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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări.
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
Complementary distribution . Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Insertion 1.Contents: 8 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Constituent Phrase 1. Auxiliary verbs 184.108.40.206.3.4.
sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. that is sequences fragmented at random.1. They are just strings. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. sequences of the kind her mother very. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Semantic. her mother.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. For instance. very much. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. loves. Consequently. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much.2. 1. Syntactic. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1).
4. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. an order given to an interlocutor). be). (Mi-a spus secretul. should.3. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. must.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.e. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).) 10 . we are dealing with a directive (i. 1. 1. etc.
) 1. live.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. for instance. Consider. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.6. etc.5.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. an ‘empty’ there subject. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. 1.
this would really hurt. semantic. he had not yet been able to estimate. whereas (7) is not. Munt. as the star indicates. pragmatic. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. complementary distribution. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. 12 .Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. If the given context is the one under (6). using your own examples: insertion. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. Pratice Define and illustrate. syntactic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. How much. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. distribution.
13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.
Tests for negativity 2. Negative vs.8. Instances of negation 2. Key terms 2. Full – local negation 220.127.116.11.2. Key terms . affirmative sentences. Polarity Items 18.104.22.168. Conclusion. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.7.
) is said to be an assertion. it asserts something.2. Negative . This example can be compared to: (2)a.Declarative vs. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. For instance.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Consequently.Positive vs. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. in that they do not state anything. in the sense that it states something. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.) b. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates.
/ Don’t do that.non-assertion .other (if –clauses.g.positive and declarative secret. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.Nadina VIŞAN ./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / Come with me.positive sentence . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / She finally admitted.g. listen to this.g. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . They told her the ( e.) . comparison.assertion .interrogative (e. don’t bother her. Did they tell her the secret? ) . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot./ If you like her./ She can’t wait to read that book. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.) .negative (e. 16 .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.
whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. (John e nefericit. (Nu demult. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Susan doesn’t like her friends. (John nu e fericit) (4) a.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.) b. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. I met a girl named Susan.) 17 . am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. since the negative word not is not present there. For example. In the case of the sentences under (4). John is unhappy.Unit two Sentence negation 2. word negation. John is not happy. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b.
We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. In other words. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. more precisely the phrase it is part of. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. I was not a little worried. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. since the negative word not is present inside them. where the word 18 . (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.) c.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. He was not without intelligence. She was not an unattractive woman. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. but their meaning tells us a different story. these sentences look negative.) b. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. just like in the case of word negation.
/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. / Când a aflat vestea. semantic negation. without intelligence.e. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . Translate the following sentences into English./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema.
Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. Negative vs. dar nu în mod special. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era el destul de isteţ. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. 2. ci doar indecişi. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. affirmative sentences.4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John.
) (9) I didn’t go there. For instance. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. etc. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.1.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes.). (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (M-am dus acolo. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. (see subsection 1. (Nu m-am dus acolo. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. such as do insertion. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.
22 . incorrect. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / She does not hate animals. / Susan did not get married to Jim. / We don’t come here often. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends./ They didn’t leave. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / I don’t like her very much. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim.
(Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which is ungrammatical. *not even the smart ones. 4. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). * and they don’t like her either. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. even the smart ones. not even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. which does not happen in the case of (18).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. 3. Example (14) is syntactically negative. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. and neither do they like her. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. and they don’t like her either. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. . *and neither do they like her.Unit two Sentence negation 2.
Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Few of them stayed behind. / No problems were caused after all. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / You have never met her. 2. In conclusion. / They caused us no problems. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. they go skiing in the mountains. / A few of them stayed behind. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / Not always a witty interlocutor. they need to refer to these tests of negativity.5. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / This boy is no good.
a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (27) a .Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-a venit John). A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (26) I saw nobody. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . Susan could not go to the theatre. I went nowhere. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre.
) c. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. (N-am văzut nici un student. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. I never went to his place.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b.) b.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. no incorporation takes place. I didn’t see any student. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. All that glitters is not gold. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. I didn’t see anybody. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. No day passed without me thinking of him. / I didn’t ever go to his place. Not all that glitters is gold. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) (29) a. I didn’t go anywhere. 26 . b.
/ None of them liked house music.V. barely.) We seldom watch T. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. seldom. / I didn’t see anybody.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory./ They never went there. . / I showed him nothing. / Not a word fell from her lips. (Nu citesc romane. scarcely. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. rarely.) They barely read any novels. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. / No one ever listens to her. / Not many women are famous opera composers.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / He should not be released.4. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. and we don’t go to the theatre either. not even short ones. / Not one of them came to meet her. nici măcar din alea scurte. etc./ They didn’t come to meet her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I saw nobody./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.
(Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Not for the world would I do such a thing. / I scarcely ever see her.) 28 them. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. which triggers inversion): (35) a. Never have I met a more horrible person.) d. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / Few people came to see her. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.) b. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor.) c. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / I seldom look at her like that. . / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Hardly anybody liked him.
/ You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. As you can see from the translation of these examples.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / She could rely on nobody but him. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. in the sense that the 29 .Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / You must on no account touch this machinery.) They don’t think that he likes them. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. never trust a man again. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.
believe. choose. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. be probable. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. barely. / I suppose she doesn’t care. ought to. She didn’t lift a finger to help me.: think. probability. be supposed to. want. be likely. intention. we can very well say something like: (38) a. expect. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. should be desirable. seem. intend.) b. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. / I expect he won’t come here again.6.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. suppose.) 30 . although not negative in meaning. guess. / He reckoned he would not win her over. look like. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. For example. suggest. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. the negative meaning is less strong. sound/feel like. In sentence (37). appear. / They believe she does not like them. advise. etc. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. cannot appear in an affirmative context. 2. etc. imagine. etc. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.
b. and sentences such as: (39) a. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. *She likes our chairman at all. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. That is 31 . * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. are clearly not grammatical. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). They are not usable in an affirmative environment. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.2. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.*She lifted a finger to help me.
/ Well. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. etc. / Come on. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / I eat caviar most of the times. / I have some money. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Bob is still living at that address. some (I haven’t any money. / I have already seen him.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I like you a lot.) Hardly ever vs. / You needn’t send her anything. / Don’t worry. too (I don’t like it. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I somewhat like his proposal.). I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. a lot (I don’t like you much. / She hardly ever comes here.) Much vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. you can still do something about it. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Well. / I somehow like him.) Any more vs. too. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. too. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.) Yet vs.) Until vs. / I like it . before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I still love you) Either vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet. either. / He arrived before 5. / I can understand both of these 32 .) At all vs. / They say he once had someone very close. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. still (I don’t love you any more. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs.
n-am văzut-o de ani de zile.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. give a damn/darn. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. know a single person. have/be worth a red cent./ I can understand all of these ten English words. leave a stone unturned. have a care/ friend in the world. nici unuia dintre noi. hurt a fly. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). move a muscle. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. bat an eye(lid). turn a hair. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. Ion nu e prea deştept. / You must be telling lies. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. lay a finger on someone. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. find a trace. see/ feel/ remember a thing. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. / You must pay that fine. mulţumesc. hear a peep. last a minute. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. flinch. de când cu 33 . Translate into English. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. sleep a wink. crack a smile. / Ajută-mă. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. say / breathe/ understand a word. touch a drop. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / Peter knows some English and so does John.
/ Never is a long word. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Not that I care. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No sooner said than done. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. / He won’t make old bones. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / No man is wise all the time. încercând să prindă criminalul. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. As you have noticed from the exercises above. he’s a pig. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. Translate into Romanian. / Nothing succeeds like success. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. but you really should do something about it. nu e vina mea. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. B: Aşi.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. / I had no end of trouble. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / No entry. / He is no end of a fellow. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No trouble at all. n-a sunat încă. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No hands wanted. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / No admittance. budge. he left the room. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / Hotărât lucru.
e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). 2. / I hate making any commitments. c) He is anxious to say something. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English).7. N-am văzut pe nimeni. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences.Unit two Sentence negation rather). as well: 35 .) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. which is not the case of the sentence under (45)./ I saw no one. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. b) I love asking some funny remarks. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. Normally. say it. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.
Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. Conclusion.8. however. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. nu îmi place poezia asta. B: Nu.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. I don’t.) 2. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. B: Not this poem. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. Key terms. 36 . We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. nu-mi place. The second negation is somehow independent. I don’t like this poem. (Nu. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. from a syntactic point of view. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. nu poezia asta.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
interrogation). 45 .e.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.
2. Direct vs.2.3.Questions 3.3.3 Alternative Questions 22.214.171.124 Echo Questions 3.1. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.4. Key Terms.3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 3.1 Tag Questions 3.2 Wh. Optional Exercises .2.
This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. for a subsequent section. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.1. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. If we try to analyze the examples above.Unit three Questions 3. focusing on direct questions mainly.
Pratice Translate the following questions in English. (2). and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.g. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. 48 . due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. (3) and (4). all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. pe mama. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.
Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). In the case of indirect questions. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. in this case. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. because. the sequence of the tenses is violated. Since the question is not direct any more. Likewise. 49 . the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate).
cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / He asked me who she was. c) Ştii ce. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. ce culoare are pielea. spune la un moment dat femeia. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . / I don’t know whom she fancies. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. identify the incorrect sentences. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. / He asked me who she is. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / I don’t know who she is. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. sau mai bine zis. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea.
one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. the type of answer the respective question requires.Unit three Questions 3. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. In this case.2. Let us provide 51 . Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. as Quirk shows. being typical of spoken language.
yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (which / you like best) ? 4. (who / talk to last night)? 5. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. 3. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.1. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1.
Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. (Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. are said to be positively – oriented. instead of Negative Polarity ones. it has. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da). they did. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.
. .. I’ve still got plenty of time. 4. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. 6. A: You’ve been learning German for years.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . A: You look down. A: Your mother is shouting for you. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. ……………………………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. 2..Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues.. as in the example: 1. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. ……………? (hear her) B: …. …………………. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. (speak yet) B: ……. A: She had her tenants evicted. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. …….. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. because you always copy everything I do! 5. 7. but I want to play basketball a little longer.
On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. . A: It’s past your bedtime.. A: There was a terrible car crash. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend..2. ………………………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.2 Wh – questions Wh.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. which When. where. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . I didn’t get home until late last night.. 3. how. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . . . 10. what . ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….Unit three Questions B: …………………. 9.
I cannot do that. / She lives in the suburbs. of course. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. what ever. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans./ I have French lessons twice a week. / David’s car was stolen. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . / Kay’s gone out shopping. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever./ Sara owns two cars. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. Nearly two hundred years. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / My new car cost 10./ She dropped her glasses.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / Shirley got married to Ben. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie.000dollars. / That’s my pen. / There are six students in my class. trying to find places where I resided in life./ We’ve lived here for ten years. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. why ever. (Poppy Z.
2.3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.) 57 . Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.
Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Who did left the gate open? 18. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Let’s stay for another few days. He used to work in a bank. How far is it the cinema? 10. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. He used to work in a bank. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 3. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. wasn’t it there? 17. shall we stay? 7. You can’t be serious. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. How long is she be spending in America? 8. didn’t use he? 4. can you be? 58 . or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. There was a fax for you this morning.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. shall we stay? 14.
Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30.Unit three Questions 19. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. That’s your car. ca şi cei ce au fost. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Pot reveni. plin de germeni virulenţi. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. deci. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. will you not? 27. neliniştea infantilă. despre o lume dură. Ani întregi. deci. will you not? 21. That was Jeremy’s brother. dacă prin absurd 59 . Toate vechi. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. uneori disperat. How long have you be lived in London? 26. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. How long time does it take to get there? 28. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Whose it is this book? 32. Who did told you about the problem? 31. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. isn’t it this? 25. wasn’t it he? 22. doesn’t he go? 23. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. John goes jogging every morning. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. să-mi înfrâng frica. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul.
vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. naiv. neîntrerupt. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. puturos. indiferent de risc. “Spune! striga el. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . iar proştii. mă întreb. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. inactivii. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. de atunci. umed. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. dar şi drumul. murdar. pe care oricum am simţit-o. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. negru.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. B. pe sub bolţile din care. picură apa roşietică. laşii. lung. Riscul? Ratarea. străină priceperii lor. îi ştiu gustul. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. ghiceam doar unde se află. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Şi. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi.
când nu-i pot face nici un bine. orbitor. golul alb.Unit three Questions viaţă. Tag Questions Tag questions. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. care i-a determinat alegerea. exclus. domnule profesor. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. da? (37) Let’s go there. viaţa? Oare e drept. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. la urma urmei. didn’t she? . 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. will you? (38) She went to Prague. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi.3. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions.3. nu se poate. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.1.
e.) A: Oh. au fost cheltuiţi. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. aren’t they? 62 . the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. it’s all spent. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. The suggestion is that in this case. In this way. sarcasm. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. hasn’t she? (Aha. (Din păcate. is it? (Deci. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. or “comment tags”. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. the tag is negative too). Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. if the host sentence is negative. or falling. au fost cheltuiţi. the tag is affirmative too. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet.
/ They said he liked music. / Tell me. / The boy never watched his sister. / I don’t think you like my music. / I must go now. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / That’s your car over there. / I am older than you. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I think you like my music. / Let’s eat dinner now. / You ought not to smoke. / She used to talk a lot. / A few people like her. / She left an hour ago. / He hates his wife. / There is enough food for everyone. / He has to marry Susan.…/ Let me know. / Surely you have enough money. / That was your father. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. 63 . / Each of us is staying. / I think you don’t like my music. / I may not see you tomorrow. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Don’t leave without me. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / He simply hates empty words. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. after all. / The boy often watched his sister. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / I am dressed smartly enough. / You have been invited. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / Everyone felt happy about it. / Few people like her. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / She has a brother. / You will pick me up at 7. / You will pick me up. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / I may see you tomorrow.
5. or what? 3. / He never used to study so hard…. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam../ I’m right about this…. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. So you enjoyed my talk. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. He used to play squash. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end.
3.1. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.2.2. Recapitulatory echo questions .) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time.2.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.1. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.3. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.) B: Chinese? 65 . / Grants… 3.
accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. (Închide lumina aia. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. If the wh.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.3.2. disbelief.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. of something just said. consternation. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.2. rather than the repetition. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .phrase is fronted. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.
with recapitulatory echo questions. whereas with explicatory echo questions. am pierdut scrisoarea./ We are looking for a purse. / He is interested in music.e. / We are looking for a pixie. (i. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup./ He is interested in blue movies. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. dear.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. I’ve lost the letter. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. rather than did you say. (Vai. (Uită-te la asta. / I think I’ve found a solution.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. intonation is rising. which letter do you 67 .
Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.4. she knows about it.Nadina VIŞAN 3. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.
care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. aşa. cu o casă de copii. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . cumnată Fenia. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. după pofte. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. şi care s-a aciuat.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. în satul nostru.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. Fenio. oameni aşezaţi. Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. ca să zic aşa. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. lui Luca Horobeţ. lui Stavre Păici. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte.– Crezi tu. în general. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. pe Condrat de Vica. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. stricata. şi apoi Vica ce zice. nu purta verighetă. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. da. să se încolăcească mai bine. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. lui Chizlinski. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. şerpoaica. acuma sporovăiala. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă.
de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Hogea. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. L-a scos din geamie.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. dar cum se face că a 70 . atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. sus. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. abia târându-şi picioarele. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. roşu şi galben. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. până la călcâie. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. De asta erai. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. deci. sau cum o chema.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
5.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Contents: 74 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.Key Concepts .126.96.36.199.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.6.
some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. i.1 Syndetic vs.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and.Unit four Coordination 4. where there is no indication other than a comma. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. Example (2). that elements are coordinated.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. present) in the sentence. on the other hand. 75 . is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly.e. reproachfully. cu repros.
you will die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. From the previously mentioned examples. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. Conversely. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank.) (4) If you hit my wife.) Such examples.Nadina VIŞAN 4. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. 76 . namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. vei muri.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure.
the second. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. However. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. we need to specify that. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. but presupposed.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. respectively subordinated constituents. from a logical & semantic point of view.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated.
of cut gray stone. In the second. built. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. his shoes squished. the houses were beautiful and ancient. with formal walks under rows of trees. took off his coat and emptied them. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. adorned with cornices. His clothes hung to him. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. He moved and made a slopping noise. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. John Steinbeck. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. but the 78 . Then he sat down. Though the castle had vanished. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. In the first. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. took off his shoes and emptied them. with enormous solidity.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages.
and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. left the house. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Cecil Woocham – Smith. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and as the way is with Irish mountains. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. the higher he went the wetter it grew. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours.
K. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. we should be seriously annoyed. (G. as shown in (9). where we are dealing with a compound constituent. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. were to take down the name of every man. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. however distinguished.3 Sentence vs.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. yesterday and the day before yesterday. As one can easily notice. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives.
7. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 2. 10. / Bob and George are admired by their students. John is ready and Mary is ready. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . / Peter. our respective examinations. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Pratice Distinguish coordination.Unit four Coordination example (7). Our flag is red. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. / Joan plays many games. / Peter and John played football. 4. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. yellow and blue. 3. plays football. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. and I passed. but not John. John and Mary are ready.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 6 John sang and Mary danced. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 9. Her pet kitten is black and white. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 5. 8. and even tennis. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis.
3. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. 5. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.) b. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. John writes poetry and Bill prose. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Jane 82 . (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John loves and Bill hates cigars. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. or deleted. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. as can be seen in (10b). Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Activity 4 2. 6. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.Nadina VIŞAN b.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.) c.
can be reduced by substitution. i. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. We can demand payment and we will demand payment.) The common element. Besides ellipsis. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. So. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. the predication buy a pair of shoes. the so-called Principle of Economy. 7. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.e. 9. these syntactical processes. than a longer repetitive one. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 10. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 83 . 8.
Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. A citit. 4. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . In certain cases. 2. 3. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 4. George and Jane went back to their parents. using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane are separated. simple books and magazines for children 3. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. Translate the following sentences. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. one or (the) other method. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. some reason or another. the old men and women 2.
After all their adventures. A pendulum swings ……….… 14. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 6. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party..You gain some things and you lose others. They get on quite well together. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 6. I need another 100$ ………. for my wallet. the amount I’ve already saved up. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 2. 13.I searched ………. 11. 8.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. 5. Marks and Spencers. 7. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. sweet and sour. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. . Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.. it’s a case of ………… 7. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. of your proposals later on? 3. 16..Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 8. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. Can we discuss the …………. they reached home………. only for damage. 15.. 5. 12. like: salt and pepper. fish and chips. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. even though they have their little ………….
We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. In fact.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. Nor sun.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. as in: (17) a. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.) There are. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. more often than not. 4. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. b.4. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. For instance. of course. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. the expressive function of coordination is. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. etc. and 86 .) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.
Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. 20 (b)). too): (20) a.) c. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. etc). (Ei o placeau pe Susan. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. where the subordinator is repeated. sometimes but. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. o respectau si o indrageau.) 87 . or .) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. and cherished her.) In certain cases. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. (I-am dat banii. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) b. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.g. both … and . some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.
these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. and hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. From this point of view. and you’ll die. I washed and ironed my pants. (Imi place si o admir.* I ironed and washed my pants. I admire and like her. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. I like and admire her. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. (O admir si imi place. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b. if we were to rewrite the example . In this case.) b.
) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (If you do that.Unit four Coordination 1. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. Dr. he failed). he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Brown experiments with humans.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) (While Dr.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
4 Key Concepts .2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.
) 101 . Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .g. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. 5. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. e. From the functional point of view. as the name suggests it. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.which are based on coordination . This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.
We do not presuppose however something like. For instance. by an adjective + preposition.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. In a way.) 102 . the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. they are still presupposed by the speaker. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. for instance. we associate it with these objects. such as proud of.) Whenever we think of this particular verb.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. in certain cases. sentences) required by the verb (or. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. for example). (I-a dat cartea. (7) He willingly gave the book to her.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. an adverbial item. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.
has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. an additional one. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact.) b. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. to her) and one extra-item. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. A second observation. The term comes from the verb to adjoin.e. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. to add something. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. 103 . related to example (4). I am afraid that he won’t come. The second example. Thus.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. In other words. which is the adverbial willingly. i. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.
They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. So. I’ll die. etc.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. (Înainte să plece din cameră. a închis toate ferestrele. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. like. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. such as want. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. make. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. am să mor.) (11) If you don’t marry me.) 104 .
g. 4. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. 3. this to whomever wants it. The book that because they home. After I told her the story.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. Susan disappeared without saying a word.She came to him of her own will. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.g. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. she looked at me sadly. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. 6. [. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her.g. 2. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 5. Whoever did that was a genius. They came to e. e.
but he declined.He took an intelligent interest in her. 6. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. not object. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. WHETHER. 4. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. etc. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 5. As you can see. 3. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. which. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. FOR.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. at our age. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. You suggestion that we should. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. 2.) 106 . though it was largely politeness. was a novelty to Mitzi.
) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) b. who.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. etc.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. why.) (16) a. Where he went is London. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. how. where. (15) It is John who did it. 107 . when. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (Am vrut să plec imediat. Who did it was John.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. which. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (E de dorit să plece.
) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. which sums up this classification. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. consider the following table. for instance.1. before. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause.) (18) She told me this before she left. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. In (18). The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. In conclusion. however. Compare. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. done from a structural point of view. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. etc. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. Unlike complement clauses.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. As you will see. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. if. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.
surely you cannot sincerely believe. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.g. Introduced know e. etc. after. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. at your young age.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. 109 . back. whether he will come when I feel like it. you understand. I will come back such as because. for. as. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. Dear Ludwig. I cannot express to you how much we miss you.g. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.g.: e. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I will go there because I feel like it. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before.
who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. she stopped to speak to Monroe. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . 2. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Accidental Man) b)1. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. Late that afternoon. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door.The day Monroe had died was in May. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. But she thought that no one would call again. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. As she left the house.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. Too. he said. a tightening in her breathing. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there.
Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g.g. However.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g. As you have probably noticed already.2. That he loved e. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g. că e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. a correspondence can be traced.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. I told her everything after she arrived. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. interesting. 111 .
(Cred că mă place. complements. In the fourth place. We will come back to that in the next chapter. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). i.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.2. Thirdly. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. whereas wh complements are the 112 .) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. So.complement.. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. Secondly. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.1. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. whenever you identify a wh. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.e.
It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. before. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour.g. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. She mistrusted her handwriting. but no idea what to do with them. for no matter how she tried. a barn. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. outbuildings. I first thought to tell in 113 . after. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. c) I am coming home one way or another. a house. their introductory elements (e. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Pratice Consider the following text. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. and I do not know how things might stand between us. because. Adverbials can only be adjuncts.
offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.4. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. and I have not the will or the energy. because they modify. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function.e. these clauses can be complements. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. According to a structural criterion. it would make you fear to do such again.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. ce o fi având. însă. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. Pratice Translate the following. etc. îşi spuseseră că Anton. be very careful to use this term correctly.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. interested in. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. look at. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. O zbughi înapoi.e. Alţii. (…) “Mă.g. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. think of. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. answering the question to whom? So. după ce că are grâu puţin. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. 115 . Nevasta secera în tăcere. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul.
şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. întâi. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. cât de bolnavă era. Nici acum. de fapt. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. izolate de sat. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Toată lumea înţelesese că. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. timp de un ceas. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră.
Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. acum sunt desluşiţi. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. la nişte prieteni comuni. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. Pace nu era. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. stricau totul. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. deşi cam târziu. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. În realitate. amânase scrisul. aşa de oţetit. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. de pildă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Era bine de ştiut. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. la Odobeşti. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . Iată.
Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. frate. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. întâia noapte de război) 118 .
the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.. whose. 119 . subject relative clauses.g. etc.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). of which.
4. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.5. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.1. The Co-reference Condition 6.3. Key Concepts .7. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.6. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.2.6.
2.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.Unit six Relative clauses 6. 121 . We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. 6. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute).a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.1. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. The Co-reference Condition .
The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. John loves that woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. 122 . We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. By combining these two clauses. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object.
But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. The common element woman is present. 123 . The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. This way. John offered flowers to that woman. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti .
She doesn’t know anything about Jane. He’s the author who received the prize. WHERE 3. 8. The students like their teacher. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. The students like their teacher. The king was just passing by. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. She came to London.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. too. WHO 124 . I had a book. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHICH 4. He liked that book. 2. Susan wants to meet Jane. 9. 10. Any of the students would answer to questions. I love my husband very much. 3. therefore in spoken English. frequently used in written language. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. They met those students. He told Jim everything about his plans. None of the students agreed with them. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. This is my husband. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. I went to London. WHO 5. John told his friend a story about the king. 4. by leaving behind a trace. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 7. I introduced him to Jim. 5. 6. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I bought Jim a book. I lost the book’s cover.
relative clauses are divided into 1. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. TO 11. WHOM 10. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent.Unit six Relative clauses 6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. . whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. WHOM 6. WHOSE 7.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. i. most of them were from England. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.e. WHICH 8. (Cine strică plateşte. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 2.
) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. unlike in the case of (14). we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. in a manner of speaking.e. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) So. Unlike their sisters.) • Predicative This was what she intended. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. it is covert. is no longer overtly expressed.
care este zeul negoţului.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. is my favourite god. they define it). is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. 127 . defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it.) (22) Mercury. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. (Du-te unde pofteşti. who incidentally is the god of commerce. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. who is the god of commerce. este zeul meu favorit. (Mercur.
is a genius. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. 9. restrictive relative clauses. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. Independent I don’t know what you want. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. who came to see me. i. 8. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 6. is a great playwright.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 7. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. On the day on which this occurred I was away. who is a genius. I have met him where I least expected. 5. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. She.e. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). As we were saying. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 2. then it is an attribute. on whom nobody could depend. this type of relative clauses. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function.This is the village where I spent my youth. They are what 128 . 10. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Shakespeare.
it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. a. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. etc.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. care a murit acum câţiva ani. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. etc. who died a few years ago.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. 6. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. . however sad this may be. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. When the antecedent has no determiner.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.) 2. composed The (Freddie Mercury.
iritabilă şi uscată.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who neither work nor am anxious. îţi văd prea bine defectele. dried-up old maid. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. Dintre toate personajele prezente. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. ill-tempered. (Ei apeleaza la mine. bătrînă morocănoasă. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. ci o fată a woman. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 4. 3. care-ţi sunt fiu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. (Eu. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1.) Pratice Translate the following. 130 . poftiţi în faţă. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. who am your son. numai eu nu. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. can see your shortcomings only too well. Mie. 7. care nu sunt o femeie. 5.) (28) They come to me.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. 2. 6. but a peevish.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.
şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. părăsi camera. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. were now in his possession.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. (32) service finished late. erau acum în posesia lui.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. than whom few more can be more crashing. . şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. heard.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.
The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. but it is typical of the formal. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.1. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The genitive form with which is still in use. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. literary style: (37) a.) c. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. as can be seen in (36d).) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.) d.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself.) b. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. 6. too.5.
) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.
(45) (46) .Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. ships (that can be personified) a. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. of which. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) b. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. but to a type or a function: a. by the way. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) • states. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a.) b. He is not the man which he used to be. … Italy.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. animals.
Poland is the place in which Christine was born. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted.) 135 (47) . (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.) b) dialectal (49) a. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. reason. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. etc. Poland is the place where Christine was born. pe care o privea direct. (Nu ştiam ce vor.2 Relative Adverbs: when.Unit six Relative clauses b. etc. time. It is poor what gets the punches.5. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. why. while. how.) 6. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. France. where. whom it concerned most closely.) b. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.
He went where he had been before. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. A system where by a new discovery will arise.) b. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. The place whither he goes is unknown.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b.) b.) c. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) When they introduce free relative clauses.) 136 .They left when they decided it was proper to.) e.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.3. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) 6. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.5.
(Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.
but • in standard language a.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.4. . little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. much. any. every.) b.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. not any. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. I’ll get you such things as you may want. Honest man as he was.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. but they are used very infrequently: as. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. 138 (64) his shoes.5. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.
ăl de fusese in China…) b. . Uncle George. There’s not many as’ll say that. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. There is no one of us but wishes to help you.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. It’s the dry weather does it. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. And always on the buttered side. This is the same one that/as you had before. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) • in dialect a. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. him as was in China … (Uncle George.) c. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.) c.
For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.
we all have to come to some terms.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. b. That which shows God out of me. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.3): (72) a. fortifies me. 5. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 3. The man that John spoke to is a genius. The man who John spoke to is a genius.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 7.” 4. makes me a wart and a wen.) b. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. This is where we talk money. 6. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. What I’m saying is. What Inman remembered was this passage. 2. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. The man John spoke to is a genius.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity.) c. Where he was from. It seemed a thing 141 .5.
h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. Oh.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 9. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 10. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Ruby said. The rudeness of eating. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. which is a lot. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. who had not witnessed many dawns. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 12. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 142 . of living. (…) Partly. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 13. Whatever his fate was. though. 11. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 8. he had left Ruby high and dry.
fiu natural al unui morar. pirpiriu. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. mort de tanar. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. nu prea sarac. cumnatul unui portughez. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carei strabunic. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. vasnic. Cumnatul meu avea. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. poate. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. pe linie paterna. divortata. (Iris Murdoch. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. plutonier. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. un var primar.al lui. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 .Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. una din nepoatele unui inginer.
144 .2.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. I lost the cover of the book. b. The opposite phenomenon. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. She was a woman. By extension. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence.6. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. c. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . insurat de trei ori la rand. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. This is the book. Teatru) 6. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.
8. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 9. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The problem of safe transportation. 2. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. 4. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 7. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 5. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death.Unit six Relative clauses b. has been troubling them forever. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. no easy answers to which could be offered. 6. acting again as a genuine pied piper. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 3. he requested that the public be excluded. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. In the interest of public decency. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. The difference between (76) and (77).
His father’s friends. Activity 9 were now all gone. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 146 . 5. 6. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. as the case is). was now complete. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. 10. His friends. 4. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. no matter which. 3. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. whose interest he most sincerely shared. he rarely saw now. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. 2. Irene. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. This story.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). has been deleted. They do not function as attributes. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have).
as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Toate sfârşeau. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. himeric. 3. 5. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 7.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Pentru alţii. Nelu. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. pentru dumneata bunăoară. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. închipuirea. 2. De douazeci de ani. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. sunt vrednic de invidiat. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 6. 4. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri.
speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. a făcut el. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. 9. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. cu surle şi cu tobe. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. 8. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . nici în searbăda mea versiune. 10. 12. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii.
Avea acum un fel de vertij. de unde venea şi Marta. 16. 14. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. fie pe stradă. 20. despre care. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 15. toată lumea întreba cine e. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 149 . Dacă mă lovea. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. din care cauză pe Dora. trăia larg de tot. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. din direcţia căreia apoi. fie la teatru. pe strada Icoanei. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. zise ea cu ochii mari. deşi atât de aproape. dinspre Maria Rosetti. roiuri de fetiţe. În spatele lor. până mai adineauri. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 18. care era foarte “mondenă”. 17. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. apărură. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19.
pe care ea îi admira acum. de mine. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. aveau un stil al lor. întâia noapte de război) 150 . 22. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. după ce maşina a fost reparată. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. de sus de unde eram. 23. pe care eu nu-l aveam. 24. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Pentru mine însă. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Pare-se că snobii. când au urcat râpa iar. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.Nadina VIŞAN 21. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. până în şosea.
by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 .
2.5. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.1. That Complements as Subjects 7.1. Key Concepts . ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.5. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.2.Clause Shift 7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.3. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.2.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 220.127.116.11. That Complements as Direct Objects 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.1.Topicalization 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.2.3. That Deletion 7.1.Extraposition 18.104.22.168.1.
In other words. 7. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position.1.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). placed in a marginal position. but also of infinitival ones. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. (3) Tell me if you need anything.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. the clause is extraposed. Apart from those introduced by that. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. 153 . complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.
(A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.
It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 4. 15. 8. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 2. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 2. 9. It is no use trying to convince her. 11. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 7. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 14. 4. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 7. 3. 6. 3. 13. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 9. 5. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It appears that no one voted for him. 11. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 10.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 10. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It is nice to meet you. 8. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 6.
Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. după porţi. 2. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 2. 2.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. unde se nimerea. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. I don’t expect it that he will come back. sub poduri. 3. zice Lionel. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 18. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 6. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. în canal. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. mă ascundeam în grabă. 4. 5. atât 156 . They never expected it that he would come back. în gropi. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. I guess it that he will come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. 5. 3.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. 4.
” 4. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. vor căuta să o zdruncine. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. 6. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). excelentă. (Nu întotdeauna. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. 7. 157 . cu ceea ce ţi se dă. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Spunând cele ce-am spus. fără îndoială. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. fără să cârteşti. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. 5. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii.
2. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. 1. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Consequently. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .Nadina VIŞAN 7. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. in the case of topicalization. this asymmetry is undone. Pratice Read the following. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) While in the case of extraposition. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.1.
whether it would finally carry her off. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. he felt no spring of interest in her. This was another era. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 6. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. 5. He did not blame Gracie. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 2. 4. was inconceivable. but not now. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 8. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. She had always been the slave of chance. 3. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. He was utterly gone. mere chance would decide.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. 7. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. even today.
Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.3. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.) 160 .1. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.
161 . by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. we obtain. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.e. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. the verb to drive).) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.
He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 8. 162 . /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. 4. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 6./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 2. who had just returned from Africa. 5.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. prime-minister.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 3./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 7. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. who had just returned from Africa. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.
2.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.Unit seven That complements 7. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) . The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.
He announced their engagement.Nadina VIŞAN 7. prefer.) 164 . deem. He announced that they were engaged. desire. suggest. (I-au promis o casă nouă. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. judge. They believe that the man is guilty. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. They promised him that he would received a new house. communicate. predict. explain. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. deny. etc. state. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. They believe the man is guilty.) b. promise.) a. estimate. consider.) b. afirm. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.: (25) a.2. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat.1.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. etc.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
for example. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. hope =>purpose.e. they lose their meaning.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) language. In older stages of English.) 172 . She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. ibid. on condition that. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.) I like him in that he is smart. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.
He gave an answer such. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. să o vadă trecând.) When the structure contains the word such.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. That can be deleted.) b. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. He gave such an answer as had expected. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) (66) 173 a. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. . that we wouldn’t doubt it. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.) b.
for better or worse. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) 174 .) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. He gave an answer such that I had expected.) b. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch. (Iris Murdoch. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. ibid. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.
When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.Unit seven That complements 7. tell). omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.3. He said he had borrowed her money. for instance. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. 175 . say. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. He got word they were coming. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A prins de veste că ei vin.1.) c. He showed he was able to do it. that he uses a relaxed tone.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (69) a.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) b.
*I like it he was here.) b. rele. (Îmi place că e aici.3. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.2. (Iris Murdoch. they were chained to each other forever. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că.) (De asemenea. they were chained to each other forever.3. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. for better or worse. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.Nadina VIŞAN 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ibid. because that has been deleted. bune. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. 7. for better or worse. I like it that he was here.
The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.) 177 . (“Este acolo”. that they were not too late to leave.4. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. you want me to believe. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. he said. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. spuse el. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. which is ungrammatical in English. 7.) b)He told me that she was there. simultaneity. 7) They maintain. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority.
până pleacă ea. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. “She was here”. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) b. I will leave her. (“Era acolo”.) b. vine el. The Present complement). spuse el. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. o să vină el.) b. In the example below. He said he would leave her. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Future Perfect -----. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (A spus că. (Am să o părăsesc. he said.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. He told me that she had been there. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. (Pâna să plece. (A spus că o să o părăsească.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.
only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.) On the other hand. report.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. wish. be amazed/concerned. realize it).) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. dream. notice. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. mention. etc. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. regret. show. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. forget. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. say. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. think.) 179 . Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. be aware. hope. insist. discover. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. believe. With such factive verbs as realize. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. whisper.) b.etc. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.
180 .) b.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. She believed that the earth is round. in tender deference to each other. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. feign habits which are not their own. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She realized that all men are fools.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. She still believed that the earth was flat. Consider also: (85) a. (Iris Murdoch. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. He knew that she thought all men were fools. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.) b. we notice that general truths. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.
There are however cases. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. 181 . She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Peter said that John will leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.Unit seven That complements 2. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) In (88). (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. 3. such as a.) b. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.) b. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.
d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. for instance. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. Imagine. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. But 182 . f) John said that Harry would leave. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. The time is 3 o’clock. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. g) John thought that Harry ran. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) John said that Harry is leaving.
love of practical jokes. redtailed hawk. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. lark. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. bluebird. geese both grey and white. whistling swan. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. lack of pridefulness. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. Translate the following. a. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. kingfisher. slyness in a fight. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. c. quail. jaybird.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. 183 . Crows will relish what presents itself. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. She admired their keenness of wit. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. Cooper’s hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. b. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. nighthawk. as evidenced by its drear plumage.
[…] During the latter stages of the tale. Now here he stood jailed. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. the young officer. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He died erect. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. But as the battle raged around them. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. he claimed. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . in the very act of expiring. And they might just hang him. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. war hero though he was. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. He had fought hard through the war. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort.
That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.Unit seven That complements 7. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). On certain occasions that can be deleted. 185 . or else. on other occasions it has to stay there. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). object ones up to the attributive function. which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. from the very frequent subject. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains.
avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. 3. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. peste puţin. Unul din ei. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Mama. cel mai mare. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Fiind 186 . care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. 2. 4.
cel puţin pentru un timp. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Se mira. 7. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. Nu ţi-a trecut. ea. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. care îl pândise. fericit. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. un vis de acesta 187 . Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. 8. va pleca din oraş la vie. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. de ce constata în sine. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 9. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. 6. venind de la avocat. aşa. 5. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. dacă va mai veni. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. luminos şi apropiat şi când. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu.
Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. dar şi teama că. 12. lucrul era înfăptuit. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. liniştit. 11. Astfel de va fi. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. şi mândria că a biruit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. fireşte. încă o dată. Acesta. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor.
(Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. fără o vorbă scrisă. mai puternic decât oricând. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. după cum. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. ci numai aşa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. să le lămurească pe toate. spre Jurubiţa. 14. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Pe toate.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.
The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.4.Key Concepts .9.2.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 22.214.171.124.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.5.1.
Unit eight Infinitive complements 8.1. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. That you love her is something wonderful. It is important for you to know what you need. (3) a. To love her is something really wonderful. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. Consider the following: • like that complements.) b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important that you should know what you need. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).) • like that complements. 193 . (2) a. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).) b. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. From this perspective.
the Gerund. the Conditional. 194 . * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures.) b. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Participle) (i. etc. participial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a.e. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. d. gerundial clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. as opposed to the finite ones. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. 2. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. For instance. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses.
the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. namely no ending. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.) b. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) c. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) 195 .
He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 8. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 2. 8. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 10. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. (7) They saw her leave.2.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 5. 9. 7. 6. the criterion of form. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 4. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 3. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.
) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. hear.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. 2. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. (10) 197 . / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.
) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. uncharacteristic for literary English. 198 (11) the universe. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. . trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. However. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. 3.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. Pratice Translate the following./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting.
By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. as I have already mentioned. In other words. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. 199 .) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. or the control constructions. Further on. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. to use the appropriate technical term. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.
) 200 . (E important ca el să nu greşească. It is important for him not to err. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. I hoped for him to be there in time. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. PRO to err is human.) b. the logical subject.) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. namely the agent of the event. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. So far. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.) In this situation. şi creştineşte să ierţi. PRO to forgive divine.) b. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.
(Cred că este un lingvist competent. Semantically. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. him is not the agent of the infinitive. but the patient of the verb persuade. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. He stepped aside for her to enter.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. him is related to the main clause verb.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). not to the infinitive. In other words. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.) b. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.
\ She wanted him to leave. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ She promised him to leave. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. \ 202 .) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ I allowed them to come. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. but with the infinitive in the subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. \ They convinced her to come back. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ He persuaded her to come. I hate animals to be tortured. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ I would love them to come. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. Likewise. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ They tempted him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite.
Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. \ They did not wish her to come back.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. \ They really asked her to come back. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. So.) In examples (25) and (26). so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job.) He seems to be a good linguist. 203 . • Last but not least. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.
204 .Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. to meet her.). /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. Pratice Translate the following sentences. appear. which are said to be free. etc. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. hate. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. seem. that is not required by certain verbs. with special semantic and syntactic properties. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. To sum up the discussion. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine.
expect.) 205 friend. aspire to. desire. venture. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. afford. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. deign. mean. need.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. intend. bear.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.3 The Distribution of PRO . etc. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. scheme. . prefer. endeavour. fail. etc. want. decline. try. scorn. like. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose.) b) verbs such as abide. dislike. etc.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. 8. hope. propose. / E greu să îl suporţi. care to. wish./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. contrive. Compare: (31) a. omit. deserve. arrange. agree to. condescend. manage.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. hate. presume. seek (= try). refuse.
(Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. I would like for him to become president of the country. be important. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. however.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. possible.) b.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. verbs of liking and disliking. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă.) b.etc. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. ask.) b.) 8. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. conclude. desirable. For all of them to have been killed is. endeavour. threaten.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. etc. suggest. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.) 206 . The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. stand. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. I hate that you should say a thing like this. unlikely. bear. forget. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. claim.
The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 2.) b. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases.) 207 . (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) 8. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.
) 208 knowledge. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. Like in the case of that complements.) 5. . Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. I decided for John to represent us. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. the preposition is deleted. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Direct Objects (39) a. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 4. but the meaning remains.) b.) b. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert.
) d. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. delicious.) e. 6.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down.) b.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. This paint is like concrete to work with. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) c) adverbial of result 209 . The stew is delicious to eat. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. He is a bastard to work for.: (42) a. etc. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. You’re an idiot to go there.) c. curious about. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. She is pretty to look at. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.
) Oh. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. drept să spun. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. conduci prost. to tell you the truth. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. final or introductory infinitive In this case. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. să nu piardă trenul.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. / Ehei. you’re a bad driver. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / Pe şleau. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament.) I’ve never met him.
/ Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. encourage. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.: (51) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. induce. direct. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.etc. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. press. (49) a. oblige. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. swear. b. 8. enable.) . (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.) b. promise. inform. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. According to this. etc. influence. inspire.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. nu mai vreau să te vad. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. urge. need.
look to. count on. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.etc. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. allow. command. etc. nominate. elect. depend on. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell./ And now he 212 . order. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. choose. vote.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. name. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. permit. prevail on. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. etc.
it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. etc. happen.verbs: appear. be going to. (57) He is to come any day now.etc. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). etc.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.: (55) She appears to like him.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (56) She grew to like him in the end.e. (Se pare că îi place de el. An Accidental Man) 8.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. grow.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. 213 (58) (59) .) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. seem. be about to. this construction is lexically governed. (O să întârzii/ leşin.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. come. (Iris Murdoch. i.
d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. etc. hear.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. be considered.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. In (57). etc. watch.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. be thought. be alleged. observe. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause.: (62) They heard him insult her. be rumoured. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. perceive. . overhear. be claimed. that of intention. (L-au auzit insultând-o.etc. be reported. feel.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.) 8.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58).
prove.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. picture. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. have.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. figure. understand.) 215 (67) . (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. imagine. presume.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. believe. recollect. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. consider. cause. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. etc. find. remember. discover. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money.) • with a full infinitive: get.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. judge. (Cred că este un geniu. know. deem. However. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. occasion.
(Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. expect. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. prefer. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. wish. they had depressed and fuddled him.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. Harold. he hated anyone to comment 216 .Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. who wasn’t used to men with moods.etc. mean. love. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. want.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. order. command. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. choose. if he himself was out of spirits. suffer. desire.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. etc.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. permit. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home.
so that we might get to the future and have done. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. He suspected hostility at once. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. A little crossly. though he tended to look down on those below it. Both seemed to him a little unreal. the herd instinct was very strong in him. he didn’t envy those above it. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. to make sure we attended strictly to business. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. (L.P. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason.
9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view.Nadina VIŞAN 8. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. The last criterion. 218 . From this perspective. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.
b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. într-o zi. E posibil. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. fireşte. să-l capete. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. lovit şi umilit. bunăoară. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. e) Când doi oameni. un bărbat şi o femeie. mai bine219 . cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. Şi tu să fii. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. e important ce întrebări pui. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. dar să nu-ţi spună. de bună seamă. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. de asemenea.
De era vară. în jos. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. în parte. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. în ploaie. că eşti tânăr. încă. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. mai bine de două decenii. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. în parte. aşa cum îi apăruse el. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure.Nadina VIŞAN zis. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. pe care deja o uitase. mai pline de înţeles. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. un picior. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. d-a lungul gâtului.Delavrancea.Şt. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. . avusese dreptate. sau. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. 220 . să nu vrea să se şteargă. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. (B.Şt. Să spui de pildă. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. Însă Paul Achim trăise. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. să traiesc numai cu tusea.
. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. o mizerie. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. (Al.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte.. deşi. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. fie ea şi grăbită. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. ei.. de fapt. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. nici ca să 221 . sunt aici cu tot ce am.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. Mă laud singură. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. Într-un cuvânt.. un miros îngrozitor. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. şi prin faţă. orice bucureştean ştie. şi nu un amant. orice-ar fi. biata Muti. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. prin faţă e coborârea.
niciodată ea nu i le pune. în realitate. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. parcă la întâmplare. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns. participles.
The Verbal Noun 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.9.Characteristics of Gerunds 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.The Gerund 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.1.5 Key Concepts .Participial Constructions 9.4.2.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.
Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Due to this situation. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.1. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. (Susan doarme.) 225 . we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them.
(A venit Susan) b. been and killed are past participle forms. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. it functions attributively. were closing.) More infrequently. the past participle can appear after a noun. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). In (2) the forms come. Susan has been killed. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. i. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. too: (6) Her eye-lids. Susan has come. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. 226 .e. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) As you can see in this second case. blood-shot and painted.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.
Weather permitting.) b. Arriving here. o să ajung la timp.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. she ran away. they started singing. începură să cânte. mother permitting. If provoked. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Oh. I will arrive there on time.) d. God willing. he will eventually marry her. people should pay attention to high notes. Knowing who the guy was. leul poate să atace.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. ea o luă la fugă. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (Ştiind cine era el. o să ajung la timp. (Sosind aici.) c. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.) c. a lion can attack.) 227 .) b. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. When singing. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.
Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. which stands for an adverbial clause.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. watch. behold. hear. smell. He was found stealing.) b. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. (L-au descoperit că fură. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. They found him killed by a bullet. He was found killed by a bullet. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. notice.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. I found him stealing. (L-am descoperit furând. respectively.) 228 .) ii. (Am simţit-o tremurând.
: a. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) b.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. hear.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. I must get my hair cut. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. recollect. etc. etc. have. make a. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (A fost văzut plângând. recollect. etc. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.) c. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. find. He’ll soon get things going. send. she knew herself dismissed. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. a. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. feel.) • Causative verbs: get. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună.) • Causative verbs: get . He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . have. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. know.) b. set. keep.: When she heard his words. start. confess. etc. I heard it said that men are a bore. leave.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) b.
/ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. Men like shopping made easy. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. command I ordered my bill made out. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . He wanted his car fixed immediately.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. lovit şi plin de sânge. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. / Nu după multă vreme. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.) • verbs of permission.) b./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.
sitting taut between her father and her sister. / My Lord. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent.e. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / Dinny. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. 231 . / In any case. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. with its lips drawn back. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).2. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Unlike the gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.1.
2. 4. using either a present participle. se va opri şi ploaia. I knew that the murderer was still at large.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. she enjoyed her trip to Spain.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. People were sleeping in the next room. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. am plecat. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. the rain will stop. am plecat. 5. It had been uprooted by the gale.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. The tree had fallen across the road. I turned on the light. I left.She didn’t want to hear the story again. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 7. (Văzând acestea. (Desi nu ştia limba.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I was astonished at what I saw. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 3. I left. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 6. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . I have looked through the fashion magazine. She had heard it all before.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher.
4. his horse fell at the last jump. Getting out of bed.shoulder. fishy. shaven. b) Headed (5 times). 12. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. cloth. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. open. coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 8. 11. Tied to the post. Dropped by parachute. Passing under a ladder. sharp. drunken. Riding in the first race. I let the dog out of the room. the sea was tossing the post up and down. haired (twice). How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. quick. my hands often get very cold.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. Read the sentences and try to correct them. I slammed the door of my room. Leaving the cinema. empty. a scorpion bit him. mown. 3. one of the eggs broke. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. He sat down to his own dinner. 10. lighted. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. eyed (3 times). Reading in bed. 5. 9. narrow. covered. hearted (twice). roast. stricken. Climbing down the tree. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 9. 2. 6. skinned. a rug caught her foot and she fell. a pot of paint fell on my head. 7. They found the treasure. He fed the dog. handed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. lion.Running into the room. many. straight. 8. red (twice). dark. cornered. three. eagle. Barking furiously. They began quarreling about how to divide it. minded (3 times). Sitting in the dentist’s chair. broad. Mother punished me for my mistake. bald. 10. 233 . Knowing me to be the fool of the family. open. stony. wooden.
________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. lead. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. wealth. was today taken back to prison.Spielberg. / Three people. candle. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. shorn. _______ my arm. / Swiss watches. I stared at the canvas for ages. hidden. (find) 6. eyes. Translate into English: 1. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (produce) 3. (admire) 5. _______ for their elegance and precision. deer. The film. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. _______ for a bargain. rotten. stream. plank. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. lamb._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. (injure).I fell on the ice. are sold throughout the world. Whales. is expected to be a great hit. graven. (grow) 4. (take) 2. (hunt).Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are in grave danger of extinction. bounden. were taken to hospital. In the following pairs of sentences. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. the same verb is missing twice. duty. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. man. image. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. / Many old people . _______ for their valuable oil and meat. head./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. shrunken. meat. 7. The escaped prisoner. b) grass. meaning. ill-gotten. ________ hiding in a barn. _______ by S.
Şi. nesigur şi moale. 2. care le rânduia. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. ca şi cum. 4.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. păsări tăiate. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. legume date prin mai multe ape. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. O umbreluţă. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. Şi sufletul său. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. când strânsă. le fierbea. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. când deschisă. şi moi. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . întinse. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. 3. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. trezit. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. le cocea. După câtva timp. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. deodată sufocat. precum şi foile de plăcintă. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile.
Nadina VIŞAN 9. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. According to this criterion. Likewise.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Dacă vezi.2. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. 236 . If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here.2. crezi.1.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. The Gerund 9. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.
2. Consider the following table. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.2.) b. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.) 9.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Him winning and you losing was surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. His winning and your losing were both surprising.) b. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. That he won and you lost was surprising. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. gerunds differ from participles. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. In that.
A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. Consider (32). (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.) b. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. It was illegal to grow a beard.) Unlike participles. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) 2. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. *It was illegal growing a beard. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. as being verbal 238 .
2.3. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.) b.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.) b.) 9. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. Just like in the case of noun phrases.) 3. Participles vs. as offered in the table below: 239 . it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. It’s no good talking to her. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.
he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. forms: continuous . Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. babies suck their thumb. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. (prepositional object clause) 5. + noun] 1. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. perfect. 2. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. passive ones She was crying. 3.
/ Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare.
11. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 7. 2. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 15. 5. 10. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 12. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. shooting gallery / shooting star. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 4. Gambling is his favourite pastime. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 13. 6. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 8. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. eating habits/ eating people. 12. 242 . The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. swimming duck / swimming trunks. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. crying game / crying woman. 14. He was spotted talking to her. 9. 3.
e. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.) The absence of a determiner like the. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.3. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .e.Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. a The absence of an of phrase. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. but the presence of a direct object (i. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.
In the second situation. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. These are features that normally characterize any noun. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. Thus. How can we tell? In the first case. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. George’s shooting the attacker.
/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / His coming there puzzled her. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. 245 . / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. very large./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. the sheriff. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. Jim left quietly. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping.
we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. for example. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. With the infinitive. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. the meaning is different. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. whenever we meet an –ing form. For instance. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). ING Forms and Infinitives. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. However.Nadina VIŞAN 9. It has been noticed that.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 .4. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. Look. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place.
(S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. (S-a oprit din mâncat. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. containing an infinitive. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. anterior to the verb in the main clause.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) The first example.) . prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. having left) is infrequently used in English. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich.g. future-oriented value of the infinitive). the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. and the most well-known one. the infinitive is future-oriented. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. On the other hand. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.) After looking at this example.
e. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.) .Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.e. which means that they are similar in meaning. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. i. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). recollect.) As you can see. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.
(Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. In the second example.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) . d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. the petrol tank is not filled yet.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. the action is not completed. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. dar asta este. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. but that’s it.
The house needs repairing. the event has not happened yet.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a.) With [.) b. mean has the sense signify. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. The house needs to be repaired.) wedding. (Casa trebuie reparată.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. e) need. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. In the second example.human] objects. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. (Casa trebuie reparată. want With [+ human] objects.) 250 .
’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. but they went by too quickly. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . my Lord. I did ask Mr. (take) down her answer. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. however appearances were against us.’ ‘Tell me. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. gerund or infinitive. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. my Lord. whereas in the second case. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Lady Corven. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘In any case. it’s overrated. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Croom (try) (follow) one.
But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. licked the envelope with passion.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ said Clare. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). I spend all my time (hunt) a job. he addressed the note.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I just used the word and they fell. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. suddenly. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ 252 . ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. and went out (post) it himself. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ said Clare.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. I must go back now. Then. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon.
The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Last but not least.5. Participles mainly function as adverbials. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. the 253 . Pratice In the following texts. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms.Unit nine Ing complements 9.
slowly rising in a swirling motion. Then he saw movement at his feet. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The two sides were moving apart. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. down. according to the books he read. moving up towards his chest. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. hoping he would see somebody up there. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. She started coughing. their edges crashing inwards. It was like a mist. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. it 254 . (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. someone looking for survivors. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. covering the girl’s head. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. but then he saw it billowing up from below. the enormous split in the earth. down into God knows where. He looked up towards the daylight. The sight of the two children. then the noise and the cracking stone. At first. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. brightening to winter brilliance.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. 255 . my dear. and sunlight. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. for Dornford was busy on an important case. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. She finished what jobs there were. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing.
eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. mama mea. În urma slugii. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. Vaucher şi cu mine. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Ridicându-se. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. ucenicul său necredincios. 2. and then went riding with her in the rain. într-o joi. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. cei doi Mamona. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. închizând ochii. totul se animă deodată. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început.
din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Şi deodată. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aplecându-se puţin. Neclintiţi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. totul mi se părea cunoscut. dar ştiutoare. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. pe mama mea părând absentă. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. afară ploua în continuare. aşezată cu spatele la noi. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. o sărută pe frunte. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. 3. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. pe Vaucher. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. am ştiut şi cine. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. la mine. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. după cum îi spusese mama. privit. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. se duse lânga mama şi. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. auzit şi zadarnic. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus.
şi cu masa lungă de scândură. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi cu soba. Au coborât din camion încet. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. 5. şi cu stiva de lemne. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. camionul a plecat. dar. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi.
259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
5. 13. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. without profound questioning. You have been much in my thoughts. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 6. and this particularly of late. 4. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. apart from his distress for parents. 11. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 7. I am sorry not to have seen you. since I have decided. 10.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 12. 3. was unclear to Mitzi. in some way. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. to retire early from my employment. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. because of pity. this would really hurt. 2. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 9. How much. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. and that 263 . he had been advised. How this time was to come. Having regard to the date of drafting. and meet it right here at home. he had not yet been able to estimate. whereas if she went away she would get none.
but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. please consider his proposition. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 17. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 19. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. / Before you go on changing the subject. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. 14. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 264 . so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. looking forward had not yet taken place. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. one of the eggs broke. / In the end. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. even for months. he did not come to see her. / Whenever I visited my aunt. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. for attending his sister’s wedding.
an open-air person. Instead of which she had married. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. At country houses she had met them of course. and it was bound. quite unexpectedly. They rushed into shops. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. centered in London and themselves. She felt as when. Clarissa used to think. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. her old friend Hugh. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. it was said. Tony was a child. Essentially. 265 . said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. without discovery. Vulgar men did. cotton mills at Manchester. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. to end in some awful tragedy. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. They hated trying on. rather than the hefty type. she said. her recklessness. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. Though much in request before her marriage. of the quick and wiry. of all people. a little girl. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. (and there he was.
era un bun sfatuitor. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita.Rindurile dvs. to keep abreast of the current. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. The closer she allowed him to come to her. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. De uitat. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. ii faceau bine. Reading many novels. (John Galsworthy . dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Cind l-a chemat. astfel.Over the River) 2. indeed. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. viguros si vesel in felul lui. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. Bolnava nu se simtea. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. the more she would be torturing him. nu a facut-o pentru asta.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. with all its impatience of restraint. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. short of the contacts of love. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. nu puteam sa le uit. cre s-au nascut lent. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. si in plus. she was uneasy. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. she professed. aveam tot mai 266 . but lying in her bath. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit.
Banulescu – ibid. ca si tine. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. (St. Daca tu. Personal. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. (St. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea.) 6. (St. vaazut cindva. Banulescu – ibid. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.) 7. Banulescu – ibid.) 267 . latimea si ascutisul labei. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. nu pricep nimic. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. (St. 4. Banulescu – ibid. o data sau de doua ori. lungimea picioarelor. se stie. fa-o. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. are nevoie. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei.) 5. Ce a iesit. cit mai au de trait. poate fi compensata. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Milionarule. pe scaunul lui tare. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. mi-am zis.
) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. for being a renegade. a wounded soldier. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. A story-book romance. Who told me. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Ernest Richard Atkinson. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. to Emmanuel College. Who was may father. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Cambridge. Arthur Atkinson M. Who. delivered from the holocaust.P.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. (. Who when asked about his memories of the War. Translate them. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. my grandfather.. And had a brother killed in the same battle. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. when I was even younger than you. Could he be blamed. Who came home from the war.. 2.
Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. 4. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. he had already engaged himself? 3. deep-set. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. Rachel Williams. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. and because – but this is mere speculation. Fabianism. a moody man. to whom. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. How 269 . that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman.
Ion. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum au tăcut ei. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. la şcoală. om mare. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. satul. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum a ajuns el. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. cu taina aceasta. Ion. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Cum a trăit el. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. 270 . ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el.
mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cu sau fără voie. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama.pune totul in discuţie. 271 . dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. din franţuzeşte. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Când actriţa. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . L-au derivat cei din teatru. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. singurul lui stăpân. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. când voi fi singur. greşeli dintr-astea. împotriva tuturor. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. de mama lor.
dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Într-o vreme. 3. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. A devenit palid. uneori şi astăzi chiar. de pildă. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. traversând. sau ridicole. parcă începusem s-o uit. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. fostă prietenă din copilărie. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. continuând. privindu-mă în ochi. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. 5. Am început. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. 4. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. 6. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. nevasta-mea. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. dam buzna peste automobile. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. tânăr şi frumos şi el. ci un sistem de acomodare. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. provocându-le. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. 272 . care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Tot aşa. pe jumătate prezent. decât când noi eram obiectul lui.
căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. E o problemă. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. să merg întins. ca un acrobat. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. 8. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. şi să nu ameţesc. că nu m-am gândit la asta. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . mă puteau prinde fără luptă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. şi dacă merg întins. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. Aş vrea să mă las jos. fără să mă opresc o clipă. De altminteri. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. iar. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. 9. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Am început. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. simţeam că mi se dilată inima.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. orice s-ar întâmpla. fireşte. 11. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Dacă nemţii înaintau. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu.
dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Ii venea greu. Greu era din partea asta. se uita in jos. la fata locului. trebuia sa le spuna. eu am venit sa va intreb. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. 13. nu mai pricepu nimic. la carti. Acum isi ferea privirea. Uite.Ma. de uimire. de la obiecte de pret. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. nu trebuie sa va suparati. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. dar nu se mai putea. la amintiri. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. nu mai semana. 16. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. de la lucruri personale. Adica tot trecutul. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. de la proces. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. parca i-ar fi fost frica. In curind. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. cu mirare. 14. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie.. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. 15. La un moment dat. Ilie nu-l asculta. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului.. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 274 . care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Auzindu-l. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. 17. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire.
Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. asa cum facuse pina acum. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Zimbea siret. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». vorbe asa si-asa.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. cum zicea Anghel. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». se indeparta nepasator. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. apoi se uitau la Ilie. Aici era ceva. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. 19. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea.Ce sa fac. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. 20. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . . There was even 275 . which was part of his rich outfit. Nu era nevoie. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. dar.
rude woman. on this occasion. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. 4. and to declare that they needn’t mind her.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. at least. paying no attention. to admit that she was a proud. conversationally. He felt then. gave an exclamation. to move fast. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence.Nadina VIŞAN relief. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. for the instant. But Daisy. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. asked for Mrs. a simplification. 5. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. She was one 276 . It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one.Miller at her hotel. resuming her walk. to take his way home on foot. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. the young lady. He walked a long time. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. 3. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. going astray.
was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. She rustled forward. smiling and chattering. in their own phrase. of studying European society. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. in radiant loveliness. as text book. She appeared.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. make a point. Her daughter. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. while residing abroad. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. 7. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother.Walker. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. Advising with me. 6. indeed. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . she was sometimes more conservative even than I. and wondering what the deuce he meant. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. 8. uncomfortably. making Paul stop and look at her. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. He left me musing. as to projected changes. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. on the other hand. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. as it were. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. often. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place.
as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. or at any rate not heeding. was immensely struck with him. wondered what they were talking about. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. and perceived that it must be something important. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. while Paul. was only half satisfied with this. which was deliberate. 9. 11. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. and. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. though E.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. and acute too. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. H. with his humorous density. not seeing. H.’ 278 . Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. 10. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. could see he was remarkable. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off.
His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. 13. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . not glancing at him for a moment. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. H. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. 14. as he looked back. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. But she gave him no chance. that the haunting wonder which now. had the power to chain his sympathy. which was very copious. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. appeared to fill his whole childhood. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. 15.
to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. that she must be on the contrary. It was very possible she was capricious.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. At the theatre. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. proudly. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. ironically reserved. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. 17. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. and to H. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. yet 280 . as a general thing. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. where the Pearl of Paraguay. dragging herself on her knees. 18. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. The whole establishment. H. and there were others. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 16. disheveled and distracted.
and lurking within this nebulous design. with the poor. 3. didn’t mind. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. 281 .Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. Their mistakes and illusions. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 20. had blown a certain chill. No one ever listens to her. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. would always be more or less irritating. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 19. It came over H. on which the damp breath of the streets. 2. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. H. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. young men were invited. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. *Old. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1.
Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. “Oh. Either John or he * have got to give in. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 9. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. I blundered by. I saw her as a vision. her shining blue feet twinkling. 8. her arms held out. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 282 . slipped on some steps. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. 10. I was definitely going to be sick. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. c) When I saw her sitting there. I walked fast. Rachel. walking quickly. striding like a Spartan maid. 7. 11. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 5. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 6. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. 12.
In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5.
I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. could cook my meals. 3. if they were poor.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. The old women spoke no English. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. where my servant. 4. 2. And then I ventured to add that. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. 5. which was really alarming. but that we saw and pitied.
apart from his distress = apart from. he. would really hurt. etc. to settle. etc. distress. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. was informed. his. he had not yet been able to estimate. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. etc.g.g. 285 . apart form his distress for parents. Munt. Constituents: Margaret. before they left town. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. this. had not been able to estimate. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. apart from his distress for parents. at noon. to pay their annual visit. was anxious. this would really hurt. Constituents: He. Constituents: how much. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious = was + anxious. How much. on Saturday.
semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to)./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. / If you like her. it is assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive./ She finally admitted.. and is non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – comparison. interrogative. interrogative. negative/ Come with me.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. which context is non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. negative. – non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. which is not assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. don’t bother her. second clause is non-assertive. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. – first clause is non-assertive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. Second clause is an imperative. interrogative. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. listen to this.. – first clause is an ifclause. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. The sentence is however 286 . negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.
/ He wasn’t unusually bright./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. but not more than she does others. – someone did that. / You have never met 287 . / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. but it wasn’t them./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ When he learned the news.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / She does not hate animals. – they told the truth to somebody else. but it isn’t Susan./ Hardly interested in the conference./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. / They didn’t leave. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. the two brothers dared to protest./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. he was hardly pleased. –double negation cancellation. – I like somebody else./ He was smart enough. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall. not even this thing./ He was exceptionally cunning. – someone hates animals. everybody used to travel by coach.but to someone else. / She does like John./ They weren’t really confused./ Not long ago. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Susan did not get married to Jim . but nothing out of the ordinary. / I don’t like her very much. not even when it’s quiet around. only irresolute.
not even in my dreams. were they? / This boy is no good. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. not even when you were very young.. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.. they go skiing in the mountains. / This is hardly the 288 . I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.. – negative insertion...Nadina VIŞAN her.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. did they? / No problems were caused after all.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – I cannot look him in the eye. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.
. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / I seldom look at her like that.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. – I almost never look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – I don’t often look at her like that. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Almost nobody liked him. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / I didn’t leave the 289 . / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. but she also lent him a car. Activity 8 I shall never. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You’ve eaten hardly anything./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. – Not many people came to see her. never trust a man again. – I never see her./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / Hardly anybody liked him.. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.Never shall I trust a man again.. when we started our holiday.
/ We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / Come on. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / Don’t worry. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. – Only on this man could she rely. – They say he never had anyone very close. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent)./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / They believe she does not like them. – Come on. you can’t do anything about it any more./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / She could rely on nobody but him. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.I don’t like his proposal at all. you can still do something about it./ Well. – 290 . – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ I expect he won’t come here again. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – They don’t believe she likes them. / He reckoned he would not win her over./ I somewhat like his proposal. / They say he once had someone very close. – Nowhere could the keys be found. –At no time did we leave the office. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – It isn’t likely that he will help her.
– Well her husband has always been a good person./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – You can’t be telling lies. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – She almost always comes here. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. either. / Well. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. too. I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ Bob is still living at that address.. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. –Alice still lives here./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / You must pay that fine. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. 291 . – You should send her something./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You must be telling lies.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. / You needn’t send her anything. / She hardly ever comes here. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences.
/ I don’t know a thing about her. / Jim is so brave. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. to any of us. / He can’t have done a thing like that. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Nobody told us a thing. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ N-are nici cap nici coada. has never studied anywhere. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ You look so tired today. not yet./ They say this Ph./ Have they rung the bell? No. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ E un baiat de zahar./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. He isn’t that smart. give me a hand. / Please./ He’s a happy man./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ Nimic de facut./ 292 ./ You took his leaving you very hard.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. I haven’t seen her in years. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. ever since I got this ulcer. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. He didn’t move a muscle. / Don’t go on believing him.D. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Nu spune nu niciodata. It’s no wonder./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. e un magar./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. Oh. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Norocul la noroc trage. I haven’t done anything./ Zis si facut. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ He was a tough man.
one way or another.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa.’/ Deloc descurajat. slowly./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. nothing. thrown out. that I was a decent man. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. 293 . • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. without too much determination. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. for I thought this threatening./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate ./ Nu-i nici un deranj.’ ‘Nici o problema. I hadn’t really expected miracles. I had never had the opportunity to prove. no story. feebly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . We had nothing in common.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. with the same needs they had. parasi camera. no memory. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home.
In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. It’s not made up of theories and the like. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. or if you understood what I meant. but facts. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. Not for a moment had I thought that. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. We have to judge it as it is. Unfortunately. Radu had calmed down. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. bad. on the front seat. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. things you do any moment.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. the only 294 . • It was my turn to say something. good. not as we would like it to be or some other way. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. clear or confusing. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. by coming here to the monastery. he was sitting beside me. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. You really made me mad. Your judgement is false. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. that’s what the world is about. I was sleepy and tired. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I’d be so happy if it were so.. I admit. your story. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. it’s not words. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. let alone irritable. to say the least.
we are leaving. precious words. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. you can go to Ursu’s. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. although it was a difficult thing to do. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. behind these big. I won’t interfere. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. me. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. me. keep your conscience clean: you have one. it solves troubles. soon we’ll be in town. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. too? A gun is power. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. did you ever step up front. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. it’s your problem. or you are lying hidden. 295 . because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. and an inability to act. keep it squeaky clean. just to please myself. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. it’s yours. • So. But what about you and Melania. But I was just wondering. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. either. Look. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. clears your way. to fight. as Baciu would have us be. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. you do as you think fit.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. and if you like. or call the respect of others. Anyway. no matter how huge they are. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. fear might be hiding. but I didn’t want to lie to myself.
correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . but they gradually got used to it.Negative incorporation 296 .Negative raising (transportation) f)1. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. the sentence is incorrect 3. The villagers were not very religious.. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. will he?.Negative attraction b) 1. . -correct 3. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. has yet arrived -correct 2. or some other woman. because before is a positive polarity item 2. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . She admires neither Susan nor Jane.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.correct 3.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. firmly determined not to answer immediately. But it was not because I had no answer to give. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. has not arrived yet – double negation.incorrect. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. – incorrect. correlatives are mixed 2. as soon as he delivered it.. .
she couldn’t marry him. His spirit was too tired.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. not happy at all (NPI). much less ((NPI) for her. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. either (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. (ibid. too troubled. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). Her stillness. Avea sufletul prea obosit. (ibid. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. b) But it was rather (API) late. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Ştia că are dreptate. yet. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Nu putea să se mişte. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her.) Însă era cam târziu. nu era 297 . No one should know to what torture she was subjected. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. prea răscolit. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el.
arăta mai tânără ca oricând. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid. The Satanic Verses. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. (Salman Rushdie. (ibid. his heart was beating fast.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. if anything (NPI). and not a little unsteadily. inima îi batea năvalnic. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). she looked younger than ever (NPI).Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. se îndreptă spre paravan. Ba dimpotrivă.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. 298 . f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. şi destul de hotărât. he made his way to the screen. e) At length.
299 . Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. h) C. and probably an administrative headache as well. (ibid. i) What did C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Ce-i pasă lui C. care if the school were willing to treat him. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). the gift was useless.) C. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. but his father would have none of it (NPI). told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. The point was. Home receded from the prodigal son. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea.
correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination.indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. – indirect question. 300 . correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
She has an eye for gentle men. you are in enough trouble as it is. yes. Fenia. do you really think that this vixen. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. all godfearing husbands and fathers. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. keep Condrat away from her.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. “Now. to make them lust after her. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Chizlinski. she didn’t wear a ring. they were. now she was chatty. Stavre Paici. Luca Horobet. the bitch. Vica. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Fenia. 2. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. and then what do you 308 . During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. she likes to entrance them. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy.
after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. what’s her name. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. He got him out of his mosque. a seventy-eight year old lad. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. 4. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. have a girlfriend. ankle-long flowered calico. 3. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. the minister of Tartars and Turks. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. G. It even takes him a while to go to the window. The mullah.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. her hair pinned with blue combs. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. with a railway station and a mosque. dragging his feet listlessly.
and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .
the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. John and Mary are ready. and I passed. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. Her pet kitten is black and white. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – similar situation 10. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE ..sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. our respective examinations.) 9. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John is ready and Mary is ready.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.phrasal coordination (in this case. – sentence coordination 7. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. Our flag is red. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.. yellow and blue. – sentence coordination 2.
Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Activity 4 1. 6. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 9. and even tennis. 3. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Activity 5 This book and the other. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. We can and will demand payment.) Joan plays many games. many guest or few. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 5.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. much satisfaction or little 312 . Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. but not John. her idea and John’s. her son and others. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. 2. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. but John does not play football. plays football. 10. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. that method and those. your proposal and his. 8. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. your work and mine. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune.
4. 7. Ups and downs 6. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Safe and sound 313 . Life and soul 5. Pros and cons 4. To and fro 15. High and low 2. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. He snapped at him and slapped him. He read. 3. (I have always fought for progress and always will.) 6. Activity 8 1. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. The facts and figures 3. Spick and span 9. Law and order 8. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. magazines are only for children. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Wear and tear 12. etc. Few and far between 14. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. I have always fought and will fight for progress. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Over and above 13. but not simple. 8. 5. Bread and butter 16. Thick and thin 11. Swings and roundabouts 7. Touch and go 10.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary.
Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – symmetric. 6. 7. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 3. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. exclusive 15. 6. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – symmetric 2. 8.There is a table and some chairs in the room. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 4. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – asymmetric 18. 10.. – symmetric. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. b. 3. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. inclusive 16. Symmetric 13. exclusive 17. 314 . My son and heir is safe. – symmetric 10. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. – similar situation 9. 1. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. 9. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 7. 5. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. Symmetric 21. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 4. There are some chairs and a table in the room. My son and daughter are twins. 10.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. Cathy and David have arrived. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3.symmetric 11. 8. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. 2. Asymmetric 19. 5. Asymmetric 20. 9. – symmetric. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 2. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed.
They came to me. ‘Madam. Not only should you rest 315 . or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 15. Brother or no brother. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. I’ll still finish this paper. 4.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 2. 6. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. (2) 1. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. There are doctors and doctors. He went to bed. clothes and all. 2. 12. nor fowl. thanks for asking. 14. By hook or by crook. No drinking and driving. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. He’s neither fish. 5. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 3. Her husband is long dead and buried. Jim thought it over for a while. 3. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. for better or worse. Should he pour water in the basin. 8. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. We’ll stick together. 10. 9. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 11. it was too small. 7.
without mentioning financial matters. 2. it would work out fine. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. both dead and buried. stop dead in his tracks. and she listens to him. Mrs. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. as she always does. tense like a bow. You know. 316 . he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement.’ (3) 1. what’s its name. but she blinks in approval. tense with concentration. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. so he could leap in pursuit. at equal intervals. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Whatever she tried her hand at. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. he starts lecturing her about life and things. and then.Nadina VIŞAN assured. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. From time to time she will launch a helping question. but he’d come out a cripple. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. he’d leap high. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. And. an important man. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. she started doing a great job. This. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. she knows for sure. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. So she’ll listen to him. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. just like when he was thirty. They hadn’t kept him there too long. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. their common ground. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Her first husband had been a professor. What do you know? The moment Mrs.
subordinate. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . is aware. – she.subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE .subordinate. about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as a modifier 3.subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. – she. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. – obligatory elements: she. at me Activity 2: 1. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . – she. came.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will.subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. looked. you. – Susan. whomever wanted to listen. she looked at me sadly. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. told. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . functioning as an object (direct). cannot tell.
subordinate. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .subordinate.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. since the main verb is think of something) 5. remove our home yet again . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .complement b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that you are choosing exile . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . at our age. that we should.
adjunct (time)/ 319 . outbuildings. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . but no idea – relative that complement. direct object.complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. a house. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. a barn. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement.
adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ and done – wh complement. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object/ to write that tale – complement.A few days before the war. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Activity 5 1. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. subject/ to do such again – complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. (…) He dashed back. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. without straightening her back. direct object.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. sickle in hand. But other people. staring at each other.wh complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. When Anton put the sickle down. (…) ‘Well.
saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Not even at this point. or if he does. For no bold man really falters. Why! He was not of two minds. Only he had Ana to think of. which he doesn’t rely on completely.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. but also his sharp nose. 3. while on other occasions he would show caution. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. or other more hidden means. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. 321 . had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. but he doesn’t spurn either. while they spoke from miles away. 2. you need courage even for this small thing. that was for sure. as if they were at his beck and call. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. he will turn back and no longer be daring. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. First. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. rather than a real threat. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. Ana could not stand a trip now. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy.
under the silliest of pretexts. and on Monday followed another feast). And here’s how this first day looked. without really knowing why. and twice we were requested to get out. to see some mutual friends. Twice did we get in the car. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. although he could have said so earlier. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. it was the women. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. by the cars of some of us. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. he had postponed writing back. come on. So. they would ruin the arrangement. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. But it was not ok. and when things didn’t go as planned. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. 4. In fact. 322 . We were going to drive to a vineyard. are we getting off again? What is wrong. in Odobesti.
9. who was just passing by. most of whom were from England. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. which was a pity. John told his friend a story about the king. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. You couldn’t join the party. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 10. 8.free 8. He told her the secret. like their teacher. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 11. 2. 5. 5. 6.restrictive 7. 4. 10. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 7. This is my husband whom I love very much. which was silly of him. what you want – free/ where you can park your car .She came to London where I went too. 8. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.restrictive 6. any of whom would answer to questions. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 4. on which this occurred . 7.restrictive 2.restrictive 4. 6. Activity 2 1. where I least expected 323 . The students. Activity 3 1. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. where I spent my youth . The students like their teacher. 3. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 3.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. all of whom would answer to his questions. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. why they all left . when we first met .RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. These are people who we cannot tell much about.
what their parents made them. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. who think so highly of yourselves.subject 8.When Ada remarked – adjunct. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. Activity 5 1. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. which .free 9. 4. 6.adjunct 11. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. Where he was from – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation.adjunct 5. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.free Activity 4 1. You. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. 2.Nadina VIŞAN .adjunct 6. What – direct object 2. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. where we talk money – predicative. Where .adjunct 3. Who . Which – subject 4. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. When . Of all the persons there. 7. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. the prince chose Cinderella. I. What Inman remembered – subject. Where . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. What I’m saying – subject. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. where – predicative 7.restrictive 10.subject 9.adjunct 10. when . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . 3. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. Why . however sad . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. who cannot say a word. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . 5. come up front.
what .whom is ungrammatical due to the [.Key To Chapter Six Practice object. which requires an accusative form.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . – which is ungrammatical due to the [. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[. whatever – predicative 13. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. how .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. what little she knew – direct object. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. that is ungrammatical because it 325 .attribute 12.
the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. a sergeant. whose great-grandfather. due to its invariable character. having changed quite a number of jobs.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. got married and had a daughter. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. who. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . but whose second cousin. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. a rather tiny looking man. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. in his turn.
– yes 2. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. His friends. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.yes 3. were now all gone. . – yes. . . has been troubling them forever. This story. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. no easy answers to which could be offered. Irene.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. – no pied piping 327 . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. . .yes 7.yes 10. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. was now complete. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people.yes Activity 9 1. whose interest he most sincerely shared.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. he requested that the public be excluded. In the interest of public decency. . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.His father’s friends.obligatory 3. – no 9. The problem of safe transportation.obligatory 4.no 5. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. – no pied piping 5. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. – no 4. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. – obligatory pied piping 2. with deletion of the noun friends]. he rarely saw now. – yes 6.
3. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. Only an ugly endless dream remained. 8. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. Everything was ending. 6. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. where two teams battled every day… 5. For all the four children. or as of a vast arena. yours. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. 2. Nelu. For twenty years. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. I did so. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. In other people’s opinion. 4. I am to be envied. 328 . The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. the third born son. 7. for instance. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars.and he couldn’t thank me enough. irrespective of age and nature.
barely glittering in the distance. 17. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. from MR street. 13. 11. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. on Icoanei street. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. Behind them. All that you have read is rubbish. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. You are newly arrived here. 15. where from Marta was coming too. leaving streets and houses behind. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 16.R. 14. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. What you’re saying sounds very nice. since I don’t really know which my true life is.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. staring aimlessly. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 10. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. He was suffering from dizziness. although she was standing quite close to him. 329 . Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. she said. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 12. the tram was rattling along.
22. She was a woman of means. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. who prompted everyone on the street. had a huge house in Bucharest. who only lived once in this world. From the vantage point I was in. While we were poor. so optimistic and composed? 19.Nadina VIŞAN 18. 20. While some trees are still green. But. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. But for me. in her pursuits. or the clash of stars above. If he had hit me. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. I don’t know what might have happened. So. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. day by day. 21. or the many Egyptian dynasties. likes and dislikes. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. I could see my woman falling away from me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. 23. 24. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. after the car was fixed. which I did not posses. 330 . She was one of those impeccably dressed women. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. had a personal style in clothes.
Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. subject 9. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It will be soon announced when you can leave. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – questionable. direct object 3. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. subject 4. – extraposed. 2.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. 331 . direct object 10. – extraposed. – unextraposed. prepositional object 11.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 8. – extraposed. – impossible 7. subject 7. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. subject 8. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. – extraposed. subject 2. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. for pragmatic reasons 5.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. – the same as 3. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. 3. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It appears that no one voted for him. object 6. – extraposed. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. object 5.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE .It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 6. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4.
I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. I guess it that he will come back. although a bit intricate 2. – impossible. 9. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.grammatical. – incorrect. same as 12. – impossible. same as 12.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Activity 3: 1. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 18.correct 4. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – grammatical. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.incorrect. They never expected it that he would come back. – same as 12. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. tense influences the 332 . 10. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. – the same as 12.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. – correct 2. 15. – grammatical. . – impossible 11. . – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.. but pragmatically impossible 4. a bit too intricate 5. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It is nice to meet you. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. It is no use trying to convince her. 14. I don’t expect it that he will come back.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back.grammatical. but pragmatically impossible 3. . idiomatic formula 16. 17. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – impossible. same as 12. – grammatical. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible.
‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. – correct 6. 333 .incorrect. in the pits on the road. 5. thus. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. though. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. under bridges.’ 4. 3. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. (Not always. behind gates. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. 2. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic.’ Lionel says.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . in the ditch.
which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 7. It is less ambiguous than the first. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. – the first sentence is the better of the two. By saying this. 2. since the 334 . who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. prime-minister. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. – the second sentence is questionable. because it is less ambiguous. who had just returned from Africa. without trying to protest too much. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. 3. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. Activity 7 1. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences.Nadina VIŞAN 6. 8. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 4. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere.
although the third one has not undergone clause shift. The second and third sentences are grammatical. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. 6. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. – both sentences are grammatical. extraposition is obligatory here. 7. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 335 . / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. so there is no need for extraposition. 5. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 8. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.
Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. (Iris Murdoch.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. . His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. . – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject.adverbial of sequence/result. ibid.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – adverbial of sequence/result. – complement 5. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.We discovered that our map has disappeared. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. (Iris Murdoch. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. The idea that he had had earned him good money. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. – subject. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. – relative 3. – complement that clause. coordinated.) adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) complement that clauses. – prepositional object. – direct object. for better or worse. required by deverbal noun 336 . – relative 5.complement 4. they were chained to each other forever. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.relative Activity 9 1. . extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. .prepositional object. – complement 2.
b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. that deletion is obligatory. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. you want me to believe. d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. that they were not too late to leave. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.
c. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – both sentences are grammatical. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. – grammatical sentences. a.
Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. geese both grey and white. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. lark. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. – generalization on habits of birds. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . prepeliţe. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. present perfect instead of past perfect. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. ciocârlii şi şoimi. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. present instead of simple past. While the first is possible because of the generalization. hawk. quail. cenuşii şi albe. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara.
love of practical jokes. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. slyness in a fight. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. as evidenced by its drear plumage.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Noble beyond all her powers of expression. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. The generic present is used in this case. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Crows will relish what presents itself. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. She admired their keenness of wit. lack of pridefulness. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. lipsa de vanitate. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.
a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. se ridicase în picioare. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Murise în picioare. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. he claimed. He died erect. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. […] During the latter stages of the tale. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. He had fought hard through the war. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. But as the battle raged around them. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. in the very act of expiring. the young officer. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. El căzuse pe spate. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. tragică şi eroică. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. tânărul ofiţer. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.
But when he reached me. A short while later. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Luptase din răsputeri în război. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. deşi era erou de război. în închisoare. the oldest. Activity 13 1. 2. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. I realized I could not tell him the big news. mother went home and I was left alone. to finish my drawing. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. When the boys saw that mother had left. susţinea el. war hero though he was. Now here he stood jailed. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. They all had their hands in their pockets. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. When he saw me. How can I explain? I just felt shy. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. 342 . And they might just hang him. – similar situation to the one under (c). He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). he closed the album. around seventeen or eighteen years old. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. One of them. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. Acum stătea aici. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. they gathered around my desk.
’ 5. for her vineyard. 6. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. brightly and closely. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her.’ Mr. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. All his senses were now keen. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. as if he had been drunk. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. 4. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. or if she would do so again.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. or fear his rage. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .
Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. The last time when we met here you scared me. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . he would achieve his goal and be a victor. thinking of him. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. And if things were so. 11. 10. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 7. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent.Nadina VIŞAN to him. 9. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. 8. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned.
where he would run to confess everything. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. which secretly drove him. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. towards Jurubita. 13. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. We either sell them or we don’t. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. 14. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. namely the impatience of this young man. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. more urgently than ever. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. without putting anything in a note. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 12.
It is vital this factory to be reopened. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. grammatical 10. grammatical 3. . – simple infinitive. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 2. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. / they saw her leave.. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. – infinitive continuous. grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical 7. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – simple infinitive. grammatical 6.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. – simple infinitive.simple infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / He had Mary clean her room. 9. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. . – perfect infinitive. 346 . She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 5. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs.
/ To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. \ She wanted [him to leave. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. Test: *I would love them. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *I allowed them. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ She promised him PRO to leave. Test: * I would like people. – Test: He persuaded her. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *She wanted him. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / I want to never see you again. \ I allowed [them to come. – Test: They convinced her. – Test: They tempted him. you need to try harder. – Test: They asked her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have known her 347 . Test: *They did not wish her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. \ I would love [ them to come. Test: *They would have hated her.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ They would have hated [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. – Test: She promised him. / It is not too late for him to learn. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide.
obligatory subject control verb 348 . to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. .Nadina VIŞAN for years. I don’t need you or your services.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / I have a word to tell you. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. / Oh. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is young enough to start again. . / I have never known how to behave in her presence. . / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I want you to leave my house. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / He is hard to stand. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. not to miss the train. . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / He is easy to talk to. / He is easy to live with. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. Activity 6 Oh. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations.
In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Subject. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4].Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. so that we might get to the future and have done. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. they had depressed and fuddled him. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. Harold.Accusative + Infinitive. he didn’t envy those above it. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Predicative 4 . He suspected hostility at once. If he himself was out of spirits. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Subject. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. the herd instinct was very strong in him. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. 1 – PRO-to. 1] A little crossly.to. 349 . 1 – PRO. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. who wasn’t used to men with moods. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.
sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. But when we need to comfort others. PRO controlled by ‘me’. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. man and woman. cautiously. 1 – PRO-to. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. f) The passing time is important. slowly. we seem to forget about our own pain. 350 . so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. e) When two persons. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘she’. or better said. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. And you might also be hit and humiliated. true. more believable than evidence itself. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. direct object 3 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. object 2 – PRO –to. One day. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. c) Unlike plane trips. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. PRO controlled by ‘him’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. excitedly. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. more meaningful.
in the street. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. 351 . tickled by the trickles of sweat. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. not even those parts where he had been half-right. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. for instance. that you are young. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. even when this love is hurried. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. h) I want us to go. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. That is it. If it was summer.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. all down our neck. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. S. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. my wish being only to please and serve. while swearing to change my way of life. Stroescu. He had not been able to leave Dr. or their talk that night. And I would care for this man so deeply. Moroi says heavily. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. not to want to wipe it off. as he had appeared to him in the rain. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. or. to live only with your coughing. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Mrs. which he had already forgotten. And to actually start to believe you are so. k) With this considerable dowry. I am indeed praising my own merits.
poor Muti. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. she was suddenly so shocked. here I am with all of my own. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. met by squalor and terrible smells. for that’s the door people get off by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. If you will have what I can give you. every Bucharester knows it. ready to submit to any demand. 352 . no matter what. or to speak so fast. Well. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. haphazardly.
and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. badly beaten and bloodied. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction).Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . 353 . – Attributive past participle. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Don’t keep him waiting. / They found it thrown in a corner. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ She sent him shopping.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. with its lips drawn back. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ He went to have a tooth pulled.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me..
having been uprooted by the gale. – As she was running into the room. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. a rug caught her foot and she fell. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Turning on the light. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 9. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Sleeping in the next room. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. I was astonished at what I saw.Running into the room.She didn’t want to hear the story again. Finding the treasure. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 8. Having looked through the fashion magazine. Attributive present participle. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. 10./ Running into the room. 4. he sat down to his own dinner. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 3. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. I slammed the door of my room. The tree had fallen across the road. Activity 4 1. 5. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. I was extremely reluctant to open the door.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 7. 6. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. – Attributive present participle. 2. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Having fed the dog. having heard it all before. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.
the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he was getting out of bed. Riding in the first race. / Getting out of bed. 355 . – As I was passing under a ladder. fishy-eyed. Climbing down the tree. – As he left the cinema. 4. I let it out of the room. Passing under a ladder. – As the dog was barking furiously. one of the eggs broke. he was bit by a scorpion. 8. 10. the sea was tossing the post up and down. 9. the sea was tossing it up and down. 7. broad-shouldered. Leaving the cinema. Dropped by parachute. 11. Barking furiously. empty-headed. open-minded. sharp-eyed/minded. Activity 5 Fair-haired. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. narrow-minded. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. 6.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. a scorpion bit him. – When I read in bed. a pot of paint fell on my head. his horse fell at the last jump. 5. red-handed. 2. three-coloured. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. Reading in bed./ Reading in bed. – As he was riding in the first race. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. I let the dog out of the room. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. my hands often get very cold. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. his horse fell at the last jump. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. an idea suddenly occurred to me. an idea suddenly occurred to me. lion-hearted. wooden-headed. many-coloured. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. my hands often get very cold. bald-headed. 3. stony-hearted. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. – As he was climbing down the tree. a pot of paint fell on my head. 12. cloth-covered. Tied to the post. he broke one of the eggs. a scorpion bit him. Getting out of bed. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. one of the eggs broke. I often get very cold hands. / Climbing down the tree. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. – As he was tied to the post.
shrunken stream. (hunt). are in grave danger of extinction. admired for their elegance and precision. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. shorn lamb. found hiding in a barn. (produce) 3. Activity 7 1. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. injured when their car crashed on the M1. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. dark-skinned. / Three people. (injure). (grow) 4. was today taken back to prison. hidden meaning. hunting for a bargain. 7. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. I stared at the canvas for ages.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed.I fell on the ice. / Swiss watches. Whales. straight-shouldered. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. open-hearted. shaven head. injuring my arm. (find) 6. mown grass. stricken deer. are sold throughout the world. 356 . graven image. the shoulders barely hidden by lace.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. produced by S. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. (take) 2. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. eagle-eyed. roast meat. The film./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. were taken to hospital. (admire) 5. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. bounden duty. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. drunken man.Spielberg. is expected to be a great hit. sunken eyes. lighted candle. The escaped prisoner. ill-gotten wealth. Activity 8 1. rotten plank. / Many old people. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears.
streaked with yellow veins of fat. in charge of his house and lands. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the fish. After a while. and the puffed pastry beds. And his soul. 2. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. now taken down. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. 3. bake them. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. He felt close to his father. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. 4. suddenly suffocated. thrown in the pots. 357 . sprinkled with sticky flour. and moreover.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. boil them. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. yet left them room to sway free. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. he started peering anxiously around as if. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. seeking some promised land. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. the twice rinsed vegetables. A parasol. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. hovering uncertain and soft. the carved chicken. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. its scales scraped off by the knife. flat and soft. he were struggling for breath. then put up. So. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired.
/ John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. . Activity 10 1.gerund 5. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. he left the store without buying a thing. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. – Accusative + participle 3. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / After annoying the shop-assistant. – participle (attribute) 2. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / I am sorry for being so late. – gerund (subject) 4. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. Gambling is his favourite pastime. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 ./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time.
participle vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – gerund (attribute. – gerund (half or full. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. . – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum.possessive ING (direct object) 9. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He was spotted talking to her. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . She’s looking forward to having lots of children. possessive ING (predicative) 7. preceded by preposition). – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. 8. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (prepositional object) 10.
What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. I did ask Mr. but they went by too quickly.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. my Lord.verbal noun (has determiner. – verbal noun (has adjective).Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Croom to try to follow one. – gerund (full.. adjective.. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. Lady Corven. take down her answer. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – verbal noun (has determiner.’ 360 . adjective. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. however appearances were against us. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – gerund or verbal noun. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.’ ‘Tell me. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. hold up his pen and speak.
the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I spend all my time hunting a job. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. my Lord. it’s overrated. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. he addressed the note. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. Then. suddenly. and went out to post it himself. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. licked the envelope with passion.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him.’ said Clare. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. I just used the word and they fell.’ 361 . and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I must go back now. ‘I do hate asking for things.’ said Clare.
he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. attribute) in a swirling motion. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. hoping (participle. after verb of perception. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. The collapsing shops (participle. attribute. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. First the crack snaking (half gerund. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. adverbial of time. attribute). elliptical here. attribute. Has a complex subject) in the hole. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. The two sides were moving apart. direct object). Then he saw movement at his feet. down into God knows where. the enormous split in the earth. attribute.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. It was like a mist. slightly 362 . slowly rising (participle. The sight of the two children. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. direct object) from below. He looked up towards the daylight. down. …while their edges were crashing inwards). following the verb ‘remember’. attribute. the very earth opening up (half gerund. someone looking for survivors (participle. At first. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. attribute). direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. village which is burning). direct object) towards him. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. (participle.
cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. i. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund.e. has ‘of’ phrase). it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. etc. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun.). adverbial of reason).’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . covering (participle. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. my dear. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. early. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. direct object). It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. you. moving up (participle. prepositional object. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. according to the books he read. one.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom.
attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. examining (participle. and everything got suddenly animated. Having a French governess (participle. the two Mamonas. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. Standing up. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. for Dornford was busy on an important case.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. adverbial of reason). She finished what jobs there were. mother. and not only in my imagination or theirs. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. reluctant or not. brightening (participle. adverbial of manner). adverbial of manner). whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. preceded by preposition. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. Young Mamona left the room without a word. we were all gathered in that room. slanted on to her cheek. attribute) stopped dead. and sunlight. preceded by preposition. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. And. So. attribute) to winter brilliance. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. Vaucher and I. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and then went riding (participle. which beckoned to 364 . a door was opened and as a servant entered.
Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. 3. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. kissed her forehead. And. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. in the year 1812. Not so unimaginable though. 2. he looked like someone who did. and to Young Mamona. his disloyal apprentice. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. 4. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. killed by Young Mamona. her back towards us. Entering our house on a Thursday. And then. and smelling so hard of rain. sitting in his puddle. to me. each carrying a wooden box. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. closing my eyes. who knows. So when Old Mamona came in.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. without taking his sack off his shoulders. as mother had ordered him. about sparing no effort. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. he found us sitting each in his place. too. and ended his life in the year 1821. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. to Vaucher. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . let alone greet us or say something. about concentrating all our resources. for anyway. he went to mother and. Vaucher might have known that too. He cast us a swift glance. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. I knew who it would be. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. bending a little.
But. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. of taking notes and rewriting them. barrack. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. futile. everything seemed familiar. stove. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. long board table. already seen and heard. They got off the truck slowly. 5. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. wood pile. each pausing before jumping down.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. as an afterthought. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. And suddenly. And all around them was the great field 366 . When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them.
The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The next thing was to go to the well.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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