Clarissa used to think. a little girl. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. quite unexpectedly. Vulgar men did. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Though much in request before her marriage. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. Tony was a child. her recklessness. her old friend Hugh. 265 . And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. They rushed into shops. an open-air person. At country houses she had met them of course. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping.

(John Galsworthy . Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. astfel.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. era un bun sfatuitor. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Cind l-a chemat. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. si in plus. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. nu puteam sa le uit. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. ii faceau bine. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. Reading many novels. De uitat. she professed. to keep abreast of the current. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. she was uneasy. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. the more she would be torturing him. cre s-au nascut lent. Bolnava nu se simtea. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. The closer she allowed him to come to her. with all its impatience of restraint. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. nu a facut-o pentru asta. short of the contacts of love. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii.Rindurile dvs. indeed. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. aveam tot mai 266 . ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. but lying in her bath.Over the River) 2.

vaazut cindva. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. are nevoie. Banulescu – ibid.) 6. (St. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. Banulescu – ibid. ca si tine. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Banulescu – ibid. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Personal. mi-am zis. pe scaunul lui tare. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. o data sau de doua ori. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. poate fi compensata. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. Milionarule. Daca tu. Banulescu – ibid. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. nu pricep nimic. (St. cit mai au de trait. 4. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui.) 267 . tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. (St.) 7. se stie. (St. fa-o. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. latimea si ascutisul labei.) 5. lungimea picioarelor. Ce a iesit.

. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. 2. to Emmanuel College. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Who told me. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.. Who was may father. Could he be blamed. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. (. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Who came home from the war. Translate them. for being a renegade. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .P.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Arthur Atkinson M. A story-book romance. delivered from the holocaust. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. my grandfather. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Cambridge. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Who. a wounded soldier. when I was even younger than you.

Fabianism.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. How 269 . to whom. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. 4. Rachel Williams. a moody man. deep-set. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. and because – but this is mere speculation. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. he had already engaged himself? 3. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field.

just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Ion. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. cu taina aceasta. 270 . nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. satul. la şcoală. Cum a ajuns el. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. om mare. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Ion. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum a trăit el. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap.

dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. din franţuzeşte. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. când voi fi singur. de mama lor. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. singurul lui stăpân. greşeli dintr-astea.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. L-au derivat cei din teatru. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. 271 . cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . Când actriţa. cu sau fără voie. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama.pune totul in discuţie. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. împotriva tuturor. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost.

Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. ci un sistem de acomodare. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. 6. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. tânăr şi frumos şi el. A devenit palid. Am început. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. 4. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. 272 . decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Tot aşa. nevasta-mea. continuând. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. dam buzna peste automobile. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. 3. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. parcă începusem s-o uit. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. pe jumătate prezent. privindu-mă în ochi. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Într-o vreme. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. 5. provocându-le. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. sau ridicole. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. de pildă.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. e îndrăgostită de un actor. traversând.

Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. şi să nu ameţesc. Aş vrea să mă las jos. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. că nu m-am gândit la asta. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. E o problemă. orice s-ar întâmpla. să merg întins. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. ca un acrobat. 9. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. Dacă nemţii înaintau. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. fireşte.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. 11. De altminteri. şi dacă merg întins. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. iar. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Am început. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. 8. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul.

de uimire. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. 17. Uite. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. eu am venit sa va intreb. trebuia sa le spuna. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. nu mai semana. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. de la lucruri personale. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Ii venea greu. Acum isi ferea privirea. 14. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : .Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. 13. cu mirare. dar nu se mai putea. de la obiecte de pret. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. parca i-ar fi fost frica. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. se uita in jos. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. nu trebuie sa va suparati. 274 . care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. de la proces. 16. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. La un moment dat. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. la carti. Greu era din partea asta.Ma. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. 15.. Adica tot trecutul. Ilie nu-l asculta. nu mai pricepu nimic. Auzindu-l.. la amintiri. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. In curind. la fata locului. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie.

Aici era ceva. se indeparta nepasator. vorbe asa si-asa. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. . apoi se uitau la Ilie. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. asa cum facuse pina acum.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». cum zicea Anghel. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. 19. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Zimbea siret. which was part of his rich outfit. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea.Ce sa fac. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. There was even 275 . ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. i se paru ca aici e ceva. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». 20. Nu era nevoie. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. dar.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read .

she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He walked a long time. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. going astray. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. rude woman. He felt then. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. gave an exclamation. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one.Nadina VIŞAN relief. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. for the instant. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. 3. on this occasion. asked for Mrs. conversationally. But Daisy. 5. to move fast. at least. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt.Miller at her hotel. paying no attention. to take his way home on foot. She was one 276 . He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. a simplification. resuming her walk. the young lady. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. 4. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. to admit that she was a proud. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt.

she was sometimes more conservative even than I. often. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. in radiant loveliness. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. on the other hand. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. make a point. while residing abroad. 7.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. making Paul stop and look at her.Walker. smiling and chattering. She rustled forward. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. in their own phrase. 8. She appeared. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. 6. as it were. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. as to projected changes. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. of studying European society. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . and wondering what the deuce he meant. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. indeed. as text book. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. uncomfortably. Her daughter. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. He left me musing. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. Advising with me. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to.

could see he was remarkable. H. 11. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. or at any rate not heeding. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. was only half satisfied with this. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. and perceived that it must be something important. 10. was immensely struck with him.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. H. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. wondered what they were talking about. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. not seeing. The agent became a very familiar type to H. which was deliberate. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. and acute too. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us.’ 278 . for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. 9. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. though E. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. and. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. while Paul. with his humorous density. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. H.

his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. that the haunting wonder which now. which was very copious. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. why his question had broken out at that particular moment.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. 15. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. had the power to chain his sympathy. 14. appeared to fill his whole childhood. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. But she gave him no chance. as he looked back. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. H. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . not glancing at him for a moment. 13.

Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. H. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. and there were others. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. where the Pearl of Paraguay. The whole establishment. disheveled and distracted. proudly. yet 280 . that she must be on the contrary. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. and to H. 16. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. It was very possible she was capricious. dragging herself on her knees. At the theatre. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. ironically reserved. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 18. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. 17. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. as a general thing.

Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. on which the damp breath of the streets. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. had blown a certain chill. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. young men were invited./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. No one ever listens to her. and lurking within this nebulous design. 20. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. didn’t mind. H. Their mistakes and illusions. 19. would always be more or less irritating. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 3. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. 2. 281 . with the poor. It came over H. *Old. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all.

There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. Rachel. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 10.Nadina VIŞAN 4. I walked fast. striding like a Spartan maid. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. slipped on some steps. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. c) When I saw her sitting there. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. her shining blue feet twinkling. 5. 8. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. “Oh. walking quickly. I saw her as a vision. 11. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. Either John or he * have got to give in. 6. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I was definitely going to be sick. her arms held out. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 12. 9. 282 . 7. I blundered by./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. b) I got up and got well away from her this time.

Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. One or more solutions can be valid: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.

5. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. but that we saw and pitied. where my servant. The old women spoke no English. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 4. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. 3. could cook my meals. which was really alarming.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. if they were poor. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. And then I ventured to add that. 2. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide.

apart form his distress for parents. Munt. to settle. had not been able to estimate. Constituents: Margaret. Constituents: how much. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. etc. this.g. was informed. at noon. Constituents: He. was anxious = was + anxious. he. his. etc.g. before they left town. would really hurt. etc. How much.apart from his distress = apart from.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to pay their annual visit. this would really hurt. distress. was anxious. on a house. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart from his distress for parents. he had not yet been able to estimate. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. 285 . on Saturday.

– first clause is non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . it is assertive. second clause is non-assertive.. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. negative/ Come with me./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted. don’t bother her. The sentence is however 286 . – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.. – comparison. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). interrogative. – non-assertive..SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. negative. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. interrogative. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – assertive/ Don’t do that. / If you like her.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. negative/ If you like jazz. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. interrogative. which is not assertive. which context is non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Second clause is an imperative. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. and is non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. listen to this.

everybody used to travel by coach. but nothing out of the ordinary. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. only irresolute. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. but not more than she does others. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ He was exceptionally cunning. / You have never met 287 . but it wasn’t them./ He was smart enough./ When he learned the news. –double negation cancellation./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ Not long ago. he was hardly pleased. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ Hardly interested in the conference. – someone did that. but it isn’t Susan. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. – someone hates animals./ They weren’t really confused.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / I don’t like her very much./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / She does like John. – I like somebody else. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. not even when it’s quiet around. / They didn’t leave. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / She does not hate animals./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem.but to someone else. the two brothers dared to protest. not even this thing. – they told the truth to somebody else.

they go skiing in the mountains.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. I could hardly wait to hear the news. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye..negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. / This is hardly the 288 . *did he?/ They caused us no problems.. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. not even in my dreams.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her...negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. – negative insertion. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. were they? / This boy is no good. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.Nadina VIŞAN her.. did they? / No problems were caused after all. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.. – I cannot look him in the eye. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. not even when you were very young. is he? / Few of them stayed behind..

. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / I didn’t leave the 289 . –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – I almost never look at those paintings. never trust a man again./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / I seldom look at her like that.. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. Activity 8 I shall never. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Few people came to see her./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path.. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. but she also lent him a car. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – I never see her. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. when we started our holiday./ We seldom receive such generous praise.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Not many people came to see her.Never shall I trust a man again./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Almost nobody liked him. / Hardly anybody liked him.

/ I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – 290 . – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. –At no time did we leave the office. – On no account must you touch this machinery.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – They say he never had anyone very close. – They don’t believe she likes them. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares.. you can still do something about it. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / They believe she does not like them. – I don’t expect he will come here again. you can’t do anything about it any more./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – Only on this man could she rely. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I somewhat like his proposal./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ Well. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / She could rely on nobody but him. / Don’t worry. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.I don’t like his proposal at all. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / Come on. / They say he once had someone very close./ I expect he won’t come here again. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – Come on.

/ She hardly ever comes here./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ Peter knows some English and so does John.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – You should send her something.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. either. – She almost always comes here. too. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. 291 . – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – You can’t be telling lies. / You must be telling lies. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. –Alice still lives here. / You must pay that fine. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / You needn’t send her anything. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Bob is still living at that address. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Well.. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more.

/ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. not yet. I haven’t seen her in years. / Don’t go on believing him. / Jim is so brave. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them.D./ Nimic de facut. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ He’s a happy man. ever since I got this ulcer./ E un baiat de zahar. Oh. He isn’t that smart./ Am avut un car de necazuri. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ N-are nici cap nici coada. / Please./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Nu spune nu niciodata. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. to any of us. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ 292 . he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t done anything./ Zis si facut./ You look so tired today./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. give me a hand./ He was a tough man./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Nobody told us a thing./ I don’t know a thing about her. e un magar./ They say this Ph./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ You took his leaving you very hard./ Have they rung the bell? No. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. He didn’t move a muscle.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. It’s no wonder. has never studied anywhere. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again.

that I was a decent man.’/ Deloc descurajat. for I thought this threatening. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ Nu-i nici un deranj.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. thrown out. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. I had never had the opportunity to prove. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. parasi camera. no memory. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. We had nothing in common. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . slowly. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. nothing. no story./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor.’ ‘Nici o problema. one way or another./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . I hadn’t really expected miracles. 293 . but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. with the same needs they had. feebly. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. without too much determination.

clear or confusing. he was sitting beside me. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. to say the least. Your judgement is false. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. Not for a moment had I thought that. he immediately answered me patronizingly. let alone irritable. not as we would like it to be or some other way. • It was my turn to say something. it’s not words. but facts. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. things you do any moment. You really made me mad. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. your story. We have to judge it as it is. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. on the front seat.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. I was sleepy and tired. good. Unfortunately. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. bad. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. that’s what the world is about. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. Radu had calmed down. I admit. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently.. by coming here to the monastery. or if you understood what I meant. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. I’d be so happy if it were so. It’s not made up of theories and the like. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. the only 294 .

because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. too? A gun is power. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. But what about you and Melania. Look. • So. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. or you are lying hidden. precious words. or call the respect of others. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. 295 . you can go to Ursu’s. we are leaving. it solves troubles. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. as Baciu would have us be. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. to fight. But I was just wondering. me. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. you do as you think fit. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. and an inability to act. either. just to please myself.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. Anyway. clears your way. although it was a difficult thing to do. did you ever step up front. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. fear might be hiding. no matter how huge they are. I won’t interfere. behind these big. me. and if you like. it’s your problem. soon we’ll be in town. keep your conscience clean: you have one. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. keep it squeaky clean. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. it’s yours.

She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Negative attraction b) 1. But it was not because I had no answer to give.Negative incorporation 296 . firmly determined not to answer immediately.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . the sentence is incorrect 3. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. will he?. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. correlatives are mixed 2. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. has not arrived yet – double negation. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. because before is a positive polarity item 2. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.. – incorrect. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. The villagers were not very religious. .. or some other woman. has yet arrived -correct 2.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. -correct 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. as soon as he delivered it.correct 3.incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. . but they gradually got used to it.

either (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. His spirit was too tired.) Însă era cam târziu. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. her lack of motion would have to do (API). He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI).) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. b) But it was rather (API) late.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. too troubled. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. nu era 297 . slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Nu putea să se mişte. much less ((NPI) for her. prea răscolit. Avea sufletul prea obosit. Ştia că are dreptate. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. yet. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. (ibid. not happy at all (NPI). she couldn’t marry him. Her stillness. (ibid. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince.

se îndreptă spre paravan. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. and not a little unsteadily.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. if anything (NPI). which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). he made his way to the screen. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. şi destul de hotărât. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. (ibid. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. The Satanic Verses. Ba dimpotrivă. (ibid. 298 . (ibid. she looked younger than ever (NPI). f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. e) At length. (Salman Rushdie. his heart was beating fast. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. inima îi batea năvalnic.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit.

Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. but his father would have none of it (NPI). însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. Home receded from the prodigal son. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. care if the school were willing to treat him. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Ce-i pasă lui C.) C. the gift was useless. h) C. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). 299 . îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. The point was. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). i) What did C. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. and probably an administrative headache as well. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el.

correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. 300 .indirect question. correct. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. . correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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you are in enough trouble as it is. do you really think that this vixen. Vica. the bitch. she didn’t wear a ring. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. keep Condrat away from her. Fenia. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. now she was chatty. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Stavre Paici. Chizlinski. She has an eye for gentle men. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. “Now. yes. all godfearing husbands and fathers. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. she likes to entrance them. to make them lust after her. they were. Fenia. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. and then what do you 308 . Luca Horobet. 2.

For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. It even takes him a while to go to the window. The mullah. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 .”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. ankle-long flowered calico. dragging his feet listlessly. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. the minister of Tartars and Turks. what’s her name. You said: “Doesn’t this guy.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. He got him out of his mosque. 4. G. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. a seventy-eight year old lad. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. have a girlfriend. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. with a railway station and a mosque. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. 3. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. her hair pinned with blue combs.

But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.

His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.) 9. – sentence coordination 2. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. Her pet kitten is black and white. – similar situation 10. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE ... Our flag is red. our respective examinations. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. John and Mary are ready. yellow and blue.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. John is ready and Mary is ready. and I passed.phrasal coordination (in this case.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – sentence coordination 7. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. John and Mary are the newly married couple.

but not John. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. but John does not play football. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. We can and will demand payment. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Activity 4 1. that method and those. your work and mine. 8. 10. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. much satisfaction or little 312 . Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 2. her idea and John’s. your proposal and his. her son and others.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 3. 5. 9. Activity 5 This book and the other.) Joan plays many games. many guest or few. and even tennis. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 6. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were.

It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. 4. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Activity 8 1. Few and far between 14. High and low 2. etc. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Life and soul 5. 5. The facts and figures 3. He read. Wear and tear 12. To and fro 15. Bread and butter 16. Spick and span 9. 8. Pros and cons 4. Safe and sound 313 . (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Swings and roundabouts 7. 7. 3.) 6. Over and above 13. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Touch and go 10. but not simple. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. magazines are only for children. He snapped at him and slapped him. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Ups and downs 6. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Thick and thin 11. Law and order 8.

Neither Isabel nor I were timid people.. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. b. exclusive 15. Symmetric 13. 5. 8. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 3. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric 10. 7. 3. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 9. 314 . 8. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Not John but his two sons are to blame. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. My son and heir is safe. – symmetric.symmetric 11. 10. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – symmetric 2. 10. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 7. 1.There is a table and some chairs in the room. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. exclusive 17. 4. Cathy and David have arrived. My son and daughter are twins. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 5. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 6. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – symmetric. 6. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. Asymmetric 20. Symmetric 21. Asymmetric 19. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric 18. 9. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – symmetric. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 2. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 2. inclusive 16.

No drinking and driving. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 10. 8. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. nor fowl. They came to me. Her husband is long dead and buried. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 7. Not only should you rest 315 . 15. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 12. 2. 6. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. He went to bed. 3. (2) 1. Should he pour water in the basin. He’s neither fish. There are doctors and doctors. thanks for asking. 4. We’ll stick together. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 2. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 5. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 11. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. I’ll still finish this paper. Jim thought it over for a while. 3. 9. ‘Madam. clothes and all. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. Brother or no brother. By hook or by crook. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 14. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. it was too small. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. for better or worse.

whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. he’d leap high. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. They hadn’t kept him there too long. she started doing a great job. but he’d come out a cripple. stop dead in his tracks. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. it would work out fine. Her first husband had been a professor. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. what’s its name. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. so he could leap in pursuit. but she blinks in approval. You know. he starts lecturing her about life and things. And. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. their common ground. Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. tense with concentration. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. at equal intervals. Whatever she tried her hand at. as she always does. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth.Nadina VIŞAN assured. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. 316 . tense like a bow. From time to time she will launch a helping question. This. and she listens to him. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. just like when he was thirty. So she’ll listen to him. 2. without mentioning financial matters. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. so he’d gone down and died in no time. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again.’ (3) 1. both dead and buried. an important man. and then. What do you know? The moment Mrs. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. she knows for sure.

– she. – obligatory elements: she. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . cannot tell. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as a modifier 3. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – obligatory elements: I. came.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.subordinate. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . told.subordinate. you. is aware. functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. – Susan. – she. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – she. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . whomever wanted to listen. looked.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. she looked at me sadly. about her problems at home After I told her the story. at me Activity 2: 1. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.subordinate.

functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . that you are choosing exile .subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that we should. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5.subordinate. remove our home yet again .complement b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN 4. at our age.

direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. a barn. a house. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. but no idea – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial.complement. outbuildings.

(…) He dashed back. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. sickle in hand. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her.A few days before the war. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ to write that tale – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. When Anton put the sickle down. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . (…) ‘Well. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. staring at each other. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. But other people. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement.wh complement. without straightening her back. direct object/ to sit there – complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. Activity 5 1. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . direct object/ and done – wh complement.

Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. For no bold man really falters.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. he will turn back and no longer be daring. Ana could not stand a trip now. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. but he doesn’t spurn either. or if he does. while they spoke from miles away. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Not even at this point. which he doesn’t rely on completely. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. while on other occasions he would show caution. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. as if they were at his beck and call. Why! He was not of two minds. 2. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. rather than a real threat. First. you need courage even for this small thing. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. that was for sure. 321 . but also his sharp nose. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. Only he had Ana to think of. or other more hidden means. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. 3. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him.

come on.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. and on Monday followed another feast). although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. without really knowing why. they would ruin the arrangement. 322 . and twice we were requested to get out. under the silliest of pretexts. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. 4. And here’s how this first day looked. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. to see some mutual friends. it was the women. Twice did we get in the car. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. in Odobesti. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. by the cars of some of us. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. But it was not ok. he had postponed writing back. We were going to drive to a vineyard. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. So. although he could have said so earlier. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. are we getting off again? What is wrong. In fact. and when things didn’t go as planned.

This is my husband whom I love very much. 10.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 5. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. any of whom would answer to questions. all of whom would answer to his questions. when we first met . 8. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 8. Activity 2 1. 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 5. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.restrictive 2. on which this occurred . where I spent my youth . Who are you writing this letter to? 9.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 4. where I least expected 323 . A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 9. which was a pity.restrictive 4. which was silly of him. Activity 3 1. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 11. 6. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost.free 8. why they all left . 7. 2. He told her the secret. The students like their teacher. who was just passing by. 10. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . I bought Jim a book that he liked.restrictive 6. You couldn’t join the party. most of whom were from England. 7. He is the author who they gave a prize to. like their teacher. The students. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.restrictive 7.She came to London where I went too. 6. 3. 4. John told his friend a story about the king.

the prince chose Cinderella. 3. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative.Nadina VIŞAN . Where he was from – adjunct. who think so highly of yourselves. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. Which – subject 4. however sad .free Activity 4 1. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. was very displeased with the situation. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute.adjunct 5. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.When Ada remarked – adjunct. 2. 6. who cannot say a word. What I’m saying – subject. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. When . Activity 5 1. Where . come up front. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. You. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.subject 8.adjunct 6. when .restrictive 10. Why . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct.adjunct 3. where we talk money – predicative. I. Where . What – direct object 2.adjunct 11.free 9. Who . What Inman remembered – subject. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. what their parents made them. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. where – predicative 7. 7.subject 9.adjunct 10. 5. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. 4. Of all the persons there. which . where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.

human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.attribute 12. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what little she knew – direct object. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what .Key To Chapter Six Practice object.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. how . which is ungrammatical due to the[. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . which requires an accusative form.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. whatever – predicative 13. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .

who. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. due to its invariable character. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. having changed quite a number of jobs. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . a rather tiny looking man. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose great-grandfather. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. got married and had a daughter. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. but whose second cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. in his turn. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. a sergeant.

yes 7. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Irene.yes 3. – no 4. – no pied piping 5. were now all gone. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. . In the interest of public decency. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. . . The problem of safe transportation. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. – yes.His father’s friends. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. . he requested that the public be excluded. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.obligatory 3.no 5. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. whose interest he most sincerely shared.yes 10. – yes 6. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. This story. he rarely saw now.yes Activity 9 1.obligatory 4. has been troubling them forever. – yes 2. was now complete. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – no 9.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. – no pied piping 327 . She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. no easy answers to which could be offered. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . with deletion of the noun friends].The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. His friends. . – obligatory pied piping 2. .

irrespective of age and nature. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 4. or as of a vast arena. 6. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. 2. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. I did so. Only an ugly endless dream remained. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. For all the four children. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. 328 . In other people’s opinion. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. Nelu.and he couldn’t thank me enough. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. 3. For twenty years. yours. for instance. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . the third born son. 8. Everything was ending. 7. where two teams battled every day… 5. I am to be envied.

Behind them. 14. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. You are newly arrived here. she said. What you’re saying sounds very nice. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. barely glittering in the distance. since I don’t really know which my true life is. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. All that you have read is rubbish. He was suffering from dizziness. 16. which was why he saw Dora very far away. leaving streets and houses behind. Let me tell you my last conclusion.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 329 . on Icoanei street. from MR street. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 17. 11. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 12. 10.R. although she was standing quite close to him. 15. staring aimlessly. the tram was rattling along. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 13. where from Marta was coming too.

after the car was fixed. who only lived once in this world. day by day. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. 20. 21. in her pursuits. so optimistic and composed? 19. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. who prompted everyone on the street. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 330 . She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 23. But for me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. From the vantage point I was in. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. She was a woman of means. So. or the clash of stars above. If he had hit me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. 24. But. 22. or the many Egyptian dynasties. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I don’t know what might have happened. likes and dislikes. which I did not posses. had a personal style in clothes. had a huge house in Bucharest. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. While some trees are still green. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. I could see my woman falling away from me. While we were poor.

– impossible 7. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. object 5. – the same as 3. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. prepositional object 11. – extraposed. – extraposed. 3. object 6. direct object 3. It appears that no one voted for him. direct object 10. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. subject 7.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE .It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. subject 8. – extraposed. It will be soon announced when you can leave.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed. – unextraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – questionable. 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. subject 2. – extraposed. – extraposed. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It was suggested that they should meet the President. for pragmatic reasons 5. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed. 331 . It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. subject 9. – extraposed. subject 4. – extraposed. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. 8. 6. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.

tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. – same as 12. – correct 2. 14. – impossible.grammatical. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. a bit too intricate 5. 10. 18. . – grammatical. – grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 9. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – the same as 12.incorrect.. It is nice to meet you. – grammatical. same as 12. .That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – impossible. – impossible 11. Activity 3: 1. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. although a bit intricate 2. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. It is no use trying to convince her.correct 4. 15. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. . It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. I guess it that he will come back. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 17. – incorrect. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. but pragmatically impossible 3. but pragmatically impossible 4. idiomatic formula 16.grammatical. – impossible. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – impossible. tense influences the 332 . but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. They never expected it that he would come back. same as 12.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill.

333 . Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 2. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. under bridges. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ 4. though. behind gates. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. in the ditch. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. – correct 6. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.’ Lionel says. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. 5. in the pits on the road. thus. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. 3. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. (Not always. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.incorrect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. I hurriedly hid wherever I could.

4. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. – the first sentence is the better of the two. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Activity 7 1. because it is less ambiguous.Nadina VIŞAN 6. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. who had just returned from Africa. without trying to protest too much. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 3. prime-minister. 8. It is less ambiguous than the first. By saying this. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. since the 334 . owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. 2. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 7. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. – the second sentence is questionable.

6. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. The second and third sentences are grammatical. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 5./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – both sentences are grammatical. so there is no need for extraposition. extraposition is obligatory here. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 7. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 8. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 335 .

required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.relative Activity 9 1. . . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. required by deverbal noun 336 .) adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (Iris Murdoch.adverbial of sequence/result.prepositional object. – direct object.We discovered that our map has disappeared. . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. – prepositional object. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. – complement 2. – relative 5. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. for better or worse. – adverbial of sequence/result. – relative 3. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. coordinated. – complement that clause. – subject. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. . The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – complement 5. they were chained to each other forever. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.) complement that clauses.complement 4. (Iris Murdoch.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. ibid. The idea that he had had earned him good money. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.

– that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. you want me to believe. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory. f) John said that Harry would leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – that is obligatory.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that is obligatory.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. that they were not too late to leave. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. that deletion is obligatory. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.

as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. a. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – both sentences are grammatical. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. – grammatical sentences. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. sequence of tenses is observed 4. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. b. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. c. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 .

ciocârlii şi şoimi. hawk. present instead of simple past. present perfect instead of past perfect. – generalization on habits of birds. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. lark. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. geese both grey and white. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. cenuşii şi albe. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. prepeliţe. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. quail.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs.

It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. slyness in a fight. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. She admired their keenness of wit. The generic present is used in this case. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. lipsa de vanitate. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Crows will relish what presents itself. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. love of practical jokes. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. lack of pridefulness.

un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. […] During the latter stages of the tale. tânărul ofiţer. El căzuse pe spate. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. se ridicase în picioare. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. But as the battle raged around them. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. he claimed. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. tragică şi eroică. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. He had fought hard through the war. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. in the very act of expiring. He died erect. the young officer. Murise în picioare. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe.

But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. When he saw me. – similar situation to the one under (c). I realized I could not tell him the big news. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. 342 . Now here he stood jailed. But when he reached me.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. 2. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. One of them. Acum stătea aici. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. în închisoare. to finish my drawing. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. war hero though he was. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). deşi era erou de război. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. And they might just hang him. mother went home and I was left alone. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Luptase din răsputeri în război. Activity 13 1. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. he closed the album. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. They all had their hands in their pockets. they gathered around my desk. How can I explain? I just felt shy. the oldest. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. susţinea el. A short while later. When the boys saw that mother had left. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. around seventeen or eighteen years old. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie.

one might think that you sought refuge by her side. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . 4. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. for her vineyard. All his senses were now keen. 6. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things.’ Mr. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. or fear his rage. or if she would do so again. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. as if he had been drunk. brightly and closely.’ 5. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear.

but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 11. 9. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 8. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 10. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.Nadina VIŞAN to him. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. The last time when we met here you scared me. 7. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. claiming you had no ambition for the future. thinking of him. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. And if things were so. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great.

without putting anything in a note. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . more urgently than ever. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. where he would run to confess everything. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. 14. namely the impatience of this young man. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 13. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. towards Jurubita. which secretly drove him. 12. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. We either sell them or we don’t. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty.

Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / He had Mary clean her room. . / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 5.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. grammatical 3. . / they saw her leave. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. 346 . It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.simple infinitive. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 10. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 6.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 7. It is vital this factory to be reopened. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. – perfect infinitive. grammatical. – simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. – simple infinitive. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – simple infinitive. – infinitive continuous. – infinitive continuous. 9. grammatical 2.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school.

\ I allowed [them to come. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / In order to fully understand what that book is about.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. \ She promised him PRO to leave. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. – Test: They tempted him. / I want to never see you again. Test: * I would like people.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They would have hated [her to come back. you need to try harder. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: They asked her. Test: *I allowed them. \ They did not wish [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I would love [ them to come. / It is not too late for him to learn. Test: *She wanted him.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ She wanted [him to leave. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. – Test: She promised him. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Test: *They would have hated her. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Test: *I would love them. \ They really asked her PRO to come back.

obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / Oh. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / He is easy to live with. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / He is easy to talk to.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want you to leave my house. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / He is young enough to start again.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. . / To make a long story short. I don’t need you or your services. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. . Activity 6 Oh. . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. not to miss the train. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / I have a word to tell you. / He is hard to stand. .obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.

Subject. 1] A little crossly. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive.to. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. so that we might get to the future and have done. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Subject. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. 1 – PRO-to. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. extraposed 2 – PRO-to.Accusative + Infinitive. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. 349 . who wasn’t used to men with moods. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. If he himself was out of spirits. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Predicative 4 . he didn’t envy those above it. He suspected hostility at once. Harold. 1 – PRO. the herd instinct was very strong in him. they had depressed and fuddled him. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4].

e) When two persons. c) Unlike plane trips. object 2 – PRO –to. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. f) The passing time is important. more meaningful. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. more believable than evidence itself. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. excitedly. or better said. One day. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. 350 . man and woman. PRO controlled by ‘she’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. But when we need to comfort others. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. PRO controlled by ‘him’. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. direct object 3 – PRO –to. slowly. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. PRO controlled by ‘she’. cautiously. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. 1 – PRO-to. true. we seem to forget about our own pain. And you might also be hit and humiliated. PRO controlled by ‘me’.

k) With this considerable dowry. while swearing to change my way of life. Stroescu. which he had already forgotten. my wish being only to please and serve.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. And to actually start to believe you are so. to live only with your coughing. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. I am indeed praising my own merits. tickled by the trickles of sweat. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. that you are young. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. He had not been able to leave Dr. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. Moroi says heavily. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. Mrs. or their talk that night. not even those parts where he had been half-right. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. 351 . You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. S. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. not to want to wipe it off. And I would care for this man so deeply. in the street. as he had appeared to him in the rain. all down our neck. That is it. for instance. If it was summer. even when this love is hurried. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. or. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. h) I want us to go. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying.

rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. here I am with all of my own.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. for that’s the door people get off by. haphazardly. she was suddenly so shocked. no matter what. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. 352 . m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. Well. or to speak so fast. poor Muti. ready to submit to any demand. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. met by squalor and terrible smells. If you will have what I can give you. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. every Bucharester knows it. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved.

– Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. – Attributive past participle. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / They found it thrown in a corner. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. badly beaten and bloodied. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ She sent him shopping./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ He went to have a tooth pulled.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second.. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ Don’t keep him waiting. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. 353 ./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made.

5. lying face downwards in a sea of mud./ Running into the room. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. – Attributive present participle. Accusative + present participle / In any case. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 6. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 10. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Having fed the dog. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. having been uprooted by the gale. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 7. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 8. Turning on the light. I was astonished at what I saw. 9. The tree had fallen across the road.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. – As she was running into the room. Activity 4 1. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 2. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. having heard it all before. I slammed the door of my room. Sleeping in the next room. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 4. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Running into the room. Attributive present participle. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 3.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Finding the treasure. he sat down to his own dinner. Having looked through the fashion magazine. sitting taut between her father and her sister.

3. his horse fell at the last jump. my hands often get very cold. he broke one of the eggs. Reading in bed. narrow-minded. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 8. 4. Climbing down the tree. sharp-eyed/minded. Barking furiously. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. the sea was tossing it up and down. 7./ Reading in bed. lion-hearted. my hands often get very cold. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was climbing down the tree. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. wooden-headed. empty-headed. 6. Dropped by parachute. many-coloured. – As I was passing under a ladder. his horse fell at the last jump. 10. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Activity 5 Fair-haired. 5. – As he was riding in the first race. 2. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. / Climbing down the tree. Riding in the first race. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 9. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. I often get very cold hands. 12. cloth-covered. Getting out of bed. Passing under a ladder. – As he was tied to the post. Leaving the cinema. fishy-eyed. – As he left the cinema.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. a scorpion bit him. red-handed. I let the dog out of the room. an idea suddenly occurred to me. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. three-coloured. 355 . the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he was getting out of bed. a scorpion bit him. broad-shouldered. Tied to the post. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. he was bit by a scorpion. – When I read in bed. one of the eggs broke. open-minded. bald-headed. 11. stony-hearted. one of the eggs broke. / Getting out of bed. I let it out of the room. – As the dog was barking furiously. a pot of paint fell on my head. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair.

7. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. injured when their car crashed on the M1. (admire) 5. produced by S. (take) 2. I stared at the canvas for ages. shrunken stream. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. / Swiss watches. shorn lamb. found hiding in a barn. eagle-eyed.I fell on the ice. (hunt). roast meat. stricken deer. was today taken back to prison. (produce) 3. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. is expected to be a great hit. Whales. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. The film. graven image. sunken eyes. / Three people. are in grave danger of extinction. shaven head. (injure). The escaped prisoner. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. Activity 8 1. hidden meaning.Spielberg. ill-gotten wealth. open-hearted. bounden duty. (grow) 4. rotten plank. hunting for a bargain. / Many old people. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. admired for their elegance and precision. lighted candle. injuring my arm. were taken to hospital.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Activity 7 1.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. dark-skinned. are sold throughout the world. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. 356 ./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (find) 6. mown grass. drunken man. straight-shouldered. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.

4. the twice rinsed vegetables. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. A parasol. the fish. and moreover. suddenly suffocated.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. then put up. he were struggling for breath. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. yet left them room to sway free. 357 . hovering uncertain and soft. in charge of his house and lands. So. boil them. bake them. seeking some promised land. and the puffed pastry beds. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. streaked with yellow veins of fat. 3. he started peering anxiously around as if. flat and soft. And his soul. the carved chicken. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. now taken down. He felt close to his father. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. sprinkled with sticky flour. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. thrown in the pots. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. After a while. 2. its scales scraped off by the knife. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them.

. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I am sorry for being so late. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys.gerund 5. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. – participle (attribute) 2./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. Activity 10 1.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. – Accusative + participle 3. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. – gerund (subject) 4. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / After annoying the shop-assistant. he left the store without buying a thing. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool.

8. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.participle vs. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.possessive ING (direct object) 9. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. – gerund (attribute. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. . participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. possessive ING (predicative) 7. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. gerund (has a direct object) 359 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. He was spotted talking to her. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. preceded by preposition). – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. – gerund (half or full. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs.

Lady Corven.. – gerund or verbal noun. take down her answer. I did ask Mr.. adjective. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. but they went by too quickly. hold up his pen and speak. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.’ ‘Tell me. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Croom to try to follow one.’ 360 . – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. however appearances were against us. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund (full. – verbal noun (has determiner. my Lord. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. adjective.verbal noun (has determiner. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – verbal noun (has adjective).verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.

d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. and went out to post it himself. ‘I do hate asking for things. Then. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I spend all my time hunting a job. licked the envelope with passion. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. I must go back now. he addressed the note. it’s overrated.’ said Clare. suddenly. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ said Clare. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. my Lord.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. I just used the word and they fell. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ 361 .

down. elliptical here. It was like a mist. attribute. the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute. direct object) towards him. The sight of the two children. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. slowly rising (participle. The collapsing shops (participle.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. following the verb ‘remember’. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. The two sides were moving apart. At first. adverbial of time. He looked up towards the daylight. hoping (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. attribute. village which is burning). gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. then the noise and the cracking stone. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. direct object). after verb of perception. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. (participle. direct object) from below. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. slightly 362 . attribute). functions as direct object) and then the ground. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. attribute) in a swirling motion. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. down into God knows where. the enormous split in the earth. First the crack snaking (half gerund. attribute). direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. …while their edges were crashing inwards). attribute.

has ‘of’ phrase). prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. one. my dear.e. you. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. covering (participle. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. i. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.). It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of reason). That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. early. etc. according to the books he read. moving up (participle. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. direct object). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . adverbial of manner) towards his chest.

and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. and sunlight. which beckoned to 364 . Standing up. adverbial of manner). and then went riding (participle. preceded by preposition. brightening (participle. examining (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. Young Mamona left the room without a word. Vaucher and I. and not only in my imagination or theirs. preceded by preposition. She finished what jobs there were. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. Having a French governess (participle. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner). and everything got suddenly animated. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. So. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. attribute) stopped dead. mother. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. attribute) a sudden whoop. reluctant or not. slanted on to her cheek. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. And. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. adverbial of reason). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) to winter brilliance. the two Mamonas. for Dornford was busy on an important case.

He cast us a swift glance. And then. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. Vaucher might have known that too. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. about concentrating all our resources. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. her back towards us. and ended his life in the year 1821. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. sitting in his puddle. he found us sitting each in his place. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. and smelling so hard of rain. he looked like someone who did. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. each carrying a wooden box. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. 3. kissed her forehead. closing my eyes. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. And. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. as mother had ordered him. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. in the year 1812. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. too. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. his disloyal apprentice. about sparing no effort. without taking his sack off his shoulders. let alone greet us or say something. So when Old Mamona came in. I knew who it would be. Entering our house on a Thursday. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. to Vaucher. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. he went to mother and. for anyway. bending a little. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. killed by Young Mamona. who knows.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. 4. and to Young Mamona. to me. 2. Not so unimaginable though. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me.

one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. 5. And all around them was the great field 366 . the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. And suddenly. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. long board table. futile. each pausing before jumping down. They got off the truck slowly. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. stove. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. barrack. of taking notes and rewriting them. as an afterthought. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. wood pile. everything seemed familiar. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. already seen and heard. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. But. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river.

The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

A. eds. Mimo and Marc Moens. . Institutul European Cornilescu. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Chicago. Accuracy and Fluency. Al. Caenepeel. Joan and Osten Dahl. . 2003. vol.. TUB Cornilescu.University of Chicago Press.References Bauer. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. 1976. . 1996. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. 1983. CUP. 1994. Benveniste. I.. A. 1989. Iclezan Dimitriu. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. Mouton de Gruyter. Cornilescu. 1966. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World.II. Emile.. Cornilescu. G. 1976. 1964. Bernard. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. A. English Grammar. 369 . 1994. 1. The Evolution of Grammar. English Syntax. Bucuresti. Joan.. Burnes and Noble. Aspect. . Bybee. Bybee. Comrie. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. Gallimard. Laurie. Complementation in English. English Word-Formation. 1982. Problemes de linguistique generale. The Transformational Syntax of English. 51-103. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. Cambridge University Press. TUB Curme.

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English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Grammar for English Language Teachers. Language.. Poutsma. 2002. Part II. From Discourse to Logic. Seminar Press. Bauerle et al. G. R. Poetry and Drama. E. Negation in English. Nelson. Leech. McCarthy. Groningen. Dordrecht. London. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Scott. M. Klein. Jim. Hans and Christian Rohrer. CUP... Kluwer Academic Publishers. Focus on Proficiency. Parrott. & Felicity O’Dell. I. A Grammar of Late Modern English. TUB.. Klima. volume 68. eds. . Kennedy. J. and J. Kruisinga. 1983. K. Number 3. in Fodor. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen.. OUP. Groningen Lipka. A Handbook of Present-day English.. vol. Tense in Texts. E.Katz. 1992. H. 2000. 1982. L. Kamp. An Outline of English Lexicology. An Introduction to Fiction. and Svartvik. 89:2 (2000). The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. Serban. 1973. 1926. 1987. M. CUP. 2000. Miller. Literature. Foresman and Company. 1991.J. Quirk. J. S. X. Sue. 1964. Transactions of the Philological Society. Schibsbye. D. 1931. 1990.. 1970. (advanced). Greenbaum. 1993. English Syntax.. vol. 323-352 O’Connell.Kamp. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Hans and Uwe Reyle. Wolfgang. A Modern English Grammar.

London. 1998. Le passe simple. 2003.. Lectures in English Morphology. Conference on British and American Studies. I. 1978. Smith. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Editura Credis. Co. Henriette.. 372 . 347-385. Carlota. Vişan. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Berlin. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Plenat (ed. 2003. 1999.. A Handbook of English Grammar. Zandvoort. Cahiers de praxematique 19. R. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. editia 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1992. a.. Vet. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Sentence Processes. Visan. Modes of Discourse.. 1990. N. 2003..W. Co.Schwegler. Rodopi.) L’emprise du sens. de Swart. e. Amsterdam. New York. A. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. Vet. Mouton de Gruyter. Stefanescu. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo.. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. In M. Analyticity and Syntheticity. N. 1957 and 1962. TUB. 2001.

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