NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

5

materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. titularizare şi grad. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.de rezolvări. 6 . Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

The Distribution of an Element 1. Constituent Phrase 1.Contents: 8 1. Insertion 1.4. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Complementary distribution .6.5.2.1. Auxiliary verbs 1.3.

Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. loves. her mother. sequences of the kind her mother very. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 .Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. very much. They are just strings.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Semantic. Syntactic. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much.1. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. 1. For instance. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. that is sequences fragmented at random.2. Consequently. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.

(2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).4. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. 1. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. an order given to an interlocutor). etc. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. we are dealing with a directive (i.) 10 . should. must.e.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. (Mi-a spus secretul.3. be). 1. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.

that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. etc. an ‘empty’ there subject. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 .6. for instance. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. live. 1. Consider.5.) 1.

apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. this would really hurt. distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. syntactic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. using your own examples: insertion.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. whereas (7) is not. pragmatic. 12 . He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. semantic. If the given context is the one under (6). complementary distribution. as the star indicates. How much. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Munt. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. Pratice Define and illustrate. he had not yet been able to estimate.

To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

Key terms 2. affirmative sentences. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2.2. Polarity Items 2. Tests for negativity 2. Key terms .4. Instances of negation 2. Negative vs. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.8.2.1.5. Full – local negation 2. Conclusion.6.7.3.

Consequently. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.Positive vs.2. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .) b.) is said to be an assertion. in that they do not state anything. This example can be compared to: (2)a. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. it asserts something. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . in the sense that it states something.Declarative vs. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. Negative . For instance.

non-assertion . / She finally admitted. listen to this.positive sentence .positive and declarative secret.Nadina VIŞAN .g. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot./ If you like her./ We didn’t come here just to talk. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. They told her the ( e.g.other (if –clauses./ Don’t do that.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. don’t bother her. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.negative (e. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / Come with me./ She can’t wait to read that book. comparison.interrogative (e.assertion .) .) . Did they tell her the secret? ) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .g. 16 .

since the negative word not is not present there.3.Unit two Sentence negation 2. (John e nefericit. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. John is not happy. John is unhappy. word negation. I met a girl named Susan. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (Nu demult. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. In the case of the sentences under (4). Susan doesn’t like her friends.) b. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.) b. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) 17 . For example. Susan dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.

these sentences look negative. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. In other words. where the word 18 . namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. more precisely the phrase it is part of. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. In other words.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. but their meaning tells us a different story.) b. He was not without intelligence. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. I was not a little worried. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. She was not an unattractive woman. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. since the negative word not is present inside them. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.) c. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. just like in the case of word negation.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a.

/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Când a aflat vestea./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.e. Translate the following sentences into English. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. without intelligence. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. semantic negation.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night.

2. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. affirmative sentences. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu în mod special. dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated.4. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Era el destul de isteţ. ci doar indecişi. Negative vs. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .

such as do insertion. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.). (see subsection 1. For instance. etc. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. (M-am dus acolo.) (9) I didn’t go there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. (Nu m-am dus acolo. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.1.

nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / She does not hate animals. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative./ They didn’t leave. 22 . / Susan was not bitten by a dog. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan did not get married to Jim. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / We don’t come here often.

Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. 4. and neither do they like her. *not even the smart ones. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. and they don’t like her either. Example (14) is syntactically negative. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. 3.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which is ungrammatical. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. which does not happen in the case of (18).Unit two Sentence negation 2. not even the smart ones. *and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. . even the smart ones. * and they don’t like her either. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.

they go skiing in the mountains. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / They caused us no problems. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 .Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / No problems were caused after all. / Few of them stayed behind. By applying these tests to the sentence in question.5. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / A few of them stayed behind. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Not always a witty interlocutor. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / This boy is no good. In conclusion. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. 2. / You have never met her. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view.

Susan could not go to the theatre. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (26) I saw nobody. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. I went nowhere. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-a venit John). (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (27) a .

(Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. No day passed without me thinking of him. / I didn’t ever go to his place. I didn’t see anybody. 26 . I didn’t go anywhere. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. b.Nadina VIŞAN b.) (29) a. I didn’t see any student. (N-am văzut nici un student.) c. no incorporation takes place. I never went to his place. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place.) b. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) b. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. All that glitters is not gold. Not all that glitters is gold.

/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. etc. and we don’t go to the theatre either./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers.) They barely read any novels./ They never went there. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. rarely. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. (Nu citesc romane. / I saw nobody.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / Not a word fell from her lips. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I didn’t see anybody. / No one ever listens to her. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.) We seldom watch T. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / He should not be released. barely.V.4. / Not one of them came to meet her. / I showed him nothing. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. not even short ones. seldom. nici măcar din alea scurte. / None of them liked house music. . scarcely.

Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I seldom look at her like that. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / Few people came to see her. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) c.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. Not for the world would I do such a thing. . şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) d. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. Never have I met a more horrible person.) b. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) 28 them. / Hardly anybody liked him.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I scarcely ever see her.

/ One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. in the sense that the 29 ./ We seldom receive such generous praise.) They don’t think that he likes them. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. never trust a man again. / You must on no account touch this machinery. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / She could rely on nobody but him. As you can see from the translation of these examples. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian.

intention. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her.6. ought to. For example. In sentence (37). etc. sound/feel like. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. choose. 2. intend. be probable. seem. look like. believe. should be desirable. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. expect. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. although not negative in meaning. / They believe she does not like them. advise. be likely. probability. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. suggest. want.) 30 . She doesn’t like our chairman at all. / I expect he won’t come here again.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte.: think. the negative meaning is less strong.) b. barely. etc. guess. etc. be supposed to. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / I suppose she doesn’t care. cannot appear in an affirmative context. suppose. imagine. we can very well say something like: (38) a. appear.

and sentences such as: (39) a.2. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.*She lifted a finger to help me. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. b. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. *She likes our chairman at all. are clearly not grammatical. That is 31 . They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence).Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.

) Any more vs. / Well. too. / They say he once had someone very close. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.) Until vs. / I somehow like him. you can still do something about it. too (I don’t like it. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I can understand both of these 32 . / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Don’t worry. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Bob is still living at that address. / You needn’t send her anything. / I still love you) Either vs.) Hardly ever vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I like it .) Yet vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Well. etc. either. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I have some money. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences.) At all vs. / I somewhat like his proposal. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. a lot (I don’t like you much. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I like you a lot. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Come on. / I eat caviar most of the times. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. still (I don’t love you any more.) Much vs. too. some (I haven’t any money. / She hardly ever comes here. / I have already seen him. / He arrived before 5.).

crack a smile. see/ feel/ remember a thing. know a single person. / Peter knows some English and so does John. hear a peep. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. have/be worth a red cent. nici unuia dintre noi. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. hurt a fly. touch a drop. give a damn/darn. find a trace.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. Translate into English. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. leave a stone unturned. / You must pay that fine. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. have a care/ friend in the world. turn a hair. mulţumesc. flinch. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. bat an eye(lid). paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. last a minute. say / breathe/ understand a word./ I can understand all of these ten English words. Ion nu e prea deştept. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. move a muscle. de când cu 33 . / You must be telling lies. / Ajută-mă. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. sleep a wink. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. lay a finger on someone./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri.

etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. încercând să prindă criminalul. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / No hands wanted. / No admittance. budge. but you really should do something about it. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / He won’t make old bones. n-a sunat încă. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No sooner said than done. B: Aşi. he left the room. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Hotărât lucru. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / Nothing succeeds like success. / I had no end of trouble. / He is no end of a fellow. / No man is wise all the time. / No entry. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. nu e vina mea. / Not that I care. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. he’s a pig. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. Translate into Romanian. / No trouble at all. / Never is a long word. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going.

Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.Unit two Sentence negation rather). / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. say it. c) He is anxious to say something. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. 2. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. / I hate making any commitments. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences./ I saw no one. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. as well: 35 . d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Normally. N-am văzut pe nimeni.7.

36 . Conclusion. nu îmi place poezia asta. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. however. from a syntactic point of view. (Nu. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence.8. B: Nu. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. B: Not this poem. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. nu poezia asta. I don’t like this poem. Key terms. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem.) 2. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. I don’t. The second negation is somehow independent. nu-mi place. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .e. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.

Key Terms.3.3. Direct vs.Questions 3.3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.1.2.3. Optional Exercises .2.1 Tag Questions 3.2.2.3 Alternative Questions 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.4. Minor Types of Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.2 Wh.

This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.Unit three Questions 3. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.1. for a subsequent section.

by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (3) and (4). pe mama. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.g. (2). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. 48 . Pratice Translate the following questions in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions.

the sequence of the tenses is violated. 49 . because. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. Likewise. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. in this case. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. In the case of indirect questions. Since the question is not direct any more. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).

/ I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. sau mai bine zis. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. spune la un moment dat femeia. identify the incorrect sentences. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she was. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. ce culoare are pielea. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / I don’t know who she is. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I don’t know whom she fancies. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / He asked me who she is.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions.

Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.Unit three Questions 3.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 .2. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. In this case. as Quirk shows. being typical of spoken language. the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.

(what time / shops close today) ? 7. (which / you like best) ? 4. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (who / talk to last night)? 5.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. 3. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (how long / wait for me?) 10. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests.2. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.1.

(20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da). it has. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . (Da).Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. are said to be positively – oriented. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. they did. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. instead of Negative Polarity ones.

. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers.. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. A: You’ve been learning German for years. A: You look down. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. because you always copy everything I do! 5. .. I’ve still got plenty of time. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. ……. 2.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. …………………. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: Your mother is shouting for you. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. but I want to play basketball a little longer..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 3. 6. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. as in the example: 1. 7. 4. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.. A: She had her tenants evicted. ……………………………. ……………? (hear her) B: …. (speak yet) B: …….

. You could have mentioned it earlier. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. A: There was a terrible car crash. 8. 9.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. 10..2 Wh – questions Wh.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . 3. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. . how. ………………………………. I didn’t get home until late last night. . . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. where. what . which When.. A: It’s past your bedtime. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.2.Unit three Questions B: ………………….

/ I went to Hawaii on holiday. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. I cannot do that./ She dropped her glasses. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . why ever. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill./ Sara owns two cars. / There are six students in my class. / She lives in the suburbs. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. Nearly two hundred years. / That’s my pen. trying to find places where I resided in life. of course. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often.000dollars. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / Shirley got married to Ben.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. (Poppy Z. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / David’s car was stolen./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / My new car cost 10./ I have French lessons twice a week. what ever. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever.

3.2. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.) 57 . de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.

Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. wasn’t it there? 17. shall we stay? 14. How long is she be spending in America? 15. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. didn’t use he? 4. Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. You can’t be serious. shall we stay? 7. Who did left the gate open? 18. How far is it the cinema? 10. There was a fax for you this morning. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. How long is she be spending in America? 8. How far is it the cinema? 3. can you be? 58 . Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. didn’t use he? 11.

Unit three Questions 19. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. wasn’t it he? 22. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. uneori disperat. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. neliniştea infantilă. dacă prin absurd 59 . That’s your car. John goes jogging every morning. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. ca şi cei ce au fost. să-mi înfrâng frica. Toate vechi. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. Pot reveni. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. deci. Who did told you about the problem? 31. That was Jeremy’s brother. will you not? 27. Ani întregi. isn’t it this? 25. doesn’t he go? 23. will you not? 21. Whose it is this book? 32. despre o lume dură. plin de germeni virulenţi. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. deci. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic.

indiferent de risc. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. mă întreb. pe sub bolţile din care. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. pe care oricum am simţit-o. negru. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. de atunci. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Riscul? Ratarea. inactivii. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. străină priceperii lor. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. dar şi drumul. îi ştiu gustul. ghiceam doar unde se află. picură apa roşietică. lung. Şi. murdar. naiv. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . laşii. puturos. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. “Spune! striga el. B. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. iar proştii. umed. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. neîntrerupt.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie.

or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. nu se poate. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. orbitor. 3. la urma urmei. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. exclus. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. care i-a determinat alegerea. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. da? (37) Let’s go there. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3.3. golul alb. viaţa? Oare e drept. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door.1. Tag Questions Tag questions. will you? (38) She went to Prague. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa.Unit three Questions viaţă. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. didn’t she? .3. domnule profesor. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.

sarcasm. the tag is affirmative too. (Din păcate. or falling. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent.) A: Oh. au fost cheltuiţi. if the host sentence is negative. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. The suggestion is that in this case. aren’t they? 62 .e. or “comment tags”. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. it’s all spent. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. In this way. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. the tag is negative too). hasn’t she? (Aha. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. is it? (Deci.

/ Activity 12 He will be on time. / Don’t leave without me. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / The boy often watched his sister. / A few people like her. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I think you don’t like my music. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / You will pick me up. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / I don’t think you like my music. / Each of us is staying. / I must go now. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I am dressed smartly enough. / There are a lot of cars on that street. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / He simply hates empty words.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I may not see you tomorrow.…/ Let me know. / He hates his wife. / Few people like her. / That’s your car over there. / You will pick me up at 7. / I am older than you. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / Surely you have enough money. / That was your father. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / She left an hour ago. / You ought not to smoke. / Tell me. / I may see you tomorrow. / She has a brother. / She used to talk a lot. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. 63 . after all. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / He has to marry Susan. / I think you like my music. / The boy never watched his sister. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / You have been invited. / They said he liked music. / There is enough food for everyone.

or what? 3. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. / He never used to study so hard…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2./ I’m right about this…. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. So you enjoyed my talk. 5.. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….

/ Students… Student loans might replace grants. Recapitulatory echo questions .questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / Grants… 3.) B: Chinese? 65 . / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.3. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.1.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.2. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.1.

of something just said.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. consternation. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.2. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. disbelief. rather than the repetition. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. (Închide lumina aia.2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .3. If the wh.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.phrase is fronted.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.

(Vai. (Uită-te la asta. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green./ We are looking for a purse. rather than did you say. intonation is rising. with recapitulatory echo questions./ He is interested in blue movies. dear.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. which letter do you 67 . whereas with explicatory echo questions. / I think I’ve found a solution. / We are looking for a pixie. am pierdut scrisoarea.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (i. I’ve lost the letter. / He is interested in music.e.

Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. she knows about it. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3.4.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.

– Crezi tu. în satul nostru. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. lui Luca Horobeţ. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. nu purta verighetă. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. pe Condrat de Vica. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. să se încolăcească mai bine. cu o casă de copii. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. Are gust de oameni blânzi. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. după pofte. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . lui Stavre Păici. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. acuma sporovăiala. stricata.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. lui Chizlinski. aşa. Fenio. da. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. cumnată Fenia. şi apoi Vica ce zice. şerpoaica. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. în general. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. oameni aşezaţi. şi care s-a aciuat. ca să zic aşa. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit.

Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. deci. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. De asta erai. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. sau cum o chema. abia târându-şi picioarele. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. până la călcâie. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. sus. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Hogea. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. L-a scos din geamie. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. roşu şi galben. dar cum se face că a 70 .

dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Contents: 74 4.3.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.1.2.Key Concepts .Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.6.4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.5.

some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. present) in the sentence.e. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. where there is no indication other than a comma. cu repros. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e.Unit four Coordination 4. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. 75 .1 Syndetic vs. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. Example (2). that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. i. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. that elements are coordinated. on the other hand.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. reproachfully.

) Such examples. vei muri.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition.) (4) If you hit my wife. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. you will die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. 76 .Nadina VIŞAN 4. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. From the previously mentioned examples. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. Conversely. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.

) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. However. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . we need to specify that. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. from a logical & semantic point of view. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. respectively subordinated constituents.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. but presupposed. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. the second. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.

Though the castle had vanished. but the 78 . He wrung the bottom of his trousers. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. of cut gray stone. In the first. took off his coat and emptied them. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the second. with formal walks under rows of trees. Then he sat down. took off his shoes and emptied them. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. He moved and made a slopping noise. His clothes hung to him. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. John Steinbeck. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. with enormous solidity. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. built. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. his shoes squished. adorned with cornices. the houses were beautiful and ancient.

His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and as the way is with Irish mountains. over some of the roughest ground in the country. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. Cecil Woocham – Smith. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . the higher he went the wetter it grew.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. left the house.

Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. we should be seriously annoyed. As one can easily notice. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.K. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. however distinguished. were to take down the name of every man. yesterday and the day before yesterday. as shown in (9). (G. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.3 Sentence vs. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.

yellow and blue. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Activity 2 sentences: 1. and I passed. plays football. Pratice Distinguish coordination. John and Mary are ready. 3. our respective examinations. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.Unit four Coordination example (7). and even tennis. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. / Peter. 9. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. / Bob and George are admired by their students. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. John is ready and Mary is ready. Her pet kitten is black and white. 5. / Joan plays many games. 7. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / Peter and John played football. 6 John sang and Mary danced. 8. 2. Our flag is red. 4. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. / John both composed the music and wrote the words.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. but not John. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed.

) c. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. 6. 5. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Activity 4 2. John loves and Bill hates cigars. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. John writes poetry and Bill prose.Nadina VIŞAN b. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.) b. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. 3.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. as can be seen in (10b). or deleted. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. Jane 82 .

i.e. can be reduced by substitution.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. than a longer repetitive one. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. the so-called Principle of Economy. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 83 .) The common element. 10. the predication buy a pair of shoes. So. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 9. Besides ellipsis. 7. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. these syntactical processes. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 8.

some reason or another. George and Jane are separated. 4. A citit. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. one or (the) other method. the old men and women 2. George and Jane went back to their parents. In certain cases. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. simple books and magazines for children 3. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Translate the following sentences. 3. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. using reduced structures: 1. 2.

I need another 100$ ……….. Marks and Spencers. only for damage. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 5. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. fish and chips. 16. sweet and sour.… 14. 2. 12. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. 5. it’s a case of ………… 7.I searched ……….. . 6.. 6. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases.. for my wallet. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. After all their adventures. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 8.You gain some things and you lose others. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. A pendulum swings ………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. They get on quite well together. 8. like: salt and pepper. even though they have their little …………. they reached home………. 11. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9.. 7. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Can we discuss the …………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. of your proposals later on? 3. 13. the amount I’ve already saved up. 15. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc.

*Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. the expressive function of coordination is. and 86 . We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. In fact. of course. 4. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.4.) There are. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. For instance. more often than not. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. as in: (17) a.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. b. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. etc.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. Nor sun. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.

I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. 20 (b)).) 87 . too): (20) a. etc).) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. or .) c. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. where the subordinator is repeated. sometimes but.) b. o respectau si o indrageau. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. and cherished her.) In certain cases. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. both … and . either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.g. (I-am dat banii.

) b. In this case. (Imi place si o admir.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.* I ironed and washed my pants. if we were to rewrite the example . we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. I washed and ironed my pants. I admire and like her. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. and hit my wife. I like and admire her.) b. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. (O admir si imi place. From this point of view. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. and you’ll die. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions.

) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he failed). he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Dr.) (While Dr.Unit four Coordination 1. (If you do that. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. Brown experiments with humans. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
90

(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

91

Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

92

Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
93

Nadina VIŞAN

(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
95

stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
96

Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

Contents: 100 5.4 Key Concepts .3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.

e. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. From the functional point of view.which are based on coordination . Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.g. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. 5. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. as the name suggests it. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.) 101 .the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.

For instance. We do not presuppose however something like. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.) 102 . such as proud of. an adverbial item. In a way. they are still presupposed by the speaker. we associate it with these objects.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. sentences) required by the verb (or.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. in certain cases. by an adjective + preposition. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. for instance. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (I-a dat cartea. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. for example).

The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. A second observation. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. Thus. to her) and one extra-item. i. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. to add something. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’.e. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. The second example. I am afraid that he won’t come. related to example (4). and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. an additional one. which is the adverbial willingly.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. 103 . (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects.) b. In other words. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition.

(Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. am să mor. etc. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. So.) 104 . (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. I’ll die. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. such as want. like. (Înainte să plece din cameră. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.) (11) If you don’t marry me. a închis toate ferestrele. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. make.

obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. she looked at me sadly. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . 6. this to whomever wants it. 4.g. 5. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. The book that because they home. They came to e. Susan disappeared without saying a word. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Whoever did that was a genius.She came to him of her own will. After I told her the story. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.g. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. [.g. e. 3. 2.

stating their function: Activity 2 1. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. 3. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 2. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. which. FOR. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.He took an intelligent interest in her. at our age. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. You suggestion that we should.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. WHETHER. but he declined. etc. 4. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. not object. was a novelty to Mitzi. 5. though it was largely politeness. As you can see. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms.) 106 . We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. 6.

(E de dorit să plece.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. why. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. when. who.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (15) It is John who did it. Who did it was John. how. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) b.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. where. Where he went is London. 107 . which.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) (16) a. etc. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.

But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. In conclusion. which sums up this classification. Unlike complement clauses. before. consider the following table. As you will see. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. if.) (18) She told me this before she left. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . Compare. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. In (18). done from a structural point of view. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. however. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.1. for instance. etc.

surely you cannot sincerely believe. Introduced know e. I will go there because I feel like it. whether he will come when I feel like it. 109 . To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.g. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. as.g. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. you understand.: e. for. Dear Ludwig. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I will come back such as because. at your young age. back. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.g. after. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.

2. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. a tightening in her breathing. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . she stopped to speak to Monroe.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Too.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.The day Monroe had died was in May. Late that afternoon. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. But she thought that no one would call again. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. Accidental Man) b)1. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. As she left the house. he said. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences.

As you have probably noticed already.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.2. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. That he loved e.g. However. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. a correspondence can be traced.g.g.g. că e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. 111 . interesting. I told her everything after she arrived.

In the fourth place. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.complement.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. Secondly. whenever you identify a wh. So. We will come back to that in the next chapter. Thirdly. whereas wh complements are the 112 .2. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. complements. i.1. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. (Cred că mă place.e. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.

Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. She mistrusted her handwriting. because. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. I first thought to tell in 113 . after. for no matter how she tried. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. a house. before. their introductory elements (e. Pratice Consider the following text. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.g. a barn. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. c) I am coming home one way or another.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. and I do not know how things might stand between us. outbuildings. but no idea what to do with them.

since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 .4.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. According to a structural criterion. and I have not the will or the energy. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). it would make you fear to do such again. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale.e. these clauses can be complements. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. because they modify. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.

think of. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. 115 . fără să-şi ridice spinarea.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. O zbughi înapoi. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace.g. însă.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. be very careful to use this term correctly. look at. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Pratice Translate the following. answering the question to whom? So. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. etc. ce o fi având. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. îşi spuseseră că Anton. după ce că are grâu puţin. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. (…) “Mă. interested in. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Alţii. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.e. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Nevasta secera în tăcere.

şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. cât de bolnavă era. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Nici acum. izolate de sat. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Toată lumea înţelesese că. de fapt. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . timp de un ceas. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. întâi. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep.

stricau totul. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. la Odobeşti. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. acum sunt desluşiţi. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. la nişte prieteni comuni. deşi cam târziu. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Iată. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Era bine de ştiut. amânase scrisul. În realitate. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. aşa de oţetit. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. de pildă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. Pace nu era. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea.

Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război) 118 .Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. frate.

etc. 119 . subject relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. etc). whose. of which. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.g..

7.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Co-reference Condition 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.1.3.5. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.2. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.6. Key Concepts .4.

(1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.Unit six Relative clauses 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). 121 .2. The Co-reference Condition .1.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. 6. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.

we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. By combining these two clauses.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. 122 . We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. John loves that woman.

John offered flowers to that woman. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. This way.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The common element woman is present. 123 .

WHO 124 . 4. The students like their teacher. He’s the author who received the prize. Any of the students would answer to questions. He told Jim everything about his plans. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. by leaving behind a trace. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 6. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. John told his friend a story about the king. WHERE 3. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. therefore in spoken English. frequently used in written language. I had a book. 7. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Susan wants to meet Jane. too. 5. 2. 3. I went to London. 8. She came to London. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. The students like their teacher. This is my husband. I introduced him to Jim. 10.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. They met those students. WHO 5. I bought Jim a book. I lost the book’s cover. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. None of the students agreed with them. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. WHICH 4. The king was just passing by. I love my husband very much. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. He liked that book. 9.

whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. most of them were from England. .Unit six Relative clauses 6. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. WHOM 10. WHICH 8. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. i. WHOM 6.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. TO 11. relative clauses are divided into 1. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOSE 7.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. (Cine strică plateşte.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. 2.e.

Unlike their sisters.e. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . in a manner of speaking.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) So. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. unlike in the case of (14).) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. is no longer overtly expressed. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Cel care strică plăteşte. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. it is covert. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects.

Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. who is the god of commerce. is my favourite god. este zeul meu favorit. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.) (Mercury. (Mercur. They can be thus divided into: 1. They only provide supplementary information about it. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god.) (22) Mercury. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. care este zeul negoţului.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. they define it). who incidentally is the god of commerce. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. 127 . Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (Du-te unde pofteşti.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes.

I have met him where I least expected. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. 2. who came to see me. 10. restrictive relative clauses. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. 7.This is the village where I spent my youth. They are what 128 . A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 5. who is a genius. Shakespeare. As we were saying. i. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. is a genius. On the day on which this occurred I was away. on whom nobody could depend. 9. then it is an attribute. 6.e. this type of relative clauses. can only function as attributes (or modifiers).Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. Independent I don’t know what you want. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 8. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. She. is a great playwright. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3.

a.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. composed The (Freddie Mercury.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. 6. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. etc.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. care a murit acum câţiva ani. however sad this may be. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. etc. When the antecedent has no determiner. . it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. who died a few years ago.) 2. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.

(Eu.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. care nu sunt o femeie. 2. iritabilă şi uscată. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. Dintre toate personajele prezente.) Pratice Translate the following. care-ţi sunt fiu. numai eu nu. who neither work nor am anxious. 3. ill-tempered. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. dried-up old maid. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 5. who am your son. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 7. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. 130 . nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 4. (Ei apeleaza la mine. can see your shortcomings only too well.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.) (28) They come to me. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. but a peevish. poftiţi în faţă. 6. Mie. bătrînă morocănoasă. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. ci o fată a woman.

Unit six Relative clauses 6. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. . some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. were now in his possession. (32) service finished late. părăsi camera. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. erau acum în posesia lui.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. heard.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. than whom few more can be more crashing. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.

The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The genitive form with which is still in use. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. too. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .1. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.) d. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.) b. as can be seen in (36d).5. 6. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) c.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. literary style: (37) a. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. but it is typical of the formal. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b.

There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Iris Murdoch.

) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. but to a type or a function: a. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.) • states. ships (that can be personified) a. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. of which.) b.) b. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. (45) (46) . (Nu mai este omul care era odată. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. by the way. … Italy. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. He is not the man which he used to be. animals.

cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. why. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) 135 (47) .5. pe care o privea direct.Unit six Relative clauses b.2 Relative Adverbs: when.) b) dialectal (49) a. where.) 6. It is poor what gets the punches. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. etc. while.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. whom it concerned most closely. France. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. Poland is the place where Christine was born. etc. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. time. reason. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Nu ştiam ce vor.) b. how. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.

(Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) 136 . Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) b. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. They returned to the land whence they had come.3.5. A system where by a new discovery will arise. This is the place wherefrom they came.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. He went where he had been before.They left when they decided it was proper to. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) 6. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) b. The place whither he goes is unknown.) e. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) c.) b.

] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .

any.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. Honest man as he was. but they are used very infrequently: as. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. I’ll get you such things as you may want. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. every. 138 (64) his shoes. but • in standard language a. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. much. not any. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen.5. .) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.4.) b.

There’s not many as’ll say that. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. him as was in China … (Uncle George.) c. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. Uncle George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. ăl de fusese in China…) b. And always on the buttered side. .) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. It’s the dry weather does it.) • in dialect a. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. This is the same one that/as you had before.) c. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.

) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) 140 .Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.

(Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 7. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) b. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. The man John spoke to is a genius. fortifies me. This is where we talk money. 2. The man who John spoke to is a genius. It seemed a thing 141 . 3. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. 6.) c. makes me a wart and a wen. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.” 4. What Inman remembered was this passage.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. we all have to come to some terms.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. What I’m saying is. Where he was from. The man that John spoke to is a genius.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.3): (72) a. That which shows God out of me. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.5. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. 5.

Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. he had left Ruby high and dry. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 142 . (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 10. 8. (…) Partly. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Oh. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. Ruby said. The rudeness of eating. though. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 12. which is a lot. of living. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. 13. who had not witnessed many dawns. 9. Whatever his fate was.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. 11. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields.

plutonier. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. Cumnatul meu avea. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. un var primar. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. al carei strabunic. fiu natural al unui morar. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. mort de tanar. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. (Iris Murdoch. poate. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. cumnatul unui portughez.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. vasnic. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. una din nepoatele unui inginer. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. divortata. pirpiriu. pe linie paterna. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator.al lui. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. nu prea sarac.

This is the book. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.2. By extension.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. c. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.6. The opposite phenomenon. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. I lost the cover of the book. She was a woman. b. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. Teatru) 6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Everybody listened to that woman. insurat de trei ori la rand. 144 .

) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. The difference between (76) and (77). In the interest of public decency. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 9. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 4. 5. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. he requested that the public be excluded. The problem of safe transportation. acting again as a genuine pied piper. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 6. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 3. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 2. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. no easy answers to which could be offered. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 8.Unit six Relative clauses b. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. has been troubling them forever. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. 7.

His friends. 4. whose interest he most sincerely shared. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. Irene. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. as the case is).His father’s friends. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 10. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). has been deleted. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). 146 . Activity 9 were now all gone. 2. They do not function as attributes. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. was now complete. This story.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. no matter which. 5. he rarely saw now. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 3. 6.

unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Toate sfârşeau. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 5. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Pentru alţii. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 4. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 3. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. 7. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. închipuirea. Nelu. 6. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. De douazeci de ani. 2. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. himeric. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească.

9. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. cu surle şi cu tobe. nici în searbăda mea versiune. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. a făcut el. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 12. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. 8. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 10. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr.

pe strada Icoanei. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. 16. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. dinspre Maria Rosetti. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. toată lumea întreba cine e. Avea acum un fel de vertij. În spatele lor. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 14. din direcţia căreia apoi. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. apărură. 20. 15. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. 17. roiuri de fetiţe. trăia larg de tot. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Dacă mă lovea. 18. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. zise ea cu ochii mari. până mai adineauri. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. 149 . Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. deşi atât de aproape. care era foarte “mondenă”. despre care. fie la teatru. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. de unde venea şi Marta. din care cauză pe Dora. fie pe stradă.

Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. 23. până în şosea. Pare-se că snobii. de mine. pe care eu nu-l aveam. aveau un stil al lor. de sus de unde eram. 24. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. pe care ea îi admira acum. când au urcat râpa iar. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. 22. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. după ce maşina a fost reparată.Nadina VIŞAN 21. întâia noapte de război) 150 . Pentru mine însă.

Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.

1.1.2. Key Concepts .6.3. That Complements as Subjects 7.3. That Deletion 7.1.3.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.4.2.3.1.2.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.1.Topicalization 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.1.2. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.2.2.7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.5.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2.3. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.Clause Shift 7.4.2.Extraposition 7.5.

the clause is extraposed. In other words. placed in a marginal position. 153 . The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. 7. Apart from those introduced by that.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. but also of infinitival ones. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat.1.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). being found not only in the case of that-clauses.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.

) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .

2. 6. 9. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 3. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 11. 11. 3. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 4. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 10. 14. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 10. 7. 8. 8. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 4. It is no use trying to convince her. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 7. 5. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 2. 9. 6. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It appears that no one voted for him. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 13. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 15. It is nice to meet you. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.

She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 18. They never expected it that he would come back. I don’t expect it that he will come back. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. atât 156 . zice Lionel.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 4. 4. 3.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 3. 5. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. mă ascundeam în grabă. în canal.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. după porţi.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 2. I guess it that he will come back. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. în gropi. sub poduri. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 3. 6. 5. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 2. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. unde se nimerea. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1.

cu ceea ce ţi se dă. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). 157 . Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. fără îndoială. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi.” 4. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. vor căuta să o zdruncine. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 5. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. 7. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Mi s-a părut chiar că. fără să cârteşti. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. excelentă. 6. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. (Nu întotdeauna.

Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.2. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. this asymmetry is undone.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.) While in the case of extraposition. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. Consequently. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. in the case of topicalization.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Pratice Read the following. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .1. subject clauses are the frequent situation. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.Nadina VIŞAN 7. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. 1.

even today. but not now. He was utterly gone. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 3. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 7. 4. She had always been the slave of chance. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. he felt no spring of interest in her. was inconceivable. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. whether it would finally carry her off. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. This was another era. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 8.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. mere chance would decide. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. He did not blame Gracie. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. 6. 5. 2. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy.

The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.3. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) 160 .1. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.

The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. the verb to drive). It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended.e. 161 . by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. we obtain.

/ He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. who had just returned from Africa.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. prime-minister./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 4. 162 . / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 7. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. who had just returned from Africa. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 2. who had just returned from Africa.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 6./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 8. 5. 3.

(Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.Unit seven That complements 7. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.2.

predict. deem. communicate. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. desire. state. consider. They believe the man is guilty.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. explain. prefer.Nadina VIŞAN 7.1. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. etc.) 164 . (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (I-au promis o casă nouă. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.2. promise.) b.: (25) a.) a. They promised him that he would received a new house. judge. deny.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. estimate. They believe that the man is guilty. afirm. suggest. etc. He announced their engagement. He announced that they were engaged.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) b. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. (Cred că omul este vinovat.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
165

(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
166

(36)

Unit seven

That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
167

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
168

Unit seven

That complements

b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
170

Unit seven

That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

171

e. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. on condition that. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) 172 . ibid. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) language. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) I like him in that he is smart. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. In older stages of English. hope =>purpose. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. they lose their meaning.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. for example.

) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) When the structure contains the word such.) (66) 173 a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. să o vadă trecând. He gave an answer such. .Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He gave such an answer as had expected.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) b. that we wouldn’t doubt it. That can be deleted.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.

ibid. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. (Iris Murdoch.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.) 174 .We discovered that our map has disappeared. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever. ibid.

(67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. He said he had borrowed her money. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.Unit seven That complements 7. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.1. tell). (69) a. (A prins de veste că ei vin. 175 . omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.) b.) c. say. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. that he uses a relaxed tone.3 ‘That Deletion 7. He got word they were coming. for instance.3.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. He showed he was able to do it.

(Iris Murdoch. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . for better or worse. rele. bune. *I like it he was here. they were chained to each other forever. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.3.Nadina VIŞAN 7. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. because that has been deleted. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.3. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. for better or worse. 7. they were chained to each other forever.3.) (De asemenea. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.2.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. ibid.) b. (Îmi place că e aici. I like it that he was here.

4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. spuse el. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. you want me to believe. which is ungrammatical in English.4.) b)He told me that she was there. simultaneity. 7) They maintain. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. 7.) 177 . The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. he said. that they were not too late to leave. (“Este acolo”. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.

the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că o să o părăsească. In the example below. (A spus că. He told me that she had been there.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.) b. spuse el. (Am să o părăsesc. vine el. (Pâna să plece.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (“Era acolo”. până pleacă ea.) b.) b.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. he said.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. He said he would leave her. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . He said he would have arrived by the time she left. I will leave her. “She was here”.) Future Perfect -----. The Present complement). exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. o să vină el.

the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. show. believe. be amazed/concerned. think. dream.) On the other hand. etc. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. With such factive verbs as realize. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. discover. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. insist. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. be aware.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. realize it). mention. regret. report. notice.) 179 . This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. forget.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. hope.) b. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. say. wish. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.etc. whisper.

simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. in tender deference to each other. She still believed that the earth was flat. cu un respect tandru reciproc. (Iris Murdoch. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair.) b.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. 180 . He knew that she thought all men were fools. Consider also: (85) a. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. She realized that all men are fools. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.) b.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. we notice that general truths. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. She believed that the earth is round.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. feign habits which are not their own. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.

) b.) In (88). the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.Unit seven That complements 2. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. such as a.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. There are however cases. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) b. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. 3. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. 181 .

c) John said that Harry is leaving. Imagine. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. g) John thought that Harry ran. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. h) John thought that Harry had run. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. The time is 3 o’clock.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. for instance. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. But 182 . g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. d) John said that Harry was leaving. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past.

finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. as evidenced by its drear plumage. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. kingfisher. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. She admired their keenness of wit. jaybird. Crows will relish what presents itself. bluebird. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. 183 .Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. quail. a. c. b. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Cooper’s hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. whistling swan. redtailed hawk. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. lack of pridefulness. slyness in a fight. geese both grey and white. love of practical jokes. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. nighthawk. Translate the following. lark.

But as the battle raged around them. in the very act of expiring. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. he claimed. Now here he stood jailed. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. He died erect. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. […] During the latter stages of the tale. the young officer. And they might just hang him. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He had fought hard through the war. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. war hero though he was. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort.

A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. object ones up to the attributive function. On certain occasions that can be deleted. or else. which they share with wh-complements. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. from the very frequent subject. on other occasions it has to stay there.Unit seven That complements 7. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). 185 .

că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Fiind 186 . Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Unul din ei. cel mai mare. Mama. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 3. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 2. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. 4. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. peste puţin. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine.

5. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. un vis de acesta 187 . trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. va pleca din oraş la vie. Nu ţi-a trecut. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 6. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Se mira. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. aşa. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 9. de ce constata în sine. cel puţin pentru un timp. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. venind de la avocat. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. fericit. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. dacă va mai veni. 7. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. ea. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. care îl pândise. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. 8. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie.

încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. fireşte. şi mândria că a biruit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. lucrul era înfăptuit. dar şi teama că. Acesta. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. 11. încă o dată. Astfel de va fi. liniştit. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. 12. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine.

lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . spre Jurubiţa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. ci numai aşa. mai puternic decât oricând. Pe toate. 14. să le lămurească pe toate. fără o vorbă scrisă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. după cum. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .

The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.4.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.1.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.5.7.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.Key Concepts .8.6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.3.2.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.9.8.

infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti.) • like that complements. To love her is something really wonderful. (3) a. Consider the following: • like that complements. 193 . That you love her is something wonderful. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). b. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) b. I told her to be more careful in the future.1. (2) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. It is important that you should know what you need.) b. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. It is important for you to know what you need. From this perspective.

as opposed to the finite ones. the Participle) (i. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. etc. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea.e. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. moduri nepersonale) By convention. the Gerund. For instance. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 194 . * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. 2. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. the Conditional.) b.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. participial clauses. gerundial clauses. d. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.

If the verb form has no temporal and personal features.) 195 . (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) c. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. namely no ending.) b. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.

3.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 5. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 6. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.2. 7. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. 8. 10. 8. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. the criterion of form. 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. (7) They saw her leave. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . It is vital this factory to be reopened. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 9.

according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. hear. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. 2. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (10) 197 . the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată.

/ Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. Pratice Translate the following.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. 198 (11) the universe. However. . / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. 3. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. uncharacteristic for literary English.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting.

Further on. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. In other words. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. or the control constructions. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. 199 .Unit eight Infinitive complements because. to use the appropriate technical term. as I have already mentioned. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.

(A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) In this situation. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. the logical subject.) 200 .) b. şi creştineşte să ierţi. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) b. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. I hoped for him to be there in time. PRO to err is human. (E important ca el să nu greşească. PRO to forgive divine. namely the agent of the event.) Object: (18) a. So far. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.

Semantically. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. but the patient of the verb persuade. not to the infinitive. him is not the agent of the infinitive. He stepped aside for her to enter.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction .Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. In other words.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. him is related to the main clause verb. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.) b. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.

) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ He persuaded her to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ 202 . (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ They tempted him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ She promised him to leave. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. Likewise. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ She wanted him to leave. \ I would love them to come. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. I hate animals to be tortured. \ They convinced her to come back.

hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26). so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. • Last but not least. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. \ They did not wish her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. So. \ They really asked her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. 203 . This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun.

The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. 204 . To sum up the discussion. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. with special semantic and syntactic properties. appear. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. that is not required by certain verbs. which are said to be free. etc. hate. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. to meet her. seem.). Pratice Translate the following sentences.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.

want.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. mean. / E greu să îl suporţi. Compare: (31) a. bear. deign.) 205 friend. contrive. arrange.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. manage.3 The Distribution of PRO . need. dislike. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. expect. endeavour. scorn. decline. agree to.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. wish. care to. like. afford. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. seek (= try). prefer.) b) verbs such as abide. . condescend. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. hope. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. aspire to. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. etc. etc. scheme. try.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. etc. intend. presume. omit. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. venture. 8. fail. hate. propose. deserve.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. refuse. desire.

unlikely. verbs of liking and disliking. be important. desirable.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. however. bear. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.) 8. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. stand. ask. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.) b. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.) 206 . (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. possible. claim.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. threaten.etc. suggest. etc.) b. I would like for him to become president of the country. For all of them to have been killed is. endeavour. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. forget.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. conclude. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.

) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 207 .) 8. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 2. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) b. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.

) b. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Direct Objects (39) a. Like in the case of that complements. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 5. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. I decided for John to represent us. the preposition is deleted.) 208 knowledge. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.) b. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 4. . but the meaning remains. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.

(Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b.) d.: (42) a. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. He is a bastard to work for. You’re an idiot to go there. delicious. etc.) c) adverbial of result 209 . bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. This paint is like concrete to work with. She is pretty to look at.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) e. 6. The stew is delicious to eat.) c. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. curious about.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.

you’re a bad driver.) Oh. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. (final) (Nu-l cunosc.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. drept să spun.) I’ve never met him. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / Pe şleau. conduci prost. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Ehei. să nu piardă trenul. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. to tell you the truth.

direct.) . urge. enable. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. influence. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. press.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. etc. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.) b. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. promise. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. inspire. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. According to this. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. 8. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. (49) a.: (51) a. swear. oblige. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. induce.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. need. encourage. inform. nu mai vreau să te vad. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. b.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.etc.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show.

allow. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. etc.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. nominate. permit.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. command. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. prevail on. elect.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. etc. look to. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. choose.etc. vote./ And now he 212 . (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. order. count on. depend on. name.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.

be about to. seem.: (55) She appears to like him. be going to. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. etc. 213 (58) (59) .Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (Se pare că îi place de el. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). i. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (56) She grew to like him in the end.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. etc.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. this construction is lexically governed.etc. An Accidental Man) 8. (57) He is to come any day now. happen.verbs: appear. (O să întârzii/ leşin. come. grow. (Iris Murdoch.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.e.

that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. In (57).8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). etc. hear.: (62) They heard him insult her.) 8.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. be rumoured. . the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be alleged. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. etc. feel.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. observe. (L-au auzit insultând-o.etc. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. watch. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. be claimed. be thought.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. overhear. be reported. that of intention. perceive. be considered.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.

let I’ll have you learn this in no time. picture. understand. have. deem. know. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. consider.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. remember. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.) • with a full infinitive: get.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. find. believe. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. presume. recollect. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. imagine. cause. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. occasion. prove.) 215 (67) . However. etc. (Cred că este un geniu. discover.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. figure. judge.

) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. etc. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. who wasn’t used to men with moods.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. permit. desire. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. want. choose. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. wish.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. love. prefer. command. mean. Harold. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. expect. suffer. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. if he himself was out of spirits. order.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. they had depressed and fuddled him. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.

P. so that we might get to the future and have done. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. though he tended to look down on those below it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. to make sure we attended strictly to business. the herd instinct was very strong in him. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. he didn’t envy those above it. (L. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. A little crossly. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. He suspected hostility at once. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Both seemed to him a little unreal. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .

The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. From this perspective.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. 218 . Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.Nadina VIŞAN 8. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. The last criterion.

de bună seamă. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. Şi tu să fii. un bărbat şi o femeie. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. să-l capete. bunăoară. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. de asemenea. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. mai bine219 . making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. lovit şi umilit. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. e important ce întrebări pui. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. într-o zi. dar să nu-ţi spună. E posibil. fireşte. e) Când doi oameni.

cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. că eşti tânăr. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. ca să nu şi-o amintească. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Însă Paul Achim trăise. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. mai bine de două decenii.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet.Delavrancea. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. pe care deja o uitase. în parte.Şt. aşa cum îi apăruse el. sau. în jos. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să nu vrea să se şteargă. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. (B. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. d-a lungul gâtului. încă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. De era vară. să traiesc numai cu tusea.Şt. un picior. . h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. în ploaie. Să spui de pildă. avusese dreptate. 220 . în parte.Nadina VIŞAN zis. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. mai pline de înţeles. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna.

Într-un cuvânt. de fapt. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. nici ca să 221 . o mizerie. prin faţă e coborârea.. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. biata Muti. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. şi nu un amant. orice-ar fi.. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. Mă laud singură.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. (Al. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. şi prin faţă. deşi. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia... dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ei. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). un miros îngrozitor.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. sunt aici cu tot ce am. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. orice bucureştean ştie. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. fie ea şi grăbită.

ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede.

verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds.

ING Forms and Infinitives 9.2.2.9.4.Participial Constructions 9.5 Key Concepts .1.2.The Gerund 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2.2.2.1.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.3.The Verbal Noun 9.3.1.1.

Due to this situation. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. (Susan doarme.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing.1.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.) 225 . The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1.

it functions attributively.e. too: (6) Her eye-lids. Susan has come. i. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. In (2) the forms come.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. Susan has been killed. blood-shot and painted. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. the past participle can appear after a noun. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. were closing.) More infrequently. been and killed are past participle forms. 226 .) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.) As you can see in this second case. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. (A venit Susan) b.

) b. God willing. (Sosind aici. When singing. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Arriving here. I will arrive there on time. I will arrive there on time. people should pay attention to high notes. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. a lion can attack.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. o să ajung la timp.) b. ea o luă la fugă. If provoked. o să ajung la timp. începură să cânte.) c. mother permitting. Oh. leul poate să atace. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. he will eventually marry her. (Ştiind cine era el. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) d. Weather permitting.) c.) 227 . oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. they started singing. she ran away.

Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather.) b.) b.) 228 . Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (Am simţit-o tremurând. He was found killed by a bullet. smell. I found him stealing.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (L-am descoperit furând. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. respectively.) ii. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. He was found stealing. behold. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. They found him killed by a bullet. which stands for an adverbial clause. hear. (L-au descoperit că fură. watch. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. notice. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i.

) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. set. I must get my hair cut.) b. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. recollect.: a. know. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. leave. have. hear. etc. a. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (A fost văzut plângând.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.) b. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) • Causative verbs: get . etc. I heard it said that men are a bore. He’ll soon get things going. have. make a. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. start. confess. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.: When she heard his words. etc. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.) b. recollect. keep. find.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . she knew herself dismissed.) • Causative verbs: get.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. etc.) c. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. send. feel.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying.

) b.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. Men like shopping made easy. / Nu după multă vreme. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 ./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. command I ordered my bill made out. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă.) • verbs of permission./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. He wanted his car fixed immediately. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. lovit şi plin de sânge.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.

/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.e.1. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. Unlike the gerund. / In any case. / My Lord. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / Dinny. 231 .Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.2.

2.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. (Desi nu ştia limba. I left. se va opri şi ploaia. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I was astonished at what I saw. 5. The tree had fallen across the road. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. She had heard it all before. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. People were sleeping in the next room. the rain will stop. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 4. 7.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I left. using either a present participle. 3. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. 6.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I turned on the light. It had been uprooted by the gale. I knew that the murderer was still at large. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. am plecat. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. (Văzând acestea. am plecat.

empty. sharp. a scorpion bit him. quick. drunken. Tied to the post. 10. fishy. narrow. They began quarreling about how to divide it.Running into the room. Reading in bed. three. minded (3 times). Riding in the first race. many. dark. 2. Read the sentences and try to correct them. 9. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. the sea was tossing the post up and down. lion. 4. hearted (twice). The following sentences contain misrelated participles. 233 . shaven. 3.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. coloured. Dropped by parachute. mown. Barking furiously. eyed (3 times). stricken. b) Headed (5 times). 8. 5. cloth. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. 12. 10. bald. 6. a pot of paint fell on my head. skinned. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. stony. Mother punished me for my mistake. one of the eggs broke. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 11. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. 9. 8. broad. my hands often get very cold. covered. I slammed the door of my room. roast. I let the dog out of the room. He sat down to his own dinner. wooden. open. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. red (twice).shoulder. open. Getting out of bed. 7. a rug caught her foot and she fell. an idea suddenly occurred to me. cornered. straight. handed. They found the treasure. He fed the dog. Passing under a ladder. his horse fell at the last jump. Leaving the cinema. lighted. eagle. haired (twice). Climbing down the tree.

are in grave danger of extinction.Spielberg. ________ hiding in a barn. image. wealth. meat. Translate into English: 1. was today taken back to prison. The escaped prisoner. head. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. rotten. shorn. are sold throughout the world. / Swiss watches./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . is expected to be a great hit. shrunken. _______ for a bargain. man. graven. / Many old people . / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. hidden. (produce) 3. The film. ill-gotten. 7. _______ by S. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. (find) 6. (take) 2. Whales._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. meaning. plank. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. candle. / Three people. (admire) 5. lamb. (grow) 4. _______ my arm. bounden. lead.I fell on the ice. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. duty. _______ for their elegance and precision. stream. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. In the following pairs of sentences. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. were taken to hospital. (injure). deer.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. I stared at the canvas for ages. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (hunt). eyes. the same verb is missing twice. b) grass.

ca şi cum. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. deodată sufocat. 3. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. le cocea. nesigur şi moale. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. Şi sufletul său. păsări tăiate. 4. După câtva timp. şi moi. care le rânduia. 2. trezit. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. O umbreluţă. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. Şi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. legume date prin mai multe ape. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. când strânsă. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. întinse. când deschisă. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . precum şi foile de plăcintă. le fierbea. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur.

Likewise.1. crezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.2. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.Nadina VIŞAN 9. (Dacă vezi. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. The Gerund 9. 236 . The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. According to this criterion.2.

Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. gerunds differ from participles. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.2. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Consider the following table.) b. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. In that.) b. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Him winning and you losing was surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising.) 9. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.2. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.

Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised.) Unlike participles. *It was illegal growing a beard. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. It was illegal to grow a beard. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) 2. as being verbal 238 . (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.) b. Consider (32).

He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. Participles vs. as offered in the table below: 239 . (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. It’s no good talking to her. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b. Just like in the case of noun phrases.) b. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) 9.2. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) 3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.3.

(direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. passive ones She was crying. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles may function adverbials: house. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. 2. 3. babies suck their thumb. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. perfect. + noun] 1. forms: continuous .

/ Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition.

I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 12. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 7. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. 8. 4. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. swimming duck / swimming trunks. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. He was spotted talking to her. 5. 13. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. Gambling is his favourite pastime. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 3. 15. 14. 242 . eating habits/ eating people. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 10. 11. 9. crying game / crying woman.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. shooting gallery / shooting star. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. 6. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 12. 2. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.

But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e.e.) The absence of a determiner like the. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .Unit nine Ing complements 9. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.3. a The absence of an of phrase.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. but the presence of a direct object (i.

if we were to go back to our incomplete table. Thus. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. These are features that normally characterize any noun.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. George’s shooting the attacker. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . In the second situation.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing.

Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town./ His sudden coming puzzled her. Jim left quietly. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. very large. the sheriff. / His coming there puzzled her./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. 245 . This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.

Nadina VIŞAN 9. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . Look. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. for example. It has been noticed that.4. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. ING Forms and Infinitives. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. the meaning is different. whenever we meet an –ing form. However. For instance. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. With the infinitive. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.

(S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. (S-a oprit din mâncat. future-oriented value of the infinitive). the infinitive is future-oriented. anterior to the verb in the main clause. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened.g.) . having left) is infrequently used in English. containing an infinitive. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. On the other hand. and the most well-known one. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past.) After looking at this example.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.) The first example.

(Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. which means that they are similar in meaning.) . recollect.) As you can see. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.e. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).e.

(Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. In the second example. but that’s it.) . the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. dar asta este. the action is not completed.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.

) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.) With [. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) 250 . The house needs repairing. want With [+ human] objects.human] objects. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Casa trebuie reparată. the event has not happened yet. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. e) need. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. The house needs to be repaired. In the second example.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) wedding. mean has the sense signify. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Casa trebuie reparată.) b.

Lady Corven. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Croom (try) (follow) one. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. it’s overrated. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. however appearances were against us.’ ‘Tell me.’ ‘In any case.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. whereas in the second case. (hold) up his pen and (speak). but they went by too quickly. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. (take) down her answer. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. I did ask Mr. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. my Lord. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. gerund or infinitive.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him.

and went out (post) it himself.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ said Clare. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. suddenly. I must go back now.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). he addressed the note. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I just used the word and they fell. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. Then. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. licked the envelope with passion.’ 252 . c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.

Unit nine Ing complements 9. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. Pratice In the following texts. the 253 . The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Participles mainly function as adverbials.5. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Last but not least.

hoping he would see somebody up there. It was like a mist. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. down. but then he saw it billowing up from below. the enormous split in the earth. according to the books he read. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. moving up towards his chest. down into God knows where. covering the girl’s head. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. She started coughing. slowly rising in a swirling motion. then the noise and the cracking stone. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. it 254 . slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. At first. someone looking for survivors. The sight of the two children. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. The two sides were moving apart. He looked up towards the daylight. their edges crashing inwards. Then he saw movement at his feet. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. my dear. brightening to winter brilliance. She finished what jobs there were. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. slanted on to her cheek. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. 255 . Having a French governess. for Dornford was busy on an important case. and sunlight. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.

making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. and then went riding with her in the rain. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. într-o joi. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Ridicându-se. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. 2. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. ucenicul său necredincios. În urma slugii. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. totul se animă deodată. cei doi Mamona. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. mama mea. închizând ochii. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. Vaucher şi cu mine. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând.

se duse lânga mama şi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. pe mama mea părând absentă. dar ştiutoare. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. o sărută pe frunte. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . totul mi se părea cunoscut. după cum îi spusese mama. afară ploua în continuare. pe Vaucher. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. aplecându-se puţin. Neclintiţi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. 3. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Şi deodată. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. privit. aşezată cu spatele la noi. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. auzit şi zadarnic. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. am ştiut şi cine. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. la mine.

să se apropie de aşezările din jur. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. cu tot cu baraca. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. camionul a plecat. Au coborât din camion încet. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi cu soba. şi cu stiva de lemne. 5. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. dar. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări.

Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

How this time was to come. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. I am sorry not to have seen you. since I have decided. 7. this would really hurt. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. 3. 9. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. and that 263 . 2. Having regard to the date of drafting. 6. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. You have been much in my thoughts. in some way. to retire early from my employment. 5. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 13. he had not yet been able to estimate. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. because of pity. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. he had been advised. without profound questioning. whereas if she went away she would get none. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 4. 10. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and this particularly of late. and meet it right here at home. 12. apart from his distress for parents. 11. was unclear to Mitzi. How much. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers.

looking forward had not yet taken place. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. / In the end. 19. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 264 . / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / I would very much like walking out in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. I was made say Grace before every dinner. even for months. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. for attending his sister’s wedding. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / Before you go on changing the subject. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. he did not come to see her. please consider his proposition. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 17. 14. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. this always makes us feel embarrassed. one of the eggs broke. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. / Whenever I visited my aunt. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much.

Essentially. Tony was a child. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. rather than the hefty type. her recklessness. a little girl. At country houses she had met them of course. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. cotton mills at Manchester. Vulgar men did. without discovery. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. her old friend Hugh. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. and it was bound. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . of the quick and wiry. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. an open-air person. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. (and there he was. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. Clarissa used to think. 265 . of all people. They hated trying on. Though much in request before her marriage. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. she said.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. quite unexpectedly. centered in London and themselves. They rushed into shops. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. to end in some awful tragedy. it was said. Instead of which she had married. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. She felt as when.

(Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. aveam tot mai 266 . astfel. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Bolnava nu se simtea. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. (John Galsworthy . reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. she was uneasy. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. si in plus. short of the contacts of love. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate.Over the River) 2. she professed. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. De uitat. cre s-au nascut lent. with all its impatience of restraint. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. to keep abreast of the current.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme.Rindurile dvs. Cind l-a chemat. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. The closer she allowed him to come to her. Reading many novels. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. but lying in her bath. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. ii faceau bine. viguros si vesel in felul lui.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. indeed. nu puteam sa le uit. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. era un bun sfatuitor. nu a facut-o pentru asta. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. the more she would be torturing him. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii.

cit mai au de trait.) 5. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. 4. Milionarule. Daca tu. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 267 . Banulescu – ibid. pe scaunul lui tare. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. poate fi compensata. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. (St. (St. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. (St. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. mi-am zis. se stie. Banulescu – ibid. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. vaazut cindva. nu pricep nimic. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. (St. Personal.) 7.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. fa-o.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. latimea si ascutisul labei. Banulescu – ibid. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. Ce a iesit. are nevoie. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. o data sau de doua ori.) 6. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. ca si tine. lungimea picioarelor. Banulescu – ibid.

and married the nurse who nursed him back to health.. Who was may father. delivered from the holocaust. my grandfather. A story-book romance. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. 2.. to Emmanuel College. Who came home from the war. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Translate them. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. (. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Ernest Richard Atkinson. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. when I was even younger than you. And had a brother killed in the same battle. for being a renegade.P. Cambridge. Who told me. Arthur Atkinson M. Who when asked about his memories of the War. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Could he be blamed. a wounded soldier. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative.

deep-set. and because – but this is mere speculation.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. Rachel Williams. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. he had already engaged himself? 3. 4. a moody man. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. to whom. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. Fabianism. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. How 269 . That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest.

ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a trăit el. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. 270 . cu taina aceasta. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Ion. Cum a ajuns el. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. om mare. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. satul. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. la şcoală. Cum au tăcut ei. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el.

singurul lui stăpân. împotriva tuturor. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi.pune totul in discuţie.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. de mama lor. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. Când actriţa. greşeli dintr-astea. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. 271 . din franţuzeşte. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . L-au derivat cei din teatru. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. când voi fi singur. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. cu sau fără voie.

tânăr şi frumos şi el. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. 272 . şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. A devenit palid. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. sau ridicole. 4. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Tot aşa. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. pe jumătate prezent. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. parcă începusem s-o uit. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. provocându-le. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. privindu-mă în ochi. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. 3. traversând. 5. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Am început. dam buzna peste automobile. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. ci un sistem de acomodare. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. 6. Într-o vreme. nevasta-mea. continuând. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. fostă prietenă din copilărie. de pildă. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă.

căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. să merg întins. fireşte. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. E o problemă. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. 8. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. 9. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. Am început. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. orice s-ar întâmpla. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. Dacă nemţii înaintau. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. fără să mă opresc o clipă. De altminteri. şi să nu ameţesc.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. că nu m-am gândit la asta. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. 11. şi dacă merg întins. iar. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. ca un acrobat. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. Aş vrea să mă las jos. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 .

Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. dar nu se mai putea. 16. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Greu era din partea asta. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. eu am venit sa va intreb. 14. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. se uita in jos. 13. In curind.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. la carti. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. parca i-ar fi fost frica. 17. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Adica tot trecutul. de uimire. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Acum isi ferea privirea. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. nu mai semana. cu mirare.. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. la fata locului. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta.. nu mai pricepu nimic. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 274 . Auzindu-l. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. La un moment dat. Ii venea greu. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. de la lucruri personale. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Ilie nu-l asculta. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. de la proces. la amintiri. 15. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . de la obiecte de pret. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Uite.Ma. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. trebuia sa le spuna. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. spuse el cu un glas ciudat.

In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. cum zicea Anghel. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. asa cum facuse pina acum. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. There was even 275 . ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. . nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. vorbe asa si-asa. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. apoi se uitau la Ilie. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. 19. dar. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. comment on the underlined phrases: 1.Ce sa fac. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. 20. Nu era nevoie. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Zimbea siret. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Aici era ceva. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. which was part of his rich outfit.Unit ten Revision exercises 18.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. se indeparta nepasator. i se paru ca aici e ceva.

She was one 276 . who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. gave an exclamation. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. the young lady. He walked a long time. He felt then.Miller at her hotel. to take his way home on foot.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. asked for Mrs. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. at least.Nadina VIŞAN relief. conversationally. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. going astray. 3. paying no attention. 5. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. to move fast. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. for the instant. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. a simplification. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. 4. But Daisy. on this occasion. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. resuming her walk. rude woman. to admit that she was a proud. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions.

and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. Her daughter. 7. in radiant loveliness.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. making Paul stop and look at her. in their own phrase. while residing abroad. indeed. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. Advising with me. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. as to projected changes. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. uncomfortably. on the other hand. 8. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. as text book. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. She appeared. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. 6. and wondering what the deuce he meant. She rustled forward. smiling and chattering. as it were. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. make a point. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. of studying European society. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession.Walker. He left me musing. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . often.

was only half satisfied with this. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. not seeing. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. 9. 11. could see he was remarkable. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. with his humorous density. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. H. and perceived that it must be something important. The agent became a very familiar type to H. which was deliberate. H. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. H. and acute too. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. while Paul. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. though E. 10. was immensely struck with him. wondered what they were talking about. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. or at any rate not heeding. and.’ 278 . yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister.

15. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. which was very copious. that the haunting wonder which now. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. 13. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . But she gave him no chance. 14. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. not glancing at him for a moment. had the power to chain his sympathy. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. appeared to fill his whole childhood. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. H.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. as he looked back.

even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. 16. H. and to H. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. yet 280 . It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. 18. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. The whole establishment. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. that she must be on the contrary. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. proudly. At the theatre. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. where the Pearl of Paraguay. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. and there were others. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. dragging herself on her knees. ironically reserved. as a general thing. disheveled and distracted. It was very possible she was capricious. 17.

but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. It came over H. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. *Old. would always be more or less irritating. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. No one ever listens to her. 20./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. on which the damp breath of the streets. 19. young men were invited. Their mistakes and illusions. and lurking within this nebulous design. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. with the poor. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 2. H. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 3. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. didn’t mind. had blown a certain chill.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 281 .

7. 11. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Either John or he * have got to give in. 5. 12. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. Rachel. I saw her as a vision. I blundered by. 282 . And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 6. “Oh. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. I walked fast. her arms held out. her shining blue feet twinkling. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. c) When I saw her sitting there. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. striding like a Spartan maid.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 8. I was definitely going to be sick. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 10./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. slipped on some steps. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 9. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. walking quickly. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else.

The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer.

could cook my meals. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. 5. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . who is a wonderfully handy fellow. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. And then I ventured to add that. but that we saw and pitied. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 2. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 4. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. if they were poor. which was really alarming. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. where my servant. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. The old women spoke no English.

was anxious. he had not yet been able to estimate. Constituents: He. to settle. on a house. Constituents: Margaret. this. etc. was anxious = was + anxious. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. on Saturday. Munt. 285 . would really hurt. How much. apart from his distress for parents. etc. was informed.apart from his distress = apart from.g. had not been able to estimate. at noon. apart form his distress for parents.g. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. before they left town. Constituents: how much. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. to pay their annual visit. this would really hurt. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. he. his. etc. distress.

didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. listen to this. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. second clause is non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. which is not assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. interrogative. – non-assertive. negative/ Come with me. negative/ If you like jazz. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. / If you like her.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. negative. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. it is assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.. – non-assertive.. don’t bother her. – comparison. – assertive/ Don’t do that. and is non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book..SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted. – first clause is non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. interrogative.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. Second clause is an imperative. The sentence is however 286 . – first clause is an ifclause.

but nothing out of the ordinary. / She does not hate animals. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. – they told the truth to somebody else. only irresolute./ He was smart enough. / She does like John./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. –double negation cancellation. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. – I like somebody else. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. he was hardly pleased./ He was exceptionally cunning. everybody used to travel by coach./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. – someone hates animals./ When he learned the news. but not more than she does others./ Not long ago. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / You have never met 287 . but it isn’t Susan./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. the two brothers dared to protest./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ They weren’t really confused. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. not even when it’s quiet around.but to someone else. – someone did that.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / I don’t like her very much. / They didn’t leave. / He wasn’t unusually bright. not even this thing. but it wasn’t them. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Hardly interested in the conference.

negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing..negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor... – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / Should they not have told her the truth. I could hardly wait to hear the news. they go skiing in the mountains. / This is hardly the 288 . – negative insertion.Nadina VIŞAN her. not even in my dreams. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem... not even when you were very young.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. were they? / This boy is no good. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – I cannot look him in the eye. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. did they? / No problems were caused after all.

– I don’t often look at her like that. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this.. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. never trust a man again./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – I almost never look at those paintings. – You haven’t eaten a thing.. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow.Never before did anything like that happen in our street./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Hardly anybody liked him. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / I seldom look at her like that. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat./ We seldom receive such generous praise..Never shall I trust a man again. but she also lent him a car. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. – Almost nobody liked him. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. when we started our holiday. – Not many people came to see her./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Few people came to see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I never see her. Activity 8 I shall never.

you can still do something about it. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. / She could rely on nobody but him. / Don’t worry. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. / You must on no account touch this machinery. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. / They say he once had someone very close. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). –At no time did we leave the office. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / Come on. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ I expect he won’t come here again. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – They say he never had anyone very close. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ I somewhat like his proposal. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself..I don’t like his proposal at all. you can’t do anything about it any more. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – 290 . – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – They don’t believe she likes them. – Only on this man could she rely. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now./ Well. / They believe she does not like them. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – Come on. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / He reckoned he would not win her over.

– You should send her something. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. 291 . I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / She hardly ever comes here. too./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – You can’t be telling lies./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – I can’t understand either of these sentences.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. either. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / You must pay that fine. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ Bob is still living at that address. – She almost always comes here../ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Well. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – Well her husband has always been a good person. / You needn’t send her anything./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. / You must be telling lies. –Alice still lives here. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet.

/ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ N-are nici cap nici coada. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. He isn’t that smart./ Nimic de facut./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. It’s no wonder. give me a hand. to any of us./ Have they rung the bell? No./ He’s a happy man./ Am avut un car de necazuri. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ Norocul la noroc trage./ 292 . His opinion isn’t worth a cent. / Please./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ E un baiat de zahar./ I don’t know a thing about her. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. / Don’t go on believing him./ You took his leaving you very hard. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. not yet. I haven’t seen her in years. Oh. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ He was a tough man. has never studied anywhere.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ You look so tired today. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. He didn’t move a muscle. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Zis si facut. / Jim is so brave. ever since I got this ulcer. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. I haven’t done anything./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Nobody told us a thing. e un magar./ Nu spune nu niciodata. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ They say this Ph.D.

We had nothing in common. with the same needs they had.’/ Deloc descurajat. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable ./ Nu-i nici un deranj. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. without too much determination. slowly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. parasi camera./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. one way or another. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. feebly.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. nothing.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . 293 . for I thought this threatening. I had never had the opportunity to prove. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. no story. thrown out. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. I hadn’t really expected miracles.’ ‘Nici o problema. no memory. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . that I was a decent man./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.

or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. Unfortunately. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. bad. to say the least. Radu had calmed down. I admit. clear or confusing. it’s not words. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. your story. he immediately answered me patronizingly. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party.. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. We have to judge it as it is. let alone irritable. the only 294 . I was sleepy and tired. on the front seat. It’s not made up of theories and the like. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. by coming here to the monastery. I’d be so happy if it were so. he was sitting beside me. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. that’s what the world is about. Not for a moment had I thought that. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. • It was my turn to say something.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. things you do any moment. good. You really made me mad. or if you understood what I meant. but facts. Your judgement is false.

Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. Anyway. keep it squeaky clean. or you are lying hidden. either. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. it’s your problem. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. soon we’ll be in town. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. I won’t interfere. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. behind these big. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. But what about you and Melania. me. Look. it solves troubles. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. you do as you think fit. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. and an inability to act. or call the respect of others. did you ever step up front. it’s yours. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. keep your conscience clean: you have one. as Baciu would have us be. fear might be hiding. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. clears your way. although it was a difficult thing to do. just to please myself. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. me. But I was just wondering. • So. no matter how huge they are. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. and if you like. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. precious words. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. you can go to Ursu’s. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. we are leaving. to fight. too? A gun is power. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. 295 . although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise.

as soon as he delivered it. will he?. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. correlatives are mixed 2..Negative raising (transportation) f)1. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. – incorrect. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Negative incorporation 296 . But it was not because I had no answer to give.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.correct 3. -correct 3.incorrect.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. has yet arrived -correct 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. has not arrived yet – double negation. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. because before is a positive polarity item 2. The villagers were not very religious. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . or some other woman. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. the sentence is incorrect 3. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. . firmly determined not to answer immediately. but they gradually got used to it.Negative attraction b) 1. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.. .

slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. too troubled. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Nu putea să se mişte. His spirit was too tired. she couldn’t marry him. Her stillness. (ibid. Ştia că are dreptate.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. yet.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. nu era 297 . (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. much less ((NPI) for her. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir.) Însă era cam târziu. b) But it was rather (API) late. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. her lack of motion would have to do (API). she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. not happy at all (NPI). either (NPI). (ibid. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Avea sufletul prea obosit. prea răscolit. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei.

arăta mai tânără ca oricând. (ibid. şi destul de hotărât. and not a little unsteadily. 298 . (Salman Rushdie. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. e) At length. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. The Satanic Verses. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (ibid. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. she looked younger than ever (NPI). his heart was beating fast. he made his way to the screen. (ibid. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. se îndreptă spre paravan. inima îi batea năvalnic. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. Ba dimpotrivă. if anything (NPI).

Home receded from the prodigal son. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. The point was. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. i) What did C. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer.) C. 299 . as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. but his father would have none of it (NPI). care if the school were willing to treat him. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Ce-i pasă lui C. (ibid. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. h) C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. and probably an administrative headache as well. the gift was useless.

correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. . correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question.indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. – indirect question. 300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
302

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
303

Nadina VIŞAN

What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
304

Key To Chapter Three Practice

another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
305

Nadina VIŞAN

happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
306

Key To Chapter Three Practice

happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

307

and then what do you 308 . you are in enough trouble as it is. “Now. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. Fenia. Chizlinski. to make them lust after her. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. now she was chatty. Luca Horobet. Fenia. she likes to entrance them. Vica. she didn’t wear a ring. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. Stavre Paici. they were. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. keep Condrat away from her. 2. all godfearing husbands and fathers. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. She has an eye for gentle men. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. do you really think that this vixen. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. yes. the bitch. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca.

He got him out of his mosque. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. The mullah. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. It even takes him a while to go to the window. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. what’s her name. with a railway station and a mosque. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . 4. have a girlfriend. the minister of Tartars and Turks. her hair pinned with blue combs. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. 3. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. G. dragging his feet listlessly. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. a seventy-eight year old lad. ankle-long flowered calico.

Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .

. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.) 9. Our flag is red. yellow and blue. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation 10. Her pet kitten is black and white. and I passed. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. John is ready and Mary is ready. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.phrasal coordination (in this case. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.. John and Mary are ready. – sentence coordination 7. our respective examinations.

– ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. much satisfaction or little 312 . Activity 4 1. but John does not play football. and even tennis. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 5.) Joan plays many games. 10. her idea and John’s. her son and others. many guest or few. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. your work and mine. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. plays football. Activity 5 This book and the other. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. We can and will demand payment. your proposal and his. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. 7. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. but not John. that method and those. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. 2. 9. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 3. 8. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan.

He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Touch and go 10. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Activity 8 1. (I have always fought for progress and always will. 5. High and low 2. He snapped at him and slapped him. 7. Wear and tear 12. Bread and butter 16. To and fro 15. Safe and sound 313 . interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. 8. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Spick and span 9. Pros and cons 4. He read. 3. etc.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. 4. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Law and order 8. Ups and downs 6. magazines are only for children. but not simple. Few and far between 14. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Thick and thin 11. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand.) 6. The facts and figures 3. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. Over and above 13. Life and soul 5. Swings and roundabouts 7.

3. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Either the child or the parents are to blame. exclusive 15. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. My son and heir is safe. 3. Symmetric 21. 7. – symmetric. 4. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door.. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 6. Asymmetric 19. 2. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 8. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. b. – asymmetric 18. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. inclusive 16. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. – symmetric. 10. 314 . 10. 9. My son and daughter are twins.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – symmetric. Asymmetric 20. Cathy and David have arrived. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 4. Not John but his two sons are to blame. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. cause-effect Activity 10 1. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – similar situation 9. – symmetric 10. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 5.symmetric 11. 9. 8. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – symmetric 2. 1. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 5. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Symmetric 13. 7. 6.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 2. exclusive 17.

He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. Not only should you rest 315 . but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. Jim thought it over for a while. 9. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 12. 5. for better or worse. nor fowl. Brother or no brother. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 3. (2) 1. it was too small. He went to bed. 7. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. ‘Madam. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. He’s neither fish. Her husband is long dead and buried. 8. 11. 14. Should he pour water in the basin. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 2. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. We’ll stick together. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. By hook or by crook. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 3. No drinking and driving. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 6. 2. 10. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. thanks for asking. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. clothes and all. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. They came to me. I’ll still finish this paper. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 4. 15. There are doctors and doctors.

tense with concentration. he’d leap high. without mentioning financial matters. and then. You know. Whatever she tried her hand at. tense like a bow. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally.Nadina VIŞAN assured. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. an important man. as she always does. so he’d gone down and died in no time. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. she started doing a great job. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. stop dead in his tracks.’ (3) 1. Mrs. This. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. it would work out fine. she knows for sure. their common ground. From time to time she will launch a helping question. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Her first husband had been a professor. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. so he could leap in pursuit. They hadn’t kept him there too long. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. but he’d come out a cripple. but she blinks in approval. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. And. So she’ll listen to him. he starts lecturing her about life and things. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. what’s its name. and she listens to him. 316 . 2. just like when he was thirty. at equal intervals. both dead and buried. What do you know? The moment Mrs.

about her problems at home After I told her the story. – Susan. is aware. functioning as an object (direct). came. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . cannot tell. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still .subordinate.subordinate. at me Activity 2: 1. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. you. told. whomever wanted to listen.subordinate. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – obligatory elements: she. – she.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.subordinate. looked. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. – she. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – obligatory elements: I. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – she.subordinate. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . she looked at me sadly. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days .

Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .complement b) 1.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . remove our home yet again . that you are choosing exile . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.subordinate.subordinate. that we should. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . at our age.subordinate.

modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. a barn. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. a house. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (time)/ 319 . but no idea – relative that complement. outbuildings. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement.complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres.

But other people. subject/ to do such again – complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement.wh complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. Activity 5 1. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. When Anton put the sickle down. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . (…) ‘Well. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long.A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. sickle in hand. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object/ and done – wh complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. direct object/ to write that tale – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. that kept her constantly tense and grim. without straightening her back. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. staring at each other. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial.

or other more hidden means. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. as if they were at his beck and call. 321 . Only he had Ana to think of. Why! He was not of two minds. or if he does. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. First. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Ana could not stand a trip now. which he doesn’t rely on completely.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. but he doesn’t spurn either. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Not even at this point. 2. while on other occasions he would show caution. rather than a real threat. that was for sure. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. while they spoke from miles away. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. but also his sharp nose. he will turn back and no longer be daring. For no bold man really falters. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. you need courage even for this small thing. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. 3. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home.

to see some mutual friends. are we getting off again? What is wrong. So. And here’s how this first day looked. But it was not ok. We were going to drive to a vineyard. in Odobesti. he had postponed writing back. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. 322 . they would ruin the arrangement. under the silliest of pretexts. 4. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. it was the women. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. by the cars of some of us. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. and when things didn’t go as planned. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. and twice we were requested to get out. although he could have said so earlier.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. without really knowing why. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. and on Monday followed another feast). let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. come on. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. In fact. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. Twice did we get in the car.

4. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. The students like their teacher. 10. where I spent my youth .RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1.restrictive 2. These are people who we cannot tell much about.free 8. which was silly of him. on which this occurred . He told her the secret. The students. Activity 2 1. which was a pity. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 7. You couldn’t join the party. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.She came to London where I went too. 3. where I least expected 323 . what you want – free/ where you can park your car . like their teacher. 8. 8. 5. 9. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 5. 11.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 10. 6. 4. most of whom were from England. 2. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. He is the author who they gave a prize to. why they all left .restrictive 6. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. when we first met . 6. all of whom would answer to his questions. Activity 3 1.restrictive 4. 7. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. John told his friend a story about the king. any of whom would answer to questions. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. who was just passing by. This is my husband whom I love very much. I bought Jim a book that he liked. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.restrictive 7. 3.

3. Which – subject 4. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. which . was very displeased with the situation. 5.When Ada remarked – adjunct. come up front.free 9. 2.subject 9. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. 6.restrictive 10. When . Where .adjunct 6. He who doesn’t work will never succeed.adjunct 5. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. 7. Who . where – predicative 7. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.subject 8.adjunct 10. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. 4. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. Where he was from – adjunct. where we talk money – predicative. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. You. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. I. however sad . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.Nadina VIŞAN . What Inman remembered – subject.adjunct 3. what their parents made them.adjunct 11. Activity 5 1. who think so highly of yourselves. who cannot say a word. What I’m saying – subject. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. Why . This isn’t the Bucharest I know. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired .free Activity 4 1. What – direct object 2. when . Where . the prince chose Cinderella. Of all the persons there.

the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. how . which requires an accusative form.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. what little she knew – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .attribute 12. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what . – which is ungrammatical due to the [.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. which is ungrammatical due to the[.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . whatever – predicative 13.

whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. due to its invariable character. whose great-grandfather. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. in his turn. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. got married and had a daughter. a rather tiny looking man. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. but whose second cousin. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. having changed quite a number of jobs. a sergeant.

The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The problem of safe transportation.obligatory 3. he rarely saw now. . whose interest he most sincerely shared. Irene. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. has been troubling them forever.no 5.yes 10. – no 4. was now complete. – no 9.yes 7. with deletion of the noun friends]. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. – yes 2. – yes 6. In the interest of public decency. . no easy answers to which could be offered. – no pied piping 327 . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes Activity 9 1. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. – no pied piping 5. This story. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know.obligatory 4. . – obligatory pied piping 2. he requested that the public be excluded. . although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.His father’s friends.yes 3. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. . . She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. His friends. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. were now all gone. – yes. .

he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. In other people’s opinion. yours. 4. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. For twenty years. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. or as of a vast arena. For all the four children. 7.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. Nelu. 6. the third born son. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. I did so. Everything was ending. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. 2. where two teams battled every day… 5.and he couldn’t thank me enough. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 328 . for instance. irrespective of age and nature. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . I am to be envied. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 8. 3. Only an ugly endless dream remained. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars.

and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. Let me tell you my last conclusion.R. she said. 13. He was suffering from dizziness. Behind them. from MR street. 12. which was why he saw Dora very far away. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 17. staring aimlessly. leaving streets and houses behind. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. since I don’t really know which my true life is. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. All that you have read is rubbish. although she was standing quite close to him. where from Marta was coming too. 329 . barely glittering in the distance. What you’re saying sounds very nice. You are newly arrived here.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 10. 15. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 16. on Icoanei street. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 11. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. the tram was rattling along. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 14.

So. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite.Nadina VIŞAN 18. or the clash of stars above. She was a woman of means. I don’t know what might have happened. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. day by day. which I did not posses. or the many Egyptian dynasties. While we were poor. But. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. had a personal style in clothes. likes and dislikes. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. who only lived once in this world. From the vantage point I was in. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. But for me. I could see my woman falling away from me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. 24. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 20. so optimistic and composed? 19. had a huge house in Bucharest. in her pursuits. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. If he had hit me. 23. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. after the car was fixed. 21. 330 . While some trees are still green. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. who prompted everyone on the street. 22.

It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – questionable. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . 8. – extraposed. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. prepositional object 11. – impossible 7. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 331 . It so happens that I know the secret cipher. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. object 5. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – extraposed. subject 8.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It was suggested that they should meet the President. subject 9. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – unextraposed. – the same as 3. direct object 10. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – extraposed. subject 7. It appears that no one voted for him. subject 2. 2. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. 6. 3. It will be soon announced when you can leave. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – extraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. direct object 3. subject 4. – extraposed. object 6.

tense influences the 332 . They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. 15. – impossible. – impossible 11. – grammatical.grammatical. 18.grammatical.incorrect.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. They never expected it that he would come back. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. same as 12. but pragmatically impossible 4. – grammatical. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible. – grammatical. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. although a bit intricate 2. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – same as 12. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – impossible. idiomatic formula 16. 9. 10.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – impossible. Activity 3: 1. – incorrect. – correct 2. It is nice to meet you.correct 4. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. but pragmatically impossible 3. same as 12. 14. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. . I guess it that he will come back. 17. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – the same as 12. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. .Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. a bit too intricate 5. .. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.

tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. 2.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! .Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.incorrect. in the ditch. though.’ 4. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.’ Lionel says. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. under bridges. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. 5. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. in the pits on the road. 3. thus. behind gates. – correct 6. 333 . Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. (Not always.

I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. By saying this. because it is less ambiguous. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 8. 4. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.Nadina VIŞAN 6. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. It is less ambiguous than the first. without trying to protest too much. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. since the 334 . – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. who had just returned from Africa. – the first sentence is the better of the two. – the second sentence is questionable. 2. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. who had just returned from Africa. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. 7. 3. Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. prime-minister. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.

*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 5. The second and third sentences are grammatical. 8. so there is no need for extraposition. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. extraposition is obligatory here./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 6. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 7. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – both sentences are grammatical. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 335 . He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject.

relative Activity 9 1. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.complement 4. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. – complement 2. . – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. .) complement that clauses. – adverbial of sequence/result. ibid. ibid.) adverbial of sequence/result. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed.prepositional object. – relative 5. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.adverbial of sequence/result. – direct object. The idea that he had had earned him good money. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – complement that clause. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – relative 3. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.We discovered that our map has disappeared. – subject. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by deverbal noun 336 . . – complement 5. – prepositional object. coordinated. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (Iris Murdoch. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. for better or worse. . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.

that they were not too late to leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. you want me to believe. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. that deletion is obligatory. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. h) John thought that Harry had run.

I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. a. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. c. – both sentences are grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – grammatical sentences. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b. sequence of tenses is observed 4. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas.

prepeliţe.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. – generalization on habits of birds. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. present perfect instead of past perfect. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. geese both grey and white. While the first is possible because of the generalization. present instead of simple past. lark. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. quail. cenuşii şi albe. hawk. ciocârlii şi şoimi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .

Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. slyness in a fight. Crows will relish what presents itself. lipsa de vanitate. The generic present is used in this case. love of practical jokes. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. as evidenced by its drear plumage. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. lack of pridefulness. She admired their keenness of wit. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion.

Murise în picioare. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. he claimed. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. He died erect. […] During the latter stages of the tale. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. in the very act of expiring. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. El căzuse pe spate. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. tânărul ofiţer. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. se ridicase în picioare. the young officer. tragică şi eroică. But as the battle raged around them. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He had fought hard through the war. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort.

Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. Acum stătea aici. A short while later. And they might just hang him. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. But when he reached me. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. One of them. Luptase din răsputeri în război. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. I realized I could not tell him the big news. he closed the album. to finish my drawing. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. war hero though he was. mother went home and I was left alone. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. How can I explain? I just felt shy. deşi era erou de război. 2. When the boys saw that mother had left. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. susţinea el. în închisoare. They all had their hands in their pockets. – similar situation to the one under (c). the oldest. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. Now here he stood jailed. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. 342 . Activity 13 1. they gathered around my desk. When he saw me. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now).

Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. for her vineyard. brightly and closely.’ Mr. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. All his senses were now keen. 6. or if she would do so again. 4. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. or fear his rage. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good.’ 5. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. as if he had been drunk. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her.

8. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. 10. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. The last time when we met here you scared me. And if things were so. 7. thinking of him. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility.Nadina VIŞAN to him. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. claiming you had no ambition for the future. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. 11. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. 9. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great.

Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. towards Jurubita. where he would run to confess everything. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. which secretly drove him. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. 12. more urgently than ever. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. We either sell them or we don’t. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. 14. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. namely the impatience of this young man. without putting anything in a note. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. 13. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand.

She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. – simple infinitive. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – simple infinitive. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. It is vital this factory to be reopened. / they saw her leave. . To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. . – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 2.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 6. – simple infinitive. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.. 9. – infinitive continuous. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 346 .simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical 7. – perfect infinitive. grammatical 5. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 3. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. grammatical. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 10. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE .

– Test: They tempted him. / It is not too late for him to learn. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / I want to never see you again. \ They did not wish [her to come back. you need to try harder. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear.] – Accusative + Infinitive. ] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. Test: * I would like people. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ She promised him PRO to leave. \ I would love [ them to come. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ They tempted him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *I would love them. \ I allowed [them to come. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. – Test: They asked her. – Test: She promised him. / He is believed to have known her 347 .] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. Test: *They did not wish her. Test: *I allowed them. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ They would have hated [her to come back.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. Test: *She wanted him. Test: *They would have hated her. – Test: They convinced her. – Test: He persuaded her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly.

to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / He is easy to live with. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I want you to leave my house. Activity 6 Oh.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. not to miss the train. / I have a word to tell you. .Nadina VIŞAN for years. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / He is easy to talk to. . / I want to tell you what I think of you. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. . . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / He is hard to stand. / He is young enough to start again. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / Oh. I don’t need you or your services. / I have never known how to behave in her presence.

1] A little crossly. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Subject. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. 1 – PRO. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Subject. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. they had depressed and fuddled him.Accusative + Infinitive. Predicative 4 . In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. If he himself was out of spirits. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. 349 . who wasn’t used to men with moods. He suspected hostility at once. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. the herd instinct was very strong in him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.to. so that we might get to the future and have done. Harold. 1 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. he didn’t envy those above it.

adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. 1 – PRO-to. PRO controlled by ‘me’. And you might also be hit and humiliated. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. or better said. f) The passing time is important. cautiously. more believable than evidence itself. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. PRO controlled by ‘she’. direct object 3 – PRO –to. One day. excitedly. c) Unlike plane trips. PRO controlled by ‘him’. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. we seem to forget about our own pain. slowly. e) When two persons. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. object 2 – PRO –to. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. But when we need to comfort others. PRO controlled by ‘she’. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. man and woman. true. more meaningful. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. 350 . adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number.

That is it. not to want to wipe it off. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. Moroi says heavily. S. or their talk that night. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. If it was summer. my wish being only to please and serve. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. that you are young. And to actually start to believe you are so. And I would care for this man so deeply. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. which he had already forgotten. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. for instance. all down our neck.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. He had not been able to leave Dr. while swearing to change my way of life. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. or. as he had appeared to him in the rain. even when this love is hurried. Mrs. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Stroescu. in the street. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. tickled by the trickles of sweat. 351 . Although that talk deserved to be remembered. not even those parts where he had been half-right. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. k) With this considerable dowry. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. to live only with your coughing. I am indeed praising my own merits. h) I want us to go.

for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. for that’s the door people get off by. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. she was suddenly so shocked. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. here I am with all of my own. 352 . they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. Well. poor Muti. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. met by squalor and terrible smells. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. no matter what. every Bucharester knows it. ready to submit to any demand. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. or to speak so fast. If you will have what I can give you. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. haphazardly.

Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE .ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. with its lips drawn back./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. – Attributive past participle. / They found it thrown in a corner. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into.. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ He went to have a tooth pulled. 353 ./ Don’t keep him waiting./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ She sent him shopping. badly beaten and bloodied. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.

Running into the room. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. a rug caught her foot and she fell. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 10. 3. The tree had fallen across the road. – As she was running into the room. Turning on the light. Accusative + present participle / In any case. I was astonished at what I saw. 2. 6. 5.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Attributive present participle. Finding the treasure. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 8. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . I was extremely reluctant to open the door. sitting taut between her father and her sister./ Running into the room. Activity 4 1.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. they began quarreling about how to divide it. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I slammed the door of my room. 7. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. – Attributive present participle. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. 4. he sat down to his own dinner. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. Sleeping in the next room. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Having fed the dog. having been uprooted by the gale. 9. having heard it all before. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny.

– As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. a scorpion bit him. 3. Riding in the first race. the sea was tossing it up and down. Dropped by parachute. narrow-minded. broad-shouldered. bald-headed. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. his horse fell at the last jump. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was tied to the post. – When I read in bed. 11. 355 . his horse fell at the last jump. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. empty-headed. – As he was riding in the first race. lion-hearted. 2. open-minded. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 10. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Climbing down the tree. 12. I let the dog out of the room. Tied to the post. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. – As he was getting out of bed. / Climbing down the tree. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 8. – As he left the cinema. Barking furiously. – As the dog was barking furiously. / Getting out of bed. 9. stony-hearted. a pot of paint fell on my head. he was bit by a scorpion. an idea suddenly occurred to me. my hands often get very cold. one of the eggs broke. 5. cloth-covered. 7. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. wooden-headed. 6. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Passing under a ladder. fishy-eyed. I let it out of the room. he broke one of the eggs. Leaving the cinema. sharp-eyed/minded. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad./ Reading in bed. many-coloured.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. red-handed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. I often get very cold hands. – As I was passing under a ladder. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. the sea was tossing the post up and down. a scorpion bit him. one of the eggs broke. my hands often get very cold. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Getting out of bed. three-coloured. Activity 5 Fair-haired. 4. Reading in bed. – As he was climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him.

(admire) 5. / Swiss watches. straight-shouldered.Spielberg./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. roast meat. Activity 7 1. rotten plank. (find) 6. shorn lamb. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. 356 . found hiding in a barn. sunken eyes. (take) 2. are sold throughout the world. were taken to hospital.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. lighted candle. stricken deer. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. admired for their elegance and precision. I stared at the canvas for ages.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. is expected to be a great hit. shaven head. was today taken back to prison. hunting for a bargain. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. bounden duty. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. mown grass. dark-skinned. hidden meaning. The film. / Many old people. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. The escaped prisoner. 7. ill-gotten wealth. open-hearted. drunken man. produced by S. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (injure). graven image. Activity 8 1. (grow) 4. shrunken stream.I fell on the ice. injuring my arm. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. / Three people. (hunt). eagle-eyed. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (produce) 3. injured when their car crashed on the M1. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. are in grave danger of extinction. Whales.

in charge of his house and lands. streaked with yellow veins of fat. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. seeking some promised land. sprinkled with sticky flour. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. then put up. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. 357 . was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. After a while. and moreover. the twice rinsed vegetables. and the puffed pastry beds. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. he started peering anxiously around as if. flat and soft. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. bake them. 3. 4. yet left them room to sway free. suddenly suffocated. 2.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. thrown in the pots. And his soul. So. the fish. hovering uncertain and soft. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. A parasol. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. now taken down. He felt close to his father. the carved chicken. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. he were struggling for breath. its scales scraped off by the knife. boil them. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves.

/ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. – participle (attribute) 2. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys.gerund 5. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / I am sorry for being so late. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. – gerund (subject) 4. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. – Accusative + participle 3. . / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. he left the store without buying a thing. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. Gambling is his favourite pastime. Activity 10 1.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned.

I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – Nominative + participle 13. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 8. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.possessive ING (direct object) 9. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (attribute. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. preceded by preposition). – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. . participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. He was spotted talking to her. She’s looking forward to having lots of children.participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. possessive ING (predicative) 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs.

– verbal noun (has determiner. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. – gerund or verbal noun. my Lord. – gerund (full.’ ‘Tell me. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Lady Corven.’ 360 . hold up his pen and speak. however appearances were against us.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (has adjective). but they went by too quickly. I did ask Mr. Croom to try to follow one. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. take down her answer.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. adjective. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. adjective. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.

I spend all my time hunting a job. licked the envelope with passion. it’s overrated. Then. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. my Lord. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. I must go back now. ‘I do hate asking for things. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I just used the word and they fell.’ said Clare. and went out to post it himself. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ 361 .’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case.

’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. The two sides were moving apart. direct object). First the crack snaking (half gerund. At first. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object) from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. village which is burning). Has a complex subject) in the hole. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. Then he saw movement at his feet. The collapsing shops (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. attribute. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. attribute). direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. attribute. gerund. attribute. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. slightly 362 . attribute). attribute. adverbial of time. functions as direct object) and then the ground. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. It was like a mist. elliptical here. hoping (participle. The sight of the two children. down. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. someone looking for survivors (participle.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute) in a swirling motion. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. slowly rising (participle. …while their edges were crashing inwards). (participle. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object) towards him. He looked up towards the daylight. the enormous split in the earth. the very earth opening up (half gerund. down into God knows where. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. after verb of perception.

That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund.e. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. direct object). prepositional object. one. adverbial of reason).’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . according to the books he read. etc. covering (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. early. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. you.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. i. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. my dear.). subject of ‘being’) being (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. has ‘of’ phrase). direct object) that his two young people were listening too. moving up (participle. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun.

examining (participle. And. Vaucher and I. Young Mamona left the room without a word. and everything got suddenly animated. preceded by preposition. for Dornford was busy on an important case. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. and sunlight. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of manner). attribute) stopped dead. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. brightening (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) to winter brilliance. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. adverbial of reason). slanted on to her cheek. She finished what jobs there were. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. the two Mamonas. Having a French governess (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. and then went riding (participle. mother. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and not only in my imagination or theirs. attribute) a sudden whoop. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. So. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. Standing up. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. reluctant or not. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. adverbial of manner). a door was opened and as a servant entered. we were all gathered in that room.

about concentrating all our resources. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. 3. So when Old Mamona came in. he looked like someone who did. for anyway. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. each carrying a wooden box. 2. 4. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. and ended his life in the year 1821. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . closing my eyes. Entering our house on a Thursday. let alone greet us or say something. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. sitting in his puddle. Vaucher might have known that too. killed by Young Mamona. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. too. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. without taking his sack off his shoulders. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. who knows. and to Young Mamona. He cast us a swift glance. And then. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. to me. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. his disloyal apprentice. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. and smelling so hard of rain. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . in the year 1812. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. he found us sitting each in his place. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. he went to mother and. kissed her forehead. as mother had ordered him. her back towards us. And. about sparing no effort. I knew who it would be. to Vaucher. Not so unimaginable though. bending a little. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end.

I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. each pausing before jumping down. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. futile. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. They got off the truck slowly. And suddenly. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. of taking notes and rewriting them. as an afterthought. wood pile. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. stove. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. 5. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. long board table.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. And all around them was the great field 366 . already seen and heard. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. barrack. everything seemed familiar. But. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and.

The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. 367 . They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The next thing was to go to the well.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

TUB Cornilescu.II. . Mouton de Gruyter. Aspect. Bybee. Al. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. 1994. 1982.. 51-103. Joan and Osten Dahl. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. Caenepeel. Institutul European Cornilescu. . I. English Syntax. 1964. Gallimard. Complementation in English. 2003. Laurie. Cornilescu. . Benveniste. TUB Curme. 1976. Cornilescu. A. Comrie. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. 1983.References Bauer. Burnes and Noble.. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. 369 . Joan. 1989. G. Accuracy and Fluency. The Evolution of Grammar. The Transformational Syntax of English. Bernard. 1. eds. Bybee. vol. Bucuresti. CUP. Mimo and Marc Moens. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. English Word-Formation. A. Iclezan Dimitriu. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters.University of Chicago Press. 1976. A. Emile. . 1994.. Chicago. English Grammar.. 1966. Problemes de linguistique generale. Cambridge University Press. 1996.

A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. Dutescu-Coliban. 1967. P. London. Bucureşti. Harris. CUP. Peter. Outlooks and Insights. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. Alexandru Niculescu.1993. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. . CUP. Longman. Hassan.. Cohesion in English. 1976. An Advanced English Practice Course. Iordan. Taina. Denison. 370 . Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. Leo. Richard. 1931. eds. Otto. et al. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. Hornby. Graur. 1959. Aspects of English Morphology. Progress to Proficiency. M. 1968. Tubingen. Bucureşti.. Jones. A. 1968. St Martin’s Press. Advanced Grammar Practice. 1982. New York. M. 1968. 1963. Eschholz. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Gramatica Academiei.S. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. English Historical Syntax. R. Longman. 1987.A.S. & R. Gramatica limbii române. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. London. Alexandru. . 1999. Graver. Longman. Part IV. 1961. In Vincent and Harris. vol. Bucureşti. J. Gunter Narr Verlag. Halliday. Jespersen.A. I. Fenn. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect.Day. 1982: 42-70. Longmans.. Longman. 1987. Advanced Grammar in Use. Martin. . 1993. 2000. Hornby.K. London and Copenhagen. London. Hewing. & Alfred Rosa (eds).

1983. Dordrecht. TUB. eds. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen.. Quirk. Hans and Christian Rohrer. Serban. Leech. An Introduction to Fiction. Kennedy. Miller. Language... M. X. Schibsbye. Kluwer Academic Publishers.. volume 68. K. H... Grammar for English Language Teachers. 1926. Transactions of the Philological Society. vol. Foresman and Company. CUP. Groningen Lipka. Kamp. 1970. London. & Felicity O’Dell. Part II.. English Syntax. 89:2 (2000). A Modern English Grammar. E. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . From Discourse to Logic.. 1991. Klein. Groningen. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Poutsma. Focus on Proficiency. 1982. Greenbaum. Number 3. 2000. Hans and Uwe Reyle. J. in Fodor. McCarthy.J. Parrott. Klima. 1964. M. Scott. 2002. 1987. OUP. 1992. E. 1990. Seminar Press. and Svartvik. (advanced). L. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. D. CUP. Bauerle et al. 1931.Katz. Jim. Kruisinga. 2000. 1993. . Literature. Nelson.Kamp. A Grammar of Late Modern English. 1973. Sue. Negation in English. Poetry and Drama. A Handbook of Present-day English. J. Wolfgang. An Outline of English Lexicology. Tense in Texts. and J. R. G. 323-352 O’Connell. S. I. vol.

2003.) L’emprise du sens. R.. Conference on British and American Studies. 1957 and 1962. Vişan. London. 1978. Co. 2001. Mouton de Gruyter. Cahiers de praxematique 19.. Smith. A. New York. editia 1. Lectures in English Morphology.. N. In M. A Handbook of English Grammar. Carlota. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16.. Modes of Discourse.. I. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. 2003. Analyticity and Syntheticity. de Swart.. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. e. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. Rodopi. Zandvoort. 347-385. Editura Credis. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. Sentence Processes. 372 . Amsterdam. 2003. 1999. Vet. 1990. 1992. Co. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Plenat (ed. Stefanescu.Schwegler. a. 1998.. Henriette. Vet. N. Berlin.W. TUB. Visan. Le passe simple.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful