NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. 6 . titularizare şi grad. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.

7 .ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

Complementary distribution .Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.2.5.1.6. Constituent Phrase 1.4.3. Insertion 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Auxiliary verbs 1.

1. Consequently. For instance. Syntactic.2. very much. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.1. that is sequences fragmented at random. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. her mother. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). loves. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Semantic. They are just strings. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. sequences of the kind her mother very.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.

1. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) 10 .4. we are dealing with a directive (i.e. etc. an order given to an interlocutor). should.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. must. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. (Mi-a spus secretul. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. 1.3. be).

Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. etc. 1. live. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. Consider.) 1. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. for instance. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.6.5. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. an ‘empty’ there subject.

he had not yet been able to estimate. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. If the given context is the one under (6). both (8) and (9) are correct structures. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Munt. How much. complementary distribution. pragmatic. syntactic.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. semantic. this would really hurt. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Pratice Define and illustrate. whereas (7) is not. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. 12 . He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. as the star indicates. distribution. using your own examples: insertion.

to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

affirmative sentences. Full – local negation 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.1.3. Instances of negation 2. Key terms .6. Conclusion.5.2.8. Key terms 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Polarity Items 2. Tests for negativity 2.7.4. Negative vs.2.

The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . it asserts something. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Negative .Declarative vs. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Consequently.Positive vs. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. in the sense that it states something. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.Unit two Sentence negation 2. in that they do not state anything. This example can be compared to: (2)a. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . For instance.) b.2.) is said to be an assertion.

) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.non-assertion ./ If you like her. / Come with me.g.other (if –clauses. don’t bother her. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.g. listen to this. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .g./ She can’t wait to read that book.Nadina VIŞAN . They told her the ( e./ We didn’t come here just to talk. 16 . comparison./ Don’t do that. Did they tell her the secret? ) . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.) . / She finally admitted.positive and declarative secret.negative (e.interrogative (e. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.assertion .positive sentence .

I met a girl named Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. In the case of the sentences under (4). we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. since the negative word not is not present there.) b. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. Susan doesn’t like her friends.) b. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). (Nu demult. John is not happy. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. John is unhappy. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.3. word negation. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. For example. Susan dislikes her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (John e nefericit. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) 17 .

these sentences look negative. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) c. He was not without intelligence. She was not an unattractive woman. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. just like in the case of word negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. where the word 18 . namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. since the negative word not is present inside them. I was not a little worried. In other words. but their meaning tells us a different story.) b. In other words. more precisely the phrase it is part of. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent.

/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. semantic negation./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Translate the following sentences into English.e. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Când a aflat vestea. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . without intelligence.

/ Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. 2. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. ci doar indecişi. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. Negative vs. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era el destul de isteţ.4. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. dar nu în mod special. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. affirmative sentences. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte.

(M-am dus acolo.) (9) I didn’t go there. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (Nu m-am dus acolo. For instance.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.1. such as do insertion. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.). (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (see subsection 1. etc. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 .

*does she? Susan dislikes her friends. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. / Susan was not bitten by a dog.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1./ They didn’t leave. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. incorrect. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / We don’t come here often. / I don’t like her very much. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. 22 . / Susan did not get married to Jim.

Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). *not even the smart ones. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. nici măcar de cei deştepţi.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. even the smart ones. not even the smart ones. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. * and they don’t like her either. and neither do they like her. and they don’t like her either. *and neither do they like her. which does not happen in the case of (18). which is ungrammatical. .) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. 4.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. 3. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.

/ Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . 2.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / No problems were caused after all. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. they go skiing in the mountains. / This boy is no good. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / You have never met her. / They caused us no problems. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / A few of them stayed behind. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Few of them stayed behind. In conclusion. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible.5.

b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-am văzut pe nimeni). I went nowhere. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (27) a . A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-a venit John). Susan could not go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody.

I didn’t see any student. Not all that glitters is gold. no incorporation takes place. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. All that glitters is not gold. 26 .) b. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. I didn’t see anybody.Nadina VIŞAN b. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. I never went to his place.) c. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. b. I didn’t go anywhere. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) b. (N-am văzut nici un student.) (29) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. No day passed without me thinking of him. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.

/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / I didn’t see anybody. not even short ones. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / Not a word fell from her lips. / I showed him nothing. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / He should not be released.V. / I saw nobody.) They barely read any novels. rarely.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. etc. / No one ever listens to her.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / Not one of them came to meet her./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not many women are famous opera composers. seldom. scarcely.) We seldom watch T. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. nici măcar din alea scurte. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. (Nu citesc romane. barely. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.4. / None of them liked house music. and we don’t go to the theatre either. ./ They never went there.

/ I could hardly wait to hear the news. . şi nu mergem nici la teatru. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I scarcely ever see her. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / Few people came to see her. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes.) c.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / Hardly anybody liked him. Never have I met a more horrible person. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.) 28 them. / I seldom look at her like that.) d. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) b.

sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. in the sense that the 29 . / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / You must on no account touch this machinery.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian.) They don’t think that he likes them. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. never trust a man again. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / She could rely on nobody but him. / I didn’t leave the office at any time./ We seldom receive such generous praise.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation.

) but also by the existence of certain elements that. imagine. / I expect he won’t come here again. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. probability. etc. / They believe she does not like them. / He reckoned he would not win her over. etc. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. etc. suppose.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. choose. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. / I suppose she doesn’t care. although not negative in meaning. For example.) b. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. intend. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. guess. She doesn’t like our chairman at all.6. seem.) 30 . want. be probable. 2. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. believe. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. be supposed to. the negative meaning is less strong. intention.: think. In sentence (37). be likely. ought to. advise. look like. cannot appear in an affirmative context. barely. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. appear. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. should be desirable. expect. we can very well say something like: (38) a. suggest. sound/feel like.

Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.*She lifted a finger to help me. *She likes our chairman at all. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. are clearly not grammatical. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. b. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.2. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. and sentences such as: (39) a. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. That is 31 . This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context.

some (I haven’t any money. / I somewhat like his proposal. / I like you a lot. / Bob is still living at that address. etc. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I like it . we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / You needn’t send her anything. still (I don’t love you any more. / Come on. / I eat caviar most of the times. / I have already seen him. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / She hardly ever comes here. either. / I somehow like him. / Well. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.) Any more vs. / I can understand both of these 32 . / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Don’t worry.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I have some money.) Much vs. / I still love you) Either vs. you can still do something about it.) At all vs.).) Yet vs. / Well. too. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / He arrived before 5.) Hardly ever vs. too (I don’t like it. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.) Until vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / They say he once had someone very close. too. a lot (I don’t like you much.

lay a finger on someone. leave a stone unturned. bat an eye(lid). n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. touch a drop. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. see/ feel/ remember a thing. hear a peep. move a muscle. know a single person. last a minute. flinch. give a damn/darn. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată./ I can understand all of these ten English words. lift/raise/ stir a finger. have/be worth a red cent. de când cu 33 . / You must pay that fine. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. hurt a fly. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. nici unuia dintre noi. sleep a wink. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. say / breathe/ understand a word. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. turn a hair. Ion nu e prea deştept. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. mulţumesc. crack a smile. have a care/ friend in the world. / Ajută-mă. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / You must be telling lies. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. Translate into English. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge.Unit two Sentence negation sentences./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. find a trace. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu.

n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / No hands wanted. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No trouble at all. n-a sunat încă. he left the room. he’s a pig. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / He is no end of a fellow. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / Not that I care. / No sooner said than done. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / Nothing succeeds like success. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / No admittance. nu e vina mea. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / He won’t make old bones. / Hotărât lucru. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. As you have noticed from the exercises above. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Never is a long word. B: Aşi. budge. but you really should do something about it. / I had no end of trouble. / No entry. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / No man is wise all the time. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. Translate into Romanian.

c) He is anxious to say something. b) I love asking some funny remarks./ I saw no one. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.Unit two Sentence negation rather). d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). Normally. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. say it. / I hate making any commitments.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone.7. as well: 35 . 2. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.

36 . however. from a syntactic point of view. B: Nu. nu-mi place.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. The second negation is somehow independent. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. nu îmi place poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.8.) 2. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. I don’t. (Nu. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. Conclusion. I don’t like this poem. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Key terms. nu poezia asta. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. B: Not this poem. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e. interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 .

2.2.1 Yes/No Questions 3.3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.3.1.3 Alternative Questions 3.3.2 Wh.1 Tag Questions 3. Key Terms.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2. Optional Exercises .2 Echo Questions 3. Direct vs.Questions 3.4.

Unit three Questions 3. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. for a subsequent section. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. focusing on direct questions mainly. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel.1.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.

and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). pe mama. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. (2).g. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. 48 . (3) and (4). due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English.

the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Likewise. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. because. In the case of indirect questions. 49 . It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. in this case. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions).Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Since the question is not direct any more. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required.

ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. c) Ştii ce. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / I don’t know who she is. ce culoare are pielea. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / I don’t know whom she fancies. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. identify the incorrect sentences. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / He asked me who she is. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. sau mai bine zis. spune la un moment dat femeia. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / He asked me who she was. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată.

V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. In this case. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.2. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Let us provide 51 . being typical of spoken language.Unit three Questions 3.

(when / the accident happen) ? 9.1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (which / you like best) ? 4.2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (how long / wait for me?) 10. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.

(Da). A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. it has. they did. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. are said to be positively – oriented. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. instead of Negative Polarity ones. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes.

I’ve still got plenty of time. ……. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. A: She had her tenants evicted.. . (speak yet) B: ……. A: Your mother is shouting for you. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. 2. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. …………………………….. A: You look down.? (a mean thing to do) 54 .. 7.. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. because you always copy everything I do! 5. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. …………………. A: You’ve been learning German for years. as in the example: 1. but I want to play basketball a little longer. ……………? (hear her) B: …. 4. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. 6. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. 3.

10. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. ……………………………….. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . what . which When. 9. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .Unit three Questions B: …………………. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. 3. I didn’t get home until late last night. 8.2 Wh – questions Wh.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. . . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. how. A: It’s past your bedtime. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. where. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.. .. You could have mentioned it earlier.2. A: There was a terrible car crash.

/ I have French lessons twice a week. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. (Poppy Z./ Sara owns two cars./ She dropped her glasses. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. what ever. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / She lives in the suburbs. why ever. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often.000dollars. I cannot do that. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. trying to find places where I resided in life. / David’s car was stolen. of course. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / That’s my pen. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / My new car cost 10. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me./ We’ve lived here for ten years. Nearly two hundred years. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / There are six students in my class. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / Shirley got married to Ben.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom.

3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 .Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.2.

How long is she be spending in America? 8. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. shall we stay? 14.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Who did left the gate open? 18. He used to work in a bank. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. There was a fax for you this morning. wasn’t it there? 17. How far is it the cinema? 10. can you be? 58 . How long is she be spending in America? 15. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. He used to work in a bank. You can’t be serious. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. didn’t use he? 4. Let’s stay for another few days. didn’t use he? 11. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 3. shall we stay? 7.

Pot reveni. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. deci. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. Who did told you about the problem? 31. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. uneori disperat. John goes jogging every morning. dacă prin absurd 59 . plin de germeni virulenţi. isn’t it this? 25. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. deci. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. să-mi înfrâng frica. That was Jeremy’s brother. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. will you not? 21. Ani întregi. Whose it is this book? 32.Unit three Questions 19. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. How long time does it take to get there? 28. will you not? 27. doesn’t he go? 23. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Toate vechi. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. wasn’t it he? 22. neliniştea infantilă. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. That’s your car. ca şi cei ce au fost. despre o lume dură. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following.

ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. laşii. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Riscul? Ratarea. naiv. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. lung. B. mă întreb. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. de atunci. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. picură apa roşietică. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . inactivii. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. ghiceam doar unde se află. indiferent de risc. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. îi ştiu gustul. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. umed. negru. pe sub bolţile din care. neîntrerupt. puturos. iar proştii. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. “Spune! striga el. dar şi drumul. străină priceperii lor. murdar. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Şi. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz.

domnule profesor.3. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. Tag Questions Tag questions. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. exclus. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. orbitor. golul alb. nu se poate. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. la urma urmei. didn’t she? . 3. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol.3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.1. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa.Unit three Questions viaţă. will you? (38) She went to Prague. da? (37) Let’s go there. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. care i-a determinat alegerea. viaţa? Oare e drept.

Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. it’s all spent. if the host sentence is negative. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. In this way. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. au fost cheltuiţi. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. hasn’t she? (Aha. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. The suggestion is that in this case.) A: Oh. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. or falling. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. is it? (Deci. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. aren’t they? 62 .e. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. sarcasm. au fost cheltuiţi. or “comment tags”.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. the tag is negative too). (Din păcate. the tag is affirmative too.

/ You have been invited. / She left an hour ago. / I am dressed smartly enough. / I am older than you. / You will pick me up. / There is enough food for everyone. / The boy often watched his sister. / She used to talk a lot. / Tell me. / He hates his wife. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / He simply hates empty words. / You will pick me up at 7. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / She has a brother. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Surely you have enough money. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / Each of us is staying. 63 .Unit three Questions (Se mută. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I may see you tomorrow. after all. / Don’t leave without me. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / He has to marry Susan. / I don’t think you like my music. / Few people like her.…/ Let me know. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / That’s your car over there. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I think you don’t like my music. / The boy never watched his sister. / I may not see you tomorrow. / That was your father. / You ought not to smoke. / I think you like my music. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / A few people like her. / They said he liked music. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / I must go now. / Let’s eat dinner now.

b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. 5. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. or what? 3. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences./ I’m right about this…. using a question tag at the end. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. So you enjoyed my talk. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / He never used to study so hard…. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.. He used to play squash. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged.

questions which repeat part or all of the message. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / Grants… 3.1. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: Chinese? 65 . / Students… Student loans might replace grants.2.3.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.3. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. Recapitulatory echo questions .Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.2.1. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.

of something just said.3. disbelief.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. If the wh. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. rather than the repetition.phrase is fronted. consternation.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.2. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Închide lumina aia.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.2.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.

dear. am pierdut scrisoarea.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. / He is interested in music./ We are looking for a purse. (i.e. (Uită-te la asta. rather than did you say. I’ve lost the letter.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. (Vai. intonation is rising. which letter do you 67 . with recapitulatory echo questions. / I think I’ve found a solution. whereas with explicatory echo questions.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. / We are looking for a pixie./ He is interested in blue movies.

Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.4. she knows about it. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.Nadina VIŞAN 3.

unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi apoi Vica ce zice. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. Fenio. ca să zic aşa. să se încolăcească mai bine.– Crezi tu. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. cu o casă de copii. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. stricata. nu purta verighetă. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. acuma sporovăiala. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . pe Condrat de Vica. da. după pofte. şerpoaica. lui Luca Horobeţ.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. în satul nostru.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. lui Stavre Păici. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. lui Chizlinski. în general. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. oameni aşezaţi. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. şi care s-a aciuat. aşa. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. cumnată Fenia. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat.

scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. L-a scos din geamie. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. dar cum se face că a 70 . pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. sus. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. De asta erai. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Hogea. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. până la călcâie. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. roşu şi galben. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. sau cum o chema. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. abia târându-şi picioarele. deci. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4.

niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

5.2.3.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Key Concepts .6.4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Contents: 74 4.1.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.

Unit four Coordination 4. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.e.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.e.1 Syndetic vs. i. that elements are coordinated. cu repros. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Example (2). some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. present) in the sentence. 75 . reproachfully. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. where there is no indication other than a comma. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. on the other hand. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.

namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. From the previously mentioned examples. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. you will die.) (4) If you hit my wife. 76 .2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.) Such examples. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. Conversely. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. vei muri. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die.

(John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. the second. but presupposed. respectively subordinated constituents. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. we need to specify that. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. However. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. from a logical & semantic point of view. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland.

stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. adorned with cornices. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. His clothes hung to him. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. but the 78 . He wrung the bottom of his trousers. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. took off his coat and emptied them. built. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. In the first. Though the castle had vanished. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. his shoes squished. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. of cut gray stone. Then he sat down. John Steinbeck. In the second. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. He moved and made a slopping noise. with enormous solidity. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. the houses were beautiful and ancient. took off his shoes and emptied them. with formal walks under rows of trees.

and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. and as the way is with Irish mountains. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . over some of the roughest ground in the country. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. Cecil Woocham – Smith. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. left the house. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. the higher he went the wetter it grew.

K.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. (G. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. As one can easily notice. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. yesterday and the day before yesterday. however distinguished. we should be seriously annoyed. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.3 Sentence vs. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. were to take down the name of every man. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. as shown in (9). A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.

6 John sang and Mary danced. 9. but not John. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. 8. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. John is ready and Mary is ready. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. / Joan plays many games. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John and Mary are the newly married couple. and I passed. 3. and even tennis. Pratice Distinguish coordination. John and Mary are ready. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . / John both composed the music and wrote the words.Unit four Coordination example (7). / Bob and George are admired by their students. our respective examinations. plays football. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. 4. / Peter and John played football. 2. 7. 10. yellow and blue. Her pet kitten is black and white. Activity 2 sentences: 1. Our flag is red. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / Peter. 5.

Activity 4 2. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. 6. 5.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.) c. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. 3. Jane 82 . Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. as can be seen in (10b). (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. or deleted.) b. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.Nadina VIŞAN b. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. John writes poetry and Bill prose. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. John loves and Bill hates cigars.

Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. these syntactical processes. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Besides ellipsis. the so-called Principle of Economy. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. So. 8. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 10. 9. 7. the predication buy a pair of shoes. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying.) The common element. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 83 . Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. can be reduced by substitution. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. i. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.e. than a longer repetitive one.

Translate the following sentences. 2. using reduced structures: 1. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. In certain cases. George and Jane are separated. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. George and Jane went back to their parents. the old men and women 2.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. simple books and magazines for children 3. A citit. one or (the) other method. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. some reason or another. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . 4. 3. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. 4. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare.

Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 5.. I need another 100$ ………. 11. 15. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 12. 13.. it’s a case of ………… 7. sweet and sour. Marks and Spencers. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. 6. . She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. even though they have their little …………. 7. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 8. only for damage. After all their adventures. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche.. 5. fish and chips. They get on quite well together. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 8. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 6... the amount I’ve already saved up. for my wallet.You gain some things and you lose others. You can’t claim on insurance for ……….. like: salt and pepper. they reached home………. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. 2. A pendulum swings ……….Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. Can we discuss the ………….… 14.I searched ………. of your proposals later on? 3. 16.

more often than not. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. the expressive function of coordination is. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. etc. 4. In fact. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content.4. and 86 .Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. b. For instance. of course. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. as in: (17) a.) There are. Nor sun.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast.

Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. etc). some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.g. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. or . where the subordinator is repeated. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. o respectau si o indrageau. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. sometimes but. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) c. 20 (b)).) 87 . and cherished her. (I-am dat banii. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) b. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. both … and . I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) In certain cases. too): (20) a. dar nu am fost multumit de asta.

the order of these conjuncts is fixed. I washed and ironed my pants.* I ironed and washed my pants. (Imi place si o admir. and you’ll die. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. and hit my wife. if we were to rewrite the example .Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. I like and admire her. From this point of view. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. I admire and like her. In this case. (O admir si imi place.) b. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b.

(First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) (While Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. he failed). Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. Dr. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (If you do that. Brown experiments with humans.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.Unit four Coordination 1.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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Nadina VIŞAN

(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.

(Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. as the name suggests it. e. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. From the functional point of view. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.g. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.which are based on coordination . takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.) 101 .

by an adjective + preposition. for example). such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. in certain cases. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) 102 .) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. we associate it with these objects. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. We do not presuppose however something like. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. they are still presupposed by the speaker. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. an adverbial item.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. For instance.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (I-a dat cartea. sentences) required by the verb (or. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). for instance. In a way. such as proud of.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.

(Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. 103 .) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. In other words. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. to her) and one extra-item. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. Thus. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.e. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to add something. an additional one. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition.) b. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. i. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. I am afraid that he won’t come. The second example. which is the adverbial willingly. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. A second observation. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. related to example (4).

a închis toate ferestrele. such as want. (Înainte să plece din cameră.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (11) If you don’t marry me. am să mor. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.) 104 . If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. So. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. like. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. make. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. I’ll die. etc.

After I told her the story. 2. Whoever did that was a genius. 4. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.g. They came to e. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Susan disappeared without saying a word. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 6.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.g. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. e. this to whomever wants it.g. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. The book that because they home. 3. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.She came to him of her own will. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . she looked at me sadly. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. [. 5.

remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. etc. You suggestion that we should. As you can see. 6. was a novelty to Mitzi. at our age.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. WHETHER. 4. 5. FOR. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. which. 3. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. 2. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. but he declined. though it was largely politeness.) 106 .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. not object. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian.He took an intelligent interest in her. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. stating their function: Activity 2 1. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.

(18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) b. where.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. Where he went is London. when.) (16) a. (15) It is John who did it.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. who. (E de dorit să plece. why. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. etc. how.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. 107 . which. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (Am vrut să plec imediat. Who did it was John.

The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. etc. As you will see. In (18). before. Compare. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. done from a structural point of view. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. however. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.) (18) She told me this before she left.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause.1. if. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. Unlike complement clauses. which sums up this classification. consider the following table. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. for instance. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . In conclusion. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.

back. for. at your young age.g. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. 109 . I will go there because I feel like it.g. surely you cannot sincerely believe. you understand. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. etc. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son.g. Introduced know e. Dear Ludwig. I will come back such as because. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.: e. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. as. after. whether he will come when I feel like it.

for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. But she thought that no one would call again. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 .It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. a tightening in her breathing. Late that afternoon. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Accidental Man) b)1. he said. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. she stopped to speak to Monroe. 2. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. Too.The day Monroe had died was in May. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. As she left the house.

g.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.g. However. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. As you have probably noticed already. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.2. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. a correspondence can be traced. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g. I told her everything after she arrived. 111 . interesting. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.g. That he loved e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. că e.g.

complement. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică..1.2. So.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.e. Secondly. In the fourth place. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. (Cred că mă place.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. i. whenever you identify a wh. Thirdly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. complements. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. whereas wh complements are the 112 . We will come back to that in the next chapter.

The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. but no idea what to do with them. outbuildings. for no matter how she tried. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. a house. because. She mistrusted her handwriting. after. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. before. a barn. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. and I do not know how things might stand between us. their introductory elements (e. c) I am coming home one way or another. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour.g. I first thought to tell in 113 . Pratice Consider the following text. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.

e. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. these clauses can be complements. because they modify. it would make you fear to do such again. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. and I have not the will or the energy.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. According to a structural criterion.4. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.

interested in. (…) “Mă. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. etc. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Alţii.g. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. answering the question to whom? So. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. după ce că are grâu puţin.e. O zbughi înapoi. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. ce o fi având. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Pratice Translate the following. look at. însă. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. 115 . think of. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. be very careful to use this term correctly. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Nevasta secera în tăcere.

Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. izolate de sat. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. timp de un ceas. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. întâi. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. de fapt. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Nici acum. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. Toată lumea înţelesese că. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. cât de bolnavă era. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte.

deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. de pildă. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. amânase scrisul. În realitate. Era bine de ştiut. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. acum sunt desluşiţi. stricau totul. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Iată. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . aşa de oţetit. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. deşi cam târziu. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. Pace nu era. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. la nişte prieteni comuni. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. la Odobeşti. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. întâia noapte de război) 118 .

the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.. subject relative clauses. etc.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. of which. etc).g. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. 119 . whose.

6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.2.4. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. The Co-reference Condition 6.1.3. Key Concepts .7.6.5.

It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.2. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. 6. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The Co-reference Condition .a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). 121 . We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.1. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.Unit six Relative clauses 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.

) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. John loves that woman. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. By combining these two clauses. 122 . reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause.

I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. John offered flowers to that woman. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. This way. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. 123 . we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The common element woman is present.

The king was just passing by. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. He’s the author who received the prize. 2. Susan wants to meet Jane. None of the students agreed with them. WHICH 4. They met those students. The students like their teacher. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. I love my husband very much. Any of the students would answer to questions. WHERE 3. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. This is my husband. WHO 5. frequently used in written language. I went to London. too. 9. He liked that book. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I introduced him to Jim. I had a book. He told Jim everything about his plans. John told his friend a story about the king. WHO 124 . 4. 10.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. She came to London. 3. 8. therefore in spoken English. 5. 7. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 6. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. I bought Jim a book. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. The students like their teacher. I lost the book’s cover. by leaving behind a trace.

e. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9.Unit six Relative clauses 6. relative clauses are divided into 1. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. WHICH 8. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. .3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. (Cine strică plateşte. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. WHOM 10. most of them were from England. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. WHOSE 7.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. i. 2. WHOM 6. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. TO 11. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.

as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. in a manner of speaking. it is covert.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . Unlike their sisters. these relatives cannot function as attributes. unlike in the case of (14). only their antecedent is no longer expressed. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. is no longer overtly expressed. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Cel care strică plăteşte. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit.e.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) So. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.

(Mercur. They only provide supplementary information about it. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. este zeul meu favorit. They can be thus divided into: 1. who incidentally is the god of commerce. 127 . and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent.) (Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. they define it).) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. care este zeul negoţului. (Du-te unde pofteşti. who is the god of commerce.) (22) Mercury. is my favourite god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. they offer crucial information about this antecedent.

i. On the day on which this occurred I was away. 6. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. was the one we all welcomed and admired. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. is a great playwright. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. on whom nobody could depend. 8. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 10. I have met him where I least expected. who is a genius. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. 9. this type of relative clauses. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. is a genius. She. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. restrictive relative clauses.This is the village where I spent my youth. then it is an attribute. As we were saying.e. They are what 128 . Shakespeare.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. who came to see me. 2. Independent I don’t know what you want. 5. 7.

First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. however sad this may be. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury.) 2. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. 6.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. care a murit acum câţiva ani. composed The (Freddie Mercury. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. a. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. who died a few years ago. When the antecedent has no determiner. etc. . We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. etc.

care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. Dintre toate personajele prezente. iritabilă şi uscată. dried-up old maid. 3. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. can see your shortcomings only too well. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. (Eu. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu.) Pratice Translate the following.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. care nu sunt o femeie. ci o fată a woman. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care-ţi sunt fiu. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc.) (28) They come to me. 130 . 6. poftiţi în faţă. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 4. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. numai eu nu. but a peevish. ill-tempered.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Mie. 2. bătrînă morocănoasă. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. (Ei apeleaza la mine. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 5. who am your son. 7. who neither work nor am anxious.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic).

. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (32) service finished late. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. than whom few more can be more crashing.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.) (35) The compositions of Cardan. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. heard. părăsi camera. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.Unit six Relative clauses 6. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. erau acum în posesia lui. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. were now in his possession.

as can be seen in (36d). (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.5. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.1. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. but it is typical of the formal.) c. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b.) b. 6. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones.) d.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. too. The genitive form with which is still in use. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. literary style: (37) a.

) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Iris Murdoch.

… Italy. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) b.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) • states. He is not the man which he used to be. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. animals. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. ships (that can be personified) a. by the way.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. but to a type or a function: a.) b. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. of which. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (45) (46) .

) 6. etc. where.Unit six Relative clauses b.) b. whom it concerned most closely. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. while. France.5.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. how. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. etc. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. It is poor what gets the punches.) 135 (47) . pe care o privea direct. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. time. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. why. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. (Nu ştiam ce vor.2 Relative Adverbs: when. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. reason.) b) dialectal (49) a. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.

(Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A system where by a new discovery will arise.They left when they decided it was proper to.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.) When they introduce free relative clauses. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. He went where he had been before. They returned to the land whence they had come. This is the place wherefrom they came. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) 136 .5. no antecedents are required: (52) a. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. The place whither he goes is unknown.3. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.) 6.) c. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) e.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) b.) b. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.

) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.

138 (64) his shoes. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. but • in standard language a.4. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. not any. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. Honest man as he was. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. much. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every. any.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) b. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. .* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. but they are used very infrequently: as.5.

să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. . There’s not many as’ll say that.) • in dialect a. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. This is the same one that/as you had before. ăl de fusese in China…) b.) c. It’s the dry weather does it. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) c. And always on the buttered side. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. him as was in China … (Uncle George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. Uncle George. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a.

(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.) b. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.) 140 .

The man who John spoke to is a genius.5. That which shows God out of me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.3): (72) a. makes me a wart and a wen. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 5. b.) c. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. we all have to come to some terms. This is where we talk money. fortifies me. It seemed a thing 141 . The man that John spoke to is a genius. 2. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 7. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.” 4.) b. The man John spoke to is a genius. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. Where he was from. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. 6.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. 3. What I’m saying is.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. What Inman remembered was this passage.

Oh. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Ruby said. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 9. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. though. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Whatever his fate was. which is a lot. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 8. 13. The rudeness of eating. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. of living. 10.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 11. 142 . that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. (…) Partly. 12. who had not witnessed many dawns. he had left Ruby high and dry.

plutonier. vasnic. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. pe linie paterna. cumnatul unui portughez. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. fiu natural al unui morar. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. Cumnatul meu avea. divortata. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. un var primar. una din nepoatele unui inginer. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. poate. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. pirpiriu. nu prea sarac. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. al carei strabunic. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. mort de tanar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. (Iris Murdoch. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 .al lui. This is the horse that kicked the policeman.

The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was a woman. The opposite phenomenon. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Teatru) 6. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. By extension. This is the book. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. c. 144 . She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.6.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. I lost the cover of the book.2. Everybody listened to that woman. b. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar.

This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The problem of safe transportation. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 5. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position.Unit six Relative clauses b. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. 4. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. has been troubling them forever. In the interest of public decency. 7. 3. acting again as a genuine pied piper. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. no easy answers to which could be offered. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 8. 6. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 2. he requested that the public be excluded. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . The difference between (76) and (77). We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 9. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti.

Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. as the case is). he rarely saw now.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. was now complete. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 3. His friends. no matter which. This story. Activity 9 were now all gone. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 4. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 6.His father’s friends. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 2. has been deleted. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. They do not function as attributes. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Irene. 146 . 5. 10.

Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 2. De douazeci de ani.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. 3. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. închipuirea. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . Pentru alţii. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 5. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. pentru dumneata bunăoară. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. himeric. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Nelu. 6. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Toate sfârşeau. 4. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 7.

nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. 9. 8. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 12. a făcut el. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 10. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. cu surle şi cu tobe.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa.

15. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. trăia larg de tot. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. În spatele lor. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. 14. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. fie pe stradă. zise ea cu ochii mari. Dacă mă lovea. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. până mai adineauri. 20.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. care era foarte “mondenă”. 17. Avea acum un fel de vertij. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. roiuri de fetiţe. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. 149 . pe strada Icoanei. dinspre Maria Rosetti. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. apărură. toată lumea întreba cine e. despre care. din direcţia căreia apoi. 16. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. 18. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. din care cauză pe Dora. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. de unde venea şi Marta. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. fie la teatru. deşi atât de aproape. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi.

Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. întâia noapte de război) 150 . pe care eu nu-l aveam. Pare-se că snobii. după ce maşina a fost reparată. pe care ea îi admira acum. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. de sus de unde eram. până în şosea. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. când au urcat râpa iar. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. aveau un stil al lor. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins.Nadina VIŞAN 21. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. 24. 23. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. Pentru mine însă. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. de mine. 22.

Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. 151 .

5.3. That Deletion 7.2.3.Clause Shift 7.2.2.7.1.2.4. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2.1.2. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.1.Topicalization 7.3.1.1.Extraposition 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.4.3.2.2.1. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.3.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.1. Key Concepts . That Complements as Subjects 7.2.5. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.6.2.

followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. the clause is extraposed.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. Apart from those introduced by that. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. placed in a marginal position. In other words. but also of infinitival ones. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. (3) Tell me if you need anything. 153 . being found not only in the case of that-clauses. 7.1.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).

) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.

It is nice to meet you. 10.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 4. 9. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 11. It appears that no one voted for him. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 4. 13. 2. 8. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 11. 15. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 10. 6.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 7.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 7. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It is no use trying to convince her. 6. 8. 9. 3. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 5. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 2. 14. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 3. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.

They never expected it that he would come back. 2. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 5. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. unde se nimerea. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 3. zice Lionel.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 2. după porţi. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. mă ascundeam în grabă. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. în gropi. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 6. 18. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 4. sub poduri. I guess it that he will come back. I don’t expect it that he will come back. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 5. în canal. 3.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 3. 4.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. atât 156 . “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer.

precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. fără îndoială. 5. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. 7. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. (Nu întotdeauna. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 6. excelentă. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. fără să cârteşti.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. vor căuta să o zdruncine. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos.” 4. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. 157 .

Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. Pratice Read the following. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. 1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language.) While in the case of extraposition. Consequently.1. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.2.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.Nadina VIŞAN 7. in the case of topicalization.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. this asymmetry is undone.

When this is so one is in extremity indeed. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. even today. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. mere chance would decide. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. whether it would finally carry her off. 3. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 5. 8. but not now. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. This was another era. was inconceivable. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 7.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 4. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 2. 6. He was utterly gone. he felt no spring of interest in her. She had always been the slave of chance. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. He did not blame Gracie.

3. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood.1.) 160 .Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.

the verb to drive). because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. we obtain. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.e.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. 161 .

/ ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 6. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 3. 2. 4. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. prime-minister. 7.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. 8. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 5. who had just returned from Africa. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 162 . / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.

) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .2. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.

) b. etc.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. desire. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. They believe that the man is guilty.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. afirm. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) 164 . deem. (I-au promis o casă nouă. explain.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) b. etc. judge. predict.: (25) a. promise.1.2. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. They promised him that he would received a new house. He announced that they were engaged. (Cred că omul este vinovat. They believe the man is guilty. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.Nadina VIŞAN 7. He announced their engagement. deny. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. consider.) a. communicate. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. estimate. state. suggest. prefer.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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That complements

b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

171

) 172 . on condition that. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. ibid. they lose their meaning.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. for example.) I like him in that he is smart. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. In older stages of English.) language. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.e. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. hope =>purpose.

His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. He gave an answer such. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. He gave such an answer as had expected.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) (66) 173 a. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. . să o vadă trecând.) When the structure contains the word such.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. That can be deleted. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.

8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) 174 .) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. ibid.) b. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. He gave an answer such that I had expected.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. they were chained to each other forever. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. (Iris Murdoch. (Iris Murdoch. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. for better or worse.

(A prins de veste că ei vin. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. that he uses a relaxed tone. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.3 ‘That Deletion 7. tell). say. 175 .) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.3.Unit seven That complements 7. for instance. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (69) a.1.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) c. He got word they were coming. He said he had borrowed her money. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. He showed he was able to do it.) b.

7. bune.3.3.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Iris Murdoch. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. because that has been deleted. they were chained to each other forever. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. for better or worse. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . (Îmi place că e aici. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. *I like it he was here.) b. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.3.2.) (De asemenea. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. for better or worse. ibid.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. rele. I like it that he was here.

posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. (“Este acolo”.) 177 . thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming.4. 7. you want me to believe.) b)He told me that she was there. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. simultaneity. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. that they were not too late to leave. spuse el. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. he said. which is ungrammatical in English. 7) They maintain. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause.

he said. (A spus că. The Present complement). până pleacă ea. He told me that she had been there.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. In the example below. (“Era acolo”. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. vine el.) b. (Pâna să plece. spuse el.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. o să vină el. (Am să o părăsesc. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (A spus că o să o părăsească. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .) b.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. He said he would leave her.) Future Perfect -----. “She was here”. I will leave her.) b.

etc. believe. be amazed/concerned. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. With such factive verbs as realize. report.) 179 . hope. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. dream. mention.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. show. insist. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. notice. regret. wish. think.) On the other hand. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. forget. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. realize it). (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. say.) b. etc. be aware. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. whisper. discover.

(Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. feign habits which are not their own.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. Consider also: (85) a. She realized that all men are fools. (Iris Murdoch. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair.) b. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. in tender deference to each other. cu un respect tandru reciproc. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. He knew that she thought all men were fools. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. 180 .) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. we notice that general truths. She believed that the earth is round.

3. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. There are however cases. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Peter said that John would leave at 5. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed.Unit seven That complements 2.) In (88).) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) b. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived.) b. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. Peter said that John will leave at 5.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. such as a. 181 . (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.

g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. The time is 3 o’clock. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. h) John thought that Harry had run. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Imagine. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. f) John said that Harry would leave. for instance. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. But 182 . f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.

redtailed hawk. bluebird. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. jaybird. nighthawk. c. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. b. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. Cooper’s hawk. geese both grey and white. slyness in a fight. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. whistling swan. Crows will relish what presents itself. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. 183 .Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. She admired their keenness of wit. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. as evidenced by its drear plumage. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. love of practical jokes. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. quail. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a. Translate the following. lack of pridefulness. kingfisher. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck.

Noble beyond all her powers of expression. war hero though he was. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. the young officer. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. And they might just hang him. But as the battle raged around them. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . Now here he stood jailed. in the very act of expiring. He had fought hard through the war. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He died erect. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. he claimed. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. […] During the latter stages of the tale. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.

adjective or by a de-verbal noun. from the very frequent subject. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. On certain occasions that can be deleted. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. 185 . on other occasions it has to stay there. object ones up to the attributive function. or else. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).Unit seven That complements 7. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.

3. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Unul din ei. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. peste puţin. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. cel mai mare. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 2. Mama. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Fiind 186 . spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 4. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1.

6. 5. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. fericit. aşa. Se mira. va pleca din oraş la vie. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. 8. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. 9. luminos şi apropiat şi când. de ce constata în sine. 7. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. un vis de acesta 187 . Nu ţi-a trecut. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. care îl pândise. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. venind de la avocat. cel puţin pentru un timp. dacă va mai veni. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. ea. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute.

11.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Acesta. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. dar şi teama că. încă o dată.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. fireşte. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. şi mândria că a biruit. lucrul era înfăptuit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. 12. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . liniştit. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Astfel de va fi. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise.

lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. 14. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să le lămurească pe toate. Pe toate. ci numai aşa. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. mai puternic decât oricând. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. spre Jurubiţa. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . după cum. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. fără o vorbă scrisă.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

8.6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.2.4.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.3.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.1.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.9.7.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.Key Concepts .A Classification of Infinitives 8.8.5.

To love her is something really wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). It is important that you should know what you need. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.) b. Consider the following: • like that complements.) • like that complements. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. That you love her is something wonderful. b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.) b. From this perspective. (2) a. (3) a. 193 . It is important for you to know what you need. I told her to be more careful in the future. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.1.

(Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. the Participle) (i. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. the Gerund. 194 . that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. moduri nepersonale) By convention. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. d. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. as opposed to the finite ones. participial clauses. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.e.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. the Conditional. 2. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. For instance.) b. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. gerundial clauses.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. etc. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart.

If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. namely no ending.) c.) 195 . it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) b. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.

(7) They saw her leave. 6.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is vital this factory to be reopened. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 8. 3. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 10. the criterion of form. 9.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 4. 8.2. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 2.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. 7. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 5. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând.

/ L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. 2. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. (10) 197 . / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. hear.

/ A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. 198 (11) the universe. uncharacteristic for literary English. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. 3. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. Pratice Translate the following. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. .) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. However. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial.

) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. to use the appropriate technical term. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. 199 . In other words. or the control constructions.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. as I have already mentioned. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. Further on. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.

namely the agent of the event. PRO to err is human.) b. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. I hoped for him to be there in time. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. It is important for him not to err. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.) Object: (18) a.) b. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. şi creştineşte să ierţi.) 200 . What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. the logical subject.) In this situation. So far. PRO to forgive divine.

The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. him is not the agent of the infinitive. but the patient of the verb persuade. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. Semantically. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. In other words. him is related to the main clause verb. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive.) b. He stepped aside for her to enter. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . not to the infinitive. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun.

whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. I hate animals to be tortured. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ She promised him to leave. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ I would love them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ They tempted him to leave. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ 202 . This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ She wanted him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. \ They convinced her to come back.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ He persuaded her to come. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. Likewise. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.

But it is clear that he is a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. \ They really asked her to come back.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. \ They did not wish her to come back. 203 .) In examples (25) and (26). and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. • Last but not least. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. So. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.

204 . bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. that is not required by certain verbs. which are said to be free. Pratice Translate the following sentences. etc. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. hate. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. to meet her. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. seem. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. with special semantic and syntactic properties.). To sum up the discussion. appear. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă.

arrange. mean. decline. etc. refuse./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. aspire to. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. omit.3 The Distribution of PRO .) b) verbs such as abide. venture. wish.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. bear. propose. need. Compare: (31) a. fail. contrive.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. hate. desire. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. dislike. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. etc.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. deign.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. manage. / E greu să îl suporţi. prefer. condescend. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. scorn. try.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. endeavour.) 205 friend. care to. intend. presume. want. agree to. like. seek (= try). expect. 8. scheme. etc. hope. deserve. . afford.

threaten. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. suggest. be important. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) b. claim. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.) 206 .) b.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. desirable.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. ask. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. I would like for him to become president of the country. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.etc. possible. stand. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. verbs of liking and disliking. etc. forget. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. unlikely. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. conclude. For all of them to have been killed is. endeavour. bear.) 8. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. however. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) b.Nadina VIŞAN b. I hate that you should say a thing like this.

Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) 8.) 207 . (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) b. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.) 2. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. Predicative Clauses (39) a.

Direct Objects (39) a. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. but the meaning remains. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 4. .) 208 knowledge. Like in the case of that complements. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. the preposition is deleted. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a.) 5.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure.Nadina VIŞAN 3. I decided for John to represent us. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements.

bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.: (42) a.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) c.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. He is a bastard to work for. delicious. 6.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) e. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) d. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. etc. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. She is pretty to look at. This paint is like concrete to work with. curious about. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. The stew is delicious to eat.) b. You’re an idiot to go there.

Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. to tell you the truth. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. final or introductory infinitive In this case.) I’ve never met him. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / Pe şleau. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă.) Oh./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . (final) (Nu-l cunosc. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. / Ehei. you’re a bad driver. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. să nu piardă trenul. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. conduci prost. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. drept să spun.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.

encourage.: (51) a. induce.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. direct. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. press. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. promise. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. (49) a. etc. According to this. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. swear. nu mai vreau să te vad.etc.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. enable. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun.) b. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. inspire. need. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. influence. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. b. oblige.) . urge.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. 8. inform.

(L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. count on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. vote.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. allow. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. order. command. choose. look to./ And now he 212 .) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. etc.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. prevail on. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. depend on.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.etc. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. etc. name. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. nominate.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. permit./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. elect.

etc. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (56) She grew to like him in the end. 213 (58) (59) . be about to. happen. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (57) He is to come any day now. (Se pare că îi place de el.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. i.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. this construction is lexically governed.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (Iris Murdoch. be going to.e.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. etc.verbs: appear. come.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. grow. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). An Accidental Man) 8.etc.: (55) She appears to like him.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. seem. (O să întârzii/ leşin.

feel. watch.etc. be thought. perceive. be reported. be considered. hear. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be alleged. .: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.: (62) They heard him insult her. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). In (57).) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. overhear. etc. be rumoured.) 8. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. observe. that of intention. etc. be claimed.

) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. prove.) 215 (67) . believe. deem. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. occasion. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. discover. etc. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. cause. remember. presume. understand. know. have. imagine.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. consider. find. (Cred că este un geniu. figure.) • with a full infinitive: get. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. judge. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. picture.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. recollect. However.

these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.etc. mean. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. permit. prefer. they had depressed and fuddled him. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. expect.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. command. love. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. wish. want.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. he hated anyone to comment 216 . order. desire. suffer. Harold. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. if he himself was out of spirits. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. etc. choose. who wasn’t used to men with moods.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.

(L. He suspected hostility at once. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. the herd instinct was very strong in him. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. he didn’t envy those above it. to make sure we attended strictly to business.P. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. so that we might get to the future and have done. A little crossly. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. though he tended to look down on those below it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal.

is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. 218 .9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. we can speak about bare and full infinitives.Nadina VIŞAN 8. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The last criterion. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. From this perspective. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions.

să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. bunăoară. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. E posibil. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. într-o zi. Şi tu să fii. e) Când doi oameni. de bună seamă. mai bine219 . making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. e important ce întrebări pui. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. dar să nu-ţi spună. să-l capete. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. un bărbat şi o femeie. fireşte. de asemenea.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. lovit şi umilit.

nici măcar în acele puncte unde. un picior. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.Nadina VIŞAN zis.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. pe care deja o uitase. aşa cum îi apăruse el. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Să spui de pildă. ca să nu şi-o amintească. că eşti tânăr. în parte. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. De era vară.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. mai pline de înţeles. 220 . Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. avusese dreptate.Şt. d-a lungul gâtului. mai bine de două decenii. încă.Delavrancea. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.Şt. să traiesc numai cu tusea. sau. (B. în parte. în ploaie. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. să nu vrea să se şteargă. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. . în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. în jos. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. Însă Paul Achim trăise.

nici ca să 221 . şi prin faţă. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.. biata Muti. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. orice bucureştean ştie. (Al.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. un miros îngrozitor. o mizerie.. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). care să mă servească şi să mă înjure.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. Mă laud singură. sunt aici cu tot ce am. prin faţă e coborârea. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. orice-ar fi.. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. fie ea şi grăbită. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. deşi. şi nu un amant. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. de fapt. ei.. Într-un cuvânt.

parcă la întâmplare. niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . în realitate.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede.

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles. verbal nouns.

Participial Constructions 9.2.1.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.The Verbal Noun 9.3. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1.2.1.The Participle Contents: 224 9.2.4.The Gerund 9.1.2.2.5 Key Concepts .9.3.2.

1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1. Due to this situation.) 225 . This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. (Susan doarme. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.

Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) More infrequently. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. Susan has come. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). blood-shot and painted. In (2) the forms come.e.) As you can see in this second case. 226 . especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Susan has been killed. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. been and killed are past participle forms.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. i. were closing. it functions attributively. the past participle can appear after a noun. too: (6) Her eye-lids. (A venit Susan) b.

she ran away. I will arrive there on time. Arriving here.) c. Oh. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. I will arrive there on time.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (Ştiind cine era el. Weather permitting. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) c. mother permitting. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. o să ajung la timp. When singing. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. they started singing. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. he will eventually marry her. leul poate să atace.) b. Knowing who the guy was. o să ajung la timp. ea o luă la fugă. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. a lion can attack.) b. începură să cânte. (Sosind aici. If provoked.) 227 . God willing.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. people should pay attention to high notes.) d.

They found him killed by a bullet.) b. notice. (Am simţit-o tremurând.) b. I found him stealing.) 228 . (L-au descoperit că fură. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) ii. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. hear. He was found killed by a bullet. behold. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. which stands for an adverbial clause. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. smell. He was found stealing. watch. (L-am descoperit furând. respectively.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.

) • Causative verbs: get.) c. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. make a. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. a. have. feel.) b. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. have.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. I must get my hair cut. recollect. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. send.) • mental perception verbs: remember. He’ll soon get things going. keep. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. find.) b. set. etc.: a. she knew herself dismissed. etc. know. start. hear. etc. leave.: When she heard his words. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. confess.) b. recollect.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) • Causative verbs: get . (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (A fost văzut plângând. etc. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. I heard it said that men are a bore.

) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. lovit şi plin de sânge. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. He wanted his car fixed immediately. Men like shopping made easy. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 ./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Nu după multă vreme. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. command I ordered my bill made out.) • verbs of permission. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.) b. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte.

/ My Lord.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. / Dinny. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / In any case. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.2. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Unlike the gerund. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. 231 . before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.e. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial.1. with its lips drawn back. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.

) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 5. I knew that the murderer was still at large. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. I turned on the light. It had been uprooted by the gale.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. I left. 7. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. She had heard it all before.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 4. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. 6.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I was astonished at what I saw. The tree had fallen across the road. I left. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. 3. I have looked through the fashion magazine. am plecat.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . (Desi nu ştia limba. se va opri şi ploaia. People were sleeping in the next room. am plecat. 2. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. the rain will stop. (Văzând acestea.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. using either a present participle.

8. his horse fell at the last jump. skinned. wooden. sharp. 7. red (twice). He sat down to his own dinner. hearted (twice). Read the sentences and try to correct them.shoulder. Leaving the cinema. haired (twice). it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. cloth. cornered. fishy. Dropped by parachute. 6. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Reading in bed. shaven. quick. b) Headed (5 times). open. Getting out of bed. coloured.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Tied to the post. 3. narrow. 10. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. broad. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. lighted. lion. many. one of the eggs broke. three. He fed the dog. 233 . bald. Barking furiously. an idea suddenly occurred to me. straight. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. my hands often get very cold. 8. 2. 4. eyed (3 times). stricken. Riding in the first race. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Mother punished me for my mistake. They found the treasure. a pot of paint fell on my head. Passing under a ladder. I slammed the door of my room. eagle. open. 11. 10. handed. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. I let the dog out of the room. empty.Running into the room. a scorpion bit him. minded (3 times). drunken. Climbing down the tree. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 9. roast. dark. stony. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 12. 9. 5. mown. covered. They began quarreling about how to divide it.

_______ by S. / Many old people . man. stream. _______ for their elegance and precision. (grow) 4. meat. In the following pairs of sentences. lead. (take) 2. were taken to hospital. (hunt)._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. shrunken. (find) 6. Whales. graven. (injure). Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. lamb. eyes. / Swiss watches. (admire) 5. image. was today taken back to prison. duty. Translate into English: 1. candle. plank. wealth. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. The escaped prisoner. is expected to be a great hit. meaning. are in grave danger of extinction. bounden. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. ________ hiding in a barn. 7. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. The film. the same verb is missing twice. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets.Spielberg. _______ my arm.I fell on the ice. are sold throughout the world./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. b) grass. I stared at the canvas for ages. hidden. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 .Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. head. (produce) 3. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. shorn. ill-gotten. rotten. deer. _______ for a bargain. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Three people.

plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. Şi sufletul său.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. Şi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. O umbreluţă. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. precum şi foile de plăcintă. păsări tăiate. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. le fierbea. când strânsă. 2. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. le cocea. deodată sufocat. legume date prin mai multe ape. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. şi moi. 3. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. trezit. nesigur şi moale. care le rânduia. întinse. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. După câtva timp. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. 4. ca şi cum. când deschisă.

crezi. 236 .1. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.Nadina VIŞAN 9. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. The Gerund 9.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Dacă vezi. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. According to this criterion. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake.2. Likewise.2.

(M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.) b. In that.) 9.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.2. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) b. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. That he won and you lost was surprising. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . gerunds differ from participles.2. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. Him winning and you losing was surprising. Consider the following table.

) 2.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. *It was illegal growing a beard. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.) b. Consider (32). (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. as being verbal 238 .) Unlike participles. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. It was illegal to grow a beard. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul.

(N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b. as offered in the table below: 239 .2. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) b. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.3. Just like in the case of noun phrases. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.) 3. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well.) 9. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. It’s no good talking to her. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. Participles vs. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.

Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. perfect. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. 2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . forms: continuous . may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. passive ones She was crying. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. (prepositional object clause) 5.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. + noun] 1. babies suck their thumb. 3.

/ A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare.

boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 12. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. crying game / crying woman. 6. 242 . 13. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 7. swimming duck / swimming trunks. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. shooting gallery / shooting star. 14. Gambling is his favourite pastime. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 3. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 12. eating habits/ eating people. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 15. 11. 2. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. He was spotted talking to her. 5. 9. 4. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 10. 8. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough.

e. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.e. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e.3. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.) The absence of a determiner like the.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. a The absence of an of phrase.Unit nine Ing complements 9. but the presence of a direct object (i.

the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. How can we tell? In the first case. In the second situation. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . Thus.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. George’s shooting the attacker. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone.

/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. 245 . the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. Jim left quietly. very large. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town./ His sudden coming puzzled her.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / His coming there puzzled her. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff.

The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. Look. the meaning is different. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. For instance. for example.Nadina VIŞAN 9. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. whenever we meet an –ing form. ING Forms and Infinitives. However.4.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. With the infinitive. It has been noticed that. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 .

Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) . we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. future-oriented value of the infinitive). is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.) After looking at this example. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. anterior to the verb in the main clause. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.) The first example.g. containing an infinitive. and the most well-known one. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. (S-a oprit din mâncat. having left) is infrequently used in English.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. the infinitive is future-oriented. On the other hand.

b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). both sentences are translated the same in Romanian.e. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. recollect.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. which means that they are similar in meaning. i.) .) As you can see. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember.e.

) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. In the second example. the action is not completed.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. but that’s it.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) . dar asta este. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.

e) need. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. The house needs to be repaired. In the second example. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) With [. The house needs repairing. the event has not happened yet.) wedding. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. (Casa trebuie reparată. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) b. mean has the sense signify. (Casa trebuie reparată. want With [+ human] objects.) 250 .) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.human] objects.

only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. however appearances were against us. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.’ ‘Tell me. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. (hold) up his pen and (speak). why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. (take) down her answer. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ ‘In any case. whereas in the second case. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. but they went by too quickly.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. my Lord. it’s overrated. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. I did ask Mr. Lady Corven. my Lord. gerund or infinitive. Croom (try) (follow) one.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.

e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’ said Clare. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. and went out (post) it himself.’ 252 .’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. suddenly. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). I must go back now. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. he addressed the note.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. I just used the word and they fell.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. Then. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. licked the envelope with passion.

The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Last but not least.5. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. the 253 . Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Participles mainly function as adverbials. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms.

their edges crashing inwards. then the noise and the cracking stone. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. moving up towards his chest. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. The two sides were moving apart. slowly rising in a swirling motion. someone looking for survivors. according to the books he read. The sight of the two children. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. but then he saw it billowing up from below. She started coughing. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. It was like a mist. covering the girl’s head. hoping he would see somebody up there. At first. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. the enormous split in the earth. down. He looked up towards the daylight. Then he saw movement at his feet. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. it 254 . down into God knows where.

slanted on to her cheek. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. and sunlight. Having a French governess. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. brightening to winter brilliance. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. She finished what jobs there were.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. 255 .

Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. într-o joi.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. mama mea. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. and then went riding with her in the rain. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. 2. ucenicul său necredincios. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. cei doi Mamona. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Vaucher şi cu mine. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. totul se animă deodată. În urma slugii. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Ridicându-se. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. închizând ochii. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând.

după cum îi spusese mama. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. privit. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. Şi deodată. se duse lânga mama şi. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. la mine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. aşezată cu spatele la noi. am ştiut şi cine. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. pe mama mea părând absentă. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. dar ştiutoare. Ne-a privit o clipa şi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. totul mi se părea cunoscut. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . aplecându-se puţin. Neclintiţi. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. pe Vaucher. afară ploua în continuare. o sărută pe frunte. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. 3. auzit şi zadarnic. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. despre neprecupeţirea efortului.

camionul a plecat. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu stiva de lemne. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. şi. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . cu tot cu baraca. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu soba. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. 5. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. dar. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. Au coborât din camion încet. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe.

259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. and meet it right here at home. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. apart from his distress for parents. You have been much in my thoughts. 4. he had not yet been able to estimate. he had been advised. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. since I have decided. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 10. 11. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 6. without profound questioning. 7. 12. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. and that 263 . because of pity. How much. 13. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. in some way. Having regard to the date of drafting. 5. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. was unclear to Mitzi. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. I am sorry not to have seen you. whereas if she went away she would get none. this would really hurt. How this time was to come. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 9. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 3. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. and this particularly of late. to retire early from my employment. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 2.

15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. looking forward had not yet taken place. 17.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. I was made say Grace before every dinner. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. please consider his proposition. 264 . Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. 19. for attending his sister’s wedding. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / Whenever I visited my aunt. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. this always makes us feel embarrassed. he did not come to see her. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 14. / In the end. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / Before you go on changing the subject. even for months. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends.

And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. without discovery. Essentially. Vulgar men did. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. her recklessness. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. her old friend Hugh. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. cotton mills at Manchester. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. of the quick and wiry. of all people. an open-air person. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. 265 . she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. They hated trying on. a little girl. They rushed into shops. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. She felt as when. and it was bound. (and there he was.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. Clarissa used to think. Instead of which she had married. she said. it was said. Though much in request before her marriage. Tony was a child. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. quite unexpectedly. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. rather than the hefty type. centered in London and themselves. At country houses she had met them of course. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. to end in some awful tragedy. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient.

Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. astfel. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.Over the River) 2. De uitat. nu puteam sa le uit. with all its impatience of restraint.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Reading many novels. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. the more she would be torturing him. short of the contacts of love. ii faceau bine.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. nu a facut-o pentru asta. (John Galsworthy . dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. to keep abreast of the current. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. but lying in her bath. era un bun sfatuitor. cre s-au nascut lent. Cind l-a chemat. Bolnava nu se simtea. indeed. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea.Rindurile dvs. she was uneasy. she professed. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. si in plus. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. The closer she allowed him to come to her. aveam tot mai 266 .au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3.

care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. pe scaunul lui tare. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. vaazut cindva. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. o data sau de doua ori. latimea si ascutisul labei. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. (St.) 5. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. se stie. mi-am zis. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. nu pricep nimic. 4. Personal. Milionarule.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. cit mai au de trait. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Ce a iesit. (St. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani.) 6. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Banulescu – ibid. are nevoie.) 267 . Banulescu – ibid. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Banulescu – ibid. Daca tu. (St. (St. lungimea picioarelor. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 7. ca si tine. poate fi compensata. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Banulescu – ibid. fa-o.

Arthur Atkinson M. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who came home from the war. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Translate them. when I was even younger than you. to Emmanuel College. Cambridge. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.P. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Ernest Richard Atkinson. A story-book romance.. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative.. Who told me. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. for being a renegade. a wounded soldier. delivered from the holocaust. Could he be blamed. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Who when asked about his memories of the War.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who. my grandfather. Who was may father. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 .Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. 2. (. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.

glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. Fabianism. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. deep-set. Rachel Williams. 4. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. to whom. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. a moody man. How 269 . he had already engaged himself? 3. and because – but this is mere speculation. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed).Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. for flirting with ideas (European socialism.

Cum au tăcut ei. Ion. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum a ajuns el. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Ion. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. 270 .Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. cu taina aceasta. om mare. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a trăit el. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. la şcoală. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. satul.

când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. din franţuzeşte. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis.pune totul in discuţie. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. Când actriţa. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. 271 . L-au derivat cei din teatru.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. cu sau fără voie. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. împotriva tuturor. când voi fi singur. singurul lui stăpân. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. greşeli dintr-astea. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. de mama lor.

e îndrăgostită de un actor. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. 272 . Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Am început. Într-o vreme. provocându-le. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. 5. dam buzna peste automobile. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. privindu-mă în ochi. fostă prietenă din copilărie. pe jumătate prezent. sau ridicole. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. ci un sistem de acomodare. traversând. 6. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. continuând. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 4. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. 3. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. de pildă. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. nevasta-mea. A devenit palid. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Tot aşa. uneori şi astăzi chiar. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. parcă începusem s-o uit. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele.

ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. Am început. orice s-ar întâmpla. şi dacă merg întins. 8. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Aş vrea să mă las jos. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. Dacă nemţii înaintau. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. şi să nu ameţesc. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. că nu m-am gândit la asta. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. E o problemă. să merg întins. 9. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. 11. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. fără să mă opresc o clipă. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. De altminteri. iar. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . fireşte. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. ca un acrobat. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic.

eu am venit sa va intreb. 274 . Auzindu-l. trebuia sa le spuna. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Uite. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Ilie nu-l asculta. de la proces. 13. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. la carti. 16. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Greu era din partea asta. In curind.Ma.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. La un moment dat. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Acum isi ferea privirea. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. parca i-ar fi fost frica. se uita in jos. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. dar nu se mai putea. 15. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. nu mai semana. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. nu mai pricepu nimic. de uimire.. 17. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. cu mirare. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Adica tot trecutul. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani.. de la obiecte de pret. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. la fata locului. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. Ii venea greu. de la lucruri personale. 14. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. la amintiri. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint.

care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». Zimbea siret. se indeparta nepasator. vorbe asa si-asa. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ».Ce sa fac. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. dar. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. 19. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. apoi se uitau la Ilie. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. 20. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. which was part of his rich outfit. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. There was even 275 . i se paru ca aici e ceva. Nu era nevoie. asa cum facuse pina acum. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. Aici era ceva. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. cum zicea Anghel. .

she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. to take his way home on foot. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. going astray. gave an exclamation. for the instant. 3. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. to move fast. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. the young lady. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. a simplification. He felt then. She was one 276 . He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. 5. He walked a long time. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. But Daisy.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. at least. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. to admit that she was a proud. paying no attention. conversationally. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. 4. asked for Mrs. rude woman.Miller at her hotel.Nadina VIŞAN relief. resuming her walk. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. on this occasion.

But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. 8. often. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. make a point. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. She appeared. in radiant loveliness. She rustled forward. Advising with me. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. uncomfortably. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her.Walker. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. in their own phrase. making Paul stop and look at her. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. as text book. indeed. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. He left me musing. smiling and chattering. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. 6. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. and wondering what the deuce he meant. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. Her daughter. as it were. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. 7. as to projected changes. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. of studying European society. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. while residing abroad.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. on the other hand. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .

not seeing. 11. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. though E. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. and. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. H. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. The agent became a very familiar type to H. 10. wondered what they were talking about. H. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. could see he was remarkable. with his humorous density. was immensely struck with him. and perceived that it must be something important. or at any rate not heeding. was only half satisfied with this. and acute too. 9. H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora.’ 278 . while Paul. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. which was deliberate. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us.

At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. not glancing at him for a moment. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. 13. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. H. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. had the power to chain his sympathy. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. which was very copious. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. that the haunting wonder which now. But she gave him no chance. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. appeared to fill his whole childhood. 15. 14. as he looked back. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 .

as a general thing. that she must be on the contrary. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. ironically reserved. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. dragging herself on her knees. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. where the Pearl of Paraguay. 17. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. 16. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. proudly. and there were others. At the theatre. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. 18. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. yet 280 . There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. and to H. disheveled and distracted. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. H. The whole establishment. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. It was very possible she was capricious. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light.

One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. H. young men were invited. It came over H. didn’t mind. would always be more or less irritating. on which the damp breath of the streets. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. with the poor. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. Their mistakes and illusions. had blown a certain chill. *Old./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. 2. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 19. No one ever listens to her. and lurking within this nebulous design. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 3. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 20. 281 . who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage.

/ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. her shining blue feet twinkling. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 12. 8. I walked fast. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. slipped on some steps. striding like a Spartan maid. walking quickly. 6. 11. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 9. c) When I saw her sitting there. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. her arms held out. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 7. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. I was definitely going to be sick. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 282 . 10. I saw her as a vision. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 5. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen.Nadina VIŞAN 4. Either John or he * have got to give in. Rachel. I blundered by. “Oh. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else.

Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.

could cook my meals. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. 3. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. if they were poor.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. but that we saw and pitied. where my servant. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 4. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. The old women spoke no English. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. 5. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. And then I ventured to add that. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. 2. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. which was really alarming.

apart from his distress for parents. was informed. etc. Munt. Constituents: how much. How much.apart from his distress = apart from. to pay their annual visit. Constituents: Margaret. before they left town. at noon. his. was anxious. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 285 .g. on Saturday. he. Constituents: He. apart form his distress for parents. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. etc. would really hurt. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc. was anxious = was + anxious.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house. had not been able to estimate. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. this would really hurt. to settle. distress. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this.g.

interrogative.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday.. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. which is not assertive. interrogative. – first clause is non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / If you like her. – non-assertive. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to)./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. it is assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. which context is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. and is non-assertive./ She finally admitted. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.. The sentence is however 286 . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. negative/ Come with me..syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. don’t bother her. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . negative/ If you like jazz. listen to this. Second clause is an imperative. – assertive/ Don’t do that. second clause is non-assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. interrogative. – comparison. negative.

/ Not long ago. but nothing out of the ordinary. / They didn’t leave. – someone hates animals./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. but not more than she does others. –double negation cancellation./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. – someone did that. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. not even this thing./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. not even when it’s quiet around. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ He was exceptionally cunning.but to someone else. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ When he learned the news. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Susan did not get married to Jim . – they told the truth to somebody else. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. everybody used to travel by coach. / She does not hate animals./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. he was hardly pleased. / You have never met 287 . but it wasn’t them. the two brothers dared to protest./ He was smart enough./ Hardly interested in the conference./ They weren’t really confused. but it isn’t Susan. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. – I like somebody else. / She does like John. only irresolute.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. / I don’t like her very much. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty.

*not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.. not even in my dreams. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / Should they not have told her the truth... did they? / A few of them stayed behind... Jim felt rather at a loss for words. did they? / No problems were caused after all..negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. – negative insertion.. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. / This is hardly the 288 .Nadina VIŞAN her.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. were they? / This boy is no good.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. I could hardly wait to hear the news..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. they go skiing in the mountains.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. not even when you were very young.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. – I cannot look him in the eye. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.

– Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Not many people came to see her. / Few people came to see her. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. Activity 8 I shall never. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. when we started our holiday./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / I seldom look at her like that. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life... – I never see her..Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – You haven’t eaten a thing./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – I don’t often look at her like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. but she also lent him a car. never trust a man again. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Almost nobody liked him. / Hardly anybody liked him.Never shall I trust a man again.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – I almost never look at those paintings.

does she? – I don’t suppose she cares./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ Well./ I expect he won’t come here again. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him../ I somewhat like his proposal. / Come on. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – Nowhere could the keys be found. / He reckoned he would not win her over. you can still do something about it. you can’t do anything about it any more. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – Only on this man could she rely. / Don’t worry. – I don’t expect he will come here again. / They say he once had someone very close. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.I don’t like his proposal at all. – Come on. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / They believe she does not like them. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / She could rely on nobody but him. – They say he never had anyone very close.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. –At no time did we leave the office./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – They don’t believe she likes them. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – 290 .

–Alice still lives here. – You can’t be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / You must be telling lies. / She hardly ever comes here. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – You should send her something./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. either./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Bob is still living at that address. I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. – She almost always comes here. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / You needn’t send her anything. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam./ Peter knows some English and so does John.. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. 291 .Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must pay that fine. / Well. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. too. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words.

/ Don’t go on believing him. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. not yet.D. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. He isn’t that smart. It’s no wonder./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Norocul la noroc trage. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ I don’t know a thing about her. I haven’t done anything./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. ever since I got this ulcer. to any of us. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. / Please. e un magar. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. give me a hand./ Nobody told us a thing. I haven’t seen her in years. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Am avut un car de necazuri. / He can’t have done a thing like that./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ They say this Ph./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ You took his leaving you very hard./ Zis si facut. Oh. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Have they rung the bell? No. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ 292 . / Jim is so brave. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ Nimic de facut./ He’s a happy man./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. He didn’t move a muscle./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ E un baiat de zahar./ He was a tough man. has never studied anywhere./ You look so tired today. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin.

We had nothing in common./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. I had never had the opportunity to prove. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. thrown out. without too much determination.’ ‘Nici o problema.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . for I thought this threatening. with the same needs they had. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. no memory.’/ Deloc descurajat.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. I hadn’t really expected miracles. feebly. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. slowly. 293 . Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. no story. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. one way or another.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. parasi camera. that I was a decent man. nothing.

Not for a moment had I thought that.. clear or confusing. bad. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. Your judgement is false. good. that’s what the world is about. You really made me mad. Unfortunately. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. but facts. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. to say the least. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. • It was my turn to say something. It’s not made up of theories and the like. or if you understood what I meant. things you do any moment.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. We have to judge it as it is. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. I’d be so happy if it were so. let alone irritable. I was sleepy and tired. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I admit. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. Radu had calmed down. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. he immediately answered me patronizingly. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. he was sitting beside me. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. on the front seat. it’s not words. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. your story. by coming here to the monastery. the only 294 .

But I was just wondering. it solves troubles. to fight. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. Look. you do as you think fit. I won’t interfere. it’s your problem. and if you like. just to please myself. we are leaving. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. fear might be hiding. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. But what about you and Melania. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. and an inability to act. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. or call the respect of others. 295 . and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. precious words. although it was a difficult thing to do. Anyway. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. me. as Baciu would have us be. or you are lying hidden. behind these big. too? A gun is power. clears your way. it’s yours. either. you can go to Ursu’s. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. me. keep it squeaky clean. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. • So. did you ever step up front. keep your conscience clean: you have one. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. no matter how huge they are. soon we’ll be in town.

correlatives are mixed 2. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. . But it was not because I had no answer to give. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .correct 3. firmly determined not to answer immediately. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. . will he?. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. because before is a positive polarity item 2.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. as soon as he delivered it.Negative attraction b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.Negative incorporation 296 . She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. – incorrect.. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . the sentence is incorrect 3.. has not arrived yet – double negation. has yet arrived -correct 2. or some other woman.incorrect. -correct 3. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. The villagers were not very religious. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. but they gradually got used to it.Negative raising (transportation) f)1.

ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). either (NPI). too troubled. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. (ibid. she couldn’t marry him.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. yet. His spirit was too tired. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Her stillness. much less ((NPI) for her. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Ştia că are dreptate. Nu putea să se mişte. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. not happy at all (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. (ibid. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. her lack of motion would have to do (API). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Avea sufletul prea obosit. nu era 297 . prea răscolit. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. b) But it was rather (API) late. astfel că nici nu se mişcă.

Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. his heart was beating fast. and not a little unsteadily. 298 . Ba dimpotrivă. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. se îndreptă spre paravan. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. e) At length. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. şi destul de hotărât. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. if anything (NPI).) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. she looked younger than ever (NPI). (Salman Rushdie. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. The Satanic Verses. he made his way to the screen. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. inima îi batea năvalnic. (ibid. (ibid.

Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. (ibid. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. i) What did C. but his father would have none of it (NPI). there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.) C. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. Ce-i pasă lui C. Home receded from the prodigal son. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. h) C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. care if the school were willing to treat him. and probably an administrative headache as well. The point was. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. the gift was useless. 299 . Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru.

300 . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. . incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. do you really think that this vixen. the bitch. she likes to entrance them. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. keep Condrat away from her. Luca Horobet. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. all godfearing husbands and fathers. to make them lust after her. Chizlinski. Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. and then what do you 308 . now she was chatty. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Stavre Paici. Vica. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. She has an eye for gentle men. they were. yes. 2. Fenia. you are in enough trouble as it is. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. “Now.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1.

He got him out of his mosque. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. ankle-long flowered calico. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. have a girlfriend. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. The mullah. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. the minister of Tartars and Turks. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. G. a seventy-eight year old lad. with a railway station and a mosque. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. 4. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. what’s her name. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. It even takes him a while to go to the window. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. dragging his feet listlessly. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . her hair pinned with blue combs. 3. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet.

and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .

– similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. John and Mary are ready. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – sentence coordination 7. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.) 9. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. Her pet kitten is black and white. and I passed. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . John and Mary are the newly married couple. our respective examinations. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination 2.phrasal coordination (in this case. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.. yellow and blue. Our flag is red.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.. John is ready and Mary is ready.

Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. and even tennis. your proposal and his. 9. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. many guest or few. that method and those. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. but John does not play football. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. Activity 5 This book and the other. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 7. 6. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. We can and will demand payment. plays football. 10. but not John. her idea and John’s.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 5. 8.) Joan plays many games. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Activity 4 1. 3. your work and mine. her son and others. 2.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). much satisfaction or little 312 .

I like the sentences below or those on the next page. etc. Wear and tear 12. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. The facts and figures 3. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Bread and butter 16. Life and soul 5. Safe and sound 313 . He snapped at him and slapped him. but not simple. Pros and cons 4. Touch and go 10.) 6. Activity 8 1. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. To and fro 15. 5. Over and above 13.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. I have always fought and will fight for progress. 3. magazines are only for children. 7. Swings and roundabouts 7. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Spick and span 9. Few and far between 14. 8. 4. Law and order 8. Ups and downs 6. Thick and thin 11. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. High and low 2. He read.

– symmetric. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 4. 1. 2. 6. 10. exclusive 15. 3. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Asymmetric 20. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Either the child or the parents are to blame. exclusive 17. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 9. My son and daughter are twins. Symmetric 13. My son and heir is safe. 8. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Cathy and David have arrived. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 6. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 314 . 2. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – symmetric 10. 8.symmetric 11. – symmetric. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14.. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – asymmetric 18. 5. 7. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 7. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – symmetric 2. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. There are some chairs and a table in the room. – similar situation 9. 5. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. inclusive 16. 4. Asymmetric 19. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. b. 3. 10. Symmetric 21. – symmetric. 9.

He went to bed. 11. 3. (2) 1. 10. 3. thanks for asking. ‘Madam. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Jim thought it over for a while. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 4. We’ll stick together. Brother or no brother. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 15. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. They came to me. I’ll still finish this paper. Should he pour water in the basin. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 6. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. Her husband is long dead and buried. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. By hook or by crook. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 14. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. Not only should you rest 315 . He’s neither fish. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 7. 2. 9. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 12. 8. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. it was too small. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. clothes and all. 2. No drinking and driving. nor fowl. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 5. There are doctors and doctors. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. for better or worse. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13.

he’d leap high. This. From time to time she will launch a helping question. but she blinks in approval. an important man.’ (3) 1. without mentioning financial matters. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. he starts lecturing her about life and things. just like when he was thirty. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. at equal intervals. so he’d gone down and died in no time. What do you know? The moment Mrs. stop dead in his tracks. what’s its name. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Mrs. tense like a bow. and then. their common ground. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. 2. she knows for sure. Her first husband had been a professor. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. as she always does. she started doing a great job. it would work out fine. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. and she listens to him. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. They hadn’t kept him there too long. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. tense with concentration. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. You know. so he could leap in pursuit. 316 .Nadina VIŞAN assured. Whatever she tried her hand at. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. So she’ll listen to him. but he’d come out a cripple. both dead and buried. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. And. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life.

subordinate. – she. cannot tell. – obligatory elements: she. whomever wanted to listen. told. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. is aware. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as a modifier 3. she looked at me sadly. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – she. at me Activity 2: 1.subordinate. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. – she.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . – obligatory elements: I. you. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you.subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. came. – Susan. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . looked.subordinate.subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an object (direct).

functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.Nadina VIŞAN 4. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .complement b) 1. since the main verb is think of something) 5. remove our home yet again .subordinate. that you are choosing exile . that we should.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate.subordinate.

direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. a barn. but no idea – relative that complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object. direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement.complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. outbuildings. a house. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement.

A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. Activity 5 1. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. staring at each other. direct object. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. sickle in hand. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. subject/ to do such again – complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. without straightening her back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. that kept her constantly tense and grim. When Anton put the sickle down. But other people. (…) ‘Well.wh complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . His wife was reaping the wheat silently. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial.

And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. that was for sure. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. but he doesn’t spurn either. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. Why! He was not of two minds. 321 . you need courage even for this small thing.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. Ana could not stand a trip now. but also his sharp nose. or if he does. as if they were at his beck and call. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. Only he had Ana to think of. 2. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Not even at this point. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. For no bold man really falters. he will turn back and no longer be daring. 3. while on other occasions he would show caution. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. First. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. which he doesn’t rely on completely. rather than a real threat. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. while they spoke from miles away. or other more hidden means.

Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. Twice did we get in the car. And here’s how this first day looked. 322 . We were going to drive to a vineyard. without really knowing why. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. In fact. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. in Odobesti. 4. are we getting off again? What is wrong. But it was not ok. to see some mutual friends. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. he had postponed writing back. under the silliest of pretexts. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. So. and on Monday followed another feast). they would ruin the arrangement. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. it was the women. come on. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. by the cars of some of us. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. although he could have said so earlier. and twice we were requested to get out. and when things didn’t go as planned. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter.

Activity 3 1. on which this occurred . Activity 2 1.free 8. which was a pity. 2.She came to London where I went too. 6. all of whom would answer to his questions. most of whom were from England. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.restrictive 7. The students like their teacher.restrictive 2. John told his friend a story about the king.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . 10. He told her the secret. when we first met . who was just passing by. 7. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 9. 10.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 11. 8. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 4. why they all left . 3. This is my husband whom I love very much. He is the author who they gave a prize to. You couldn’t join the party. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . 3. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. These are people who we cannot tell much about. where I least expected 323 . These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. like their teacher. Who are you writing this letter to? 9.restrictive 4. 5. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. 5. which was silly of him. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. The students. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 4. 7. any of whom would answer to questions. 6. I bought Jim a book that he liked. where I spent my youth . 8.restrictive 6.

What Inman remembered – subject. 6. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.Nadina VIŞAN . who cannot say a word. Why . You.free 9. about why man was born to die – prepositional object.free Activity 4 1. the prince chose Cinderella. however sad . come up front. where – predicative 7. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. 2. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. what their parents made them. Activity 5 1. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute.adjunct 6. 7. when . who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.adjunct 10. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.restrictive 10. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. Where . Which – subject 4. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. I. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . who think so highly of yourselves.When Ada remarked – adjunct. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . What I’m saying – subject. Where . Of all the persons there. where we talk money – predicative. was very displeased with the situation. Who .adjunct 5. 5. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. 4. When . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. 3. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. What – direct object 2. which . Of all the persons there you had to choose me.subject 8. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct.adjunct 3. Where he was from – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative.adjunct 11.subject 9.

which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. how . what little she knew – direct object.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . what . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which requires an accusative form. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.attribute 12. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. whatever – predicative 13. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. which is ungrammatical due to the[.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.

due to its invariable character. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. but whose second cousin. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. a rather tiny looking man. a sergeant. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . having changed quite a number of jobs.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. whose great-grandfather. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. got married and had a daughter. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. in his turn. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot.

This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. no easy answers to which could be offered. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.His father’s friends. he rarely saw now. . whose interest he most sincerely shared. This story. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes 3.obligatory 4. has been troubling them forever.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . – no pied piping 5.no 5. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. were now all gone.yes 10.yes 7. – obligatory pied piping 2. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. – yes. – yes 2.yes Activity 9 1. . – yes 6. His friends. he requested that the public be excluded. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. with deletion of the noun friends]. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – no 9. . She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. In the interest of public decency. – no 4.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.obligatory 3. Irene. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. – no pied piping 327 . was now complete. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. . . The problem of safe transportation.

where two teams battled every day… 5. For twenty years. I am to be envied. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . In other people’s opinion. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway.and he couldn’t thank me enough. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 8. yours. the third born son. 6. irrespective of age and nature. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 328 . for instance. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 3. Nelu. I did so. 2. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. For all the four children.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. or as of a vast arena. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. Everything was ending. Only an ugly endless dream remained. 4. 7.

Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. Behind them. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 16. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. from MR street. 15. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. she said. leaving streets and houses behind. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. All that you have read is rubbish. staring aimlessly. 12. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 13. He was suffering from dizziness. where from Marta was coming too. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 14. on Icoanei street. You are newly arrived here. 11. which was why he saw Dora very far away.R. 10. 17. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. What you’re saying sounds very nice. barely glittering in the distance. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. the tram was rattling along. although she was standing quite close to him. 329 . If any of your qualities were to persuade them. since I don’t really know which my true life is.

Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. From the vantage point I was in. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. had a huge house in Bucharest.Nadina VIŞAN 18. which I did not posses. But. While some trees are still green. She was a woman of means. 23. or the many Egyptian dynasties. I don’t know what might have happened. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. 22. who prompted everyone on the street. likes and dislikes. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. so optimistic and composed? 19. 21. I could see my woman falling away from me. who only lived once in this world. 20. or the clash of stars above. So. had a personal style in clothes. 24. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. 330 . But for me. in her pursuits. If he had hit me. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. While we were poor. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. day by day. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. after the car was fixed.

– extraposed. 3. prepositional object 11. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It will be soon announced when you can leave. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It appears that no one voted for him. for pragmatic reasons 5. – questionable. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. object 6. 331 . – extraposed. 6. – extraposed.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. direct object 3. – extraposed. subject 7.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – extraposed. – unextraposed. direct object 10.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – extraposed. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It was suggested that they should meet the President. subject 2. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. subject 8. – the same as 3. – extraposed.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – extraposed. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – impossible 7. 8.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . 2. subject 4. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. object 5. subject 9. – extraposed.

12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. – impossible 11. – grammatical..It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 15. same as 12. tense influences the 332 .That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. a bit too intricate 5. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. . Activity 3: 1. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.grammatical. . I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.incorrect. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. but pragmatically impossible 4. although a bit intricate 2. It is nice to meet you. same as 12. – impossible. – impossible. – grammatical. I guess it that he will come back. – incorrect. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. 9.correct 4. They never expected it that he would come back. idiomatic formula 16. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 17. 18. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – the same as 12. same as 12. 10. . but pragmatically impossible 3. – correct 2.grammatical. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 14. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – same as 12. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It is no use trying to convince her. – impossible. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – impossible.

incorrect. though. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. 2. 5. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform.’ 4. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 333 . tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. under bridges.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. in the ditch. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). (Not always. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. behind gates. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 3. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. thus. – correct 6.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. in the pits on the road.’ Lionel says.

7. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. 4. 2. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. 8. – the first sentence is the better of the two. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. since the 334 . He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. It is less ambiguous than the first. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. because it is less ambiguous. without trying to protest too much. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. Activity 7 1. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. – the second sentence is questionable. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.Nadina VIŞAN 6. 3.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. By saying this. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift.

but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. extraposition is obligatory here. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 6. 335 . ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. so there is no need for extraposition. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. 5. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. – both sentences are grammatical. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 7./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. The second and third sentences are grammatical. 8.

– prepositional object. required by deverbal noun 336 . correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. – relative 3. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. coordinated. – subject. – relative 5. – direct object. for better or worse.We discovered that our map has disappeared. they were chained to each other forever. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.) complement that clauses. – complement 5. – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. .complement 4. . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.adverbial of sequence/result. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. ibid. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. – complement that clause. – complement 2. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.) adverbial of sequence/result. The idea that he had had earned him good money.prepositional object. (Iris Murdoch. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. (Iris Murdoch. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.relative Activity 9 1.

Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. h) John thought that Harry had run. f) John said that Harry would leave. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory. you want me to believe. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – that is obligatory. that they were not too late to leave. that deletion is obligatory.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow.

I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . c. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – both sentences are grammatical. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. b. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. sequence of tenses is observed 4. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. a. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – grammatical sentences. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3.

Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. ciocârlii şi şoimi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. While the first is possible because of the generalization. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. geese both grey and white. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. – generalization on habits of birds. lark. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. prepeliţe. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. present instead of simple past. present perfect instead of past perfect. hawk. quail. cenuşii şi albe. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi.

He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. love of practical jokes. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . Crows will relish what presents itself. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. slyness in a fight. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. She admired their keenness of wit. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. The generic present is used in this case. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. lack of pridefulness. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. lipsa de vanitate. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic.

ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. se ridicase în picioare. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Murise în picioare. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. El căzuse pe spate. But as the battle raged around them. tragică şi eroică. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. the young officer. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. in the very act of expiring. He died erect. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . tânărul ofiţer. he claimed. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. He had fought hard through the war. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie.

war hero though he was. around seventeen or eighteen years old. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. I realized I could not tell him the big news. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. 342 . How can I explain? I just felt shy. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. to finish my drawing. When the boys saw that mother had left. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. the oldest. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. they gathered around my desk. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. But when he reached me. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. One of them. And they might just hang him. mother went home and I was left alone. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. Activity 13 1. A short while later. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. They all had their hands in their pockets. Luptase din răsputeri în război. 2. When he saw me. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. he closed the album. deşi era erou de război. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). susţinea el. în închisoare. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. – similar situation to the one under (c). jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Now here he stood jailed. Acum stătea aici. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă.

for her vineyard. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all.’ Mr. brightly and closely.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3.’ 5. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. as if he had been drunk. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. All his senses were now keen. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. 6. 4. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. or if she would do so again. or fear his rage. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while.

Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. The last time when we met here you scared me. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 8. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. claiming you had no ambition for the future. And if things were so. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy.Nadina VIŞAN to him. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 11. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. thinking of him. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. 7. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 10. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 9. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted.

namely the impatience of this young man. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. where he would run to confess everything. 14. 13. without putting anything in a note. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. 12. We either sell them or we don’t. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. more urgently than ever. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. towards Jurubita. which secretly drove him. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital.

Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – infinitive continuous. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. – simple infinitive. . She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. It is vital this factory to be reopened. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical. / they saw her leave. grammatical 5. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. – infinitive continuous.simple infinitive. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. – perfect infinitive. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1..ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 2. grammatical 10. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. grammatical 7. grammatical 3. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. 346 .ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – simple infinitive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . / He had Mary clean her room. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. grammatical 6. 9. – simple infinitive.

– Test: He persuaded her. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ They did not wish [her to come back. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Test: *They did not wish her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them. \ I allowed [them to come. / It is not too late for him to learn. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *She wanted him. you need to try harder. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ She promised him PRO to leave. Test: *They would have hated her. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Test: * I would like people. \ He persuaded her PRO to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They tempted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: She promised him. Test: *I would love them. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They convinced her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. \ She wanted [him to leave. – Test: They asked her. – Test: They convinced her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / I want to never see you again. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. \ They really asked her PRO to come back.

obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / Oh.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. I don’t need you or your services. not to miss the train. / To make a long story short. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / He is easy to live with.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / I have a word to tell you. / He is young enough to start again.Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . . . Activity 6 Oh. / He is easy to talk to. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / He is hard to stand. / I want you to leave my house. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more.

Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Subject. so that we might get to the future and have done. 1 – PRO. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. He suspected hostility at once. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2].to. he didn’t envy those above it. If he himself was out of spirits. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].Accusative + Infinitive. Predicative 4 . and as if they didn’t know what life was about. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Harold. 1 – PRO-to. the herd instinct was very strong in him. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. they had depressed and fuddled him. 1] A little crossly. Subject. 349 .

slowly. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. c) Unlike plane trips. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. object 2 – PRO –to. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. man and woman. PRO controlled by ‘him’. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. excitedly. But when we need to comfort others. f) The passing time is important. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. PRO controlled by ‘she’. One day. more believable than evidence itself. we seem to forget about our own pain. more meaningful. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. 1 – PRO-to. or better said. PRO controlled by ‘me’. 350 . but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. true. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. And you might also be hit and humiliated. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. cautiously. direct object 3 – PRO –to. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. e) When two persons. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition.

not to want to wipe it off. for instance. h) I want us to go. while swearing to change my way of life. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. as he had appeared to him in the rain. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. or. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. all down our neck. tickled by the trickles of sweat. k) With this considerable dowry. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. my wish being only to please and serve. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. That is it. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. 351 . These people invited us… and the man is your boss. If it was summer. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. not even those parts where he had been half-right. for there is no shame in it when need drives you.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. or their talk that night. that you are young. in the street. Moroi says heavily. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. Mrs. And I would care for this man so deeply. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. S. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. to live only with your coughing. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. He had not been able to leave Dr. I am indeed praising my own merits. even when this love is hurried. And to actually start to believe you are so. Stroescu. which he had already forgotten. I am looking for a husband to love and obey.

m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. no matter what. for that’s the door people get off by. or to speak so fast. here I am with all of my own. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). Well. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. every Bucharester knows it. haphazardly. ready to submit to any demand. she was suddenly so shocked. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. If you will have what I can give you. met by squalor and terrible smells. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. poor Muti. 352 .

/ She sent him shopping. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head../ The blow left him sprawled under the table.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. with its lips drawn back./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. / They found it thrown in a corner. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ Don’t keep him waiting. 353 . if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. badly beaten and bloodied. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ He went to have a tooth pulled. – Attributive past participle.

4. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having looked through the fashion magazine. I slammed the door of my room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Activity 4 1. Turning on the light. having heard it all before. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . he sat down to his own dinner. 3. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Attributive present participle. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. Accusative + present participle / In any case. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. – Attributive present participle. Finding the treasure. 7. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord.Running into the room. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Sleeping in the next room. having been uprooted by the gale. 2. they began quarreling about how to divide it. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 5. I was astonished at what I saw. Having fed the dog.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. sitting taut between her father and her sister. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. The tree had fallen across the road. 9. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – As she was running into the room. 10. Knowing that the murderer was still at large.She didn’t want to hear the story again. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her./ Running into the room. 6. 8. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. Having been punished by mother for my mistake.

it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was climbing down the tree. stony-hearted. cloth-covered. a scorpion bit him. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. Leaving the cinema. sharp-eyed/minded. 2. one of the eggs broke. wooden-headed. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Climbing down the tree. 3. red-handed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 11. the sea was tossing the post up and down. empty-headed. Barking furiously.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. 9. an idea suddenly occurred to me. a pot of paint fell on my head. bald-headed. broad-shouldered. I often get very cold hands. – As I was passing under a ladder. / Getting out of bed. narrow-minded. Reading in bed./ Reading in bed. many-coloured. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. lion-hearted. 7. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Dropped by parachute. his horse fell at the last jump. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 6. Getting out of bed. 4. 5. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. – As he was tied to the post. Passing under a ladder. fishy-eyed. Tied to the post. a scorpion bit him. three-coloured. one of the eggs broke. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As the dog was barking furiously. 355 . – When I read in bed. open-minded. I let the dog out of the room. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. 12. his horse fell at the last jump. / Climbing down the tree. Riding in the first race. – As he left the cinema. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. I let it out of the room. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. my hands often get very cold. a pot of paint fell on my head. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. my hands often get very cold. – As he was getting out of bed. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Activity 5 Fair-haired. he was bit by a scorpion. the sea was tossing it up and down. 10. 8. – As he was riding in the first race. he broke one of the eggs.

/ Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Many old people. shaven head. 7. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. admired for their elegance and precision. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. (find) 6.I fell on the ice. is expected to be a great hit. open-hearted. straight-shouldered. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. drunken man. (injure). roast meat. found hiding in a barn. injured when their car crashed on the M1. bounden duty. sunken eyes. dark-skinned. (admire) 5. injuring my arm. The film. (grow) 4. stricken deer. ill-gotten wealth. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. rotten plank. eagle-eyed. hidden meaning. (take) 2. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. shorn lamb. Activity 7 1. Whales. was today taken back to prison. are in grave danger of extinction. 356 . Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. / Three people. Activity 8 1. graven image. (produce) 3. lighted candle. hunting for a bargain.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. mown grass. are sold throughout the world. produced by S. were taken to hospital. (hunt). shrunken stream. / Swiss watches. The escaped prisoner. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. I stared at the canvas for ages.Spielberg.

4. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. 2. and moreover. 357 . seeking some promised land. the fish. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. he started peering anxiously around as if. 3. He felt close to his father. flat and soft. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. sprinkled with sticky flour. yet left them room to sway free. A parasol. So. and the puffed pastry beds. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. hovering uncertain and soft. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. And his soul. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. now taken down. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. thrown in the pots. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. suddenly suffocated. its scales scraped off by the knife. the carved chicken. the twice rinsed vegetables. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. streaked with yellow veins of fat. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. After a while.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. in charge of his house and lands. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. then put up. he were struggling for breath. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. bake them. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. boil them. Although the moment was deeply disturbed.

/ We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. – participle (attribute) 2./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . /He’s not interested in bringing up his children.gerund 5.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I am sorry for being so late. – Accusative + participle 3. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / After annoying the shop-assistant. he left the store without buying a thing. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. – gerund (subject) 4. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. Activity 10 1. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / I told him not to bother putting things back. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. . / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night.

– accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. – gerund (half or full. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. possessive ING (predicative) 7. 8. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He was spotted talking to her. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (prepositional object) 15.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts.participle vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. . participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. preceded by preposition). gerund (has a direct object) 359 . He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – Nominative + participle 13. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy.possessive ING (direct object) 9. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (attribute.

also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.verbal noun (has determiner. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. my Lord. – verbal noun (has determiner. I did ask Mr.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. adjective. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund or verbal noun.’ ‘Tell me. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. however appearances were against us. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. – verbal noun (has adjective). What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.. take down her answer. Lady Corven. Croom to try to follow one. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. hold up his pen and speak.’ 360 . adjective. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – gerund (full.

suddenly. Then. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. my Lord. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. and went out to post it himself.’ 361 . what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really.’ said Clare.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I must go back now. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. I just used the word and they fell. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. I spend all my time hunting a job. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. he addressed the note. licked the envelope with passion. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. it’s overrated.’ said Clare. ‘I do hate asking for things.

Then he saw movement at his feet. attribute) in a swirling motion. the very earth opening up (half gerund. He looked up towards the daylight. functions as direct object) and then the ground. slowly rising (participle. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute. the enormous split in the earth. attribute). It was like a mist. direct object) from below. attribute. down. someone looking for survivors (participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. Has a complex subject) in the hole. after verb of perception. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. hoping (participle. First the crack snaking (half gerund. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. down into God knows where. slightly 362 .’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. The collapsing shops (participle. attribute. …while their edges were crashing inwards). elliptical here. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. gerund. The sight of the two children. attribute). he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. At first. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. The two sides were moving apart. adverbial of time. direct object) towards him. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. village which is burning). attribute. direct object).Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish.

i. adverbial of reason). I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. one. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. covering (participle. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there.e. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. according to the books he read. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. direct object). etc.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. has ‘of’ phrase). m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. you. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. prepositional object. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . moving up (participle. early. my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.).

preceded by preposition. mother. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. the two Mamonas. and sunlight. attribute) a sudden whoop. And. So. and everything got suddenly animated. slanted on to her cheek. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. She finished what jobs there were. a door was opened and as a servant entered. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. reluctant or not. and not only in my imagination or theirs.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. we were all gathered in that room. examining (participle. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. attribute) stopped dead. for Dornford was busy on an important case. Vaucher and I. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. brightening (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. preceded by preposition. Young Mamona left the room without a word. adverbial of manner). as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Standing up. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and then went riding (participle. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of manner). Having a French governess (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. adverbial of reason). attribute) to winter brilliance.

sitting in his puddle. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. let alone greet us or say something. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. And. each carrying a wooden box. He cast us a swift glance. Not so unimaginable though. and to Young Mamona.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. And then. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . bending a little. to me. 4. 3. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. he looked like someone who did. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. and ended his life in the year 1821. about concentrating all our resources. too. 2. for anyway. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. closing my eyes. Entering our house on a Thursday. to Vaucher. I knew who it would be. her back towards us. So when Old Mamona came in. as mother had ordered him. and smelling so hard of rain. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. he found us sitting each in his place. Vaucher might have known that too. kissed her forehead. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. killed by Young Mamona. without taking his sack off his shoulders. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. who knows. in the year 1812. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. about sparing no effort. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. his disloyal apprentice. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . He was talking about gathering up all our strength. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. he went to mother and. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable.

wood pile. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. 5. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. of taking notes and rewriting them. futile. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. And all around them was the great field 366 . long board table. stove. already seen and heard. everything seemed familiar. each pausing before jumping down. But.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. They got off the truck slowly. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. as an afterthought. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. barrack. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. And suddenly.

The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The next thing was to go to the well. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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