SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
.de rezolvări. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad.
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.
3. Complementary distribution
. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Constituent Phrase 1. Insertion 220.127.116.11.6.2.Contents:
1. Auxiliary verbs 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.
sequences of the kind her mother very. that is sequences fragmented at random. They are just strings. For instance. Consequently. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as:
1. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse
Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words.1.Unit one
This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Semantic. her mother. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. very much.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Constituent Phrase
Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. loves. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.
1. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Syntactic. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).2.
In the following example. should.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. Auxiliary verbs
Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. be). must. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.
1. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret.3. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).)
1. etc. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. (Mi-a spus secretul. an order given to an interlocutor).e. Insertion
Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. we are dealing with a directive (i.4.
etc.5. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. Complementary distribution
Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.)
1.6. live. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.
1. an ‘empty’ there subject. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the
As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. Consider. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. for instance. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. The Distribution of an Element
The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.
using your own examples: insertion. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. How much. distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. semantic. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. this would really hurt.
. pragmatic. as the star indicates. complementary distribution.Nadina VIŞAN
demonstrative pronoun this/that. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. Pratice Define and illustrate. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. If the given context is the one under (6). He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. whereas (7) is not. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. syntactic. Munt. he had not yet been able to estimate. auxiliary Activity 1 verb.
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).
. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.
4. Tests for negativity 2. Assertive – non-assertive
2.7. Instances of negation 2.5. Conclusion. Negative vs. Key terms 2. Polarity Items 18.104.22.168.2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.6. affirmative sentences. Full – local negation 2.2. Key terms
) is said to be an assertion. in the sense that it states something.) b. For instance. Assertive – non-assertive
We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. it asserts something.Declarative vs. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. The relationship can be represented as follows:
. in that they do not state anything. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Negative . a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question.Unit two
2. Consequently.Positive vs. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .2. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a.
Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.g./ Don’t do that. don’t bother her.positive and declarative secret. listen to this./ We didn’t come here just to talk.negative (e.interrogative
. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / Come with me. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.g.assertion .) . Did they tell her the
secret? ) . / She finally admitted.positive sentence . They told her the ( e./ If you like her.) .other (if –clauses. Didn’t they tell her the secret?)
.non-assertion ./ She can’t wait to read that book. comparison. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.Nadina VIŞAN
.g.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.
Full – local negation
The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. word negation. Susan doesn’t like her friends. I met a girl named Susan.)
.) b. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Susan dislikes her friends. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. John is unhappy. John is not happy.3. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (John e nefericit.) b. For example. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Nu demult.Unit two
2. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. In the case of the sentences under (4). (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. since the negative word not is not present there. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.
I was not a little worried. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. She was not an unattractive woman. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. but their meaning tells us a different story. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) c.) b. He was not without intelligence. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. In other words. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. In other words. just like in the case of word negation. these sentences look negative. since the negative word not is present inside them. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.Nadina VIŞAN
In this case. where the word
. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman.
/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. / Îl
between full and local (that is word or
.e. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / Când a aflat vestea. without intelligence./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe.Unit two
negation (unattractive./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night.
/ Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. dar nu neobişnuit.4. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.Nadina VIŞAN
preferă pe John. Tests for negativity
In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one:
. affirmative sentences. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. ci doar indecişi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu în mod special. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. Negative vs.
2. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / Era el destul de isteţ. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.
) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.1. (M-am dus acolo.).) (9) I didn’t go there.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). such as do insertion. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (see subsection 1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Nu m-am dus acolo. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart.Unit two
As we were saying. For instance. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t
The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative./ They didn’t leave. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / She does not hate animals.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / We don’t come here often. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei.
. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / I don’t like her very much. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / Susan did not get married to Jim. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. doesn’t she?
Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. incorrect. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag.
3. which does not happen in the case of (18). (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. not even the smart ones. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. even the smart ones.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. *and neither do they like her.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be
followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. and neither do they like her. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.
Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. and they don’t like her either. * and they don’t like her either. *not even the smart ones. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. which is ungrammatical.Unit two
. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20)
Susan doesn’t like her friends.
Example (14) is syntactically negative. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends.
2. / You have never met her. / A few of them stayed behind. / They caused us no problems. In conclusion. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary):
. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / No problems were caused after all. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / Not always a witty interlocutor. they go skiing in the mountains. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. Instances of Negation
We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / This boy is no good.Nadina VIŞAN
Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / Few of them stayed behind. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / At no time was he able to solve the problem.
(N-am văzut pe nimeni). (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru)
The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri)
John has not come. Susan could not go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-a venit John).
b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (27) a . In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. I went nowhere.
) (29) a. I didn’t see anybody. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. No day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. b. Not all that glitters is gold. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. I didn’t see any student. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. I didn’t go anywhere.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) b. (N-am văzut nici un student. All that glitters is not gold. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. no incorporation takes place.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) c. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase
in the first position of the sentence.) b. I never went to his place.Nadina VIŞAN
. / I didn’t ever go to his place.
not even short ones. / I saw nobody. / I didn’t see anybody. / She said not a word when I spoke to her./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / None of them liked house music. / Not one of them came to meet her. (Nu citesc romane. barely.4. / No one ever listens to her. / I showed him nothing. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. seldom. rarely. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. scarcely.) They barely read any novels./ They didn’t come to meet her.: (31) (32) (33)
I hardly met this man.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / He should not be released. / Not a word fell from her lips. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret./ They never went there. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.
. etc.) We seldom watch T. nici măcar din alea scurte. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.V. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.Unit two
The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory.
(Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I seldom look at her like that. Never have I met a more horrible person. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei.
. / I scarcely ever see her.)
them. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / Hardly anybody liked him. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.) d. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) b. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. which triggers inversion): (35) a. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) c. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.Nadina VIŞAN
(Ne uităm rar la televizor.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion.
never trust a man again. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / She could rely on nobody but him. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation.) They don’t think that he likes them. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. in the sense that the
. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Unit two
Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.
advise. sound/feel like. choose. / I suppose she doesn’t care. For example. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / I expect he won’t come here again. In sentence (37). suppose. look like. suggest. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. believe. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. expect. etc. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself.) b.
. be supposed to. appear. be likely. ought to.: think. be probable.Nadina VIŞAN
original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. / He reckoned he would not win her over. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. etc. barely. guess. we can very well say something like: (38) a. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. although not negative in meaning. She doesn’t like our chairman at all.6. etc.) but also by the existence of certain elements that.
intention. want. should be desirable. cannot appear in an affirmative context. / They believe she does not like them. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. imagine. Polarity Items
Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. the negative meaning is less strong. seem. intend. probability.
and sentences such as: (39) a.Unit two
In the above examples. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.2. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). are clearly not grammatical. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.
Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.*She lifted a finger to help me. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items.
The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. *She likes our chairman at all. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. That is
. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. b. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.
most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.) Hardly ever vs. / I eat caviar most of the times. / Well. / He arrived before 5. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Come on.). it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I have already seen him. / I can understand both of these
. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / Well. a lot (I don’t like you much. / They say he once had someone very close. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I still love you) Either vs. either. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. too (I don’t like it.) Any more vs. / Bob is still living at that address. too. / Don’t worry. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. still (I don’t love you any more. / I somewhat like his proposal. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. etc. you can still do something about it.Nadina VIŞAN
exactly why. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / I have some money.) Much vs. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I like you a lot. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) At all vs. some (I haven’t any money. / You needn’t send her anything. / She hardly ever comes here. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I like it . too. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.) Until vs.) Yet vs. / I somehow like him.
bat an eye(lid). know a single person. turn a hair. lay a finger on someone. move a muscle. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. sleep a wink. see/ feel/ remember a thing. find a trace. Translate into English. / You must be telling lies. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. last a minute. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. leave a stone unturned. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. nici unuia dintre noi. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Peter knows some English and so does John./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ I can understand all of these ten English words. have/be worth a red cent. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. Ion nu e prea deştept. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. have a care/ friend in the world. flinch. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Ajută-mă. say / breathe/ understand a word. give a damn/darn. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. hear a peep. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. de când cu
. crack a smile. hurt a fly. mulţumesc. touch a drop. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / You must pay that fine. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has.Unit two
sentences. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană).
/ No hands wanted.Nadina VIŞAN
ulcerul ăsta. / He won’t make old bones. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. B: Aşi. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. As you have noticed from the exercises above. budge. Translate into Romanian. / No trouble at all. / Hotărât lucru. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. but you really should do something about it. încercând să prindă criminalul. / No admittance. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / Nothing succeeds like success. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. he left the room. etc) or Affirmative ones (would
. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. nu e vina mea. / Never is a long word. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Not that I care. / I had no end of trouble. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No man is wise all the time. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / No entry. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. n-a sunat încă. / No sooner said than done. / He is no end of a fellow. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. he’s a pig.
e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.Unit two
rather). c) He is anxious to say something.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. / He is reluctant to ever say anything.7. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / I hate making any commitments.
In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. Normally./ I saw no one. N-am văzut pe nimeni. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.
2. Negative concord / Non-negative concord
This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. as well:
. b) I love asking some funny remarks. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. say it. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say.
Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. The second negation is somehow independent. nu poezia asta. Conclusion. nu îmi place poezia asta. I don’t like this poem.
One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. (The Rolling Stones)
The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. however. Key terms. from a syntactic point of view.Nadina VIŞAN
I can’t get no satisfaction.)
2. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.8. nu-mi place. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. I don’t. B: Not this poem. (Nu. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.
. B: Nu.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e.THREE QUESTIONS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation).
Questions 3.1.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2 Wh.3.2. Direct vs.2.3.3. Key Terms.1 Tag Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions
3. Minor Types of Questions
3. Optional Exercises
. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions
22.214.171.124 Echo Questions
3. Indirect Questions
focusing on direct questions mainly.1.Unit three
3. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. Direct / Indirect Questions
Like Romanian. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. If we try to analyze the examples above. for a subsequent section.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?)
the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. pe mama. (2). sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary.
. Pratice Translate the following questions in English.Nadina VIŞAN
As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). (3) and (4). Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.g. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e.
In the case of indirect questions. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. because. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Since the question is not direct any more.Unit three
Unlike direct questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required.
. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the sequence of the tenses is violated. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. in this case. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Likewise.
Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / I don’t know who she is. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I don’t know whom she fancies. spune la un moment dat femeia. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. sau mai bine zis. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. c) Ştii ce. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. identify the incorrect sentences.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. ce culoare are pielea. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / He asked me who she was. / He asked me who she is. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie)
Short questions tend to lose some of their content. the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Let us provide
. being typical of spoken language. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. In this case. as Quirk shows.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.2. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.Unit three
3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions
A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.
(what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (how long / wait for me?) 10. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. 3.2. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.1. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (which / you like best) ? 4. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.Nadina VIŞAN
examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items:
A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da). are said to be positively – oriented.Unit three
(17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?)
. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. it has. they did.
I’ve still got plenty of time. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 7. as in the example: 1. A: You look down. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. 2. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….Nadina VIŞAN
(24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: She had her tenants evicted. 3. It was the kind of film that really depresses me.. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. …….. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. A: You’ve been learning German for years.. 4. but I want to play basketball a little longer.? (a mean thing to do)
. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. (speak yet) B: …….. …………………. 6.. ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: Your mother is shouting for you. because you always copy everything I do! 5. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. . …………………………….
B: ………………….questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. .2 Wh – questions Wh. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. how. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?)
. I didn’t get home until late last night. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. 10. 9. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. 8. what . You could have mentioned it earlier. where. A: It’s past your bedtime. 3. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: There was a terrible car crash. .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . ………………………………....2. which When. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.
/ She lives in the suburbs. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / My new car cost 10. what ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. I cannot do that. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death./ She dropped her glasses. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. why ever. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this?
./ I have French lessons twice a week. / Kay’s gone out shopping. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. trying to find places where I resided in life. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. Nearly two hundred years. of course.000dollars. / David’s car was stolen. / Shirley got married to Ben./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ Sara owns two cars. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / That’s my pen. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. (Poppy Z. / There are six students in my class.
• • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.)
.2. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.Unit three
(Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.
or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. didn’t use he? 4. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. There was a fax for you this morning. You can’t be serious. Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. wasn’t it there? 17.Nadina VIŞAN
Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. He used to work in a bank. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Who did left the gate open? 18. How far is it the cinema? 3. shall we stay? 7. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. How long is she be spending in America? 15. didn’t use he? 11. can you be?
n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine.Unit three
19. să-mi înfrâng frica. Toate vechi. isn’t it this? 25. neliniştea infantilă. uneori disperat. Whose it is this book? 32. ca şi cei ce au fost. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. despre o lume dură. Who did told you about the problem? 31. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. That was Jeremy’s brother. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. will you not? 27. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. doesn’t he go? 23. That’s your car. How long time does it take to get there? 28. plin de germeni virulenţi. John goes jogging every morning. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. dacă prin absurd
. wasn’t it he? 22. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Ani întregi. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Pot reveni. deci. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. will you not? 21. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. deci. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29.
Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. “Spune! striga el. umed. dar şi drumul. de atunci. B. picură apa roşietică. pe sub bolţile din care. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. străină priceperii lor. ghiceam doar unde se află.Nadina VIŞAN
există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. Şi. mă întreb. îi ştiu gustul. neîntrerupt. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. inactivii. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. negru. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. iar proştii. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o
. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. pe care oricum am simţit-o. indiferent de risc. Riscul? Ratarea. naiv. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. murdar. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. lung. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. laşii. puturos.
Tag Questions Tag questions. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. nu-i aşa?)
(36) Open the door. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.3. domnule profesor. Minor Types of Questions
There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. nu se poate. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. orbitor. viaţa? Oare e drept.3. exclus. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii)
viaţă. didn’t she?
. golul alb. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. 3.1. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. care i-a determinat alegerea. la urma urmei. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. will you?
(38) She went to Prague. da? (37) Let’s go there. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.
hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. aren’t they?
. sarcasm. it’s all spent. if the host sentence is negative.Nadina VIŞAN
We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. (Din păcate. or falling. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative.e.) A: Oh. is it? (Deci. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. hasn’t she? (Aha. the tag is negative too). the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. the tag is affirmative too. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. The suggestion is that in this case. or “comment tags”. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. au fost cheltuiţi. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. In this way.
/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / She left an hour ago. / The boy never watched his sister. / He hates his wife.…/ Let me know. / I must go now. / I think you don’t like my music. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Surely you have enough money. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / I am older than you. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / The boy often watched his sister.
. / She used to talk a lot. / I am dressed smartly enough. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / He has to marry Susan. / I don’t think you like my music. / Everyone felt happy about it. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / You will pick me up at 7. / That was your father. / Each of us is staying. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Few people like her. / That’s your car over there. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / I may not see you tomorrow. / I may see you tomorrow. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / He simply hates empty words. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Tell me. / Let’s eat dinner now. / You ought not to smoke. / I think you like my music. / Don’t leave without me. / They said he liked music. after all. / A few people like her. / You will pick me up. / You have been invited. / There is enough food for everyone. / She has a brother.Unit three
Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education./ I’m right about this…. 5. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. using a question tag at the end.. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. or what? 3. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. He used to play squash. / He never used to study so hard…. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions:
. So you enjoyed my talk. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash.
as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: Chinese?
. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.Unit three
Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Grants… 3.3. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.2.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.1.1. Recapitulatory echo questions .3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.
(Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. (Închide lumina aia. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.2. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. consternation.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.2.3.Nadina VIŞAN
(Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.phrase is fronted.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. disbelief. The difference between recapitulatory
. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. rather than the repetition. If the wh. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. of something just said.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.
whereas with explicatory echo questions.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. / I think I’ve found a solution. / He is interested in music. am pierdut scrisoarea. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.Unit three
and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen.e. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup./ He is interested in blue movies. rather than did you say. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. I’ve lost the letter. dear. with recapitulatory echo questions./ We are looking for a purse. / We are looking for a pixie. which letter do you
. (Uită-te la asta. (i. intonation is rising.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. (Vai.
recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i
(They are moving. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain
special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? )
explicatory (Take a look at this book. she knows about it. Take a look at WHAT? )
.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?)
alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?)
constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions
indirect (I asked her when she would come.4.Nadina VIŞAN
aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. Fenio. da.– Crezi tu. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. cumnată Fenia.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. şi apoi Vica ce zice. lui Stavre Păici. să se încolăcească mai bine. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. lui Luca Horobeţ. lui Chizlinski. Are gust de oameni blânzi. pe Condrat de Vica. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. acuma sporovăiala. cu o casă de copii. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. oameni aşezaţi. în satul nostru. după pofte. ca să zic aşa. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat.Unit three
Pratice Translate the following: 1. aşa. stricata. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit
. şi care s-a aciuat. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. nu purta verighetă. şerpoaica. în general.
Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. până la călcâie. abia târându-şi picioarele. sau cum o chema. L-a scos din geamie.Nadina VIŞAN
Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. roşu şi galben. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. deci. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. Hogea. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. dar cum se face că a
. sus. De asta erai.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută)
. se vede prea bine. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.Unit three
ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile.
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English
126.96.36.199.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.6.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.2.Coordination and Subordination 4.Key Concepts
.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.
. cu repros. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. reproachfully.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. where there is no indication other than a comma. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.e. that elements are coordinated. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.e. i. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.Unit four
4. on the other hand. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. Asyndetic Coordination
Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.1 Syndetic vs. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. present) in the sentence. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. Example (2). (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.
led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated.) Such examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.) (4) If you hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN
4. you will die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea.
. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.2 Coordination & Subordination
By definition. Conversely. From the previously mentioned examples. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. vei muri.
the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. However. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. from a logical & semantic point of view. but presupposed. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. the second. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. we need to specify that. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.Unit four
b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate
. respectively subordinated constituents. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.
adorned with cornices. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. In the second. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it.Nadina VIŞAN
clauses from both passages. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. His clothes hung to him. took off his coat and emptied them. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. In the first. He moved and made a slopping noise. Though the castle had vanished. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. his shoes squished. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. with formal walks under rows of trees. built. but the
. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. the houses were beautiful and ancient. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. Then he sat down. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. with enormous solidity. took off his shoes and emptied them. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. of cut gray stone. John Steinbeck.
The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and as the way is with Irish mountains. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again.Unit four
streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. Cecil Woocham – Smith. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the
. left the house. over some of the roughest ground in the country. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. the higher he went the wetter it grew. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside.
A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. yesterday and the day before yesterday.Nadina VIŞAN
prickly ground. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. as shown in (9).) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. were to take down the name of every man. As one can easily notice. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path
4. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from
. we should be seriously annoyed. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. Phrase Coordination
Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.K.3 Sentence vs. (G. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. however distinguished.
John and Mary are ready. and I passed. and even tennis.)
sentence that both
coordination are basic. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. but not John. / Bob and George are admired by their students. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Our flag is red. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 4. / Joan plays many games. Her pet kitten is black and white. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 3. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / Peter and John played football. 5. 6 John sang and Mary danced. Activity 2 sentences: 1. John is ready and Mary is ready.
coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated
. plays football. / Peter.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 10. our respective examinations. 8.Unit four
example (7). His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. yellow and blue. Pratice Distinguish coordination. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 7. 9. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. 2.
Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Activity 4 2. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. John loves and Bill hates cigars. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. 3.Nadina VIŞAN
b. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. 5. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. as can be seen in (10b). (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile.
b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a.) b. 6. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. or deleted. Jane
. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) c.
Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying.Unit four
forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself.e. the predication buy a pair of shoes. the so-called Principle of Economy. 8.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. i. 7. can be reduced by substitution. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence.
. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. these syntactical processes. Besides ellipsis. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. 10. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. So.) The common element. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. than a longer repetitive one. 9. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle.
George and Jane went back to their parents. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile
. 3. 4. In certain cases. Translate the following sentences. the old men and women 2. simple books and magazines for children 3. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. 4. 2. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. A citit. George and Jane are separated. using reduced structures: 1. one or (the) other method. some reason or another.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine
Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another.
I searched ………. 6. 13..You gain some things and you lose others. they reached home………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 8. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. After all their adventures. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. sweet and sour. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 16. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros
. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together.... for my wallet. like: salt and pepper. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. Can we discuss the …………. They get on quite well together. fish and chips.Unit four
vagaboande de langa bloc. 15. even though they have their little …………. the amount I’ve already saved up. of your proposals later on? 3. 5. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.… 14. it’s a case of ………… 7. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. . I need another 100$ ………. 2. 7.. A pendulum swings ………. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 5. Marks and Spencers. 6. 12. 8. 11. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. only for damage. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.
which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. etc. of course. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. as in: (17) a. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. Nor sun. the expressive function of coordination is.) There are.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari.4. b. Coordinating Conjunctions
We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. and
. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.
4.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. more often than not. In fact. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.Nadina VIŞAN
and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. For instance.
too): (20) a. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) b. or . where the subordinator is repeated. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) In certain cases. etc). I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. sometimes but.g. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.Unit four
I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.) c. 20 (b)).)
. both … and . (Ei o placeau pe Susan. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. and cherished her. o respectau si o indrageau. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.
(I-am dat banii.
one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b. I washed and ironed my pants. and hit my wife. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (O admir si imi place.* I ironed and washed my pants. In this case. (Imi place si o admir.) b. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I admire and like her.
Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. I like and admire her. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have:
. and you’ll die. if we were to rewrite the example . these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.Nadina VIŞAN
An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. From this point of view.
Brown does it with humans)
. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.Unit four
1.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (If you do that.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Dr. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Brown experiments with humans.) (While Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed).) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
(Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses
5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts
.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.
turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. as the name suggests it. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. From the functional point of view.
5. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification
Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
As previously shown. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.which are based on coordination . takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.g.)
.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. e.
b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (I-a dat cartea. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). We do not presuppose however something like. an adverbial item. for example). we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. sentences) required by the verb (or. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. for instance. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. by an adjective + preposition. For instance. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. in certain cases. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. they are still presupposed by the speaker. such as proud of. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. we associate it with these objects.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie.)
. In a way.
e. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. which is the adverbial willingly.
. related to example (4). I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. i.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The second example. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. to her) and one extra-item.) b. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. an additional one. Thus. A second observation. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. In other words. I am afraid that he won’t come. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. to add something.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information.
Last but not least. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. make. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. am să mor. So. I’ll die.)
. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. a închis toate ferestrele.) (11) If you don’t marry me. like.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. (Înainte să plece din cameră. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. etc.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. such as want.
this to whomever wants it.g. After I told her the story.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.She came to him of her own will. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. she looked at me sadly. 2. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. [. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. The book that because they home. Susan disappeared without saying a word. Whoever did that was a genius. They came to e. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 3.
believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go
. 4. 5.g.g.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
To sum up so far. 6.
2. As you can see. WHETHER. 3. 5. stating their function: Activity 2 1. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. which. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification
The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.)
Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. was a novelty to Mitzi. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms.He took an intelligent interest in her. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 6. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. though it was largely politeness. not object. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man)
5. You suggestion that we should. 4. etc. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. at our age. FOR. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. but he declined. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland.
(15) It is John who did it.) (16) a. where. how.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
(14) I knew that he liked me. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. which. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) b.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.
.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. when. Where he went is London.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. Who did it was John.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (E de dorit să plece.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. why. etc. who.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.
In conclusion. done from a structural point of view. if. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning.1. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. etc. In (18). the categories are reduced to only three in this case. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. consider the following table. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.Nadina VIŞAN
(c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. As you will see. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below:
. however. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. before. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb.) (18) She told me this before she left. Compare. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. Unlike complement clauses.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. which sums up this classification. for instance.
I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I will come back such as because. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial
Introduced by that.
. back. Introduced
know e. for. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.g. I will go there because I feel like it. Dear Ludwig. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. you understand. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. surely you cannot sincerely believe.g. after.: e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little.
whether he will come when I feel like it. at your young age. as.g. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. etc.
that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. she stopped to speak to Monroe. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. a tightening in her breathing. Accidental Man) b)1. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. he said. Late that afternoon.Nadina VIŞAN
never want to set foot in the US in your life again. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep.The day Monroe had died was in May. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An
.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. As she left the house. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. But she thought that no one would call again. Too. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. 2.
3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses
Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.
interesting.g.g. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.2.g.
. However.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
5. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.g. a correspondence can be traced. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I told her everything after she arrived.g.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. că
e. As you have probably noticed already. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. That he loved e. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.
whereas wh complements are the
.complement. (Cred că mă place. Secondly. So. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. complements.1.2.. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. We will come back to that in the next chapter. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements.e. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. i.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. Thirdly. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.Nadina VIŞAN
you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). whenever you identify a wh.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. In the fourth place.
she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
hardest to figure out.g. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. after. for no matter how she tried. because. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. a barn. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. outbuildings. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. and I do not know how things might stand between us. a house. but no idea what to do with them. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. their introductory elements (e. Pratice Consider the following text. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. I first thought to tell in
. She mistrusted her handwriting. c) I am coming home one way or another. before.
offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory
. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. According to a structural criterion. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.e. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). these clauses can be complements. it would make you fear to do such again. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain)
5. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. and I have not the will or the energy.Nadina VIŞAN
this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. because they modify. Key Concepts
We classify dependent (i.4.
interested in. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. însă. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. O zbughi înapoi. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. îşi spuseseră că Anton. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Alţii. look at. etc.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
preposition (e. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz.e. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. answering the question to whom? So. (…) “Mă.
. după ce că are grâu puţin. ce o fi având. Pratice Translate the following. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. think of. be very careful to use this term correctly.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart.g. Nevasta secera în tăcere.
deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Nici acum. izolate de sat. de fapt. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii.Nadina VIŞAN
simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. timp de un ceas. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. cât de bolnavă era. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. şi erau atâtea alte motive…
. întâi. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. Toată lumea înţelesese că.
care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”.Unit five
The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses
Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. În realitate. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Iată. amânase scrisul. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei
. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. acum sunt desluşiţi. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Era bine de ştiut. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Pace nu era. deşi cam târziu. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. la Odobeşti. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. stricau totul. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. de pildă. aşa de oţetit. la nişte prieteni comuni.
îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război)
. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. frate.
accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.. whose. etc).SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES
Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. of which.g. subject relative clauses.
.2.6.5. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives
6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 188.8.131.52.4. The Co-reference Condition 6.
We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.1. The Co-reference Condition .Unit six
6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.a discussion of attributive relatives
As we shall see. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.
. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives
By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.2.
6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.
We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. By combining these two clauses. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. John loves that woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.
These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent.
. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. John offered flowers to that woman. This way. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed.Unit six
But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The common element woman is present. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause.
I introduced him to Jim. 9. by leaving behind a trace. They met those students. She came to London. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. I lost the book’s cover. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I had a book. He’s the author who received the prize. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. WHICH 4. 5. 2. WHO 5. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. 10. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. too. 6. WHO
. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Susan wants to meet Jane. None of the students agreed with them. therefore in spoken English. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. I went to London. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. He told Jim everything about his plans. The king was just passing by. 4. Any of the students would answer to questions. He liked that book. John told his friend a story about the king. The students like their teacher. The students like their teacher. I bought Jim a book. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I love my husband very much. WHERE 3. This is my husband. 3.Nadina VIŞAN
The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. 8. 7. frequently used in written language. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2.
To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13)
Who breaks pays. WHOSE 7.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. i. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. 2. (Cine strică plateşte.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses
According to the criterion of form. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOM 10. relative clauses are divided into 1. WHOM
6. WHICH 8. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. TO 11. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.
. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. most of them were from England.Unit six
6. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc.e. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists.
is no longer overtly expressed. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. these relatives cannot function as attributes. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. unlike in the case of (14). (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.e. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. Unlike their sisters. in a manner of speaking.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.Nadina VIŞAN
(Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) • Predicative This was what she intended. it is covert. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.)
.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) So. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.
(Du-te unde pofteşti. (Mercur.Unit six
Adjunct Go wherever you want. is my favourite god. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.)
The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent.) (Mercury. they define it).) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.) (22) Mercury. They can be thus divided into: 1. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. They only provide supplementary information about it.
. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. who is the god of commerce. who incidentally is the god of commerce. este zeul meu favorit. care este zeul negoţului. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.
Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. 2. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 5.Nadina VIŞAN
In conclusion. is a great playwright. 8. on whom nobody could depend. As we were saying. Independent I don’t know what you want. Shakespeare. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause.This is the village where I spent my youth. who is a genius. I have met him where I least expected.e. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). then it is an attribute. 6. 7. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. this type of relative clauses. who came to see me. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 10. is a genius. On the day on which this occurred I was away. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. was the one we all welcomed and admired.
A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. i. 9. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. She. They are what
. restrictive relative clauses.
a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent
This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.
.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. etc. a. however sad this may be. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions):
Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. care a murit acum câţiva ani. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.Unit six
their parents made them.) 2.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.
6. who died a few years ago. etc. When the antecedent has no determiner. composed The (Freddie Mercury.
Pratice Translate the following. but a peevish. (Ei apeleaza la mine.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic).) (28) They come to me. can see your shortcomings only too well. 5. 2. who am your son. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. care nu sunt o femeie. care-ţi sunt fiu. ill-tempered. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. who neither work nor am anxious. poftiţi în faţă. bătrînă morocănoasă. 4. Mie.
. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. (Eu. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. ci o fată
a woman. 7. Dintre toate personajele prezente. numai eu nu. îţi văd prea bine defectele. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. dried-up old maid. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. 6. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. iritabilă şi uscată. 3. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.
In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.
service finished late.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.
heard. părăsi camera.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. erau acum în posesia lui.Unit six
6. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.)
run such dangers and undergone such toils. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul.5 Relative Clause Introducers
Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. were now in his possession. than whom few more can be more crashing. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.
. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.
too.) c. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. 6. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. literary style: (37) a. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.1.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [±
. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina.) d.Nadina VIŞAN
Aside from these marginal examples. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The genitive form with which is still in use.5. as can be seen in (36d). (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. but it is typical of the formal.) b.
An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he
was the almost unconscious agent. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…)
.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.Unit six
form of which. (Iris Murdoch. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.
(Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. … Italy. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea.) b.) • states. He is not the man which he used to be. ships (that can be personified) a.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.Nadina VIŞAN
When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. but to a type or a function: a.) b. by the way. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca
revolutionary which at bottom he is. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. animals. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…)
Sejanus seems to have been the father. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (Nu mai este omul care era odată.
. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. of which.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.
Poland is the place in which Christine was born. while.) 6. time. whom it concerned most closely. Poland is the place where Christine was born. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. pe care o privea direct. why. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.2 Relative Adverbs: when. (Nu ştiam ce vor. etc. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.Unit six
b.) b.5. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri.) b) dialectal (49) a. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. where. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses.)
. how. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. France. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. reason. It is poor what gets the punches.
) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) b. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. He went where he had been before. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) b. The place whither he goes is unknown.)
. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) e. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.5.) b. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.Nadina VIŞAN
a. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) c. They returned to the land whence they had come. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) 6. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.3.They left when they decided it was proper to.)
When they introduce free relative clauses. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. This is the place wherefrom they came.
] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing:
. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six
It is invariable. Moreover.
(Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.)
With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. not any. every. much.)
When the rule of euphony must be observed
(63) a. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. I’ll get you such things as you may want. but they are used very infrequently: as.4. any.
With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. Honest man as he was. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. but • in standard language a.Nadina VIŞAN
The children were the parcels that filled the car.) b.
his shoes. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.
(There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. Uncle George.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) • in dialect a. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. ăl de fusese in China…) b. It’s the dry weather does it. And always on the buttered side. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67)
man who doesn’t feel pity …)
a. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. him as was in China … (Uncle George. This is the same one that/as you had before.
.) c.Unit six
(O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.) c. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.
For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).) b.)
(It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.
5. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. 3. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. This is where we talk money. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.3): (72) a. fortifies me. b. The man that John spoke to is a genius. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. Where he was from. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. What Inman remembered was this passage. The man John spoke to is a genius.5. What I’m saying is.” 4. That which shows God out of me. 2. It seemed a thing
. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause.Unit six
since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 7.) c. The man who John spoke to is a genius.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. makes me a wart and a wen.) b. 6. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. we all have to come to some terms.
that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. The rudeness of eating. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. (…) Partly.Nadina VIŞAN
of such wonder to Ada. who had not witnessed many dawns. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. which is a lot. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 9. 13. he had left Ruby high and dry. though. of living. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Ruby said.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. 11. Whatever his fate was. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 10. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Oh.
. 8. 12. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod.
una din nepoatele unui inginer. mort de tanar. pirpiriu. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. plutonier. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. el insusi frate de lapte cu
. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. Cumnatul meu avea. poate. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa.Unit six
Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. vasnic. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. nu prea sarac. al carei strabunic. cumnatul unui portughez.al lui. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. un var primar. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. fiu natural al unui morar. pe linie paterna. (Iris Murdoch. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. divortata.
c. She was a woman. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. Everybody listened to that woman. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. b.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.
. The opposite phenomenon.Nadina VIŞAN
fiul unui laptar. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding
If you go back to our discussion in 5. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi.
By extension.2. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. Teatru)
6. This is the book.6. I lost the cover of the book. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .
as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. 2. 9.Unit six
b. 6. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. In the interest of public decency. acting again as a genuine pied piper. has been troubling them forever. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. The difference between (76) and (77). Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded. 5. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 4. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. no easy answers to which could be offered. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 8. 7.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. For the intense anxious sense of herself
. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 3. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The problem of safe transportation.
His friends. was now complete. They do not function as attributes.His father’s friends. as the case is).
6. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters.
. 4. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.7 Key Concepts
Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 10. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. Activity 9 were now all gone. 3. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions.Nadina VIŞAN
with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. whose interest he most sincerely shared. This story. he rarely saw now. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 2. has been deleted. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 5. no matter which. Irene. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing.
spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 5. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău
. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Toate sfârşeau. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Nelu. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire.Unit six
The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. himeric. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. De douazeci de ani. închipuirea. 3. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 4. 7. 2. 6. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Pentru alţii.
– De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele
. 8. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 9. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. 12. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. 10. cu surle şi cu tobe. a făcut el. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea.Nadina VIŞAN
am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg.
adevărate şi care nu. roiuri de fetiţe. deşi atât de aproape. dinspre Maria Rosetti. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. din care cauză pe Dora. 15. fie la teatru. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. apărură. pe strada Icoanei. 18. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. toată lumea întreba cine e. până mai adineauri. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. Avea acum un fel de vertij. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Dacă mă lovea. 16. din direcţia căreia apoi. de unde venea şi Marta. despre care. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 14. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. care era foarte “mondenă”. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. 17. trăia larg de tot. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. fie pe stradă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. În spatele lor. 20. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. zise ea cu ochii mari.
. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă.
care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. după ce maşina a fost reparată. 22. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. de mine. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. 23. aveau un stil al lor.Nadina VIŞAN
21. pe care eu nu-l aveam. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. Pare-se că snobii. întâia noapte de război)
. când au urcat râpa iar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. până în şosea. Pentru mine însă. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. 24. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. de sus de unde eram. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. pe care ea îi admira acum. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.
by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.
6.4.3. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.2.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.1.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials
7.1.3. That Complements as Subjects 184.108.40.206.Topicalization 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements
7.Extraposition 7.1. The Distribution of That Complements
220.127.116.11.1. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory?
7. Key Concepts
. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 18.104.22.168.3.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 22.214.171.124.1. That Deletion
7.3. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.
) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements
7. the clause is extraposed. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.Unit seven
That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). but also of infinitival ones.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. (3) Tell me if you need anything. In other words.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.
7.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.1. Apart from those introduced by that.
. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. placed in a marginal position.
) • Prepositional Object
unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?)
. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause
unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.Nadina VIŞAN
This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.
You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 3. It is no use trying to convince her. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. They considered it very silly of her to
. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 11. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 7. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.Unit seven
Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 4. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 3. 11. 8. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 10. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 6. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 15. 9. 8. 6. 10. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 13. It appears that no one voted for him. 4. 9.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 2. 14. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 7. It is nice to meet you. 2. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 5.
have married Bill. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 18. 3. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 3. 2. 5. I guess it that he will come back. They never expected it that he would come back. I don’t expect it that he will come back. mă ascundeam în grabă. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 6. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 2. în gropi. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. sub poduri.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. atât
. 2. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 4. în canal. unde se nimerea. 5. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. zice Lionel. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. după porţi. 4. 3. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.
când locuia în conacul din La Roque).
. vor căuta să o zdruncine. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. fără îndoială. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 5. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi.” 4. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Mi s-a părut chiar că. 7. 6. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi.Unit seven
cât se va putea. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. (Nu întotdeauna. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. excelentă. fără să cârteşti.
7. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.1. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.2. Consequently. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. subject clauses are the frequent situation. in the case of topicalization. 1.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Pratice Read the following. this asymmetry is undone. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.) While in the case of extraposition. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of
. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.
That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. This was another era. mere chance would decide. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He was utterly gone. but not now. 6. he felt no spring of interest in her. even today. 7. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 3. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. He did not blame Gracie. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 5. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had
. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose.Unit seven
her only as an instrument. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. was inconceivable. She had always been the slave of chance. whether it would finally carry her off. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. 8. 2. 4. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina.
Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.3. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.)
.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.Nadina VIŞAN
passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.
Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.
. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. the verb to drive).e.Unit seven
clause shift operates only on object clauses. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. we obtain.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina.
3. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 6.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. who had just returned from Africa. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 7. 5. 8. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. prime-minister.
Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. who had just returned from Africa. 2. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. 4.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa.
since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.
(21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.Unit seven
7.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.
. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. The Distribuition of That Complements
As it will be shown below.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.2. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.
) b. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. etc.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. They believe the man is guilty. communicate.: (25) a. consider.)
. desire.1. estimate. He announced their engagement. promise. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. judge. He announced that they were engaged. etc. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.Nadina VIŞAN
7.) a. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. They promised him that he would received a new house. They believe that the man is guilty. deny. explain. suggest. (I-au promis o casă nouă.2. prefer. state. deem. afirm.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. predict. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) I like him in that he is smart. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.e. ibid. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. for example. they lose their meaning. In older stages of English. on condition that.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.) language.)
. hope =>purpose. similar to the construction existent in Romanian):
in contemporary English. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.Nadina VIŞAN
In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.
) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) When the structure contains the word such. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) b. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He gave such an answer as had expected. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) b. that we wouldn’t doubt it.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.
That can be deleted. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. He gave an answer such.) (66)
a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. să o vadă trecând. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.
. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.Unit seven
c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.
) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. for better or worse.We discovered that our map has disappeared. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. ibid. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. they were chained to each other forever. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.) b.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.)
. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. (Iris Murdoch. (Iris Murdoch. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.Nadina VIŞAN
(I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.
He said he had borrowed her money.
a. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.) b. say. He got word they were coming. (A prins de veste că ei vin. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) c.
That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.
7.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. tell).1.3 ‘That Deletion
7. He showed he was able to do it.)
The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. for instance. that he uses a relaxed tone. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.3. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.
‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. (Iris Murdoch.3.
for better or worse.3. they were chained to each other forever.Nadina VIŞAN
7. I like it that he was here. *I like it he was here. for better or worse. because that has been deleted.) b. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3.) (De asemenea. they were chained to each other forever. 7. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. rele. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. ibid. (Îmi place că e aici. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?)
.2. bune. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.
4. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses
The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. simultaneity.) b)He told me that she was there. that they were not too late to leave. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. spuse el.Unit seven
But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming?
This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. (“Este acolo”. 7) They maintain. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. you want me to believe. which is ungrammatical in English.)
. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.
7. he said.
He will have arrived by the time she leaves. I will leave her.Nadina VIŞAN
Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. He told me that she had been there. “She was here”.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. The Present complement). (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (A spus că o să o părăsească.)
Future Perfect -----. vine el. (A spus că. o să vină el.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect
a. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. In the example below. He said he would leave her.) b.) b. până pleacă ea. he said.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (“Era acolo”. (Am să o părăsesc. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (Pâna să plece.
rule can be optional with the so-called
FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their
. spuse el.) b.
This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. show. be amazed/concerned.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. dream. realize it). hope. regret. With such factive verbs as realize. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the
group was/*is an undercover agent. forget. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. be aware. only I don’t
The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. think. discover. wish. say.) b. insist. report. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. whisper.Unit seven
And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. mention.) On the other hand. believe. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. etc. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.etc. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. notice.)
) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. feign habits which are not their own.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. He knew that she thought all men were fools. in tender deference to each other.) b. (Iris Murdoch. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. She realized that all men are fools. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. we notice that general truths.) b. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. cu un respect tandru reciproc. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly
married pair. Consider also: (85) a. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.Nadina VIŞAN
If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. She still believed that the earth was flat.
.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. She believed that the earth is round.
(Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) The rule Past -----
Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain
complements which contain a non-durative.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. Peter said that John will leave at 5. 3. Peter said that John would leave at 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. There are
however cases.) b. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.
2. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) b.) In (88). such as a. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.
g) John thought that Harry ran. d) John said that Harry was leaving. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. The time is 3 o’clock. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. h) John thought that Harry had run.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Imagine. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. for instance. / b) John said that his car is out of gas.Nadina VIŞAN
(Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. But
. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood.
c. quail. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. lark. lack of pridefulness. nighthawk. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Translate the following. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Crows will relish what presents itself. a. whistling swan. Cooper’s hawk. love of practical jokes. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. b. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above.Unit seven
John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She admired their keenness of wit. slyness in a fight. jaybird. bluebird. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. geese both grey and white. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. redtailed hawk. kingfisher. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs.
. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early.
But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He died erect. the young officer. he claimed. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic.Nadina VIŞAN
C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain)
. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. And they might just hang him. war hero though he was. But as the battle raged around them. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Now here he stood jailed. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. in the very act of expiring. He had fought hard through the war. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. […] During the latter stages of the tale.
On certain occasions that can be deleted.
. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains.5 Key Concepts
That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). object ones up to the attributive function. on other occasions it has to stay there. which they share with wh-complements. or else. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).Unit seven
7. from the very frequent subject.
Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. 3. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. cel mai mare. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. peste puţin. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. neconvenabil şi primejdios. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. 4. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Mama. Fiind
. 2. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Unul din ei. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar.
6. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. 7.Unit seven
de o idioţie celebră. va pleca din oraş la vie. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. Se mira. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 5. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 8. aşa. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Nu ţi-a trecut. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. fericit. care îl pândise. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. de ce constata în sine. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. dacă va mai veni. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. un vis de acesta
. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. venind de la avocat. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. cel puţin pentru un timp. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. 9. luminos şi apropiat şi când. ea.
Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. fireşte. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Astfel de va fi. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. 11. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. dar şi teama că.Nadina VIŞAN
nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. încă o dată. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. 12. Apoi Bubi era şi
. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. şi mândria că a biruit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Acesta. liniştit. lucrul era înfăptuit.
pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Pe toate. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)
. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. fără o vorbă scrisă. după cum. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. mai puternic decât oricând. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. ci numai aşa. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. spre Jurubiţa.Unit seven
obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. să le lămurească pe toate. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. 14.
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
.5.2.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions
8.6.8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.4.What Are Infinitive Complements 126.96.36.199.
I told her to be more careful in the future.
. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.) b. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. To love her is something really wonderful.Unit eight
8. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. It is important that you should know what you need.1.) b. (2) a. That you love her is something wonderful. From this perspective. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). What Are Infinitive Complements
Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. It is important for you to know what you need. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. Consider the following: • like that complements.) • like that complements. b.
(3) a. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.
* She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. gerundial clauses.) b. participial clauses. as opposed to the finite ones. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her.
. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. For instance. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift:
(4) a.Nadina VIŞAN
like that complements. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 2. is the fact that they do not have temporal features.e. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. moduri nepersonale) By convention. etc. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. d. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. the Conditional. the Gerund. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Participle) (i. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses.
the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. namely no ending. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving
Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.)
. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) c. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.) b. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.Unit eight
the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.
the criterion of form. 6. 10.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • •
(6) They told her to leave.2. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday.
(7) They saw her leave. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.
Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile
. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 8. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 2. 3. 4. 7. A Classification of Infinitives
There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.
8. 5.Nadina VIŞAN
Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 9.
/ A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. watch: they watched him cry
An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. hear. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. (10)
. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. 2.Unit eight
• • • •
Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.
although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. uncharacteristic for literary English.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.
.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. 3. However. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.Nadina VIŞAN
(Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.
the universe. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.
we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. (13)
We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave.
In other words.
. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.
Further on. as I have already mentioned. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions.Unit eight
because. to use the appropriate technical term. or the control constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO.
That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives:
It is important for him to come back home.) b. PRO to err is human. namely the agent of the event. (E important ca el să nu greşească. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. So far. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.) b. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. the logical subject.) Object: (18) a.)
. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.)
In this situation. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. It is important for him not to err. PRO to forgive divine. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. şi creştineşte să ierţi. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. I hoped for him to be there in time. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.Nadina VIŞAN
Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.
) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. Semantically. him is related to the main clause verb. him is not the agent of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. but the patient of the verb persuade. not to the infinitive. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. but a PRO-TO one:
. He stepped aside for her to enter.Unit eight
Adjunct: (19) a. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).) b. In other words.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.
I hate animals to be tortured. \ She promised him to leave. \
I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ He persuaded her to come. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him.
Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ I would love them to come. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. Likewise. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ They convinced her to come back. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ I allowed them to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ She wanted him to leave. \ They tempted him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. but with the infinitive in the subordinate.
) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.) In examples (25) and (26). hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. • Last but not least. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. \ They really asked her to come back. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. \ They did not wish her to come back. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.
. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. So.Unit eight
They would have hated her to come back.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.
In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. seem.). / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. which are said to be free. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. hate.Nadina VIŞAN
b) Second. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. to meet her.
. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. etc. appear./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. +
They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. To sum up the discussion. that is not required by certain verbs. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei.
deign. desire. dislike. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. etc.TO Constructions
In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. bear.
. manage. wish.Unit eight
să pleci din casa mea. endeavour. etc./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. intend. try. decline. aspire to. deserve.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. hope. hate. like. scorn. omit.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. fail. want.)
friend. presume. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei.3 The Distribution of PRO .: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.
8. refuse. venture. / E greu să îl suporţi. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. contrive. afford. mean. prefer. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. Compare: (31) a. scheme. etc.) b) verbs such as abide. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. need. arrange. agree to.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. propose. condescend. seek (= try). care to. expect.
I would like for him to become president of the country.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions
These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. verbs of liking and disliking. endeavour. stand. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. be important. forget.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. possible.)
8. threaten. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. however. conclude.etc.) b.) b. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. unlikely.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. desirable.)
. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. claim. For all of them to have been killed is. ask. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. suggest. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.Nadina VIŞAN
b. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. I hate that you should say a thing like this. etc. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. bear.) b. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.
) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions
1.) b. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.Unit eight
The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.)
. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.)
8. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) 2. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.
(Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Direct Objects (39) a. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. I decided for John to represent us.) 4. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Like in the case of that complements.
.) 5.) b.) b.Nadina VIŞAN
3. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. the preposition is deleted.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. but the meaning remains.)
) e. He is a bastard to work for. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) c) adverbial of result
. The stew is delicious to eat.) c.Unit eight
The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. You’re an idiot to go there.
(Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.: (42) a. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. curious about. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) b. 6. delicious. etc. She is pretty to look at. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. This paint is like concrete to work with.) d.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.
/ Ehei. final or introductory infinitive In this case. conduci prost. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.) Oh. drept să spun./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank.Nadina VIŞAN
The plate was too hot to touch. / Ca să nu mai lungim
. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / Pe şleau. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. you’re a bad driver. să nu piardă trenul. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. to tell you the truth. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences.) I’ve never met him.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate?
(Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.
(L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. direct. nu mai vreau să te vad. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. promise. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.)
. influence. inform.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. oblige. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. (49) a. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. enable. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. press. urge. etc. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.)
(A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.: (51) a.etc. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. need. induce. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.) b. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. b.
vorba. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. encourage.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control
By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. According to this. inspire. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. swear.
depend on. elect.etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. command. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.Nadina VIŞAN
In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her.)
Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. nominate.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on./ And now he
. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. name./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. count on. prevail on. order. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. choose. etc. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. vote. etc. look to.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. allow. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. permit.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.
) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction
As previously mentioned.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. etc.Unit eight
refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). be about to. come. An Accidental Man)
8. (Se pare că îi place de el. etc.
.verbs: appear.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.etc. be going to. this construction is lexically governed. grow. i. happen. (56) She grew to like him in the end.e. (57) He is to come any day now. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Iris Murdoch.: (55) She appears to like him. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. seem.
be alleged. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. watch.etc. etc. be rumoured. that of intention.: (62) They heard him insult her. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. be considered. etc. hear.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.
. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be reported.)
8. overhear. be claimed. observe.: (63)
I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. feel. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. perceive. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. be thought. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.Nadina VIŞAN
The meaning of (58). In (57).8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction
This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.
know.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. figure. remember.)
(Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. cause. imagine. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. deem. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. have. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. (Cred că este un geniu. presume.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. recollect. discover. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. occasion. judge. Infinitive)
(Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. believe. picture. etc. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. find. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. consider. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. prove.) • with a full infinitive: get. However. understand.
order.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.etc. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. if he himself was out of spirits.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. permit. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. Harold. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. prefer. desire.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. he hated anyone to comment
. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. suffer. love. wish. choose. command.Nadina VIŞAN
d) verbs of permission and command: allow.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. etc.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. they had depressed and fuddled him. who wasn’t used to men with moods. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. expect. want. mean.
Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. though he tended to look down on those below it. Both seemed to him a little unreal. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. He suspected hostility at once.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.P.Unit eight
on it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. he didn’t envy those above it. the herd instinct was very strong in him. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. so that we might get to the future and have done. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. (L. A little crossly. to make sure we attended strictly to business. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor)
. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. The last criterion. From this perspective. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.9 Key Concepts
The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.
b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. bunăoară. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. mai bine219
. de bună seamă. Şi tu să fii. E posibil. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. lovit şi umilit. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. fireşte. într-o zi. dar să nu-ţi spună. un bărbat şi o femeie. de asemenea. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. e important ce întrebări pui.Unit eight
Pratice Translate the following texts. să-l capete. e) Când doi oameni.
h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. avusese dreptate. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte.Şt. să nu vrea să se şteargă. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. un picior. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. în jos. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. în parte. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Să spui de pildă. .Nadina VIŞAN
zis. De era vară. mai pline de înţeles. aşa cum îi apăruse el.
. că eşti tânăr. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. (B.Delavrancea. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. să traiesc numai cu tusea.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. sau. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. în ploaie. pe care deja o uitase.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. în parte. încă. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. d-a lungul gâtului.Şt. Însă Paul Achim trăise. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. mai bine de două decenii. ca să nu şi-o amintească.
. biata Muti. Mă laud singură.. orice-ar fi. orice bucureştean ştie. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. şi prin faţă. un miros îngrozitor. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. nici ca să
. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere..Unit eight
Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. ei. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. o mizerie. fie ea şi grăbită. sunt aici cu tot ce am. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. Într-un cuvânt. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor)..Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. prin faţă e coborârea. deşi. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. de fapt. şi nu un amant. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. (Al. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea.
vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută)
. parcă la întâmplare. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate.
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns. participles. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions
9.Participial Constructions 188.8.131.52.Differences between Participles and Gerunds
9.The Verbal Noun 9.2.The Gerund
9.5 Key Concepts
.Characteristics of Participial Constructions
184.108.40.206.Characteristics of Gerunds 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 220.127.116.11.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.
1. The Participle
The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.1. (Susan doarme.1. Due to this situation. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Let us start with the Participle:
9. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.Unit nine
The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.)
were closing. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.Nadina VIŞAN
In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle.) As you can see in this second case. been and killed are past participle forms.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.) More infrequently. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). too: (6) Her eye-lids. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. it functions attributively. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. i. In (2) the forms come. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. (A venit Susan) b. blood-shot and painted.e. Susan has been killed. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.
. the past participle can appear after a noun. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. Susan has come. This situation is also characteristic for past participles.
he will eventually marry her. leul poate să atace. a lion can attack. Weather permitting.) c.) b. Arriving here. Knowing who the guy was. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. mother permitting. începură să cânte.) b. ea o luă la fugă.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.Unit nine
(I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. (Ştiind cine era el. When singing. o să ajung la timp. God willing. people should pay attention to high notes.) d. she ran away. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.)
. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.) c. (Sosind aici. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. o să ajung la timp. they started singing.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. Oh. I will arrive there on time. If provoked. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time)
(Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.
(L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. (L-au descoperit că fură.) ii. Nominative + Present / Past Participle
(9) a. behold. watch. They found him killed by a bullet. smell.
(Am simţit-o tremurând.Nadina VIŞAN
The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. notice. I found him stealing.)
.) b. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. respectively. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-am descoperit furând. He was found stealing. which stands for an adverbial clause. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. He was found killed by a bullet. hear.
) b.Unit nine
He was noticed crying.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.) b. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.) • Causative verbs: get . find. I must get my hair cut.: a. hear. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I heard it said that men are a bore. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. make a. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. start. set. He’ll soon get things going.
(A fost văzut plângând. (15)
. etc.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.) b. etc.: When she heard his words. recollect.) c. have. leave. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. etc. send. she knew herself dismissed.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • Causative verbs: get. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. etc. know. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. feel. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. confess. have. recollect. a. keep.
He wanted his car fixed immediately. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • verbs of permission. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. command I ordered my bill made out. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.Nadina VIŞAN
(Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) b. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. lovit şi plin de sânge. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios!
.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. Men like shopping made easy. / Nu după multă vreme./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.
as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.Unit nine
Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.2. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / My Lord. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. / Dinny. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her.1. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. Unlike the gerund. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. with its lips drawn back. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.e.
. sitting taut between her father and her sister. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / In any case. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.
7. 3. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. The tree had fallen across the road. I was (20)
.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I turned on the light. am plecat. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I left.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. It had been uprooted by the gale. 4. (Văzând acestea. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. I left. 5.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. the rain will stop. I was astonished at what I saw. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. am plecat.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I knew that the murderer was still at large. se va opri şi ploaia. using either a present participle. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. (Desi nu ştia limba.Nadina VIŞAN
The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. 6. She had heard it all before. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 2. People were sleeping in the next room.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I have looked through the fashion magazine.
He fed the dog. many. 2. three. dark. Read the sentences and try to correct them. 11. minded (3 times). 10. shaven. empty. open. eagle. 12. sharp. 10. mown. lion. I let the dog out of the room. bald.
. fishy. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. haired (twice). a pot of paint fell on my head. cloth. 8. Reading in bed. Leaving the cinema. one of the eggs broke. Dropped by parachute. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Climbing down the tree. quick. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 9. his horse fell at the last jump.shoulder. stricken. roast. Tied to the post. 5. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. lighted. Getting out of bed. handed.Running into the room. narrow. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. hearted (twice). 4. b) Headed (5 times). He sat down to his own dinner. drunken. Riding in the first race. They found the treasure. 9. a scorpion bit him. Mother punished me for my mistake. red (twice). They began quarreling about how to divide it. Passing under a ladder. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. cornered.Unit nine
extremely reluctant to open the door. open. broad. stony. coloured. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 6. an idea suddenly occurred to me. straight. 8. skinned. I slammed the door of my room. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. 7. Barking furiously. my hands often get very cold. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 3. eyed (3 times). covered. wooden.
umerii abia ascunşi sub o
. image. rotten._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. is expected to be a great hit. (take) 2. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. Whales. (grow) 4. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. eyes. plank. (hunt)./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. ill-gotten. Translate into English: 1. ________ hiding in a barn. lamb. the same verb is missing twice. _______ by S. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. was today taken back to prison.Spielberg. are in grave danger of extinction. shrunken. duty. wealth. (find) 6.Nadina VIŞAN
sunken. deer. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. meaning. _______ my arm. 7. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. hidden.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. man. In the following pairs of sentences. The escaped prisoner. _______ for their elegance and precision. (produce) 3. b) grass. stream. shorn. (admire) 5. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. graven. / Swiss watches. I stared at the canvas for ages.I fell on the ice. head. The film. are sold throughout the world. / Three people. bounden. / Many old people . candle. (injure). meat. were taken to hospital. lead. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. _______ for a bargain.
sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. le cocea. După câtva timp. când strânsă. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. Şi sufletul său. 2. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. 4. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. O umbreluţă. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. legume date prin mai multe ape. precum şi foile de plăcintă. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. şi moi. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. întinse. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. păsări tăiate. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. trezit. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. le fierbea. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului.Unit nine
dantelă. nesigur şi moale. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. deodată sufocat. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)
. când deschisă. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. 3. ca şi cum. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. care le rânduia. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. Şi.
. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. According to this criterion.2. (Dacă vezi. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. The Gerund
9. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.1. Likewise.Nadina VIŞAN
9. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. crezi.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.2.
His victory and your defeat were both surprising. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) 9.2.2. gerunds differ from participles. That he won and you lost was surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. Consider the following table.) b.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.Unit nine
How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ?
. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. In that. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) b. Him winning and you losing was surprising.
(L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.) 2. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.Nadina VIŞAN
Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. *It was illegal growing a beard.) Unlike participles. Consider (32). which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. It was illegal to grow a beard. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally
extrapose (if you remember.) b. as being verbal
. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.
A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds.
3. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) b. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds
There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. It’s no good talking to her. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) 3.Unit nine
in nature. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. as offered in the table below:
. Just like in the case of noun phrases.) b. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. Participles vs.) 9. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.2.
Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may function adverbials: house. may be preceded by prepositions:
Coming here. (prepositional object clause) 5. babies suck their thumb. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. passive ones She was crying. 3. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. forms: continuous . Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms.Nadina VIŞAN
PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his
(Accusative + clause)
. + noun] 1. (adverbial of time) 4. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. 2. perfect. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying.
/ Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o
. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi.Unit nine
Pratice Translate into English. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial.
2. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 11. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 12. 14. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 6. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 3. 5. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 7. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.
. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. eating habits/ eating people. crying game / crying woman. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. Gambling is his favourite pastime. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me.Nadina VIŞAN
mare agitată. 15. He was spotted talking to her. 12. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 9. shooting gallery / shooting star. 4. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 8. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 10. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 13.
which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. The Verbal Noun
The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.)
The absence of a determiner like the.e. a The absence of an of phrase. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.Unit nine
9.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.3. but the presence of a direct object (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243
The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb:
This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. Thus. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information:
Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. How can we tell? In the first case. These are features that normally characterize any noun. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards
Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. George’s shooting the attacker. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. In the second situation. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker.
+ noun] Gerunds
[+noun] Verbal nouns sudden
the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the
sheriff./ His sudden coming puzzled her. Jim left quietly. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. very large.Unit nine
[+ verb] Participles (After) shooting
[+ verb. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery?
They saw him shooting whole town.
./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / His coming there puzzled her.
the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff?
Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. the sheriff.
at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. With the infinitive. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). It has been noticed that.4. whenever we meet an –ing form.Nadina VIŞAN
9. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. For instance. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. ING Forms and Infinitives.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street)
. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. the meaning is different.
The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. Look. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. However. for example.
having left) is infrequently used in English. future-oriented value of the infinitive). prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. anterior to the verb in the main clause.) After looking at this example.) The first example.g. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.)
the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing)
Another example. Compare
She stopped to eat a sandwich. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. the infinitive is future-oriented. and the most well-known one. containing an infinitive. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. (S-a oprit din mâncat. On the other hand.
We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.)
. recollect.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. b) Regret
She remembers filling the tank with petrol. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.Nadina VIŞAN
She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.)
As you can see. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.e. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).e. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. which means that they are similar in meaning. i. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian.
apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. dar asta este. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. but that’s it. the petrol tank is not filled yet. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.Unit nine
(46) versus (47)
I regret filling the tank with petrol.)
.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. In the second example.)
The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the action is not completed. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.)
I mean to tell her the truth. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.
The house needs to be repaired. the event has not happened yet. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. e) need. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.) b.human] objects. (Casa trebuie reparată. In the second example. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) wedding. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. mean has the sense signify. (Casa trebuie reparată.Nadina VIŞAN
In the first example. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) With [. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. The house needs repairing.)
. want With [+ human] objects.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.
it’s overrated. but they went by too quickly. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Croom (try) (follow) one. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. my Lord. however appearances were against us. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.’ ‘In any case. whereas in the second case.Unit nine
In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. gerund or infinitive. my Lord. So do look out for me about six o’clock
. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. (take) down her answer. Lady Corven. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.’ ‘Tell me. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. I did ask Mr. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. (hold) up his pen and (speak). only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.
’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. licked the envelope with passion. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. and went out (post) it himself. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.Nadina VIŞAN
tomorrow. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.’ said Clare. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). Then. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ said Clare. suddenly. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’
.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. I just used the word and they fell. he addressed the note. I must go back now. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.
The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Participles mainly function as adverbials. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features.Unit nine
9. Pratice In the following texts. the
.5. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Last but not least. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits.
the chief occupation of the people of these islands. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete.Nadina VIŞAN
very earth opening up. He looked up towards the daylight. moving up towards his chest. The sight of the two children. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. It was like a mist. slowly rising in a swirling motion. At first. down into God knows where. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. The two sides were moving apart. it
. then the noise and the cracking stone. She started coughing. down. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. someone looking for survivors. their edges crashing inwards. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. covering the girl’s head. but then he saw it billowing up from below. the enormous split in the earth. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. according to the books he read. Then he saw movement at his feet. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. hoping he would see somebody up there.
my dear. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. brightening to winter brilliance.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. She finished what jobs there were. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. and sunlight. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.
had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. slanted on to her cheek. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. Having a French governess. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. 2. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. închizând ochii. and then went riding with her in the rain. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. În urma slugii. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. mama mea. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi
. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Ridicându-se. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. totul se animă deodată. într-o joi. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. ucenicul său necredincios. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. cei doi Mamona. Vaucher şi cu mine.
Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. am ştiut şi cine. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. privit. în timp ce frazele continuau să
. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus.Unit nine
gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Şi deodată. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. afară ploua în continuare. Neclintiţi. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. o sărută pe frunte. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. se duse lânga mama şi. aşezată cu spatele la noi. la mine. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. auzit şi zadarnic. aplecându-se puţin. 3. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. pe mama mea părând absentă. dar ştiutoare. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. după cum îi spusese mama. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. totul mi se părea cunoscut. pe Vaucher.
şi. camionul a plecat. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Au coborât din camion încet. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. Tot ce se vedea era un
. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. să se apropie de aşezările din jur.Nadina VIŞAN
curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. dar. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu stiva de lemne. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. 5. şi cu soba. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale.
pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.
. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
TEN REVISION EXERCISES
whereas if she went away she would get none. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 9. was unclear to Mitzi. this would really hurt. I am sorry not to have seen you. and this particularly of late. 12. How much. without profound questioning. in some way. he had been advised. 2. apart from his distress for parents. You have been much in my thoughts. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 3. and meet it right here at home. Having regard to the date of drafting. How this time was to come. 11. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 10. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. and that
. to retire early from my employment. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 5. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. 13. 7. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. since I have decided. 4.Unit ten
Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 6. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. he had not yet been able to estimate. because of pity.
I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. I was made say Grace before every dinner. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / In the end. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. even for months. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. 19. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / Whenever I visited my aunt. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her.Nadina VIŞAN
was difficult enough. / Before you go on changing the subject. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. he did not come to see her. this always makes us feel embarrassed. one of the eggs broke. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. please consider his proposition. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 14. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost.
. for attending his sister’s wedding. 17. looking forward had not yet taken place.
without discovery. Essentially. Clarissa used to think. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. of the quick and wiry. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. Though much in request before her marriage. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. She felt as when. and it was bound. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. They rushed into shops. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. an open-air person. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . her old friend Hugh. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. Tony was a child. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. Vulgar men did. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. They hated trying on. her recklessness. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. (and there he was. rather than the hefty type. it was said. centered in London and themselves. of all people.Unit ten
Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. to end in some awful tragedy. At country houses she had met them of course. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. quite unexpectedly. she said. cotton mills at Manchester.
. Instead of which she had married. a little girl.
indeed. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. nu puteam sa le uit. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. astfel. De uitat. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. the more she would be torturing him. cre s-au nascut lent.Nadina VIŞAN
Transplanted to Ceylon. Bolnava nu se simtea. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. but lying in her bath. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. she professed. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. nu a facut-o pentru asta.Over the River) 2. era un bun sfatuitor. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. (John Galsworthy .” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. Cind l-a chemat. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Reading many novels. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. ii faceau bine. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. she was uneasy. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. viguros si vesel in felul lui. with all its impatience of restraint. si in plus. short of the contacts of love.Rindurile dvs. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. aveam tot mai
. The closer she allowed him to come to her. to keep abreast of the current.
in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. A fost gasit plingind in urlete.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. pe scaunul lui tare. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. vaazut cindva. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. Personal. poate fi compensata. 4. are nevoie. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.Unit ten
mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Banulescu – ibid.) 6. o data sau de doua ori. Ce a iesit. nu pricep nimic. Daca tu. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. latimea si ascutisul labei. (St. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.) 7. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.) 5. (St. fa-o. se stie. Banulescu – ibid. (St. cit mai au de trait. (St. Banulescu – ibid. ca si tine. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Milionarule. Banulescu – ibid. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. mi-am zis. lungimea picioarelor. printr-o asistenta activa din afara.)
Who when asked about his memories of the War. for being a renegade. Cambridge. Who came home from the war. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. to Emmanuel College. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. when I was even younger than you. (. Arthur Atkinson M.. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. a wounded soldier. Could he be blamed. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who was may father. 2.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in
. Who told me. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. my grandfather. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Who. Translate them.. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. A story-book romance.P. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.Nadina VIŞAN
Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. delivered from the holocaust.
Rachel Williams. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. How
. and because – but this is mere speculation. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. a moody man. to whom. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy.Unit ten
undergraduate whims. he had already engaged himself? 3. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. deep-set. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. Fabianism. 4.
Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.Nadina VIŞAN
fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. cu taina aceasta. Cum a trăit el. Ion. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. la şcoală. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe.
. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum a ajuns el. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. satul. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. om mare.
te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. din franţuzeşte.
. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. greşeli dintr-astea. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Când actriţa. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama.pune totul in discuţie. împotriva tuturor. când voi fi singur. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe.Unit ten
Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. singurul lui stăpân. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. de mama lor. cu sau fără voie. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. L-au derivat cei din teatru. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel.
Am început. continuând. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Tot aşa. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. ci un sistem de acomodare. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. sau ridicole. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. 5. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Într-o vreme. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. A devenit palid. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. e îndrăgostită de un actor. dam buzna peste automobile. parcă începusem s-o uit.Nadina VIŞAN
tânără şi frumoasă. 3. 6. privindu-mă în ochi. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. nevasta-mea. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. pe jumătate prezent. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. provocându-le. traversând. tânăr şi frumos şi el. 4. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. de pildă. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat.
. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior.
De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. şi să nu ameţesc. 11. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. ca un acrobat. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. şi dacă merg întins. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la
. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. fireşte. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Aş vrea să mă las jos. fără să mă opresc o clipă. 9. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. că nu m-am gândit la asta. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară.Unit ten
7. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. 8. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. Dacă nemţii înaintau. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. să merg întins. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Am început. iar. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. De altminteri. orice s-ar întâmpla. E o problemă. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două.
Ilie nu-l asculta. parca i-ar fi fost frica. se uita in jos. la fata locului. trebuia sa le spuna. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. 14. de la proces. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Auzindu-l.
. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme.Nadina VIŞAN
Constanta. dar nu se mai putea. Ii venea greu. de la lucruri personale. 16. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. de la obiecte de pret. 15. la carti. In curind. cu mirare. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Adica tot trecutul. la amintiri.. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Greu era din partea asta. eu am venit sa va intreb. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. 17. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. La un moment dat.. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. 13. nu mai pricepu nimic. nu mai semana. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Uite. de uimire. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Acum isi ferea privirea.Ma.
zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. 20. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. dar. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. 19. Nu era nevoie. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Zimbea siret. vorbe asa si-asa. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . which was part of his rich outfit. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. There was even
. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. . « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Aici era ceva. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. se indeparta nepasator. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. apoi se uitau la Ilie. asa cum facuse pina acum. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui.Unit ten
18. cum zicea Anghel. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler.Ce sa fac. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie.
He walked a long time. resuming her walk. rude woman. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. 4. paying no attention. gave an exclamation. conversationally. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady.Nadina VIŞAN
relief. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. for the instant. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. a simplification. But Daisy. to take his way home on foot. going astray. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. the young lady. to move fast. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. 3. He felt then. She was one
. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. on this occasion. asked for Mrs. 5. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one.Miller at her hotel. at least. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. to admit that she was a proud.
was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. uncomfortably. in their own phrase. in radiant loveliness. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. often. 8. She rustled forward. as to projected changes. That he should admire a marble goddess
. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. of studying European society.Walker. and wondering what the deuce he meant. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. as it were. Advising with me. indeed. 6. on the other hand. make a point. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. 7. smiling and chattering. as text book. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. making Paul stop and look at her. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. Her daughter. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. while residing abroad.Unit ten
of those American ladies who. He left me musing. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. She appeared. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks.
I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. or at any rate not heeding. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. and. while Paul. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. could see he was remarkable. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. with his humorous density. 11. 9. wondered what they were talking about. was immensely struck with him. which was deliberate. H. and perceived that it must be something important. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved.Nadina VIŞAN
was no reason for his despising mankind. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. not seeing. and acute too. H. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. was only half satisfied with this. 10. though E.’
. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. The agent became a very familiar type to H. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora.
and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. as he looked back. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it.Unit ten
12. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. H. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been
. which was very copious. had the power to chain his sympathy. 13. that the haunting wonder which now. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. not glancing at him for a moment. 15. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. 14. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. But she gave him no chance. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. appeared to fill his whole childhood. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine.
There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. 16. and to H. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. that she must be on the contrary. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. where the Pearl of Paraguay. yet
. It was very possible she was capricious. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. 17. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. 18. At the theatre. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. ironically reserved. proudly. and there were others. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who.Nadina VIŞAN
an achievement of comparatively recent years. H. as a general thing. disheveled and distracted. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. dragging herself on her knees. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. The whole establishment. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light.
with the poor. on which the damp breath of the streets. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. No one ever listens to her. had blown a certain chill. young men were invited. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. 20. 2. and lurking within this nebulous design. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. 19. Their mistakes and illusions.
. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. *Old. 3. It came over H. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. would always be more or less irritating. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined
words/phrases/sentences: 1. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess.Unit ten
the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. didn’t mind. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. H. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose.
12. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I was definitely going to be sick. I saw her as a vision. I blundered by. her shining blue feet twinkling. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. striding like a Spartan maid. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. “Oh. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 11. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. walking quickly. Either John or he * have got to give in. 8.
. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. slipped on some steps. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I walked fast. 7./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip.Nadina VIŞAN
4. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 5. Rachel. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. 10. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. her arms held out. 6. 9. c) When I saw her sitting there.
The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb
. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7.Unit ten
Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.
2. The old women spoke no English. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. if they were poor. And then I ventured to add that. which was really alarming. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. 4. where my servant. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. could cook my meals. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish.Nadina VIŞAN
Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 5. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter)
. 3. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. but that we saw and pitied. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life.
apart form his distress for parents.g. to settle. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. was anxious. at noon. before they left town. was anxious = was + anxious. Constituents: He. on Saturday. etc. he had not yet been able to estimate. on a house. had not been able to estimate.g. apart from his distress for parents. etc. How much. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. this.Key To Chapter One Practice
KEY TO PRACTICE
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION
Activity 2 1. Constituents: how much. distress.apart from his distress = apart from. his. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs.
. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. to pay their annual visit. etc. would really hurt. Munt. he. Constituents: Margaret. was informed. this would really hurt.
nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / If you like her. interrogative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. interrogative. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax../ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. – first clause is non-assertive. – non-assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.. – non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. and is non-assertive. The sentence is however
. – first clause is an ifclause. which is not assertive. listen to this. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work..semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.SENTENCE NEGATION
Activity 1 They like her a lot. interrogative. don’t bother her. second clause is non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. it is assertive. which context is non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). negative/ Come with me. Second clause is an imperative.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. negative. – comparison.
but it wasn’t them. not even this thing. only irresolute. everybody used to travel by coach. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ He was smart enough./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. / They didn’t leave. he was hardly pleased.Key To Chapter Two Practice
syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. – they told the truth to somebody else. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. –double negation cancellation./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. / I don’t like her very much./ Not long ago. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. – I like somebody else./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / You have never met
. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. – someone hates animals./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. but nothing out of the ordinary. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday.but to someone else./ He was exceptionally cunning. not even when it’s quiet around./ They weren’t really confused./ When he learned the news./ Hardly interested in the conference. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / I can hardly understand what they are saying. but not more than she does others. / She does not hate animals. / She does like John. but it isn’t Susan. the two brothers dared to protest. – someone did that./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim.
negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them..Nadina VIŞAN
her... – I cannot look him in the eye.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. did they? / No problems were caused after all. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. / Should they not have told her the truth.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. were they? / This boy is no good. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. they go skiing in the mountains. not even when you were very young. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. – negative insertion. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. / This is hardly the
. not even in my dreams. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. is he? / Few of them stayed behind..
– Almost nobody liked him. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / I didn’t leave the
.Key To Chapter Two Practice
time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – I don’t often look at her like that. – I almost never look at those paintings. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her.Never shall I trust a man again. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. never trust a man again.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. but she also lent him a car. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / Hardly anybody liked him.. / Few people came to see her. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. when we started our holiday./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.. Activity 8 I shall never. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – I never see her. / I seldom look at her like that.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police.. – Not many people came to see her.
– Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. you can still do something about it. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ Well. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / Don’t worry. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Only on this man could she rely. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Come on. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – It isn’t likely that he will help her.I don’t like his proposal at all. / They believe she does not like them. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. –At no time did we leave the office. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. / They say he once had someone very close. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ I somewhat like his proposal. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / You must on no account touch this machinery. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – They don’t believe she likes them./ I expect he won’t come here again. you can’t do anything about it any more. / Come on. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / She could rely on nobody but him. –
. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet.Nadina VIŞAN
office at any time./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere..
/ Well. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – You can’t be telling lies. – You should send her something./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – I can’t understand either of these sentences.. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / You must pay that fine./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / You needn’t send her anything.Key To Chapter Two Practice
It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. either. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – She almost always comes here. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Bob is still living at that address./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / You must be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam./ Peter knows some English and so does John. –Alice still lives here. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / She hardly ever comes here.
. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. too. – I feel much better for having had a holiday.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t.
/ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. e un magar./ E un baiat de zahar. / Don’t go on believing him. to any of us./ He was a tough man. He didn’t move a muscle. / Jim is so brave.D./ N-are nici cap nici coada. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ They say this Ph. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. He isn’t that smart./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./
. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Nobody told us a thing./ Have they rung the bell? No./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Am avut un car de necazuri. / He can’t have done a thing like that. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. I haven’t done anything. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ I don’t know a thing about her. Oh./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. has never studied anywhere. give me a hand./ Zis si facut. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ He’s a happy man./ You look so tired today. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. It’s no wonder./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. I haven’t seen her in years. not yet. ever since I got this ulcer./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. / Please./ You took his leaving you very hard./ Nimic de facut. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death.
. no memory.’ ‘Nici o problema. We had nothing in common. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. that I was a decent man.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. parasi camera. with the same needs they had. for I thought this threatening. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. thrown out. one way or another. nothing.Key To Chapter Two Practice
‘Scuze. feebly. I hadn’t really expected miracles./ Nu-i nici un deranj. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate ./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. without too much determination. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. I had never had the opportunity to prove. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.’/ Deloc descurajat.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. slowly.
It’s not made up of theories and the like. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently.
I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. or if you understood what I meant. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. by coming here to the monastery. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. Unfortunately. I was sleepy and tired. but facts. good. your story. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that…
After all that morning excitement.
It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. I admit. let alone irritable. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. he was sitting beside me. Your judgement is false. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. We have to judge it as it is. Not for a moment had I thought that. You really made me mad. bad. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. things you do any moment. that’s what the world is about. I’d be so happy if it were so. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. he immediately answered me patronizingly. to say the least. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. on the front seat.. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. and then I suddenly thought about those friends.Nadina VIŞAN
With none of these persons was NS on very good terms.
It was my turn to say something. Radu had calmed down. the only
. it’s not words. not as we would like it to be or some other way. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. clear or confusing.
no matter how huge they are. too? A gun is power. or you are lying hidden. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. or call the respect of others. it’s your problem. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. did you ever step up front. you can go to Ursu’s. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. keep it squeaky clean. clears your way. although it was a difficult thing to do. Look. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. you do as you think fit. fear might be hiding. it solves troubles. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. But I was just wondering. me.
. to fight. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. as Baciu would have us be. it’s yours. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. But what about you and Melania. me. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. and if you like. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. either. behind these big. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. I won’t interfere. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. keep your conscience clean: you have one. soon we’ll be in town. • So. precious words. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. just to please myself. and an inability to act. Anyway. we are leaving. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts.Key To Chapter Two Practice
ones I had. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die.
The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife... – incorrect. but they gradually got used to it. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.correct 3.incorrect. or some other woman. . She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. correlatives are mixed 2. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.
I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. because before is a positive polarity item 2.Nadina VIŞAN
Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. will he?. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.Negative attraction b) 1. The villagers were not very religious. has yet arrived -correct 2.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. the sentence is incorrect 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. as soon as he delivered it.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. . She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .
Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. has not arrived yet – double negation. But it was not because I had no answer to give. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. -correct 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. firmly determined not to answer immediately.Negative incorporation
Ştia că are dreptate. nu era
. Her stillness. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei.) Însă era cam târziu. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. much less ((NPI) for her. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Nu putea să se mişte. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. His spirit was too tired. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. yet. b) But it was rather (API) late. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Avea sufletul prea obosit. too troubled. prea răscolit. (ibid. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. (ibid. either (NPI). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince.Key To Chapter Two Practice
Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). not happy at all (NPI). she couldn’t marry him.
if anything (NPI). Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. se îndreptă spre paravan. inima îi batea năvalnic. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. şi destul de hotărât. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). (ibid. his heart was beating fast. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. (ibid. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. Ba dimpotrivă. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. The Satanic Verses.Nadina VIŞAN
deloc fericit. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. he made his way to the screen.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. (Salman Rushdie. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. she looked younger than ever (NPI). (ibid. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. and not a little unsteadily. e) At length.
i) What did C. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. (ibid. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. but his father would have none of it (NPI). reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Home receded from the prodigal son. The point was. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer.
. and probably an administrative headache as well. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. the gift was useless. care if the school were willing to treat him. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Ce-i pasă lui C.Key To Chapter Two Practice
fiind vrăjitoare. the school wasn’t budging (NPI).) C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI).
correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. . correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN
KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .QUESTIONS
Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. – indirect question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question.
. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. now she was chatty. all godfearing husbands and fathers. “Now. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Stavre Paici. do you really think that this vixen. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. Vica. Fenia. keep Condrat away from her. she likes to entrance them. yes. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. She has an eye for gentle men. Fenia. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. the bitch. Luca Horobet. 2. to make them lust after her. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. they were. you are in enough trouble as it is. Chizlinski. and then what do you
. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying.
the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. G.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. dragging his feet listlessly. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. 3. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. her hair pinned with blue combs. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t
. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. have a girlfriend. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. the minister of Tartars and Turks. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. what’s her name. The mullah. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw.Key To Chapter Three Practice
think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. It even takes him a while to go to the window. He got him out of his mosque. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. 4. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. a seventy-eight year old lad. ankle-long flowered calico. with a railway station and a mosque. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported.
and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden?
. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.Nadina VIŞAN
Sophie up in the attic. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.
Our flag is red. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. John and Mary are the newly married couple. yellow and blue. Her pet kitten is black and white.. John is ready and Mary is ready. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.Key To Chapter Four Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . – sentence coordination 2.COORDINATION
Activity 2 1. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination)
. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.) 9.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination 7. and I passed. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. John and Mary are ready. – similar situation 10. our respective examinations..phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.
Peter and John played football. that method and those. her son and others. your proposal and his. and even tennis. 3. her idea and John’s. 10. but not John. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.) Joan plays many games. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. We can and will demand payment. 7. Activity 4 1. many guest or few. 9.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 2. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 6. your work and mine. Activity 5 This book and the other. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 8. 5. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). plays football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. but John does not play football. much satisfaction or little
. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels.
Ups and downs 6. Swings and roundabouts 7. Bread and butter 16. The facts and figures 3. 8. Safe and sound
. magazines are only for children. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. 5. etc. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. High and low 2. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Pros and cons 4. Touch and go 10.Key To Chapter Four Practice
Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. but not simple. 7. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Spick and span 9. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. He snapped at him and slapped him. Wear and tear 12. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He read. Law and order 8. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Over and above 13. Life and soul 5. Few and far between 14. To and fro 15. (I have always fought for progress and always will. 4. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Activity 8 1. 3. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Thick and thin 11.) 6.
Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 3. 6. 1. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 10. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Either the child or the parents are to blame. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 2. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric 18. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 4. 3. – symmetric. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 9. 8.
. My son and heir is safe.There is a table and some chairs in the room. inclusive 16. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. exclusive 15. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 5. 7. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. – symmetric. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 5.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 9 1. My son and daughter are twins. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 4. Asymmetric 19. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. b. – symmetric. – symmetric 2. 7. Asymmetric 20.symmetric 11. 9. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 2. 8. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Symmetric 13. 6. cause-effect Activity 10 1. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. exclusive 17. – symmetric 10. Symmetric 21.. 10.
2. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. He went to bed. nor fowl. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 7. 6. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. No drinking and driving. Her husband is long dead and buried. They came to me. clothes and all. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. ‘Madam. 4. He’s neither fish. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 8. Jim thought it over for a while. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. 12. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 3. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 14. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. We’ll stick together. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. it was too small. Brother or no brother. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 10. for better or worse. Not only should you rest
.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. There are doctors and doctors. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. thanks for asking. By hook or by crook. 11.Key To Chapter Four Practice
Activity 11 (1) 1. I’ll still finish this paper. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 2. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 5. 3. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. (2) 1. 9. Should he pour water in the basin. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 15.
tense with concentration. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. at equal intervals. stop dead in his tracks. What do you know? The moment Mrs. Her first husband had been a professor. he’d leap high. and she listens to him. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. but he’d come out a cripple. Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. their common ground.Nadina VIŞAN
assured. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. You know. From time to time she will launch a helping question. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. he starts lecturing her about life and things. without mentioning financial matters. she knows for sure. it would work out fine. This. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Whatever she tried her hand at. but she blinks in approval. she started doing a great job. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. as she always does. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. what’s its name. so he’d gone down and died in no time. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. both dead and buried. and then. They hadn’t kept him there too long. So she’ll listen to him. tense like a bow. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. just like when he was thirty. And.
. an important man. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life.’ (3) 1. 2. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. so he could leap in pursuit.
subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as a modifier 3. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct). disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. cannot tell.subordinate. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .Key To Chapter Five Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. whomever wanted to listen. – Susan. – obligatory elements: she. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . you. came. looked. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. told. is aware. – she. – she. at me Activity 2: 1.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. – she. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . she looked at me sadly. functioning as an adjunct 2.subordinate. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. coordinated with first subordinate
. – obligatory elements: I. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.
subordinate. that you are choosing exile . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . at our age. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.Nadina VIŞAN
4. remove our home yet again .complement b) 1. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. since the main verb is think of something) 5. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he
.subordinate. that we should.subordinate.subordinate.
a house. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . but no idea – relative that complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice
was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (time)/
. outbuildings. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. a barn. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement.
direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes
. that kept her constantly tense and grim.wh complement.Nadina VIŞAN
it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long.A few days before the war. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. But other people. Activity 5 1. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. sickle in hand. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. staring at each other. subject/ to do such again – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ to sit there – complement. When Anton put the sickle down. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. (…) He dashed back. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. without straightening her back. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. (…) ‘Well. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement.
Why! He was not of two minds. you need courage even for this small thing. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. as if they were at his beck and call. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. that was for sure. Not even at this point. he will turn back and no longer be daring. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. but also his sharp nose. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. but he doesn’t spurn either. while on other occasions he would show caution. or if he does.Key To Chapter Five Practice
already. which he doesn’t rely on completely. 3. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. First. Ana could not stand a trip now. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him.
. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. Only he had Ana to think of. 2. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. while they spoke from miles away. For no bold man really falters. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. rather than a real threat. or other more hidden means.
The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. In fact. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. And here’s how this first day looked. and on Monday followed another feast). So. Twice did we get in the car. We were going to drive to a vineyard. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. are we getting off again? What is wrong. and twice we were requested to get out. But it was not ok. 4. he had postponed writing back. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. without really knowing why. and when things didn’t go as planned. to see some mutual friends. by the cars of some of us. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. although he could have said so earlier. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. they would ruin the arrangement. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply.
. under the silliest of pretexts.Nadina VIŞAN
That was clear. come on. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. it was the women. in Odobesti.
Who are you writing this letter to? 9. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 10. The students. He told her the secret. 6. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 3. 7. where I least expected
. John told his friend a story about the king. 3. 8. any of whom would answer to questions. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 11.She came to London where I went too. This is my husband whom I love very much. The students like their teacher. most of whom were from England. which was a pity. which was silly of him. all of whom would answer to his questions. 8. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.Key To Chapter Six Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . who was just passing by.restrictive 2. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. on which this occurred . To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. like their teacher. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 4. Activity 2 1. 4. Activity 3 1. 9.restrictive 4. 6. when we first met . 10. You couldn’t join the party. He is the author who they gave a prize to. where I spent my youth .restrictive 7. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 5.restrictive 6.free 8.RELATIVE CLAUSES
Activity 1 1. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. why they all left . 2. 7. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 5.
4. Where he was from – adjunct. Which – subject 4. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. where we talk money – predicative. What Inman remembered – subject. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . come up front. 5. about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 5. You. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. 2. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. Why . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.adjunct 6. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. however sad . when . who think so highly of yourselves. where – predicative 7. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.Nadina VIŞAN
.adjunct 3. what their parents made them. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. who cannot say a word. 6.free Activity 4 1. Activity 5 1. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. the prince chose Cinderella. Where . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. 3. I.When Ada remarked – adjunct. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. 7. What – direct object 2.subject 8.subject 9. What I’m saying – subject.adjunct 11. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. Of all the persons there. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. When .free 9. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional
. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.adjunct 10. was very displeased with the situation. This isn’t the Bucharest I know.restrictive 10. Where . Who . which .
adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.Key To Chapter Six Practice
object. which requires an accusative form. which is ungrammatical due to the[.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. what . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . whatever – predicative 13. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it
. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. how . what little she knew – direct object.attribute 12.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.
who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife…
. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. due to its invariable character. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician.Nadina VIŞAN
cannot be selected by a preposition. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. got married and had a daughter. in his turn. who. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. but whose second cousin. a sergeant. whose great-grandfather. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. a rather tiny looking man. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. having changed quite a number of jobs. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl.
. with deletion of the noun friends]. – no 4. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.His father’s friends.obligatory 3. has been troubling them forever. he requested that the public be excluded. . – no 9. In the interest of public decency. – no pied piping 5. – yes 6. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . – yes 2. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life.yes 3.yes Activity 9 1. The problem of safe transportation. he rarely saw now. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. – no pied piping
. . . Irene. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. – yes. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.Key To Chapter Six Practice
Activity 8 1.no 5. His friends. . This story.yes 7.yes 10. was now complete.obligatory 4. whose interest he most sincerely shared. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. no easy answers to which could be offered. were now all gone. – obligatory pied piping 2.
thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. or as of a vast arena. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 7. 3. 2.and he couldn’t thank me enough.
. In other people’s opinion. I did so. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. For twenty years. For all the four children. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. irrespective of age and nature. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 6. yours. Nelu. where two teams battled every day… 5. Only an ugly endless dream remained. 4. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . for instance. Everything was ending. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. the third born son. 8.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 10 1. I am to be envied. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream.
which was why he saw Dora very far away. on Icoanei street. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 10. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. He was suffering from dizziness. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. Let me tell you my last conclusion. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 16. 12. where from Marta was coming too. the tram was rattling along. 14.Key To Chapter Six Practice
9. staring aimlessly. You are newly arrived here. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. 15. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. from MR street. 13. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. Behind them. What you’re saying sounds very nice. All that you have read is rubbish. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. If any of your qualities were to persuade them.
. 11. since I don’t really know which my true life is.R. leaving streets and houses behind. although she was standing quite close to him. barely glittering in the distance. she said. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 17.
so optimistic and composed? 19. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. From the vantage point I was in. or the many Egyptian dynasties. had a huge house in Bucharest.Nadina VIŞAN
18. I don’t know what might have happened. in her pursuits. who only lived once in this world. had a personal style in clothes. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. which I did not posses. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. While we were poor. 24. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not.
. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 21. or the clash of stars above. 20. 23. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. I could see my woman falling away from me. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. after the car was fixed. who prompted everyone on the street. She was a woman of means. So. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. day by day. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. While some trees are still green. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. But. But for me. 22. If he had hit me. likes and dislikes. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me.
subject 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. prepositional object 11. direct object 10. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 7. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. for pragmatic reasons 5. It so happens that I know the secret cipher.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – the same as 3. – unextraposed. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – impossible 7. 2. – extraposed. subject 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed. 8. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – questionable.THAT COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1: 1. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. direct object 3. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. 6.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. object 6. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. subject 4. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It appears that no one voted for him. 3. object 5. – extraposed. subject 9.
Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – incorrect. 10. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible 3. . – the same as 12. same as 12. – impossible. but pragmatically impossible 4. – same as 12.correct 4. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.grammatical. – grammatical. – impossible. It is nice to meet you. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I guess it that he will come back. – impossible.grammatical. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. . 15. tense influences the
. a bit too intricate 5.Nadina VIŞAN
It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It is no use trying to convince her. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – correct 2.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – grammatical. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 14. 17. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. – impossible.incorrect. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. . They never expected it that he would come back. although a bit intricate 2. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. – grammatical. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. idiomatic formula 16. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – impossible 11. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. 9. 18. Activity 3: 1. same as 12.
in the ditch. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. 3.’ 4.
.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
validity of extraposition 5. behind gates. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. though. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. 2. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. in the pits on the road. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . 5. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. – correct 6. (Not always. thus. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. under bridges.incorrect. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion).’ Lionel says. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.
Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. prime-minister. 3. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations.
Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it.
7. because it is less ambiguous. 2. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. – the first sentence is the better of the two. without trying to protest too much. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Activity 7 1. 4.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. since the
. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa.Nadina VIŞAN
6. – the second sentence is questionable. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. By saying this. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. It is less ambiguous than the first. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 8.
– both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. extraposition is obligatory here. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 8. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 7. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 5. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 6. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. so there is no need for extraposition. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete.
./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. The second and third sentences are grammatical. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. – both sentences are grammatical. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.
for better or worse. – complement 2. ibid. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – relative 3.) complement that clauses. – relative 5. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. coordinated. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – subject. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. they were chained to each other forever. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. required by deverbal noun
Activity 8 1. (Iris Murdoch. – adverbial of sequence/result.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – direct object. – complement that clause. ibid. . required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. . . required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) adverbial of sequence/result.complement 4. – complement 5. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.prepositional object. . The idea that he had had earned him good money. – prepositional object.relative Activity 9 1.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.
d) John said that Harry was leaving. you want me to believe. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. that they were not too late to leave. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. that deletion is obligatory.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – a) and b) are indirect speech
. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory.
I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. c. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie.Nadina VIŞAN
formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – grammatical sentences. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – both sentences are grammatical. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong
. a. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice
Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. present instead of simple past. She noted with disapproval that many a
. quail. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. – generalization on habits of birds. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. geese both grey and white. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. prepeliţe. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. cenuşii şi albe. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. While the first is possible because of the generalization. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. ciocârlii şi şoimi. lark. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. present perfect instead of past perfect. hawk. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici.
Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat.Nadina VIŞAN
bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She admired their keenness of wit. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. lipsa de vanitate. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. A companion stooped and cradled his
. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. as evidenced by its drear plumage. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Crows will relish what presents itself. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. slyness in a fight. love of practical jokes. The generic present is used in this case. lack of pridefulness. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle.
El căzuse pe spate. Murise în picioare. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. se ridicase în picioare. […] During the latter stages of the tale. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. tragică şi eroică. in the very act of expiring. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
head to soothe his dying. tânărul ofiţer. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. But as the battle raged around them. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. He died erect. He had fought hard through the war. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. the young officer. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. he claimed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at
. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general.
Activity 13 1.
. he closed the album. 2. susţinea el. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). I knew that no matter what words I would pick. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting.Nadina VIŞAN
Williamsburg. mother went home and I was left alone. Now here he stood jailed. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. în închisoare. And they might just hang him. A short while later. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. they gathered around my desk. But when he reached me. How can I explain? I just felt shy. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. I realized I could not tell him the big news. They all had their hands in their pockets. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. One of them. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Acum stătea aici. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. – similar situation to the one under (c). around seventeen or eighteen years old. Luptase din răsputeri în război. war hero though he was. When he saw me. the oldest. deşi era erou de război. to finish my drawing. When the boys saw that mother had left.
She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
3. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. he could only think of the fact that she had written
. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all.’ 5. 6.’ Mr. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. for her vineyard. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. All his senses were now keen. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. as if he had been drunk. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. or fear his rage. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. brightly and closely. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. or if she would do so again. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. 4.
claiming you had no ambition for the future. thinking of him. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped
. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. The last time when we met here you scared me. And if things were so. 11. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. 7. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 8. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 9. 10. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal.Nadina VIŞAN
to him. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great.
where he would run to confess everything. 12. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn.Key To Chapter Seven Practice
now. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem
. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. which secretly drove him. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. We either sell them or we don’t. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. 14. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. namely the impatience of this young man. 13. without putting anything in a note. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. more urgently than ever. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. towards Jurubita. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while.
KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 2. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. . the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. – simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. 9. / they saw her leave. grammatical 3.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – infinitive continuous. – perfect infinitive. grammatical. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom.. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. – infinitive continuous.
.simple infinitive. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 5. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1: 1. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 7. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. – simple infinitive. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. . / He was forced to send Tom on the front. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 10.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 6. / He had Mary clean her room. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.
\ She promised him PRO to leave. / I want to never see you again. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *I allowed them. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / He is believed to have known her
. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: She promised him. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *They did not wish her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. – Test: They asked her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ I would love [ them to come. Test: *They would have hated her. – Test: He persuaded her. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ She wanted [him to leave. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Test: *I would love them. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ I allowed [them to come. Test: * I would like people. – Test: They convinced her. you need to try harder.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They tempted him. / It is not too late for him to learn.
/ I want you to leave my house. not to miss the train. / I have a word to tell you. Activity 6 Oh. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / I want to tell you what I think of you.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.Nadina VIŞAN
for years. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / He is easy to talk to. / Oh. / He is hard to stand.obligatory subject control verb
. . to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / He is young enough to start again. . / To make a long story short. . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / He is easy to live with. . I don’t need you or your services.
She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. they had depressed and fuddled him. 1] A little crossly. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. so that we might get to the future and have done. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. He suspected hostility at once. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. 1 – PRO. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to.Accusative + Infinitive. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. he didn’t envy those above it. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Harold. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Subject. Subject. Predicative 4 .Key To Chapter Eight Practice
Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 1 – PRO-to.
. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.to. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. If he himself was out of spirits.
PRO controlled by ‘she’. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. excitedly. more meaningful. PRO controlled by ‘him’. f) The passing time is important.Nadina VIŞAN
[PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. direct object 3 – PRO –to.
. PRO controlled by ‘she’. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. e) When two persons. object 2 – PRO –to. And you might also be hit and humiliated. PRO controlled by ‘me’. true. One day. slowly. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. more believable than evidence itself. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. cautiously. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. we seem to forget about our own pain. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. or better said. c) Unlike plane trips. man and woman. 1 – PRO-to. But when we need to comfort others.
He had not been able to leave Dr. Moroi says heavily.Key To Chapter Eight Practice
To say. tickled by the trickles of sweat. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. And I would care for this man so deeply. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. h) I want us to go. or.
. not even those parts where he had been half-right. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. That is it. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. in the street. not to want to wipe it off. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. as he had appeared to him in the rain. k) With this considerable dowry. for instance. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. even when this love is hurried. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. my wish being only to please and serve. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. which he had already forgotten. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Stroescu. If it was summer. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. all down our neck. while swearing to change my way of life. to live only with your coughing. Mrs. And to actually start to believe you are so. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. or their talk that night. S. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. that you are young. I am indeed praising my own merits. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot.
or to speak so fast. no matter what. she was suddenly so shocked. If you will have what I can give you. poor Muti. here I am with all of my own. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved.
. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for that’s the door people get off by. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. every Bucharester knows it. Well. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. haphazardly. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by.Nadina VIŞAN
In a word. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. ready to submit to any demand. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. met by squalor and terrible smells.
Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ Don’t keep him waiting./ He went to have a tooth pulled.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.
. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. – Attributive past participle. / They found it thrown in a corner. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ She sent him shopping. badly beaten and bloodied./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. with its lips drawn back./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye.ING COMPLEMENTS
Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE .
The tree had fallen across the road. she caught her foot in a rug and fell./ Running into the room. – As she was running into the room. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. 4. sitting taut between her father and her sister. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. I was astonished at what I saw. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. Attributive present participle. Accusative + present participle / In any case. I slammed the door of my room. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. a rug caught her foot and she fell. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 9. Activity 4 1. 5. Having looked through the fashion magazine.Nadina VIŞAN
Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not
. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 10. 8. 6. having been uprooted by the gale. Turning on the light. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 3. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. a rug caught her foot and she fell. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.Running into the room. Finding the treasure. Sleeping in the next room. 2. – Attributive present participle. 7. having heard it all before. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. he sat down to his own dinner. Having fed the dog.She didn’t want to hear the story again.
I often get very cold hands. I let the dog out of the room. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. a scorpion bit him. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. his horse fell at the last jump. 11. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As I was passing under a ladder. – As he left the cinema. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. Getting out of bed. – As he was tied to the post. – As he was climbing down the tree. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 5. 2. one of the eggs broke. broad-shouldered. an idea suddenly occurred to me. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 6. 10. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. / Climbing down the tree. the sea was tossing the post up and down. fishy-eyed. – As he was getting out of bed. many-coloured. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. cloth-covered. – When I read in bed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 12. – As the dog was barking furiously. wooden-headed. 9. – As he was riding in the first race. Dropped by parachute. Riding in the first race. Tied to the post. / Getting out of bed. red-handed. sharp-eyed/minded. empty-headed. 4. my hands often get very cold. three-coloured. he broke one of the eggs. my hands often get very cold. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. he was bit by a scorpion. Leaving the cinema. 8. the sea was tossing it up and down.
. stony-hearted. a pot of paint fell on my head. open-minded. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. one of the eggs broke. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Climbing down the tree. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Passing under a ladder. lion-hearted. his horse fell at the last jump. Reading in bed.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
identify with that of the main clause. a scorpion bit him. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. narrow-minded./ Reading in bed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. bald-headed. I let it out of the room. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 3. Barking furiously. 7.
I fell on the ice. / Swiss watches.Nadina VIŞAN
quick-eyed. (find) 6. / Three people. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. hidden meaning. Activity 8 1. are in grave danger of extinction. found hiding in a barn. hunting for a bargain. was today taken back to prison. stricken deer. is expected to be a great hit. injured when their car crashed on the M1. (hunt). bounden duty.
. Whales. The escaped prisoner. shrunken stream. drunken man. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. admired for their elegance and precision. injuring my arm. I stared at the canvas for ages. produced by S. open-hearted. (grow) 4. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. 7. dark-skinned. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. (produce) 3.Spielberg. eagle-eyed. sunken eyes. Activity 7 1. were taken to hospital. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. are sold throughout the world. (admire) 5. lighted candle. (take) 2. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Many old people./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. shorn lamb. ill-gotten wealth. rotten plank.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. straight-shouldered. roast meat. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. The film. mown grass. (injure). shaven head. graven image. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.
the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. seeking some promised land. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. and moreover. the twice rinsed vegetables. the fish. So. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. boil them. streaked with yellow veins of fat. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. its scales scraped off by the knife. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. he were struggling for breath. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the carved chicken. thrown in the pots. now taken down.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. and the puffed pastry beds. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. flat and soft. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. 4. in charge of his house and lands. 3. 2. He felt close to his father.
. he started peering anxiously around as if. bake them. hovering uncertain and soft. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. suddenly suffocated. yet left them room to sway free. then put up. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. After a while. sprinkled with sticky flour. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. A parasol. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. And his soul.
– participle (attribute) 2. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. What I don’t understand is you suddenly
. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. . Activity 10 1.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. – gerund (subject) 4. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – Accusative + participle 3. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / I am sorry for being so late. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned.gerund 5. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. he left the store without buying a thing./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. Gambling is his favourite pastime.
participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. . The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. – gerund (attribute. 8. – gerund (half or full. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. gerund (has a direct object)
.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. He was spotted talking to her.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
turning against me. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. preceded by preposition). – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11.participle vs. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.
’ ‘Tell me. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it.’
. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. take down her answer.. – verbal noun (has adjective). of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund or verbal noun. I did ask Mr. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.. Lady Corven. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. – verbal noun (has determiner.Nadina VIŞAN
Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. my Lord. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.verbal noun (has determiner. adjective. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. however appearances were against us.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Croom to try to follow one. hold up his pen and speak. – gerund (full. adjective. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.
It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. licked the envelope with passion. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. I spend all my time hunting a job. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. he addressed the note. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. it’s overrated. my Lord. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. ‘I do hate asking for things. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. suddenly. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I must go back now. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. I just used the word and they fell.’ said Clare. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
‘In any case. and went out to post it himself. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ said Clare. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’
. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. Then.
adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. after verb of perception. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. direct object). elliptical here. slowly rising (participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. attribute. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. the enormous split in the earth. attribute. hoping (participle. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. following the verb ‘remember’. someone looking for survivors (participle. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. Then he saw movement at his feet. down into God knows where. direct object) from below. At first. The collapsing shops (participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. adverbial of time. He looked up towards the daylight. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. …while their edges were crashing inwards).Nadina VIŞAN
‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. The two sides were moving apart. attribute) in a swirling motion. First the crack snaking (half gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. It was like a mist. direct object) towards him.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. The sight of the two children. the very earth opening up (half gerund. down. attribute). stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute). he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. attribute. (participle. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. village which is burning). slightly
prepositional object. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. early. you.). That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. adverbial of reason). moving up (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
. according to the books he read. has ‘of’ phrase). the chief occupation of the people of these islands. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. direct object). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun.e. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. i. one. etc. covering (participle. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.
and then went riding (participle. So. the two Mamonas. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. and everything got suddenly animated. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. reluctant or not. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. and sunlight. and not only in my imagination or theirs. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. Standing up. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. Vaucher and I. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of reason). which beckoned to
. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. we were all gathered in that room. preceded by preposition. attribute) to winter brilliance. a door was opened and as a servant entered. brightening (participle. for Dornford was busy on an important case. attribute) stopped dead. And.Nadina VIŞAN
r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. slanted on to her cheek. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. examining (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. Young Mamona left the room without a word. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. adverbial of manner). making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. adverbial of manner). mother. preceded by preposition. She finished what jobs there were.
And then. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. and smelling so hard of rain. as mother had ordered him. each carrying a wooden box. in the year 1812. and ended his life in the year 1821. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. without taking his sack off his shoulders. bending a little. for anyway. and to Young Mamona. to Vaucher. He cast us a swift glance. I knew who it would be. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. who knows. kissed her forehead. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. sitting in his puddle. about sparing no effort. he went to mother and. let alone greet us or say something. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. closing my eyes. his disloyal apprentice. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. Not so unimaginable though. he looked like someone who did. killed by Young Mamona. he found us sitting each in his place. too. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. Vaucher might have known that too. to me. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept
. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. Entering our house on a Thursday. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. 3. 2. 4. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. So when Old Mamona came in. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. about concentrating all our resources. And. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. her back towards us.
the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. But. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. everything seemed familiar. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. They got off the truck slowly. futile. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. already seen and heard. of taking notes and rewriting them. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. as an afterthought. stove. And all around them was the great field
. long board table. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. barrack. wood pile. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. each pausing before jumping down. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. 5. And suddenly. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing.Nadina VIŞAN
rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake.
They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice
of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.
. The next thing was to go to the well.
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