NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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de rezolvări. 6 . Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

Complementary distribution .2. Auxiliary verbs 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Constituent Phrase 1.1.3.Contents: 8 1.5. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Insertion 1.4.

loves. Consequently. Semantic.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. her mother.1. 1. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Syntactic. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). that is sequences fragmented at random. For instance.2. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . They are just strings.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. very much. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. sequences of the kind her mother very. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.

1. etc. should.e. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. be). must. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.) 10 . 1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties.4. we are dealing with a directive (i. an order given to an interlocutor). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).3. (Mi-a spus secretul. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.

Consider. an ‘empty’ there subject. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. live. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. 1. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. for instance. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context.) 1.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. etc.5. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.6.

semantic. syntactic. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. Pratice Define and illustrate. using your own examples: insertion. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. distribution. he had not yet been able to estimate. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much. pragmatic. complementary distribution. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. this would really hurt. whereas (7) is not. as the star indicates. 12 . Munt. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. If the given context is the one under (6). auxiliary Activity 1 verb.

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).

Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Key terms 2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Negative vs.2. affirmative sentences.5.8. Key terms .1.6.4. Full – local negation 2. Instances of negation 2.2. Tests for negativity 2. Polarity Items 2.7. Conclusion.3.

Positive vs. Negative . Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.2. This example can be compared to: (2)a. in the sense that it states something.Unit two Sentence negation 2. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. For instance. in that they do not state anything. Consequently. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . He didn’t offer her any chocolates. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. it asserts something. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.) is said to be an assertion. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive.) b.Declarative vs.

/ If you like her.negative (e. don’t bother her. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.positive and declarative secret.g. comparison. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.assertion .g.g. 16 .Nadina VIŞAN . / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.) . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.) . / She finally admitted./ We didn’t come here just to talk. listen to this./ She can’t wait to read that book.interrogative (e.positive sentence .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.other (if –clauses./ Don’t do that. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . They told her the ( e. Did they tell her the secret? ) . / Come with me.non-assertion .

A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. Susan doesn’t like her friends. I met a girl named Susan. word negation.) b.) b. John is unhappy. John is not happy. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.) 17 . Susan dislikes her friends. since the negative word not is not present there. For example. In the case of the sentences under (4). since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. (Nu demult.3. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. (John e nefericit.Unit two Sentence negation 2. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not.

the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.) c. where the word 18 . just like in the case of word negation. I was not a little worried. In other words. In other words. She was not an unattractive woman.) b. but their meaning tells us a different story. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. since the negative word not is present inside them.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. more precisely the phrase it is part of. these sentences look negative. He was not without intelligence.

/ Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. without intelligence./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Translate the following sentences into English. / Când a aflat vestea. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or ./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. semantic negation. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive.e.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night.

ci doar indecişi. Negative vs. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. dar nu în mod special. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. affirmative sentences. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Era el destul de isteţ. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. 2. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. dar nu neobişnuit. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră.4.

Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). (M-am dus acolo.).) (9) I didn’t go there. etc.1. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. such as do insertion. For instance. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Nu m-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . (see subsection 1.

whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. 22 . since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / She does not hate animals. / Susan did not get married to Jim. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. / I don’t like her very much. incorrect. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / We don’t come here often. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. / Susan was not bitten by a dog./ They didn’t leave. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative.

not even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative.Unit two Sentence negation 2. *and neither do they like her. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. *not even the smart ones. and neither do they like her. . as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. 4. and they don’t like her either. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. which is ungrammatical.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. * and they don’t like her either. which does not happen in the case of (18). even the smart ones. 3.

whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / Not always a witty interlocutor.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. / You have never met her. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. In conclusion. they go skiing in the mountains. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / No problems were caused after all. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.5. / A few of them stayed behind. / This boy is no good. / Few of them stayed behind. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / At no time was he able to solve the problem. 2. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / They caused us no problems.

(26) I saw nobody. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (N-a venit John). Susan could not go to the theatre. I went nowhere. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (27) a . (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come.

( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) c. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) (29) a.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. no incorporation takes place. / I didn’t ever go to his place. I didn’t see any student. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. (N-am văzut nici un student. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. I never went to his place. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. All that glitters is not gold. b.) b. Not all that glitters is gold.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.Nadina VIŞAN b.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. I didn’t go anywhere. I didn’t see anybody. 26 . / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) b. No day passed without me thinking of him.

/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. seldom.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / Not one of them came to meet her. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. not even short ones. nici măcar din alea scurte. / Not a word fell from her lips.4. (Nu citesc romane. and we don’t go to the theatre either.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. barely. / I didn’t see anybody. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret./ They didn’t come to meet her. / I saw nobody./ They never went there. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.) They barely read any novels.) We seldom watch T. etc.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / He should not be released. . / Not many women are famous opera composers. / None of them liked house music. / I showed him nothing. scarcely.V. rarely. / No one ever listens to her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.

) c. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. Never have I met a more horrible person.) d. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / I scarcely ever see her.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) b.) 28 them. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / Few people came to see her.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / Hardly anybody liked him. which triggers inversion): (35) a. / I seldom look at her like that. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. . / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.

/ She could rely on nobody but him. / You must on no account touch this machinery. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.) They don’t think that he likes them. never trust a man again./ We seldom receive such generous praise. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. in the sense that the 29 ./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.

suppose. look like. etc. be probable. / I expect he won’t come here again. / They believe she does not like them. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. be likely. probability. etc. In sentence (37). we can very well say something like: (38) a. intend. 2. ought to. expect.) 30 .: think. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. barely.) b. appear. choose. imagine. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. although not negative in meaning. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. advise.6. / I suppose she doesn’t care. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. believe. sound/feel like. intention. guess. the negative meaning is less strong. should be desirable. suggest. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. etc.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. be supposed to.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. / He reckoned he would not win her over. want. cannot appear in an affirmative context. For example. seem. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte.

Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. are clearly not grammatical. and sentences such as: (39) a. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. *She likes our chairman at all. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.*She lifted a finger to help me. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. That is 31 . * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.2. b. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.

/ Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / I eat caviar most of the times. too. / I have some money. / I can understand both of these 32 . too.) Hardly ever vs.) Any more vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I somewhat like his proposal. / Bob is still living at that address. / Well. either.) Until vs. a lot (I don’t like you much. / He arrived before 5. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I like it . most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar.). / Come on.) Yet vs. / You needn’t send her anything. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. some (I haven’t any money. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / They say he once had someone very close. / She hardly ever comes here. too (I don’t like it. already (I haven’t seen him yet. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.) Much vs. / Well. / I like you a lot. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I still love you) Either vs. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / Don’t worry.) At all vs. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. / I have already seen him. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. still (I don’t love you any more. etc. you can still do something about it. / I somehow like him. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance.

hurt a fly. crack a smile. last a minute. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). Ion nu e prea deştept. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. turn a hair. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. have a care/ friend in the world. give a damn/darn. leave a stone unturned. / Peter knows some English and so does John. have/be worth a red cent. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. lay a finger on someone. lift/raise/ stir a finger. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. touch a drop. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. sleep a wink. / You must pay that fine. bat an eye(lid). move a muscle./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. / Ajută-mă. mulţumesc. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. Translate into English. nici unuia dintre noi. / You must be telling lies. see/ feel/ remember a thing. de când cu 33 . / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. say / breathe/ understand a word. know a single person. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. find a trace. hear a peep. flinch.

/ These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / He won’t make old bones. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. n-a sunat încă. / No admittance. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. nu e vina mea. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No trouble at all. / Hotărât lucru. budge. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. B: Aşi. / I had no end of trouble. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / Never is a long word. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. încercând să prindă criminalul. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / No hands wanted. he left the room. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. he’s a pig. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / No man is wise all the time. / No sooner said than done. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / No entry. Translate into Romanian. but you really should do something about it. / He is no end of a fellow. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Not that I care. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / Nothing succeeds like success.

say it. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. c) He is anxious to say something. / I hate making any commitments.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences./ I saw no one.Unit two Sentence negation rather).7. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Normally. as well: 35 . / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). / He is reluctant to ever say anything. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). 2. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English).

B: Not this poem. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. The second negation is somehow independent. Key terms. nu-mi place. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. B: Nu. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences.) 2. I don’t like this poem. from a syntactic point of view. I don’t. 36 . nu îmi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. Conclusion. (Nu. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. however. nu poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.8.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
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Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation). 45 .e. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.

Direct vs.2.1 Tag Questions 3.3.2. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Key Terms.3.3.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2.2. Optional Exercises .3 Alternative Questions 3.3.Questions 3.1.2 Wh. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.4.

Unit three Questions 3. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. If we try to analyze the examples above. for a subsequent section.1. focusing on direct questions mainly. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.

However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. pe mama. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (2). 48 . (3) and (4). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.g. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well.

because. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. 49 . Since the question is not direct any more. In the case of indirect questions. in this case. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions).Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Likewise. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going.

/ I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. identify the incorrect sentences. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . c) Ştii ce. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / He asked me who she is. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. sau mai bine zis. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / He asked me who she was. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / I don’t know whom she fancies. / I don’t know who she is. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. ce culoare are pielea. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. spune la un moment dat femeia. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte.

Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. as Quirk shows. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.2. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide 51 .V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.Unit three Questions 3. being typical of spoken language.

(you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions.2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (who / talk to last night)? 5. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (how long / wait for me?) 10. 3. (which / you like best) ? 4. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.

are said to be positively – oriented. (Da). (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. instead of Negative Polarity ones. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . they did. it has. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items.

2. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: You look down. 6. (speak yet) B: ……. A: She had her tenants evicted. but I want to play basketball a little longer. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. . but I’ve got to babysit tonight. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. as in the example: 1.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. ……………………………..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 3. A: Your mother is shouting for you. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. 4. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. ………………….. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. …….. because you always copy everything I do! 5. I’ve still got plenty of time. 7. A: You’ve been learning German for years. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. ……………? (hear her) B: …...

A: There was a terrible car crash. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. 10. You could have mentioned it earlier. ……………………………….questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. A: It’s past your bedtime. . what . .. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.2. I didn’t get home until late last night. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a.Unit three Questions B: …………………. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. where. 3.. which When. ..2 Wh – questions Wh. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. 8. 9.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . how. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend.

/ David’s car was stolen. (Poppy Z./ We’ve lived here for ten years. what ever./ Sara owns two cars. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”.000dollars. trying to find places where I resided in life. / There are six students in my class. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. / My new car cost 10. / That’s my pen. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. of course. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / She lives in the suburbs. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. I cannot do that.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / Shirley got married to Ben. Nearly two hundred years./ I have French lessons twice a week./ She dropped her glasses. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. why ever.

de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.2. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.) 57 .Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.3.

wasn’t it there? 17. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. shall we stay? 14. He used to work in a bank. can you be? 58 . or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. He used to work in a bank. You can’t be serious. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. didn’t use he? 4. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. How long is she be spending in America? 8. shall we stay? 7. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. didn’t use he? 11. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Let’s stay for another few days. How far is it the cinema? 3.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. There was a fax for you this morning. How far is it the cinema? 10. Let’s stay for another few days. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Who did left the gate open? 18.

Unit three Questions 19. isn’t it this? 25. How long have you be lived in London? 26. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. dacă prin absurd 59 . That was Jeremy’s brother. deci. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. doesn’t he go? 23. That’s your car. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. uneori disperat. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. despre o lume dură. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. will you not? 21. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. deci. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. Whose it is this book? 32. Toate vechi. will you not? 27. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. să-mi înfrâng frica. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Pot reveni. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Ani întregi. plin de germeni virulenţi. ca şi cei ce au fost. neliniştea infantilă. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Who did told you about the problem? 31. wasn’t it he? 22. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. John goes jogging every morning.

simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. mă întreb. naiv. îi ştiu gustul. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. dar şi drumul. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. indiferent de risc. “Spune! striga el. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. de atunci. puturos. inactivii. picură apa roşietică. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. umed. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. laşii.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. ghiceam doar unde se află. murdar. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. pe sub bolţile din care. Riscul? Ratarea. Şi. neîntrerupt. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. B. lung. străină priceperii lor. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . iar proştii. negru. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea.

da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. exclus. will you? (38) She went to Prague. domnule profesor.3. golul alb. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. da? (37) Let’s go there. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. nu se poate. 3. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English.1. didn’t she? . chiar când prin absurd aş putea. Tag Questions Tag questions. viaţa? Oare e drept. care i-a determinat alegerea. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi.3. orbitor. la urma urmei.Unit three Questions viaţă.

the tag is negative too). or “comment tags”. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. In this way.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. if the host sentence is negative. (Din păcate. au fost cheltuiţi. The suggestion is that in this case. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.e. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa.) A: Oh. is it? (Deci. or falling. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. aren’t they? 62 . Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. sarcasm. the tag is affirmative too. hasn’t she? (Aha. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet.

/ I am older than you. / That’s your car over there. / You have been invited. / Tell me. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / She has a brother. nu?) • with a falling intonation.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Let’s eat dinner now. / You will pick me up at 7. / Few people like her. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / She left an hour ago. / A few people like her. / He hates his wife. / She used to talk a lot. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / I must go now.…/ Let me know. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / The boy never watched his sister. / Surely you have enough money. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / Don’t leave without me. / That was your father. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / They said he liked music. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. after all. / The boy often watched his sister. / Everyone felt happy about it. / You ought not to smoke. / He simply hates empty words. / I may see you tomorrow. / He has to marry Susan. / You will pick me up. / I don’t think you like my music. / There is enough food for everyone. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I may not see you tomorrow. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / I think you don’t like my music. 63 . / Each of us is staying. / I think you like my music.

Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. He used to play squash./ I’m right about this…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. So you enjoyed my talk. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. 5. or what? 3. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / He never used to study so hard….. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. using a question tag at the end. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash.

) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.2.1. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. / Grants… 3.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. Recapitulatory echo questions .2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: Chinese? 65 . (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.questions which repeat part or all of the message.3.3. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.1. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.

(E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.2. of something just said.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. disbelief.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. consternation. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. If the wh. (Închide lumina aia. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.2. rather than the repetition.3. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.phrase is fronted.

intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. / We are looking for a pixie. (Vai. (i./ He is interested in blue movies. / I think I’ve found a solution. dear. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. am pierdut scrisoarea. (Uită-te la asta./ We are looking for a purse. whereas with explicatory echo questions.e. which letter do you 67 . I’ve lost the letter.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. intonation is rising. rather than did you say. with recapitulatory echo questions. / He is interested in music.

recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . she knows about it.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.4.

cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. lui Stavre Păici. lui Luca Horobeţ. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit.– Crezi tu. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. acuma sporovăiala. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. să se încolăcească mai bine. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. pe Condrat de Vica. în general. oameni aşezaţi. şi apoi Vica ce zice. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. stricata.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. lui Chizlinski. şi care s-a aciuat. da. Are gust de oameni blânzi. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. în satul nostru. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. nu purta verighetă. ca să zic aşa. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. cumnată Fenia. şerpoaica. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. aşa. după pofte. cu o casă de copii. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. Fenio.

(Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. L-a scos din geamie. dar cum se face că a 70 . şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. abia târându-şi picioarele. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. sus. De asta erai. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. deci. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. roşu şi galben. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. până la călcâie. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. sau cum o chema. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. Hogea.

furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile.

72 .

FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .

2.Contents: 74 4.3.1.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Key Concepts .Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.5.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.4.6.

This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination.e. present) in the sentence. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.1 Syndetic vs. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. that elements are coordinated. cu repros. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. i. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. 75 . We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. on the other hand.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.Unit four Coordination 4.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. reproachfully. where there is no indication other than a comma.e. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.

In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. 76 .) Such examples. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. you will die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.) (4) If you hit my wife. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Conversely. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. From the previously mentioned examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. vei muri. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.Nadina VIŞAN 4.

Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. the second.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. but presupposed. we need to specify that. respectively subordinated constituents. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. However. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . from a logical & semantic point of view. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back.

His clothes hung to him. of cut gray stone. but the 78 . this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Then he sat down. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. with formal walks under rows of trees. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. took off his coat and emptied them. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. built. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. In the first. his shoes squished. took off his shoes and emptied them. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. He moved and made a slopping noise. the houses were beautiful and ancient.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. adorned with cornices. John Steinbeck. Though the castle had vanished. with enormous solidity. In the second.

He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and as the way is with Irish mountains. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. over some of the roughest ground in the country. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. Cecil Woocham – Smith. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. left the house. the higher he went the wetter it grew. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim.

) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.K. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. were to take down the name of every man. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. (G. As one can easily notice. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.3 Sentence vs. as shown in (9).Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. we should be seriously annoyed. however distinguished. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.

His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 2. plays football. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 6 John sang and Mary danced. 5. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. yellow and blue. Activity 2 sentences: 1. our respective examinations.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Our flag is red. Pratice Distinguish coordination. Her pet kitten is black and white. 10. 9.Unit four Coordination example (7).Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. / Bob and George are admired by their students. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. 3. / Peter and John played football. 4. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. John and Mary are ready. 8. John is ready and Mary is ready. but not John. / Peter. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. / Joan plays many games. and I passed. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. and even tennis. 7. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis.

Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. 6. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. John writes poetry and Bill prose.) c. 5.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. Jane 82 .Nadina VIŞAN b. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. or deleted. Activity 4 2. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c.) b. as can be seen in (10b). John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. 3. John loves and Bill hates cigars. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.

We can demand payment and we will demand payment. So. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. 83 .e. Besides ellipsis. 9. these syntactical processes.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 8. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. the so-called Principle of Economy. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. than a longer repetitive one. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. the predication buy a pair of shoes. 10. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences.) The common element. can be reduced by substitution. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 7. i. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.

one or (the) other method. some reason or another. Translate the following sentences. using reduced structures: 1. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. 4. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . George and Jane went back to their parents. 3. 4. A citit. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. George and Jane are separated. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. the old men and women 2. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. In certain cases.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. simple books and magazines for children 3. 2.

8. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party.. After all their adventures. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. only for damage. 6.. A pendulum swings ………. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. They get on quite well together. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . it’s a case of ………… 7. even though they have their little …………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. 6. 12. for my wallet. . Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 15. fish and chips. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. like: salt and pepper.. 7.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc.. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 5. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. 11. of your proposals later on? 3. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. I need another 100$ ………. 5. 13. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. sweet and sour. Can we discuss the …………. 2. they reached home………. the amount I’ve already saved up.. Marks and Spencers. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.. 16.I searched ……….… 14. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. 8.You gain some things and you lose others.

) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. of course.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. as in: (17) a. 4. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. etc. b. In fact. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Nor sun.) There are. more often than not. the expressive function of coordination is.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear.4. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. For instance. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. and 86 . to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.

etc). either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. sometimes but. where the subordinator is repeated. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) In certain cases.) 87 .) b. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. 20 (b)). (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.g. both … and . too): (20) a. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. o respectau si o indrageau.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. and cherished her. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.) c. (I-am dat banii. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. or .

I admire and like her.* I ironed and washed my pants. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. and hit my wife.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. In this case. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.) b. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I like and admire her. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. (Imi place si o admir. I washed and ironed my pants.) b. if we were to rewrite the example . (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . and you’ll die. From this point of view. (O admir si imi place.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.

) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Dr. (If you do that.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.Unit four Coordination 1. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) (While Dr. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. he failed). (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. Brown experiments with humans.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .

(Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. e. as the name suggests it. 5. From the functional point of view.g. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.which are based on coordination . the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one.) 101 . subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.

An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. for example). even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. For instance. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. We do not presuppose however something like. we associate it with these objects. they are still presupposed by the speaker. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). such as proud of. by an adjective + preposition. sentences) required by the verb (or.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină.) Whenever we think of this particular verb.) 102 . (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (I-a dat cartea. In a way.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. for instance. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. an adverbial item.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. in certain cases.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.

I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină.e. i. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. Thus. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. In other words. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. which is the adverbial willingly. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.) b. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. to add something. A second observation. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. The second example.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. 103 . an additional one.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. I am afraid that he won’t come. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. to her) and one extra-item. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. related to example (4).

So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. I’ll die. like. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. (Înainte să plece din cameră. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. etc. So. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. am să mor.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) 104 . we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. such as want. make.) (11) If you don’t marry me. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. a închis toate ferestrele. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.

she looked at me sadly. [.g. 4. 5. e. Whoever did that was a genius. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 6. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 2. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. this to whomever wants it. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. After I told her the story. They came to e.g. The book that because they home. 3.She came to him of her own will.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back.g. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.

5. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. FOR.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 6. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. stating their function: Activity 2 1. etc. at our age. WHETHER. which.He took an intelligent interest in her. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. As you can see. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. not object. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 4. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. You suggestion that we should. but he declined.) 106 . (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 3.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. though it was largely politeness. 2. was a novelty to Mitzi.

) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (15) It is John who did it.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. 107 . which. how. who. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) b.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (16) a. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. Where he went is London. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. etc. (E de dorit să plece. why.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. when. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. Who did it was John. where.

Unlike complement clauses. consider the following table. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. In (18). the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. if. however. etc. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. which sums up this classification. for instance. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. the categories are reduced to only three in this case.) (18) She told me this before she left. Compare. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. In conclusion. before.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. done from a structural point of view. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . As you will see.1. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.

g. after. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. for. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I will go there because I feel like it. whether he will come when I feel like it. 109 . Introduced know e.g. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. back.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. at your young age. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. as. you understand. I will come back such as because. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. surely you cannot sincerely believe.: e. Dear Ludwig. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.g. etc.

he said. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. Late that afternoon. Accidental Man) b)1.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. Too. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. 2.The day Monroe had died was in May. she stopped to speak to Monroe. As she left the house. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. a tightening in her breathing. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. But she thought that no one would call again.

2.g. However.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. interesting. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.obligatory] ADJUNCTS.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. a correspondence can be traced. As you have probably noticed already. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [.g. I told her everything after she arrived. That he loved e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. 111 . the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. că e.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear.

(Fata care mă place e frumuşică. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.. whereas wh complements are the 112 . complements. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. Secondly. i.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). In the fourth place. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. whenever you identify a wh.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. So. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. (Cred că mă place. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.1. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. We will come back to that in the next chapter.complement. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.e.2. Thirdly.

she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. Pratice Consider the following text. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. She mistrusted her handwriting. before. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. a barn. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. I first thought to tell in 113 . c) I am coming home one way or another. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. for no matter how she tried. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. and I do not know how things might stand between us. outbuildings. because. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. a house. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. their introductory elements (e. but no idea what to do with them. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out.g. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials.

Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . these clauses can be complements. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.e. because they modify. it would make you fear to do such again. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. According to a structural criterion. and I have not the will or the energy. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done.4. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers.

indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. după ce că are grâu puţin.g. look at. interested in. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. Alţii. ce o fi având. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. (…) “Mă. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. be very careful to use this term correctly. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei.e. îşi spuseseră că Anton. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. answering the question to whom? So. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. O zbughi înapoi. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. think of. Pratice Translate the following. 115 . Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Nevasta secera în tăcere. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. însă. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. etc.

Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. de fapt. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. izolate de sat. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Nici acum. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Toată lumea înţelesese că. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. timp de un ceas. cât de bolnavă era. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. întâi.

Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Era bine de ştiut. Iată. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. acum sunt desluşiţi. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. În realitate. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. stricau totul. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. rămâne totul baltă şi pace.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. de pildă. aşa de oţetit. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. la Odobeşti. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. amânase scrisul. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. la nişte prieteni comuni. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. deşi cam târziu. Pace nu era. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi.

întâia noapte de război) 118 . Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. frate.

etc. etc).. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. of which.g. whose.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. subject relative clauses. 119 .

Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.7. Key Concepts .3.1. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.5.6. The Co-reference Condition 6.2.4. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.

b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.1.2. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. 121 .) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). The Co-reference Condition .Unit six Relative clauses 6. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.

Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. 122 . we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. By combining these two clauses. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. John loves that woman. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.

The common element woman is present. 123 .Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. This way. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. John offered flowers to that woman.

I introduced him to Jim. 7. He told Jim everything about his plans. She came to London. I bought Jim a book. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHO 5. The king was just passing by. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. I had a book. They met those students. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. WHERE 3. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. None of the students agreed with them. 6. 4. He liked that book. 9. WHICH 4. I lost the book’s cover. Susan wants to meet Jane. I love my husband very much. 8. John told his friend a story about the king. too. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. 5. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 3. The students like their teacher. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 10. therefore in spoken English. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO 124 . He’s the author who received the prize. 2. I went to London. by leaving behind a trace.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. This is my husband. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. frequently used in written language. Any of the students would answer to questions. The students like their teacher.

i. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 6. most of them were from England.Unit six Relative clauses 6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOSE 7.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. . independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.e.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. WHICH 8. relative clauses are divided into 1. (Cine strică plateşte. 2.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHOM 10. TO 11.

(Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) So. Unlike their sisters. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.e. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. unlike in the case of (14).) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. it is covert. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . only their antecedent is no longer expressed.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. these relatives cannot function as attributes. is no longer overtly expressed. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. in a manner of speaking.

They can be thus divided into: 1.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want.) (22) Mercury. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. 127 . Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.) (Mercury. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. care este zeul negoţului.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. este zeul meu favorit. they define it). is my favourite god. They only provide supplementary information about it. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (Du-te unde pofteşti. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Mercur. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. who is the god of commerce.

a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. who came to see me. then it is an attribute. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. 7. 9. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. is a genius. 10. who is a genius. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 8. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. I have met him where I least expected. i.e. They are what 128 . Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. is a great playwright.This is the village where I spent my youth. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. Shakespeare. 2. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. She. restrictive relative clauses. 5. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. this type of relative clauses. was the one we all welcomed and admired. As we were saying. 6.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. Independent I don’t know what you want. on whom nobody could depend.

6.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. etc.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. who died a few years ago. care a murit acum câţiva ani. however sad this may be. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. composed The (Freddie Mercury. etc. . When the antecedent has no determiner. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the.) 2. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. a.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.

Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. numai eu nu. poftiţi în faţă. (Ei apeleaza la mine. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Mie. 130 .) Pratice Translate the following. dried-up old maid. who neither work nor am anxious. (Eu. care nu sunt o femeie. 7. care-ţi sunt fiu.) (28) They come to me. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. ill-tempered.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 2. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). 6. can see your shortcomings only too well. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. îţi văd prea bine defectele. 5. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. iritabilă şi uscată. but a peevish. who am your son. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. 4. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. Dintre toate personajele prezente. ci o fată a woman. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. 3. bătrînă morocănoasă.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I.

were now in his possession.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. .) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. erau acum în posesia lui.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. heard. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. părăsi camera. (32) service finished late. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. than whom few more can be more crashing.

Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.) d. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) b. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. literary style: (37) a. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.5. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. too.) c. but it is typical of the formal. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. as can be seen in (36d). 6.) b. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. The genitive form with which is still in use. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 .1.

) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . (Iris Murdoch. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.

Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. (45) (46) . revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. of which. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. but to a type or a function: a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. by the way. animals.) • states. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele.) b. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. … Italy. He is not the man which he used to be.) b.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. ships (that can be personified) a.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.

Unit six Relative clauses b. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. pe care o privea direct.) 6. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.) 135 (47) . cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) b) dialectal (49) a. how. whom it concerned most closely. (Nu ştiam ce vor. etc.2 Relative Adverbs: when.5. reason. where. while. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. It is poor what gets the punches. time. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. France. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. Poland is the place where Christine was born.) b. etc. why. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.

) e.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) When they introduce free relative clauses.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) b.3. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.5. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) b.They left when they decided it was proper to. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. The place whither he goes is unknown.) 136 . This is the place wherefrom they came. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) c. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. They returned to the land whence they had come.) b. He went where he had been before.) 6. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.

never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.

Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. every.) b.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. .) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. much. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.5.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. any. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. I’ll get you such things as you may want. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. but • in standard language a. 138 (64) his shoes.4. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. not any. but they are used very infrequently: as.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. Honest man as he was.

I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. .Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. And always on the buttered side. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b.) c. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. him as was in China … (Uncle George. It’s the dry weather does it. Uncle George.) c.) • in dialect a. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. This is the same one that/as you had before. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. ăl de fusese in China…) b. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.

(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.) b.) 140 . This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.

) b. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. The man that John spoke to is a genius. b.” 4.) c. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. This is where we talk money. It seemed a thing 141 . we all have to come to some terms. 3.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. What I’m saying is.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. 2. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. makes me a wart and a wen. Where he was from. fortifies me. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. The man who John spoke to is a genius. What Inman remembered was this passage. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.5. The man John spoke to is a genius. That which shows God out of me. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.3): (72) a. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 5. 7. 6.

Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. Whatever his fate was. 8. 9. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. 11.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. which is a lot. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. (…) Partly. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. though. of living. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 142 . 10. 12. who had not witnessed many dawns. Ruby said. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. he had left Ruby high and dry. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. Oh. The rudeness of eating. 13.

This is the horse that kicked the policeman. vasnic. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. pirpiriu. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. nu prea sarac. divortata. poate. mort de tanar. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa.al lui. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. (Iris Murdoch. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. un var primar. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. Cumnatul meu avea. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. fiu natural al unui morar. cumnatul unui portughez. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. una din nepoatele unui inginer. plutonier. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . pe linie paterna. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carei strabunic. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage.

la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. This is the book. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a.2. Teatru) 6. She was a woman. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. The opposite phenomenon.6. 144 . She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. Everybody listened to that woman. I lost the cover of the book. By extension. c. b. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.

6.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. In the interest of public decency. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 5. 8. 2. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have.Unit six Relative clauses b. no easy answers to which could be offered. he requested that the public be excluded. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 9. The difference between (76) and (77). Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. acting again as a genuine pied piper. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. 4. The problem of safe transportation. 3. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 7. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. has been troubling them forever. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.

but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. 3. 146 . They do not function as attributes. was now complete. 5.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. 10. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. he rarely saw now. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 6. Activity 9 were now all gone. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. This story. 4. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. as the case is). Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. His friends. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. Irene. no matter which.His father’s friends. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. 2. has been deleted. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value).

închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Nelu. himeric. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. Toate sfârşeau. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. închipuirea. 4. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 6. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 2. 5. De douazeci de ani. pentru dumneata bunăoară. Pentru alţii. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. 7. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 3.

10. nici în searbăda mea versiune. a făcut el. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. cu surle şi cu tobe. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. 8. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 9. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. 12. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13.

apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. din direcţia căreia apoi. toată lumea întreba cine e. Avea acum un fel de vertij. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. zise ea cu ochii mari. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. fie la teatru. 20. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 14. 17. despre care. 16. dinspre Maria Rosetti. care era foarte “mondenă”. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. pe strada Icoanei. fie pe stradă. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Dacă mă lovea. În spatele lor. 18. apărură. de unde venea şi Marta. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. trăia larg de tot. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. deşi atât de aproape. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. din care cauză pe Dora. până mai adineauri. roiuri de fetiţe. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. 15. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 149 . căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti.

după ce maşina a fost reparată. de sus de unde eram. pe care eu nu-l aveam.Nadina VIŞAN 21. de mine. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. până în şosea. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. Pare-se că snobii. 22. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. Pentru mine însă. întâia noapte de război) 150 . aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. 23. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. pe care ea îi admira acum. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. 24. când au urcat râpa iar. aveau un stil al lor.

Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. by stating their syntactic function. 151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.2.2.2. Key Concepts .Extraposition 7.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.Clause Shift 7.4. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.2.2.3.7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.3. That Complements as Subjects 7.4.3.3.5.6.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.1. That Deletion 7.1. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.1.2.5.1.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2.3.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7.3.Topicalization 7.1.1. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.1.

In other words. the clause is extraposed. placed in a marginal position. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. Apart from those introduced by that.1. 7. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. (3) Tell me if you need anything. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. but also of infinitival ones.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. 153 .) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.

) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .

13. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is no use trying to convince her. 6. 3. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 7. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 8. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 4. It was suggested that they should meet the President. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 5. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 6. 10. 11. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 9. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 14. 9.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 2. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It appears that no one voted for him. It is nice to meet you. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 2. 7. 4. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 10. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 8. 15. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 11.

“ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 3. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. în canal. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 6. zice Lionel.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. I guess it that he will come back. 2. sub poduri. 5. 2. atât 156 . paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. They never expected it that he would come back. 4.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 2. 18. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 5. în gropi. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. 4. mă ascundeam în grabă. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. unde se nimerea. după porţi. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.

cu ceea ce ţi se dă. 5. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Spunând cele ce-am spus. fără să cârteşti. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti.” 4. excelentă. 157 . Mi s-a părut chiar că. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. 7. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. 6. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. (Nu întotdeauna. vor căuta să o zdruncine. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. fără îndoială. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede.

(Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) While in the case of extraposition. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. in the case of topicalization. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. Pratice Read the following.2. Consequently. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. 1. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.1. this asymmetry is undone. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .Nadina VIŞAN 7. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. subject clauses are the frequent situation.

5. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. was inconceivable. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. 3. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. He did not blame Gracie. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . To walk by was an expression of his own despair. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. He was utterly gone. but not now. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 4. 6. This was another era. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 7. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. even today. whether it would finally carry her off. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 8. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. She had always been the slave of chance. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. mere chance would decide. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. he felt no spring of interest in her. 2.

A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.1.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.) 160 . Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.3.

the verb to drive).) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.e. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. we obtain. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. 161 .Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.

/ They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 7.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 5. prime-minister. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 162 . /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 6. 3. 4. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. 8./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. who had just returned from Africa. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. who had just returned from Africa.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. 2.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.

) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.2. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .

deny. explain.) 164 . They believe the man is guilty. communicate. (I-au promis o casă nouă. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. desire. They promised him that he would received a new house. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. consider.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. estimate. etc. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. (Cred că omul este vinovat.: (25) a. afirm.) b. deem.2. judge.) b. etc. prefer. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. state.1. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. He announced that they were engaged. promise. They believe that the man is guilty. He announced their engagement.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. suggest. predict.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here.) a.Nadina VIŞAN 7.

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Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. they lose their meaning.) language. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) 172 . but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. ibid.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. on condition that. hope =>purpose.e. In older stages of English.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.) I like him in that he is smart. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. for example. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.

) (66) 173 a. He gave such an answer as had expected.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. să o vadă trecând. . (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. That can be deleted. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) b.) When the structure contains the word such. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. He gave an answer such. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. that we wouldn’t doubt it. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.

2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. for better or worse. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. ibid.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. (Iris Murdoch.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) b. they were chained to each other forever. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) 174 .Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid.

tell). (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. that he uses a relaxed tone. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. 175 . When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) b. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.3 ‘That Deletion 7. for instance.) c.Unit seven That complements 7. He said he had borrowed her money. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. He showed he was able to do it. say. (A prins de veste că ei vin.1. (69) a. He got word they were coming. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.3.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.

7. they were chained to each other forever. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.Nadina VIŞAN 7. I like it that he was here. they were chained to each other forever. for better or worse.2.3.) (De asemenea. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. bune.3. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . ibid. (Îmi place că e aici. (Iris Murdoch.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.) b. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. because that has been deleted. *I like it he was here. rele. for better or worse.3. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.

Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. (“Este acolo”. simultaneity. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) 177 . 7) They maintain. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.) b)He told me that she was there. 7. that they were not too late to leave.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. spuse el. which is ungrammatical in English. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. you want me to believe. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. he said. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”.

The Present complement). spuse el.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. he said.) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (A spus că o să o părăsească. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. (Am să o părăsesc. He said he would leave her. o să vină el. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. I will leave her.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. “She was here”. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.) b. In the example below. (Pâna să plece. (A spus că. (“Era acolo”.) b.) Future Perfect -----. până pleacă ea.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. vine el. He told me that she had been there.

(82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. believe. be amazed/concerned.etc. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. discover. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. With such factive verbs as realize. hope. forget. be aware. realize it). say. regret. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. report. wish.) b.) 179 . mention.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. insist. etc. notice. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) On the other hand. dream. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. show. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. whisper. think.

) b.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. She realized that all men are fools.) b. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. feign habits which are not their own. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. we notice that general truths. He knew that she thought all men were fools. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. Consider also: (85) a.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She believed that the earth is round.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. She still believed that the earth was flat. in tender deference to each other.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. cu un respect tandru reciproc. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Iris Murdoch. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. 180 .

(87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. such as a.) In (88).Unit seven That complements 2. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.) b.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. 181 .) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. Peter said that John will leave at 5. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. 3.) b. There are however cases.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.

d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. Imagine. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. The time is 3 o’clock. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. But 182 .) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. g) John thought that Harry ran. for instance.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. c) John said that Harry is leaving. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend.

She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. as evidenced by its drear plumage. 183 . slyness in a fight. whistling swan. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. lack of pridefulness. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. Crows will relish what presents itself. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. quail. jaybird. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. lark. b. a. bluebird.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Cooper’s hawk. Translate the following. redtailed hawk. kingfisher. geese both grey and white. nighthawk. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. love of practical jokes. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. She admired their keenness of wit. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. c.

He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. the young officer. Now here he stood jailed. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. He died erect. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. in the very act of expiring. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. He had fought hard through the war. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. he claimed. But as the battle raged around them. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. war hero though he was. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. […] During the latter stages of the tale. And they might just hang him. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg.

185 . That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.Unit seven That complements 7. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). on other occasions it has to stay there.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. which they share with wh-complements. from the very frequent subject. object ones up to the attributive function. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. On certain occasions that can be deleted. or else. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).

spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 2. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. 4. Mama. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. Fiind 186 . de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. 3. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Unul din ei. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. peste puţin. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. cel mai mare. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele.

Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. 8. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. 5. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. 9. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. venind de la avocat. ea. 6. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. cel puţin pentru un timp. care îl pândise. de ce constata în sine. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. Se mira. va pleca din oraş la vie. 7. fericit. aşa. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. un vis de acesta 187 . nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Nu ţi-a trecut. dacă va mai veni.

Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. 12. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. dar şi teama că. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. Acesta. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. fireşte. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. lucrul era înfăptuit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. şi mândria că a biruit.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. 11. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. încă o dată. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Astfel de va fi. liniştit.

spre Jurubiţa. 14. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Pe toate. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. să le lămurească pe toate. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. mai puternic decât oricând. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. ci numai aşa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. fără o vorbă scrisă. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . după cum.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

191 .EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.6.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.7.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.1.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.3.Key Concepts .5.8.4.9.A Classification of Infinitives 8.2.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.

There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. 193 . infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (2) a. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) b.1. b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. To love her is something really wonderful. I told her to be more careful in the future. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. It is important for you to know what you need. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. That you love her is something wonderful. It is important that you should know what you need. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). (3) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.) b. From this perspective. Consider the following: • like that complements.) • like that complements.

She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. d. the Participle) (i. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. as opposed to the finite ones. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. etc. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. 194 . English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea.e. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. the Conditional.) b. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. the Gerund. gerundial clauses. moduri nepersonale) By convention. For instance. 2. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. participial clauses.

the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. namely no ending.) 195 . it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.) c. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) b.

It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 4. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. the criterion of form. 9. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 8. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 5. 10.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. (7) They saw her leave. 7. 2. 3.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 6. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 8.

) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. 2. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. hear. (10) 197 .

198 (11) the universe.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. However. 3. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. Pratice Translate the following. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. . this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. uncharacteristic for literary English. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.

we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. to use the appropriate technical term. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Further on.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. 199 . In other words. or the control constructions. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. as I have already mentioned.

(E omeneşte să greşeşti. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) b. PRO to err is human.) 200 . the logical subject.) Object: (18) a. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. (E important ca el să nu greşească. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. namely the agent of the event.) In this situation. şi creştineşte să ierţi. It is important for him not to err. I hoped for him to be there in time. So far. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. PRO to forgive divine. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence.

The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. him is not the agent of the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter. him is related to the main clause verb. not to the infinitive.) b. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . In other words. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but the patient of the verb persuade.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21).) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. Semantically. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive.

from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ She promised him to leave. I hate animals to be tortured. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ She wanted him to leave. \ I allowed them to come. \ He persuaded her to come. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. Likewise. \ They tempted him to leave. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ I would love them to come. \ 202 . \ They convinced her to come back. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals.

(Pare să fie un lingvist bun. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. \ They really asked her to come back. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. So. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. 203 . • Last but not least. \ They did not wish her to come back.) He seems to be a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive.) In examples (25) and (26). there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.

hate. to meet her. 204 . / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. To sum up the discussion. Pratice Translate the following sentences./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. which are said to be free. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. that is not required by certain verbs. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. appear. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. seem. etc. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want.).

hope. dislike. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. afford. manage. agree to. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. etc. prefer./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. refuse. care to. / E greu să îl suporţi. propose. seek (= try). condescend. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. arrange. bear. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. presume. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. try. intend. deign. scheme. endeavour. . need. wish. expect. like.) 205 friend. desire. etc. venture.3 The Distribution of PRO . fail.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. etc. decline. 8.) b) verbs such as abide. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. aspire to.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. deserve. contrive. mean. omit. Compare: (31) a.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. hate. scorn. want.

(Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. stand.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. forget. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.) 206 . however. etc. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. I would like for him to become president of the country. bear.) b. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. ask. desirable.) b. threaten.etc. conclude. verbs of liking and disliking. I hate that you should say a thing like this. be important. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. possible. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.) b. suggest. For all of them to have been killed is. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. unlikely.) 8. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. endeavour. claim.

Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 207 . Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) b. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. Predicative Clauses (39) a.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 2. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.) 8.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.

I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. the preposition is deleted. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) 4. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.) 5. . Direct Objects (39) a. but the meaning remains. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. I decided for John to represent us. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) 208 knowledge.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) b. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Like in the case of that complements.

6.) d. She is pretty to look at. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) c. He is a bastard to work for. curious about. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. This paint is like concrete to work with.: (42) a.) b. delicious.) e. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. You’re an idiot to go there. The stew is delicious to eat. etc.) c) adverbial of result 209 . (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.

/ Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.) Oh./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. drept să spun. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. you’re a bad driver.) I’ve never met him. to tell you the truth. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. / Ehei. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. conduci prost. final or introductory infinitive In this case. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. să nu piardă trenul.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Pe şleau. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.

that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. promise. 8. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. nu mai vreau să te vad. influence. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.) . (49) a. oblige.etc. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. inform. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. induce. enable. need. encourage. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. swear. b. urge. press. etc. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife.: (51) a. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. According to this. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. direct.) b. inspire. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.

) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. allow.etc. depend on.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. nominate. etc. look to. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. prevail on. vote.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. permit.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell./ And now he 212 .) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. count on. order. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. elect.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. command. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. name. choose.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.

etc. happen. this construction is lexically governed.verbs: appear. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Se pare că îi place de el. (57) He is to come any day now. An Accidental Man) 8. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (Iris Murdoch. seem.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. come. be about to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (56) She grew to like him in the end.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. etc. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.: (55) She appears to like him. grow.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. 213 (58) (59) . be going to. i.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.e. etc.

that of intention. In (57).) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be rumoured. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. watch. overhear. feel.) 8. . the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). hence there is no control situation whatsoever. be alleged.: (62) They heard him insult her. etc. be thought.etc. be reported.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. perceive.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. (L-au auzit insultând-o. be considered. observe.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. etc.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. be claimed. hear. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause.

occasion. cause. imagine. figure. discover. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. picture. presume. remember. judge.) 215 (67) . necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. However. deem. prove. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. (Cred că este un geniu.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. find. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. believe. understand. know. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. have.) • with a full infinitive: get. consider. etc. recollect. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night.

desire. mean. who wasn’t used to men with moods.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. suffer. permit. he hated anyone to comment 216 . state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. choose.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. they had depressed and fuddled him. love.etc. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. wish.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. expect.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. command. prefer. if he himself was out of spirits. order.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. Harold. etc.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. want.

though he tended to look down on those below it. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. he didn’t envy those above it. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. (L. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 .Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. A little crossly. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence.P. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. He suspected hostility at once. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. the herd instinct was very strong in him. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. to make sure we attended strictly to business. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. so that we might get to the future and have done.

The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. 218 . is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. The last criterion. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. From this perspective.Nadina VIŞAN 8.

e) Când doi oameni. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. într-o zi. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. de bună seamă.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. de asemenea. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. E posibil. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. să-l capete. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. mai bine219 . Şi tu să fii. dar să nu-ţi spună. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. e important ce întrebări pui. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. lovit şi umilit. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. fireşte. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. bunăoară. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. un bărbat şi o femeie. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire.

Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. d-a lungul gâtului. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. De era vară. Însă Paul Achim trăise. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr.Delavrancea. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. în ploaie. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. mai pline de înţeles. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în jos. să nu vrea să se şteargă.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt.Şt. avusese dreptate.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. 220 . să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. . Să spui de pildă. că eşti tânăr. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. (B. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. sau. încă.Şt. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns.Nadina VIŞAN zis. aşa cum îi apăruse el. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. un picior. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. în parte. în parte. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. pe care deja o uitase. să traiesc numai cu tusea. mai bine de două decenii.

nici ca să 221 . gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. orice bucureştean ştie. fie ea şi grăbită. un miros îngrozitor.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. (Al. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. orice-ar fi. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. ei. prin faţă e coborârea. Într-un cuvânt.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. Mă laud singură. biata Muti. deşi.. şi nu un amant.. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de fapt. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. şi prin faţă. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. o mizerie.. sunt aici cu tot ce am. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure..

niciodată ea nu i le pune.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. în realitate. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare.

to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles.

1.2.1.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.The Verbal Noun 9.3.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.Participial Constructions 9.The Gerund 9.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.2.2.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1.3.2.5 Key Concepts . ING Forms and Infinitives 9.2.1.The Participle Contents: 224 9.9.4.2.

This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Due to this situation.1. Let us start with the Participle: 9.1. (Susan doarme. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.) 225 .

This situation is also characteristic for past participles. the past participle can appear after a noun. (A venit Susan) b. been and killed are past participle forms. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.) More infrequently. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. 226 . Susan has come. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function.) As you can see in this second case. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. Susan has been killed.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. it functions attributively.e. were closing. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. i. blood-shot and painted. In (2) the forms come. too: (6) Her eye-lids.

o să ajung la timp. o să ajung la timp. he will eventually marry her. Knowing who the guy was. Weather permitting. începură să cânte. Oh. I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. Arriving here.) c. If provoked. people should pay attention to high notes. she ran away. leul poate să atace. they started singing.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. God willing.) 227 . (Sosind aici. When singing.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. (Ştiind cine era el.) d. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) b.) c.) b. I will arrive there on time. mother permitting. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. ea o luă la fugă. a lion can attack.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard.

) b.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. He was found killed by a bullet. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. I found him stealing. hear. They found him killed by a bullet. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) ii. behold.) b. which stands for an adverbial clause. smell. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. (L-au descoperit că fură. He was found stealing. watch. notice. (L-am descoperit furând. respectively.) 228 . Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (Am simţit-o tremurând.

etc. find. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. He’ll soon get things going. start. leave. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. hear. keep. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. confess.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. she knew herself dismissed. have.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. recollect. (A fost văzut plângând.: When she heard his words.) b. etc. etc.) c. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . I must get my hair cut. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. etc. I heard it said that men are a bore. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. a.) b.) • Causative verbs: get .) b. set. have.) • Causative verbs: get. recollect. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. make a. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. feel. know. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine.: a. send.

” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. command I ordered my bill made out. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . lovit şi plin de sânge. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări. / Nu după multă vreme. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea.) • verbs of permission. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. Men like shopping made easy.) b. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ L-a trimis la cumpărături.

/ She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / My Lord. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). I should be glad to recall the petitioner. with its lips drawn back. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. / In any case. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.e. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. 231 . / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.1. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Unlike the gerund. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.2.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. / Dinny. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds.

I left. using either a present participle. am plecat. I have looked through the fashion magazine. People were sleeping in the next room. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. 3. I turned on the light. It had been uprooted by the gale.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. (Văzând acestea. The tree had fallen across the road. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 .) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 2. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania.She didn’t want to hear the story again. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 5.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I left. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. I knew that the murderer was still at large.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. She had heard it all before. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I was astonished at what I saw. the rain will stop. 4. am plecat. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. se va opri şi ploaia. 7. (Desi nu ştia limba. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. or a past participle: Activity 3 1. 6.

2. eagle. sharp. He fed the dog. the sea was tossing the post up and down. a scorpion bit him. drunken. He sat down to his own dinner. many. b) Headed (5 times). They found the treasure. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 8. Leaving the cinema. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. lion. Passing under a ladder.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. open. one of the eggs broke. 10. dark. Tied to the post. red (twice). my hands often get very cold. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. I let the dog out of the room. coloured. stricken. Riding in the first race. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. empty. hearted (twice). haired (twice). a pot of paint fell on my head. stony. straight. quick. 3. Mother punished me for my mistake. minded (3 times). it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. skinned. handed. narrow.shoulder. fishy. mown. 9. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. open. eyed (3 times). cornered. Barking furiously. 5. cloth. 10. 12. shaven. 9. 7. wooden. three. roast. covered. Reading in bed. 4. broad. Dropped by parachute. bald.Running into the room. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. a rug caught her foot and she fell. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Read the sentences and try to correct them. I slammed the door of my room. Climbing down the tree. his horse fell at the last jump. Getting out of bed. 233 . lighted. 6. 8. 11. an idea suddenly occurred to me.

Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. (injure). is expected to be a great hit. shrunken. lead. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. lamb. stream. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. the same verb is missing twice. ill-gotten. hidden. rotten. (admire) 5.Spielberg. / Three people. deer. 7. are sold throughout the world. / Swiss watches. (take) 2. graven. (find) 6. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. The escaped prisoner. are in grave danger of extinction. _______ my arm. meat. (grow) 4. b) grass. wealth. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. _______ for a bargain. / Many old people .Nadina VIŞAN sunken.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. In the following pairs of sentences. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. _______ for their elegance and precision. bounden. The film.I fell on the ice. duty. meaning. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. candle. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . plank. were taken to hospital._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. I stared at the canvas for ages. (hunt). head. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. ________ hiding in a barn. _______ by S. image. shorn. was today taken back to prison./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. eyes. Whales. man. Translate into English: 1. (produce) 3.

trezit. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. când strânsă. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. precum şi foile de plăcintă. le cocea. După câtva timp. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. 3. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. legume date prin mai multe ape. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. şi moi. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. întinse. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. nesigur şi moale. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. deodată sufocat. când deschisă. păsări tăiate. 2. O umbreluţă.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. Şi sufletul său. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. ca şi cum. care le rânduia. le fierbea. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . Şi. 4.

236 .2. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. Likewise. crezi.2. (Dacă vezi. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. The Gerund 9. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. According to this criterion.1. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.

Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. In that. gerunds differ from participles. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.2. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. That he won and you lost was surprising. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete.2. Consider the following table. Him winning and you losing was surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. His winning and your losing were both surprising.) 9.) b.) b.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.

(Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) Unlike participles. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. *It was illegal growing a beard.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a.) b. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. Consider (32). It was illegal to grow a beard. as being verbal 238 . This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised.) 2.

Just like in the case of noun phrases. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) 9. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.) 3.) b.2. It’s no good talking to her.) b.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Participles vs. as offered in the table below: 239 .3. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.

babies suck their thumb. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. forms: continuous . 2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participles may function adverbials: house. passive ones She was crying.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. + noun] 1. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. perfect. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. (adverbial of time) 4. 3.

/ Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala.

2.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 13. 11. 6. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 15. 8. eating habits/ eating people. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He was spotted talking to her. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 10. Gambling is his favourite pastime. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 9. 5. 4. shooting gallery / shooting star. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 14. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 12. 12. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 3. 7. swimming duck / swimming trunks. crying game / crying woman. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 242 . What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.

The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . a The absence of an of phrase.e. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.Unit nine Ing complements 9.) The absence of a determiner like the. but the presence of a direct object (i.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.3. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.e.

(Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. Thus. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. How can we tell? In the first case. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. George’s shooting the attacker. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun. In the second situation. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs.

/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. 245 .Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. very large. the sheriff./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. Jim left quietly./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / His coming there puzzled her. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.

whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. It has been noticed that. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. the meaning is different. However. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.Nadina VIŞAN 9. whenever we meet an –ing form. Look.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. With the infinitive. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle).4. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. For instance. ING Forms and Infinitives. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . for example.

posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. On the other hand. the infinitive is future-oriented. future-oriented value of the infinitive). having left) is infrequently used in English.g. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.) .) After looking at this example. (S-a oprit din mâncat.) The first example.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. containing an infinitive. anterior to the verb in the main clause. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. and the most well-known one. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.

Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii.) .e. recollect.e.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. which means that they are similar in meaning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) As you can see. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. i. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.

Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.) .) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. In the second example. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. the petrol tank is not filled yet. the action is not completed. but that’s it. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. dar asta este. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing.

(Casa trebuie reparată. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. (Casa trebuie reparată. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. the event has not happened yet. The house needs repairing.) 250 . (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin.human] objects.) wedding. e) need. The house needs to be repaired.) With [.) b. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. want With [+ human] objects. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. In the second example. mean has the sense signify.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions.

Lady Corven. however appearances were against us. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 .’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. but they went by too quickly. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. gerund or infinitive. whereas in the second case. (hold) up his pen and (speak). (take) down her answer.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun.’ ‘Tell me. it’s overrated. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. my Lord. my Lord.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ ‘In any case. I did ask Mr. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Croom (try) (follow) one. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car.

But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. Then.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ 252 . f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. suddenly. he addressed the note. and went out (post) it himself. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ said Clare. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. I must go back now. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I just used the word and they fell. licked the envelope with passion. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.’ said Clare.

whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Pratice In the following texts. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Participles mainly function as adverbials.5. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features.Unit nine Ing complements 9. the 253 . although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Last but not least.

slowly rising in a swirling motion. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. At first. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. hoping he would see somebody up there. the enormous split in the earth. according to the books he read. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. covering the girl’s head. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. It was like a mist. down. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. but then he saw it billowing up from below. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. She started coughing. The two sides were moving apart. He looked up towards the daylight. moving up towards his chest. down into God knows where. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. The sight of the two children. Then he saw movement at his feet. someone looking for survivors. it 254 . their edges crashing inwards. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. then the noise and the cracking stone. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole.

my dear. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. She finished what jobs there were. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. for Dornford was busy on an important case. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. and sunlight.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. slanted on to her cheek. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. brightening to winter brilliance. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. Having a French governess. 255 . whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop.

Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher şi cu mine. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. totul se animă deodată. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . închizând ochii. and then went riding with her in the rain. În urma slugii. Ridicându-se. mama mea. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. ucenicul său necredincios. cei doi Mamona. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. 2. într-o joi. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge.

vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. pe Vaucher. după cum îi spusese mama. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. la mine. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. Şi deodată. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. afară ploua în continuare. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. aplecându-se puţin. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. pe mama mea părând absentă. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. dar ştiutoare. auzit şi zadarnic. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. totul mi se părea cunoscut. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. aşezată cu spatele la noi.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. 3. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. se duse lânga mama şi. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Neclintiţi. o sărută pe frunte. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. am ştiut şi cine. privit. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta.

Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu soba. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Au coborât din camion încet. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. camionul a plecat. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. dar. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. cu tot cu baraca. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. 5. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă.

259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. apart from his distress for parents. 6. whereas if she went away she would get none. 3. 10. How this time was to come. How much. in some way. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 7. was unclear to Mitzi. Having regard to the date of drafting. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. without profound questioning. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. he had been advised. 4. this would really hurt. You have been much in my thoughts. to retire early from my employment. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 9. 2. 12. 13. 11. I am sorry not to have seen you. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. and this particularly of late. he had not yet been able to estimate. since I have decided. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. and meet it right here at home. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. and that 263 . because of pity. 5.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1.

14. please consider his proposition. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / In the end. one of the eggs broke. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / Whenever I visited my aunt. this always makes us feel embarrassed. for attending his sister’s wedding. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. I was made say Grace before every dinner. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / Before you go on changing the subject.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. he did not come to see her. looking forward had not yet taken place. even for months. 17. 264 . but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. 19. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured.

And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. she said. her recklessness. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. without discovery. cotton mills at Manchester. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. At country houses she had met them of course. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Clare had never come into close contact with those who. it was said. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. Instead of which she had married. Clarissa used to think. of all people. 265 . She felt as when. and it was bound. a little girl. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. They hated trying on. Essentially. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. rather than the hefty type. Though much in request before her marriage. Tony was a child. of the quick and wiry. to end in some awful tragedy. (and there he was. her old friend Hugh. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. They rushed into shops. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. centered in London and themselves. quite unexpectedly. an open-air person. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Vulgar men did.

Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. nu puteam sa le uit. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. (John Galsworthy . ii faceau bine. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. cre s-au nascut lent. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. viguros si vesel in felul lui. but lying in her bath. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Bolnava nu se simtea. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. dar vizitele acestui om din topor.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. astfel.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. The closer she allowed him to come to her. the more she would be torturing him. era un bun sfatuitor. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. si in plus. nu a facut-o pentru asta. to keep abreast of the current. short of the contacts of love. De uitat. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. she was uneasy. she professed. aveam tot mai 266 . indeed. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. Cind l-a chemat. Reading many novels. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister.Over the River) 2. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea.Rindurile dvs. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. with all its impatience of restraint.

o data sau de doua ori. mi-am zis. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici.) 6. Banulescu – ibid. are nevoie. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. (St. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. fa-o. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Banulescu – ibid. (St. vaazut cindva.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. lungimea picioarelor. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin.) 7. Daca tu. (St. Banulescu – ibid. Milionarule. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Banulescu – ibid. Personal. pe scaunul lui tare. (St. ca si tine.) 5. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. nu pricep nimic.) 267 . poate fi compensata. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Ce a iesit. latimea si ascutisul labei. se stie. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. 4. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. cit mai au de trait.

2. And had a brother killed in the same battle..P. (. Cambridge. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. my grandfather.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. delivered from the holocaust. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.. Could he be blamed.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who was may father. Who when asked about his memories of the War. for being a renegade. Who came home from the war. Ernest Richard Atkinson. Who. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. when I was even younger than you. Translate them. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. to Emmanuel College. A story-book romance. Who told me. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. a wounded soldier. Arthur Atkinson M.

glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. deep-set. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. Rachel Williams. he had already engaged himself? 3. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). Fabianism. a moody man. and because – but this is mere speculation. to whom. 4.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. How 269 . But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. for flirting with ideas (European socialism.

satul. om mare. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum au tăcut ei. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. cu taina aceasta. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Ion. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. 270 . Cum a trăit el. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. la şcoală. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Ion. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. Cum a ajuns el.

L-au derivat cei din teatru. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. singurul lui stăpân. când voi fi singur. din franţuzeşte. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Când actriţa.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară.pune totul in discuţie. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. 271 . (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. împotriva tuturor. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. greşeli dintr-astea. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cu sau fără voie. de mama lor. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu .

Tot aşa. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Într-o vreme. nevasta-mea. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. 5. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. dam buzna peste automobile. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. parcă începusem s-o uit. de pildă. provocându-le. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. 272 . asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. 4. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. continuând. sau ridicole. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. ci un sistem de acomodare. fostă prietenă din copilărie. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. 3. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. tânăr şi frumos şi el. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. traversând. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. 6. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. pe jumătate prezent. privindu-mă în ochi. A devenit palid. Am început. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior.

Unit ten Revision exercises 7. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. orice s-ar întâmpla. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. să merg întins. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. şi dacă merg întins. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. ca un acrobat. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. că nu m-am gândit la asta. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. 9. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. Dacă nemţii înaintau. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. şi să nu ameţesc. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. 8. fără să mă opresc o clipă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. De altminteri. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. E o problemă. Am început. 11. fireşte. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Aş vrea să mă las jos. iar. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm.

cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent.Ma. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Greu era din partea asta. de uimire. Adica tot trecutul. 13. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. dar nu se mai putea. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. 16. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. parca ar fi vorbit in vis... I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. la amintiri. 14. de la lucruri personale. La un moment dat. de la proces. Auzindu-l. Ilie nu-l asculta. se uita in jos. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Ii venea greu. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. de la obiecte de pret. 274 . cu mirare. nu trebuie sa va suparati. 15. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. nu mai semana. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Acum isi ferea privirea. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Uite. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . In curind. la carti. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. eu am venit sa va intreb. nu mai pricepu nimic. 17. trebuia sa le spuna. la fata locului. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. parca i-ar fi fost frica.

Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. vorbe asa si-asa. Zimbea siret. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. dar. There was even 275 . apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala.Ce sa fac. 20.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. i se paru ca aici e ceva. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. 19. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Nu era nevoie. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Aici era ceva. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. se indeparta nepasator. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. apoi se uitau la Ilie. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. asa cum facuse pina acum. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». which was part of his rich outfit. . bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. cum zicea Anghel. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea.

He felt then. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. rude woman. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. the young lady. 3. for the instant. conversationally. But Daisy. to move fast. 4. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. paying no attention. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. She was one 276 . He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady.Miller at her hotel.Nadina VIŞAN relief. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. to take his way home on foot. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. at least. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. to admit that she was a proud. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. on this occasion. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. resuming her walk. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. He walked a long time. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. asked for Mrs. gave an exclamation. 5. going astray. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. a simplification.

He left me musing. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. 6. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. make a point. 7. She appeared.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. in their own phrase. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. of studying European society. making Paul stop and look at her. while residing abroad. 8. as text book. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. She rustled forward. often. uncomfortably. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. indeed. smiling and chattering. in radiant loveliness. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. as to projected changes. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. and wondering what the deuce he meant. as it were.Walker. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. on the other hand. Advising with me. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. Her daughter.

9. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. H. was immensely struck with him. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. or at any rate not heeding.’ 278 . I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and. while Paul. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. though E. and perceived that it must be something important. H. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. 10. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. and acute too. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. was only half satisfied with this. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. could see he was remarkable. 11. wondered what they were talking about. with his humorous density. which was deliberate. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. not seeing.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right.

why his question had broken out at that particular moment. had the power to chain his sympathy. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. 13. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. 15. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. 14. that the haunting wonder which now. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. But she gave him no chance. not glancing at him for a moment. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. which was very copious. as he looked back. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. appeared to fill his whole childhood. H. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge.

ironically reserved. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. and to H. yet 280 . It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. 16. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. as a general thing. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. The whole establishment. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. and there were others. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. dragging herself on her knees. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. At the theatre. that she must be on the contrary. where the Pearl of Paraguay. 17. proudly. H. disheveled and distracted. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. 18. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. It was very possible she was capricious. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit.

*Old. would always be more or less irritating. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. 19. didn’t mind. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. No one ever listens to her.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. It came over H. 20. H. Their mistakes and illusions. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. with the poor. young men were invited. on which the damp breath of the streets. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. had blown a certain chill. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. 3. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. 281 . 2. and lurking within this nebulous design./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her.

*Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. I saw her as a vision. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. I blundered by. 8. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. her arms held out. “Oh. Rachel. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 282 . her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 5. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. walking quickly. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 10. c) When I saw her sitting there. 6. 7. 12. 11. her shining blue feet twinkling. 9. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. I was definitely going to be sick. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. slipped on some steps. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. striding like a Spartan maid. I walked fast.Nadina VIŞAN 4. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. Either John or he * have got to give in.

Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.

3. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. which was really alarming.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 4. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 2. And then I ventured to add that. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. if they were poor. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. 5. could cook my meals. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . but that we saw and pitied. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. The old women spoke no English. where my servant.

Constituents: He. to settle. on Saturday. Munt.apart from his distress = apart from.g. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. etc. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious = was + anxious. Constituents: Margaret. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. apart from his distress for parents. this. on a house. etc. this would really hurt. he had not yet been able to estimate. his. before they left town. was informed. was anxious.g. Constituents: how much. would really hurt. had not been able to estimate. he. etc.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. distress. How much. 285 . apart form his distress for parents. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. at noon. to pay their annual visit. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e.

listen to this./ She finally admitted. – comparison.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – first clause is non-assertive.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. negative/ Come with me. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). negative/ If you like jazz. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. interrogative.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. negative. – non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 . which is not assertive. don’t bother her.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. Second clause is an imperative. – non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. it is assertive./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. second clause is non-assertive. interrogative.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. interrogative. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive/ Don’t do that. / If you like her. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – first clause is an ifclause.. and is non-assertive.. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.

not even this thing. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ When he learned the news. / You have never met 287 . / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. the two brothers dared to protest. – I like somebody else. –double negation cancellation. he was hardly pleased. but it wasn’t them. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He was exceptionally cunning. everybody used to travel by coach./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. but not more than she does others. – someone hates animals. – someone did that. / I can hardly understand what they are saying./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. only irresolute./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. / I don’t like her very much. / They didn’t leave. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ Not long ago. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ They weren’t really confused.but to someone else. / She does not hate animals. – they told the truth to somebody else. / Not really convinced by what the had heard./ Hardly interested in the conference. but nothing out of the ordinary. / She does like John./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem. but it isn’t Susan. not even when it’s quiet around./ He was smart enough./ Susan did not get married to Jim .Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / He wasn’t unusually bright.

negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. – negative insertion. did they? / No problems were caused after all. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. I could hardly wait to hear the news.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.. / This is hardly the 288 . were they? / This boy is no good.....Nadina VIŞAN her. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. not even in my dreams. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. they go skiing in the mountains. not even when you were very young. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there... *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye.

– Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. – Not many people came to see her. / I seldom look at her like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.Never shall I trust a man again. never trust a man again. Activity 8 I shall never.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. but she also lent him a car. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain.. – I don’t often look at her like that. – I never see her./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – I almost never look at those paintings./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / Hardly anybody liked him. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / Few people came to see her. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Almost nobody liked him. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. when we started our holiday. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well./ We seldom receive such generous praise.

/ They say he once had someone very close. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself./ I expect he won’t come here again. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – They don’t believe she likes them.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. you can’t do anything about it any more. – 290 ./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / They believe she does not like them. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Only on this man could she rely. / Come on. –At no time did we leave the office. – I don’t expect he will come here again. you can still do something about it. – They say he never had anyone very close. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / She could rely on nobody but him. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – Come on./ I somewhat like his proposal. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. / Don’t worry. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time../ Well. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.

– This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Bob is still living at that address. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live../ Peter knows some English and so does John. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / You needn’t send her anything. – You should send her something. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – You can’t be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / You must pay that fine. –Alice still lives here. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. either. – She almost always comes here. – Well her husband has always been a good person. / Well./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / You must be telling lies.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. 291 ./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. / She hardly ever comes here.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. too.

he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ 292 . / Don’t go on believing him. has never studied anywhere. / Jim is so brave./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Am avut un car de necazuri. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Have they rung the bell? No. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ I don’t know why she’s crying.D./ Nimic de facut. ever since I got this ulcer./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. I haven’t seen her in years./ He’s a happy man. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. to any of us./ I don’t know a thing about her./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. Oh. not yet. e un magar./ They say this Ph. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ N-are nici cap nici coada. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. It’s no wonder. He didn’t move a muscle./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ Nobody told us a thing. / Please./ You look so tired today./ You took his leaving you very hard. He isn’t that smart. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ He was a tough man./ Zis si facut.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. give me a hand./ E un baiat de zahar. I haven’t done anything. / He can’t have done a thing like that.

/ Nu-i nici un deranj. 293 . slowly. I hadn’t really expected miracles./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. I had never had the opportunity to prove./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. with the same needs they had.’ ‘Nici o problema.’/ Deloc descurajat. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. that I was a decent man. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. We had nothing in common. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. feebly. no memory.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. without too much determination. no story. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . for I thought this threatening. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. thrown out.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. parasi camera. one way or another. nothing.

• I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. Not for a moment had I thought that. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. or if you understood what I meant. he immediately answered me patronizingly. bad. that’s what the world is about. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. I’d be so happy if it were so. it’s not words. I admit. It’s not made up of theories and the like. You really made me mad. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. Unfortunately. a leftover fom other times…” “Well.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. Radu had calmed down. your story. We have to judge it as it is. I was sleepy and tired. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. let alone irritable. on the front seat. but facts.. things you do any moment. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. he was sitting beside me. the only 294 . clear or confusing. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. not as we would like it to be or some other way. good. by coming here to the monastery. to say the least. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Your judgement is false. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. • It was my turn to say something.

Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. as Baciu would have us be. or you are lying hidden. Look. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. soon we’ll be in town. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. • So. But I was just wondering. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. and an inability to act. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. too? A gun is power. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. keep it squeaky clean. or call the respect of others. me. Anyway. clears your way. either. I won’t interfere. 295 . This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. But what about you and Melania. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. just to please myself. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. it’s yours. fear might be hiding. behind these big. it solves troubles. you do as you think fit. we are leaving. me. and if you like. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. to fight. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. no matter how huge they are. although it was a difficult thing to do. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. did you ever step up front. precious words. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. keep your conscience clean: you have one. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. it’s your problem. you can go to Ursu’s.

But it was not because I had no answer to give. because before is a positive polarity item 2. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. -correct 3. .correct 3. will he?. even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner.. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. – incorrect. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .Negative incorporation 296 . firmly determined not to answer immediately. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. has yet arrived -correct 2. the sentence is incorrect 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . has not arrived yet – double negation. The villagers were not very religious.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .Negative attraction b) 1. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. . correlatives are mixed 2. as soon as he delivered it. but they gradually got used to it. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1.incorrect.. or some other woman.

(ibid. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Nu putea să se mişte. her lack of motion would have to do (API). she couldn’t marry him. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. (ibid. prea răscolit. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. His spirit was too tired. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Her stillness. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. nu era 297 . Avea sufletul prea obosit. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. yet.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. b) But it was rather (API) late. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. not happy at all (NPI). either (NPI).) Însă era cam târziu. Ştia că are dreptate. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. too troubled. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI).Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. much less ((NPI) for her.

) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. e) At length. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. 298 . cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. (ibid. The Satanic Verses. şi destul de hotărât. if anything (NPI). inima îi batea năvalnic. (Salman Rushdie. she looked younger than ever (NPI). f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. and not a little unsteadily. (ibid. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). his heart was beating fast. se îndreptă spre paravan.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. Ba dimpotrivă. he made his way to the screen.

It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI).) C. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. i) What did C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. The point was. h) C. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. the gift was useless. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. and probably an administrative headache as well. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. 299 . însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Ce-i pasă lui C. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. but his father would have none of it (NPI). He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. (ibid. Home receded from the prodigal son. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. care if the school were willing to treat him.

correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. 300 . correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. .QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question.indirect question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. and then what do you 308 . daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. now she was chatty. to make them lust after her. Chizlinski. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. you are in enough trouble as it is. keep Condrat away from her. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. Luca Horobet. Stavre Paici. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. all godfearing husbands and fathers. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. she likes to entrance them. do you really think that this vixen. she didn’t wear a ring. Fenia. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Vica. they were.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. She has an eye for gentle men. Fenia. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. yes. “Now. 2. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. the bitch. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying.

after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. her hair pinned with blue combs. 3. The mullah. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. with a railway station and a mosque. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. a seventy-eight year old lad. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. G. have a girlfriend. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. It even takes him a while to go to the window. what’s her name. ankle-long flowered calico. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. the minister of Tartars and Turks. He got him out of his mosque. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. dragging his feet listlessly. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. 4.

and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .

the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – sentence coordination 7. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. due to the reciprocal verbal expression.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. Her pet kitten is black and white. John and Mary are the newly married couple. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John is ready and Mary is ready. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. our respective examinations. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – sentence coordination 2. Our flag is red.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .. yellow and blue. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .phrasal coordination (in this case.) 9. and I passed.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are ready.

A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. 9. her idea and John’s. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 7. but not John. plays football.) Joan plays many games.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 10.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. 2. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 8. We can and will demand payment. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. your work and mine. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. many guest or few. Activity 5 This book and the other. 6. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 3. that method and those. her son and others. your proposal and his. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). and even tennis. Activity 4 1. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. much satisfaction or little 312 . but John does not play football.

Safe and sound 313 . Thick and thin 11. Life and soul 5. but not simple. 3. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. Law and order 8. Activity 8 1. I have always fought and will fight for progress. The facts and figures 3. 8. Touch and go 10. He read. etc. 7. magazines are only for children. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. 4.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Wear and tear 12. Spick and span 9. Ups and downs 6. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Few and far between 14. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Swings and roundabouts 7. Pros and cons 4. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. To and fro 15. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Over and above 13. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. He snapped at him and slapped him.) 6. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. High and low 2. Bread and butter 16. 5.

314 . My son and daughter are twins. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. There are some chairs and a table in the room. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. My son and heir is safe. 9. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 10.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. – asymmetric 18. Not John but his two sons are to blame. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. – symmetric 2. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 7. 5. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 9.symmetric 11. – symmetric. – similar situation 9. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. Symmetric 21. 3. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 3. 5. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 2. 6. inclusive 16. 1. Asymmetric 19. exclusive 15. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. – symmetric. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 10. Asymmetric 20. 4. 8. 6. – symmetric. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. Either the child or the parents are to blame. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Cathy and David have arrived. cause-effect Activity 10 1. b. exclusive 17. 4. 7. 2. Symmetric 13.. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 8.

2. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. He went to bed. 10. Her husband is long dead and buried. By hook or by crook. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. nor fowl. Not only should you rest 315 . 5. Jim thought it over for a while. (2) 1. 3. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 4. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. There are doctors and doctors. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 11. it was too small. We’ll stick together. I’ll still finish this paper. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. He’s neither fish. thanks for asking. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. No drinking and driving. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 3. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. ‘Madam. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. 14. 9. They came to me. 15. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 8. Should he pour water in the basin.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. Brother or no brother. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 12. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 6. 7. clothes and all.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. for better or worse. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 2.

as she always does. and then. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. she knows for sure. From time to time she will launch a helping question. at equal intervals. What do you know? The moment Mrs. just like when he was thirty. Her first husband had been a professor. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. They hadn’t kept him there too long. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. stop dead in his tracks. but he’d come out a cripple. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. tense like a bow. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. And.Nadina VIŞAN assured. he starts lecturing her about life and things. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. what’s its name. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. but she blinks in approval. Mrs. so he’d gone down and died in no time. 2. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. he’d leap high. an important man. so he could leap in pursuit. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. So she’ll listen to him. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. without mentioning financial matters. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. their common ground. she started doing a great job. it would work out fine. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. tense with concentration. 316 . The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth.’ (3) 1. both dead and buried. This. and she listens to him. You know. Whatever she tried her hand at.

functioning as a modifier 3.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate.subordinate. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. about her problems at home After I told her the story.subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. – obligatory elements: she. you. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . functioning as an object (direct). is aware. cannot tell. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – she. she looked at me sadly. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . at me Activity 2: 1. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – Susan.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. came.subordinate.subordinate. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – she. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as an adjunct 2. – obligatory elements: I. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . told. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . looked. – she.

subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. remove our home yet again . that we should. since the main verb is think of something) 5.complement b) 1. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that you are choosing exile .

direct object. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. direct object b) to dry it – complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. a barn. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement.complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . but no idea – relative that complement. a house. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. outbuildings.

so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. that kept her constantly tense and grim. without straightening her back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement.A few days before the war. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. (…) He dashed back. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object. When Anton put the sickle down. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. subject/ to do such again – complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. (…) ‘Well. But other people.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. sickle in hand.wh complement. Activity 5 1. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . staring at each other. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial.

And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. while on other occasions he would show caution. 3. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. Only he had Ana to think of. 321 . which he doesn’t rely on completely. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. Not even at this point. but he doesn’t spurn either. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. while they spoke from miles away. or other more hidden means. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. 2. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. that was for sure. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. you need courage even for this small thing. Why! He was not of two minds. Ana could not stand a trip now. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. First. as if they were at his beck and call. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. For no bold man really falters. he will turn back and no longer be daring. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. but also his sharp nose. or if he does. rather than a real threat. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him.

and on Monday followed another feast). although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. But it was not ok. in Odobesti. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. they would ruin the arrangement. he had postponed writing back. 322 . Costel didn’t want to give up this job. and twice we were requested to get out. it was the women. under the silliest of pretexts. So. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. by the cars of some of us. are we getting off again? What is wrong. and when things didn’t go as planned. 4. Twice did we get in the car. without really knowing why. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. although he could have said so earlier.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. to see some mutual friends. In fact. come on. And here’s how this first day looked. We were going to drive to a vineyard.

which was silly of him. 10. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything.restrictive 4. Activity 2 1. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. all of whom would answer to his questions. Activity 3 1. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. where I least expected 323 . 3. on which this occurred . when the plane will take off restrictive 3. which was a pity. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 10. 8. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 7. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. The students like their teacher. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 8. 6. These are people who we cannot tell much about. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. why they all left . 3. He told her the secret. 7. The students.restrictive 6. most of whom were from England. who was just passing by. 4. John told his friend a story about the king.restrictive 2. This is my husband whom I love very much.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . He is the author who they gave a prize to. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. like their teacher. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . You couldn’t join the party.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 5.She came to London where I went too. when we first met . I bought Jim a book that he liked. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 9. 6. 11. 2. where I spent my youth . 5.free 8.restrictive 7. 4. any of whom would answer to questions.

adjunct 11. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . 5. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. the prince chose Cinderella.restrictive 10. 3. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. Of all the persons there. which . Which – subject 4. 7. What – direct object 2. Where . This isn’t the Bucharest I know. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. however sad . when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.free 9. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. was very displeased with the situation. 6. I. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Why .free Activity 4 1. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. about why man was born to die – prepositional object.adjunct 6.subject 8. when . Where he was from – adjunct. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct.When Ada remarked – adjunct.adjunct 5. where we talk money – predicative.subject 9. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. who cannot say a word. where – predicative 7. come up front. Activity 5 1. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. What Inman remembered – subject. who think so highly of yourselves.adjunct 3. You. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Who . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished.Nadina VIŞAN . Where . 4. When . What I’m saying – subject.adjunct 10. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. 2. what their parents made them.

which requires an accusative form. which is ungrammatical due to the[. what little she knew – direct object.attribute 12.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. how .Key To Chapter Six Practice object.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . – which is ungrammatical due to the [. what . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. whatever – predicative 13. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.

whose great-grandfather. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. in his turn. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. but whose second cousin. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who. having changed quite a number of jobs. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. got married and had a daughter. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. a sergeant. due to its invariable character. a rather tiny looking man. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist.

This story. – no pied piping 327 . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.yes 7. he rarely saw now. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. no easy answers to which could be offered. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. were now all gone. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. – obligatory pied piping 2. – yes. – no 9.yes 3.yes Activity 9 1.His father’s friends. – no pied piping 5. In the interest of public decency. was now complete. The problem of safe transportation. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. with deletion of the noun friends]. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. . for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. . His friends.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. has been troubling them forever. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. Irene. – yes 2.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.obligatory 3. . he requested that the public be excluded. .no 5.obligatory 4. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. .yes 10. – yes 6. whose interest he most sincerely shared. – no 4.

For all the four children. the third born son. 328 . In other people’s opinion. where two teams battled every day… 5. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. yours. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. Nelu. I did so.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. for instance. Only an ugly endless dream remained. 6. 4. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. irrespective of age and nature. 7. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. or as of a vast arena. Everything was ending. 3. 2. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. I am to be envied. 8. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . For twenty years. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream.and he couldn’t thank me enough.

on Icoanei street. where from Marta was coming too. staring aimlessly. although she was standing quite close to him. You are newly arrived here. 10. leaving streets and houses behind. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 17. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. 16. 12. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. 15. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. she said. What you’re saying sounds very nice. 13. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. All that you have read is rubbish.R. 329 . the tram was rattling along. from MR street. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. barely glittering in the distance. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 14. Behind them. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. Let me tell you my last conclusion. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. He was suffering from dizziness. since I don’t really know which my true life is. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 11.

had a huge house in Bucharest. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. While some trees are still green. I don’t know what might have happened. But for me. who only lived once in this world. If he had hit me. after the car was fixed.Nadina VIŞAN 18. or the many Egyptian dynasties. I could see my woman falling away from me. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. 22. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. day by day. 23. So. in her pursuits. While we were poor. From the vantage point I was in. who prompted everyone on the street. which I did not posses. But. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. She was a woman of means. 21. so optimistic and composed? 19. had a personal style in clothes. 20. or the clash of stars above. likes and dislikes. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. 330 . I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. 24. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots.

prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. 8. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. subject 9. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. object 6. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It will be soon announced when you can leave. direct object 3. – unextraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. subject 8. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. subject 7. 331 . – the same as 3. for pragmatic reasons 5. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. – extraposed. 6. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. – questionable. – extraposed. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. subject 4. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. object 5. – extraposed.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. direct object 10. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 2. 3. prepositional object 11. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed. subject 2. – impossible 7. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed. – extraposed.

– incorrect. a bit too intricate 5. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. same as 12. 15. It is no use trying to convince her. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – impossible. although a bit intricate 2. but pragmatically impossible 3. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts.grammatical. – impossible. – the same as 12. – grammatical. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – grammatical. – same as 12. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. idiomatic formula 16. same as 12. I guess it that he will come back. same as 12. . – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best.incorrect. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.. 17.correct 4. 10. – impossible. . 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible 11. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. I don’t expect it that he will come back. – impossible. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. Activity 3: 1.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – correct 2. You know it only too well that he will not marry you.grammatical. but pragmatically impossible 4. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. tense influences the 332 . 9. 14. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. It is nice to meet you.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. They never expected it that he would come back.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. . 18.

‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. 333 .Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . I hurriedly hid wherever I could. 3. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. – correct 6.’ 4.’ Lionel says. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. (Not always.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. 5. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. in the ditch. under bridges. in the pits on the road. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. thus. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. though. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform.incorrect. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. 2. behind gates. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.

who had just returned from Africa. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. who had just returned from Africa. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. – the second sentence is questionable. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. since the 334 . owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. 3. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh.Nadina VIŞAN 6. It is less ambiguous than the first. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. 8. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. because it is less ambiguous. without trying to protest too much. 7. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. – the first sentence is the better of the two. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. Activity 7 1. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. By saying this. who had just returned from Africa. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. 4. prime-minister. 2.

He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 5. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 8./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The second and third sentences are grammatical. 335 . although the third one has not undergone clause shift./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 6. – both sentences are grammatical. 7. extraposition is obligatory here. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. so there is no need for extraposition. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.

(Iris Murdoch. . – complement that clause. ibid. – direct object. – complement 5.complement 4. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. – adverbial of sequence/result. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. they were chained to each other forever. .) complement that clauses. ibid. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed.prepositional object. – relative 3. coordinated. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. – complement 2. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. – relative 5. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – prepositional object. – subject. . required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. required by deverbal noun 336 . correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. (Iris Murdoch. for better or worse. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.adverbial of sequence/result. . extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin.) adverbial of sequence/result.We discovered that our map has disappeared.relative Activity 9 1.

being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. that deletion is obligatory. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. f) John said that Harry would leave. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. you want me to believe. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.

a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. – grammatical sentences. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. c. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. b. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. – both sentences are grammatical. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . a.

prepeliţe. lark. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. geese both grey and white. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. cenuşii şi albe. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. present instead of simple past. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. quail. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. ciocârlii şi şoimi. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . – generalization on habits of birds. While the first is possible because of the generalization. present perfect instead of past perfect. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. hawk.

She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. lipsa de vanitate. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). love of practical jokes. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. She admired their keenness of wit. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. lack of pridefulness. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. slyness in a fight. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. Crows will relish what presents itself. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. The generic present is used in this case. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 .

He died erect.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. tragică şi eroică. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. he claimed. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. se ridicase în picioare. tânărul ofiţer. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. But as the battle raged around them. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. […] During the latter stages of the tale. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Murise în picioare. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer. He had fought hard through the war. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. El căzuse pe spate. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. in the very act of expiring. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 .

şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. the oldest. And they might just hang him. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. But when he reached me. în închisoare. he closed the album. war hero though he was. Acum stătea aici. to finish my drawing. Luptase din răsputeri în război. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. When the boys saw that mother had left. around seventeen or eighteen years old. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. One of them. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. Activity 13 1. They all had their hands in their pockets. susţinea el. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. 342 . deşi era erou de război. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. A short while later. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. How can I explain? I just felt shy. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Now here he stood jailed. they gathered around my desk. His sparse hair was full of dandruff.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. – similar situation to the one under (c). For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. When he saw me. mother went home and I was left alone. 2. I realized I could not tell him the big news. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now).

‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. or if she would do so again. brightly and closely. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. or fear his rage. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. 6. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. 4. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark.’ Mr. All his senses were now keen. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself.’ 5. for her vineyard. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. as if he had been drunk.

it meant that he would approve of him from then on. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. 10. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. And if things were so. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory.Nadina VIŞAN to him. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. 9. claiming you had no ambition for the future. 8. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. The last time when we met here you scared me. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. thinking of him. 11. 7. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat.

towards Jurubita. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. 14. 12. without putting anything in a note. which secretly drove him. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. namely the impatience of this young man. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 13. We either sell them or we don’t. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. where he would run to confess everything. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . more urgently than ever.

She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – simple infinitive.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. – infinitive continuous. 346 . – simple infinitive. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. grammatical 2. grammatical 3. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. . Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / they saw her leave. grammatical 6.. – simple infinitive. – perfect infinitive.simple infinitive. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 9. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 5. – infinitive continuous.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. . grammatical 7. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical 10. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical. It is vital this factory to be reopened. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause.

/ It is not too late for him to learn. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. you need to try harder. Test: * I would like people. – Test: They asked her. \ I allowed [them to come.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They did not wish [her to come back. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: *She wanted him. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / I want to never see you again. \ I would love [ them to come. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. – Test: They convinced her. \ They would have hated [her to come back. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: They tempted him. Test: *They did not wish her. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. – Test: She promised him. ] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. Test: *I would love them. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. / He is believed to have known her 347 .Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition.

Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. . – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / He is young enough to start again.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / He is easy to talk to. Activity 6 Oh. . not to miss the train. . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / I want you to leave my house. . / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is hard to stand. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / I have a word to tell you. I don’t need you or your services. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / Oh. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / He is easy to live with.

Predicative 4 .to. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Harold. 349 . If he himself was out of spirits.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. who wasn’t used to men with moods. the herd instinct was very strong in him. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 1] A little crossly. Subject. 1 – PRO. so that we might get to the future and have done. Subject. He suspected hostility at once. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3].Accusative + Infinitive. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. they had depressed and fuddled him. he didn’t envy those above it. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2].

or better said. 350 . adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. slowly. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. true. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. excitedly. PRO controlled by ‘she’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. PRO controlled by ‘him’. cautiously. PRO controlled by ‘she’. PRO controlled by ‘me’. object 2 – PRO –to. more meaningful. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. But when we need to comfort others. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. 1 – PRO-to. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. e) When two persons. direct object 3 – PRO –to. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. man and woman. And you might also be hit and humiliated. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. c) Unlike plane trips. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. f) The passing time is important. more believable than evidence itself. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. we seem to forget about our own pain. One day.

But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. S. I am indeed praising my own merits. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. h) I want us to go. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. not even those parts where he had been half-right. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. k) With this considerable dowry. Stroescu. that you are young. If it was summer. all down our neck. or their talk that night. as he had appeared to him in the rain. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. That is it. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. which he had already forgotten. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. And I would care for this man so deeply. or. Moroi says heavily. while swearing to change my way of life. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. even when this love is hurried. for instance. to live only with your coughing. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. my wish being only to please and serve. tickled by the trickles of sweat. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. He had not been able to leave Dr. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. not to want to wipe it off. Mrs. 351 . although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. in the street.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. And to actually start to believe you are so.

m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. haphazardly. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. 352 . Well. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). for that’s the door people get off by. no matter what. she was suddenly so shocked. every Bucharester knows it. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. If you will have what I can give you. ready to submit to any demand. or to speak so fast. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. here I am with all of my own. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. poor Muti. met by squalor and terrible smells.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before.

/ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. – Attributive past participle. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. badly beaten and bloodied. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ She sent him shopping./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Don’t keep him waiting. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. 353 . / They found it thrown in a corner. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her.. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother.

10. I slammed the door of my room. 7. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. – As she was running into the room. I was astonished at what I saw. 5. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 4. – Attributive present participle. Turning on the light. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. having heard it all before. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 6. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. sitting taut between her father and her sister. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 9. 2. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Accusative + present participle / In any case.Running into the room. he sat down to his own dinner. Having looked through the fashion magazine. having been uprooted by the gale. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 3. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. Attributive present participle. 8. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. they began quarreling about how to divide it. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom.She didn’t want to hear the story again. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. Having fed the dog. Finding the treasure./ Running into the room. Activity 4 1. The tree had fallen across the road. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Sleeping in the next room.

Getting out of bed. – As the dog was barking furiously. 7. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. cloth-covered. sharp-eyed/minded. Barking furiously. narrow-minded. his horse fell at the last jump. my hands often get very cold. / Getting out of bed. he broke one of the eggs. he was bit by a scorpion. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. the sea was tossing the post up and down. three-coloured. 8. 5. wooden-headed. 10. one of the eggs broke. – As he left the cinema. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. many-coloured. a scorpion bit him. Activity 5 Fair-haired. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. 2. his horse fell at the last jump. 355 . an idea suddenly occurred to me. Leaving the cinema. an idea suddenly occurred to me. my hands often get very cold. 11. Tied to the post. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. empty-headed. 9. Dropped by parachute. I let the dog out of the room. I let it out of the room. broad-shouldered. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. / Climbing down the tree. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family./ Reading in bed. Reading in bed. fishy-eyed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. open-minded. – As he was riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree. bald-headed. lion-hearted. a pot of paint fell on my head. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. – As he was climbing down the tree. Riding in the first race. 3. Passing under a ladder. 12. the sea was tossing it up and down. stony-hearted. one of the eggs broke. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 4. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. red-handed. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. a scorpion bit him. – As I was passing under a ladder. – As he was tied to the post. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As he was getting out of bed. – When I read in bed. I often get very cold hands. 6. a pot of paint fell on my head.

/ Three people. 7. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. mown grass. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. bounden duty. shrunken stream. (hunt). open-hearted. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. were taken to hospital. injured when their car crashed on the M1. I stared at the canvas for ages. The film.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. shaven head. rotten plank. straight-shouldered. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. was today taken back to prison. Activity 7 1. found hiding in a barn. (produce) 3. dark-skinned./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. 356 . The escaped prisoner. is expected to be a great hit. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. / Many old people. shorn lamb. (find) 6. roast meat. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. (admire) 5. admired for their elegance and precision. (injure). drunken man. stricken deer. lighted candle. are sold throughout the world. graven image. produced by S. Activity 8 1. hidden meaning. / Swiss watches. hunting for a bargain. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (grow) 4. sunken eyes. the shoulders barely hidden by lace.I fell on the ice. (take) 2. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. eagle-eyed.Spielberg. are in grave danger of extinction. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. injuring my arm.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. Whales. ill-gotten wealth.

all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. suddenly suffocated. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. now taken down. he were struggling for breath. thrown in the pots. its scales scraped off by the knife. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. hovering uncertain and soft. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. the fish. 4. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. seeking some promised land. boil them. 3. bake them. streaked with yellow veins of fat. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. he started peering anxiously around as if. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. flat and soft. and the puffed pastry beds. the twice rinsed vegetables. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. And his soul. So. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. 2. sprinkled with sticky flour. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. 357 . yet left them room to sway free. then put up. and moreover. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. He felt close to his father. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. A parasol. After a while. in charge of his house and lands. the carved chicken. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat.

– Accusative + participle 3. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children.gerund 5. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. he left the store without buying a thing. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. – gerund (subject) 4. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – participle (attribute) 2. . / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / I am sorry for being so late. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. Activity 10 1. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday.

attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. preceded by preposition). – gerund (half or full.possessive ING (direct object) 9. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car.participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . – gerund (attribute. 8. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. He was spotted talking to her. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. . – Nominative + participle 13. – gerund (prepositional object) 15.

gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. I did ask Mr. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road.. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. adjective. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – gerund or verbal noun. however appearances were against us. take down her answer. hold up his pen and speak. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.’ ‘Tell me.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. my Lord. but they went by too quickly. – verbal noun (has adjective).verbal noun (has determiner. Lady Corven. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. – verbal noun (has determiner. – gerund (full. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake..Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. Croom to try to follow one.’ 360 . adjective. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her.

And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.’ said Clare. it’s overrated. and went out to post it himself. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. I must go back now. suddenly.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. I spend all my time hunting a job. I just used the word and they fell. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. Then. licked the envelope with passion.’ 361 .’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. he addressed the note. ‘I do hate asking for things.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. my Lord.

attribute. direct object) from below. The sight of the two children.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute. (participle. direct object). direct object) towards him. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. hoping (participle. He looked up towards the daylight. First the crack snaking (half gerund. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. attribute). The collapsing shops (participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. village which is burning). At first. down. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. down into God knows where. The two sides were moving apart. slowly rising (participle. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. the enormous split in the earth. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. Has a complex subject) in the hole. following the verb ‘remember’. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. Then he saw movement at his feet. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. attribute. …while their edges were crashing inwards). adverbial of time. elliptical here. functions as direct object) and then the ground. after verb of perception. gerund. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. someone looking for survivors (participle. It was like a mist. attribute. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. the very earth opening up (half gerund. then the noise and the cracking stone. slightly 362 . attribute). stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute) in a swirling motion.

That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle.). m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. you. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. i. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. one. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. early. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. etc. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. my dear. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. direct object).e. has ‘of’ phrase). prepositional object. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. according to the books he read. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. covering (participle. adverbial of reason). subject of ‘being’) being (participle. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. moving up (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. a door was opened and as a servant entered. and everything got suddenly animated. reluctant or not. the two Mamonas. slanted on to her cheek. preceded by preposition. attribute) stopped dead. for Dornford was busy on an important case. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. adverbial of reason). So. And. Young Mamona left the room without a word. attribute) to winter brilliance. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. and not only in my imagination or theirs. which beckoned to 364 . brightening (participle. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. attribute) a sudden whoop. and then went riding (participle. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. Vaucher and I. Standing up. adverbial of manner). yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. and sunlight. adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Having a French governess (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. She finished what jobs there were. examining (participle. preceded by preposition. mother.

mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. and smelling so hard of rain. killed by Young Mamona. he found us sitting each in his place. too. sitting in his puddle. Not so unimaginable though. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . Entering our house on a Thursday. 3. about sparing no effort. his disloyal apprentice. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. about concentrating all our resources. And. each carrying a wooden box. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. and to Young Mamona. as mother had ordered him. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. to me. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. I knew who it would be. let alone greet us or say something. He cast us a swift glance. closing my eyes. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. kissed her forehead. to Vaucher. her back towards us. Vaucher might have known that too. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. bending a little. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. he went to mother and. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . And then. So when Old Mamona came in. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. he looked like someone who did. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. 4. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. without taking his sack off his shoulders. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. 2. and ended his life in the year 1821. who knows. for anyway.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. in the year 1812. who was sitting with eyes half-closed.

as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. wood pile. They got off the truck slowly. of taking notes and rewriting them. 5. already seen and heard. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. barrack. stove. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. as an afterthought. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. futile. But. long board table. And all around them was the great field 366 . Reach that place they did one sunny morning. each pausing before jumping down. And suddenly. everything seemed familiar. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet.

The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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