NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

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materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă.de rezolvări. titularizare şi grad.

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

Auxiliary verbs 1.6.4. The Distribution of an Element 1.3.1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Constituent Phrase 1.Contents: 8 1.5. Complementary distribution . Insertion 1.2.

Consequently. Semantic. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. For instance.2. loves. her mother.1. 1. Syntactic. sequences of the kind her mother very.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . very much. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. They are just strings. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. that is sequences fragmented at random.

4.e. (Mi-a spus secretul.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.) 10 . an order given to an interlocutor). 1. should. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. etc. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and).3. 1. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. must. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. be). we are dealing with a directive (i.

(Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English.5. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat.6. 1. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. an ‘empty’ there subject. live. for instance. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.) 1. etc.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Consider. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. This element cannot appear in any kind of context.

let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. 12 . How much. using your own examples: insertion. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. this would really hurt. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. complementary distribution. Munt. whereas (7) is not. as the star indicates. Pratice Define and illustrate. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. he had not yet been able to estimate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. syntactic. semantic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. pragmatic. distribution. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. If the given context is the one under (6).

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. 13 . to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.

2.7.3. affirmative sentences.1.4. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Key terms 2. Instances of negation 2. Polarity Items 2.5.6. Full – local negation 2.2. Key terms . Negative vs.8. Tests for negativity 2. Conclusion. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.

(Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. it asserts something.2.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) is said to be an assertion. Consequently. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. This example can be compared to: (2)a. in that they do not state anything.) b. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences.Declarative vs. For instance. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. in the sense that it states something. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .Positive vs. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Negative .

don’t bother her.positive and declarative secret. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.other (if –clauses.positive sentence . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much./ Don’t do that. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.g.) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz.Nadina VIŞAN .interrogative (e.assertion . / She finally admitted.g.negative (e./ If you like her. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) . / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen.non-assertion .) . Did they tell her the secret? ) ./ She can’t wait to read that book. comparison. They told her the ( e./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / Come with me. listen to this.g. 16 .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.

(John e nefericit. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.) b. since the negative word not is not present there. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. word negation. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. John is not happy. (Nu demult. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Susan dislikes her friends. I met a girl named Susan.) 17 . we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. Susan doesn’t like her friends. In the case of the sentences under (4). A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.3.) b. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).Unit two Sentence negation 2. John is unhappy. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. For example. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.

(Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. In other words. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. where the word 18 . since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.) c. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. these sentences look negative. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. She was not an unattractive woman.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. since the negative word not is present inside them.) b. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. I was not a little worried. more precisely the phrase it is part of.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. He was not without intelligence. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. but their meaning tells us a different story.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. just like in the case of word negation.

/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. without intelligence.e. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Când a aflat vestea. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. semantic negation. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative)./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or .

4. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. Negative vs. ci doar indecişi. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. dar nu neobişnuit. 2. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. / Era el destul de isteţ. dar nu în mod special. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. affirmative sentences.

(Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. such as do insertion. (M-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.1. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. For instance.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. etc. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.). (Nu m-am dus acolo. (see subsection 1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.

/ Susan was not bitten by a dog. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. 22 . nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / I don’t like her very much./ They didn’t leave. / Susan did not get married to Jim. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / She does not hate animals. / We don’t come here often. incorrect. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative.

Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. and they don’t like her either.Unit two Sentence negation 2. and neither do they like her. * and they don’t like her either.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. 4. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. not even the smart ones. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. Example (14) is syntactically negative. which does not happen in the case of (18). . even the smart ones. *not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). which is ungrammatical. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. 3. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. *and neither do they like her.

/ In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / This boy is no good. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / Few of them stayed behind. they go skiing in the mountains. / No problems were caused after all. / They caused us no problems. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. 2. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / A few of them stayed behind. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. In conclusion. / You have never met her.5.

(26) I saw nobody. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). (27) a . (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. I went nowhere. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. Susan could not go to the theatre. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (N-a venit John).

b.) b. I never went to his place.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. Not all that glitters is gold.) (29) a. I didn’t go anywhere.) b. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. 26 . All that glitters is not gold. I didn’t see anybody. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. no incorporation takes place.Nadina VIŞAN b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. No day passed without me thinking of him. (N-am văzut nici un student. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. I didn’t see any student.) c.

/ None of them liked house music. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.) They barely read any novels. / I didn’t see anybody.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory.4. / He should not be released. rarely.V. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret./ They never went there. nici măcar din alea scurte. / No one ever listens to her. / Not many women are famous opera composers.) We seldom watch T. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. ./ They didn’t come to meet her. not even short ones. barely. / Not a word fell from her lips. / I showed him nothing. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. scarcely./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / Not one of them came to meet her. (Nu citesc romane. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. seldom. / I saw nobody. and we don’t go to the theatre either.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. etc. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.

şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / I scarcely ever see her. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. which triggers inversion): (35) a.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / I seldom look at her like that. . Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends.) d. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. Never have I met a more horrible person. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I could hardly wait to hear the news.) b. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / Hardly anybody liked him. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) c. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor.) 28 them. Not for the world would I do such a thing.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.

/ We seldom receive such generous praise./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / She could rely on nobody but him. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.) They don’t think that he likes them. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. never trust a man again. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. in the sense that the 29 . / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well.

look like. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. be supposed to. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. For example.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force.) 30 . appear. probability. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim.: think. intention. / He reckoned he would not win her over. cannot appear in an affirmative context. believe. imagine. / They believe she does not like them. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. the negative meaning is less strong. etc. ought to. should be desirable.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. although not negative in meaning. seem. In sentence (37). She didn’t lift a finger to help me. want. we can very well say something like: (38) a. guess. / I expect he won’t come here again. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. expect. / I suppose she doesn’t care. barely. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. suggest. etc. advise. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. be probable. choose. intend. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. sound/feel like.6. be likely. suppose. 2.) b. etc.

* Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.*She lifted a finger to help me. b. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. *She likes our chairman at all. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. and sentences such as: (39) a. are clearly not grammatical. That is 31 . I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă.2.

/ Well.) Any more vs.). I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. you can still do something about it. / I still love you) Either vs. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). etc. / I eat caviar most of the times. / Well. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / I have some money. / I somewhat like his proposal. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. / They say he once had someone very close. / She hardly ever comes here. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / Come on. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.) At all vs. too (I don’t like it. too. still (I don’t love you any more. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / I somehow like him. a lot (I don’t like you much. either. some (I haven’t any money. / Bob is still living at that address.) Hardly ever vs. / He arrived before 5. / I like it . too. / I can understand both of these 32 .) Until vs.) Much vs. / I have already seen him. / You needn’t send her anything.) Yet vs. already (I haven’t seen him yet. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / Don’t worry. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / I like you a lot.

/ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / Ajută-mă. / You must pay that fine. know a single person. crack a smile. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. nici unuia dintre noi. sleep a wink. leave a stone unturned. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile./ I can understand all of these ten English words. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. have/be worth a red cent. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. see/ feel/ remember a thing./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. move a muscle. Translate into English. say / breathe/ understand a word. find a trace. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. touch a drop. flinch. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. hear a peep. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. lay a finger on someone. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. have a care/ friend in the world. give a damn/darn. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. hurt a fly. last a minute. / You must be telling lies. mulţumesc. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. de când cu 33 . turn a hair. bat an eye(lid). / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). / I nearly always have to clean it myself. lift/raise/ stir a finger. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer.

etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / He is no end of a fellow. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / No admittance. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / No trouble at all. budge. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. he’s a pig. B: Aşi. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. he left the room. / Not that I care. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / No man is wise all the time. but you really should do something about it. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. n-a sunat încă. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. Translate into Romanian. încercând să prindă criminalul. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / No hands wanted. nu e vina mea. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Hotărât lucru. / He won’t make old bones. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Never is a long word.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / Nothing succeeds like success. / I had no end of trouble. / No sooner said than done. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / No entry.

but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. 2. as well: 35 . In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. / I hate making any commitments. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. which is not the case of the sentence under (45)./ I saw no one. say it.Unit two Sentence negation rather).) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. b) I love asking some funny remarks. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). N-am văzut pe nimeni. c) He is anxious to say something. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Normally.7. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord.

nu-mi place. from a syntactic point of view.) 2.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. I don’t. 36 . nu îmi place poezia asta. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. (Nu. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. Key terms. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. B: Not this poem. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. however. I don’t like this poem. The second negation is somehow independent. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis.8. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. Conclusion. nu poezia asta.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. B: Nu.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
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Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

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Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
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Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation). 45 .THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.e.

3. Key Terms. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.1.1 Tag Questions 3.3. Minor Types of Questions 3.2 Echo Questions 3.4. Optional Exercises .2.3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2 Wh.3 Alternative Questions 3.3.2.2.1 Yes/No Questions 3.Questions 3. Direct vs.

Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.Unit three Questions 3. focusing on direct questions mainly. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside.1. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian. for a subsequent section. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.

Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. (3) and (4). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary.g. 48 . pe mama. (2). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English.

it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. in this case. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). In the case of indirect questions.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. Since the question is not direct any more. because. Likewise. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). the sequence of the tenses is violated. 49 . (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question.

/ Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / I don’t know who she is. sau mai bine zis. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she is. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. spune la un moment dat femeia. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. / I don’t know whom she fancies. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. ce culoare are pielea. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. / He asked me who she was. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. identify the incorrect sentences.

as Quirk shows. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.2. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. In this case. the type of answer the respective question requires. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Let us provide 51 . being typical of spoken language.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.Unit three Questions 3. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.

2. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (who / talk to last night)? 5.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .1. 3. (which / you like best) ? 4. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.

(20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. (Da). The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. are said to be positively – oriented. it has. they did. instead of Negative Polarity ones.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . (Da).

but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 2. but I want to play basketball a little longer. 6. A: Your mother is shouting for you. I’ve still got plenty of time. A: You’re still in your pyjamas.. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: She had her tenants evicted. 3.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. ……………? (hear her) B: …. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. A: You look down. …………………. 4.. A: You’ve been learning German for years. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. because you always copy everything I do! 5. …….? (a mean thing to do) 54 .. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. as in the example: 1. ……………………………. (speak yet) B: ……. . …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ……………….. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ……….. 7.

A: It’s past your bedtime. I didn’t get home until late last night. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. . A: There was a terrible car crash. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. 10. what .2 Wh – questions Wh. where. how. You could have mentioned it earlier..Unit three Questions B: ………………….. which When. 9. . 8. ……………………………….2.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . . On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.. 3. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: …………………….questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.

Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. / She lives in the suburbs. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / David’s car was stolen. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / That’s my pen./ I have French lessons twice a week. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city.000dollars. what ever. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 ./ Sara owns two cars. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. Nearly two hundred years./ She dropped her glasses. / Kay’s gone out shopping./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. of course.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / There are six students in my class. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. trying to find places where I resided in life. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / Shirley got married to Ben. (Poppy Z. why ever. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. I cannot do that. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / My new car cost 10.

) 57 .Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.2.3. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.

He used to work in a bank. didn’t use he? 11. He used to work in a bank. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. How far is it the cinema? 10. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. shall we stay? 14. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. There was a fax for you this morning. Let’s stay for another few days. can you be? 58 . How long is she be spending in America? 15.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. You can’t be serious. shall we stay? 7. Let’s stay for another few days. How long is she be spending in America? 8. didn’t use he? 4. wasn’t it there? 17. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Who did left the gate open? 18. How far is it the cinema? 3.

Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Pot reveni. isn’t it this? 25. plin de germeni virulenţi. deci. dacă prin absurd 59 . That’s your car. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. will you not? 21. will you not? 27. doesn’t he go? 23. Toate vechi. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. How long have you be lived in London? 26. neliniştea infantilă. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie.Unit three Questions 19. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. uneori disperat. wasn’t it he? 22. John goes jogging every morning. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. să-mi înfrâng frica. Ani întregi. despre o lume dură. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. deci. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. That was Jeremy’s brother. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. ca şi cei ce au fost. Whose it is this book? 32. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29.

iar proştii. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . străină priceperii lor. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. ghiceam doar unde se află. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. neîntrerupt. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. pe sub bolţile din care. inactivii. Şi. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Riscul? Ratarea. îi ştiu gustul. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. picură apa roşietică. indiferent de risc. B. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. naiv. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. mă întreb. dar şi drumul. de atunci. negru. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. puturos. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. “Spune! striga el. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. laşii. murdar. lung. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. umed.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie.

nu se poate. Tag Questions Tag questions. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. golul alb. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. viaţa? Oare e drept. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.3. la urma urmei.1.Unit three Questions viaţă. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. da? (37) Let’s go there. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. 3. didn’t she? . când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. care i-a determinat alegerea.3. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. will you? (38) She went to Prague. domnule profesor. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. exclus. orbitor. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. chiar când prin absurd aş putea.

hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent.) A: Oh. aren’t they? 62 . if the host sentence is negative. au fost cheltuiţi. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. sarcasm. or falling. In this way. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. is it? (Deci. hasn’t she? (Aha. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. The suggestion is that in this case. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. or “comment tags”. the tag is affirmative too. (Din păcate. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. the tag is negative too). deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.e.

63 . / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / She left an hour ago. / You have been invited. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / The boy often watched his sister. / She used to talk a lot. / Each of us is staying. / He simply hates empty words. / I don’t think you like my music. / That was your father. / I may see you tomorrow. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / Everyone felt happy about it. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / I must go now. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / He hates his wife. / I am older than you. / I think you like my music. / You ought not to smoke.…/ Let me know. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / That’s your car over there. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / I am dressed smartly enough. / You will pick me up at 7. / Surely you have enough money. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / A few people like her. / You will pick me up. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / They said he liked music. / I think you don’t like my music. / He has to marry Susan. / Don’t leave without me.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Few people like her. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / There is enough food for everyone. after all. / Let’s eat dinner now. / I may not see you tomorrow. / She has a brother. / Tell me. / The boy never watched his sister.

Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. So you enjoyed my talk. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…./ I’m right about this…. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. using a question tag at the end. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. 5. or what? 3.. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. He used to play squash. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. / He never used to study so hard….

Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.3. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.2. (Soţul meu ştie chineză. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.1. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) B: Chinese? 65 .questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. Recapitulatory echo questions . / Students… Student loans might replace grants.3.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. / Grants… 3.2.1.2.

(Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.phrase is fronted.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.2. consternation. rather than the repetition. of something just said.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .3.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. disbelief. If the wh. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise.2. (Închide lumina aia. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.

e. / We are looking for a pixie. which letter do you 67 . / I think I’ve found a solution./ We are looking for a purse.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. with recapitulatory echo questions. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. whereas with explicatory echo questions.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. (i. dear. am pierdut scrisoarea. I’ve lost the letter. intonation is rising. (Vai. rather than did you say.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean./ He is interested in blue movies. / He is interested in music. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Uită-te la asta.

recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. she knows about it. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.4.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.

crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. cu o casă de copii. lui Stavre Păici. şerpoaica. şi care s-a aciuat. lui Chizlinski. Are gust de oameni blânzi. lui Luca Horobeţ.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. Fenio. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. şi apoi Vica ce zice. în general. stricata. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. cumnată Fenia. aşa. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. da. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. ca să zic aşa. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. să se încolăcească mai bine.– Crezi tu. după pofte. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. oameni aşezaţi. în satul nostru.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . nu purta verighetă. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. pe Condrat de Vica. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. acuma sporovăiala.

(Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. sau cum o chema. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. roşu şi galben. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. sus. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. L-a scos din geamie. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. De asta erai. deci. Hogea. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. până la călcâie. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. dar cum se face că a 70 . abia târându-şi picioarele. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată.

dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.

72 .

FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .

4.2.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.1.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.3.6.Key Concepts .Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.5.Contents: 74 4.

that elements are coordinated. i.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. present) in the sentence.e.e. cu repros. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination.Unit four Coordination 4. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. where there is no indication other than a comma.1 Syndetic vs. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. on the other hand.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. 75 . (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. reproachfully. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator.

(O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. Conversely. 76 . From the previously mentioned examples. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.) Such examples. you will die. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.) (4) If you hit my wife.Nadina VIŞAN 4. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. vei muri. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank.

) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. the second. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. respectively subordinated constituents. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. but presupposed. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. from a logical & semantic point of view. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. we need to specify that. However.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 .

but the 78 . this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. His clothes hung to him. John Steinbeck. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. In the second. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. In the first.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. took off his shoes and emptied them. Then he sat down. of cut gray stone. Though the castle had vanished. adorned with cornices. built. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. with formal walks under rows of trees. He moved and made a slopping noise. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. his shoes squished. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. took off his coat and emptied them. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. the houses were beautiful and ancient. with enormous solidity.

and as the way is with Irish mountains. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. the higher he went the wetter it grew. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. left the house. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Cecil Woocham – Smith. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. over some of the roughest ground in the country. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal.

where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. As one can easily notice. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. we should be seriously annoyed. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 .) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. however distinguished. (G. as shown in (9). the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.3 Sentence vs. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.K. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. were to take down the name of every man.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination.

Unit four Coordination example (7). yellow and blue. John and Mary are the newly married couple. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Pratice Distinguish coordination. / Bob and George are admired by their students. Our flag is red. John is ready and Mary is ready. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 7. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. and I passed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 6 John sang and Mary danced. 3. but not John. 9. Activity 2 sentences: 1. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. / Joan plays many games.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Her pet kitten is black and white. plays football. 4. 8. / Peter. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 10. John and Mary are ready. 5. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. and even tennis.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. 2. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. / Peter and John played football. our respective examinations. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.

Jane 82 . 6. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Activity 4 2. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. as can be seen in (10b).Nadina VIŞAN b.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. or deleted.) c. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.) b. 3. 5. John writes poetry and Bill prose. John loves and Bill hates cigars.

as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. Besides ellipsis. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. i. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. 7.) The common element. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.e. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. the predication buy a pair of shoes.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. these syntactical processes. 9. So. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. than a longer repetitive one. the so-called Principle of Economy. 83 . are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. can be reduced by substitution. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 8. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. 10.

4. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. Translate the following sentences. simple books and magazines for children 3. the old men and women 2. 3. 2. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. some reason or another.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. using reduced structures: 1. George and Jane went back to their parents. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. one or (the) other method. In certain cases. 4. George and Jane are separated. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . A citit.

. After all their adventures...I searched ……….You gain some things and you lose others. The police are responsible for maintaining ………….. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. 8. 2. A pendulum swings ………. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. sweet and sour. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. they reached home……….Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. fish and chips. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. even though they have their little …………. 11. only for damage. it’s a case of ………… 7. 5. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 6. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 7. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. 15. 12.. Can we discuss the …………. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. of your proposals later on? 3. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. I need another 100$ ………. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.. like: salt and pepper. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. 8. Marks and Spencers. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 16. . 5. for my wallet. 6. the amount I’ve already saved up.… 14. They get on quite well together. 13.

such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. For instance. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. b. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) There are. In fact. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. as in: (17) a. more often than not. Nor sun. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. of course. 4. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also.4.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. and 86 . semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. etc. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. the expressive function of coordination is.

dar nu am fost multumit de asta. etc). the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. sometimes but. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. (Ei o placeau pe Susan.) b.) c.g. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) In certain cases. (I-am dat banii. too): (20) a.) 87 . If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. both … and . o respectau si o indrageau. where the subordinator is repeated.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. 20 (b)).) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. or . and cherished her. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it.

) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.* I ironed and washed my pants. I like and admire her.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. if we were to rewrite the example .) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. and you’ll die.) b. and hit my wife. I washed and ironed my pants. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. In this case. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. (Imi place si o admir.) b. (O admir si imi place. From this point of view. I admire and like her. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts.

) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely. Dr. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Brown experiments with humans. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (If you do that. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he failed).) (While Dr. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.Unit four Coordination 1. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
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(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

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(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

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Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

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Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
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(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
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stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
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Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. 97 .

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

4 Key Concepts .Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.

e. as the name suggests it. From the functional point of view. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .) 101 . 5. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which.g. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.which are based on coordination .

We do not presuppose however something like. such as proud of. In a way. in certain cases. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. (I-a dat cartea.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. For instance. by an adjective + preposition. we associate it with these objects. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. sentences) required by the verb (or.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. for instance. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (7) He willingly gave the book to her. an adverbial item. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. they are still presupposed by the speaker. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) 102 . for example).) At this point we need to provide some further explanation.) Whenever we think of this particular verb.

A second observation. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts.) b.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. Thus. to add something. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information.e. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. In other words. 103 .) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. I am afraid that he won’t come. i. The second example. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. an additional one. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. which is the adverbial willingly. The term comes from the verb to adjoin. related to example (4). The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. to her) and one extra-item.

If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. such as want. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. So. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. I’ll die. make. a închis toate ferestrele. am să mor.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. etc. (Înainte să plece din cameră. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) 104 .) (11) If you don’t marry me. like.

g. 4.She came to him of her own will. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . she looked at me sadly. 3. 2. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Susan disappeared without saying a word. this to whomever wants it. After I told her the story. e. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 6. Whoever did that was a genius. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 5.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. [. They came to e. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.g. The book that because they home.

As you can see. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. which. 5. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 2. etc. at our age. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. FOR. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 4. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. You suggestion that we should. but he declined. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. not object. The Romanian term is translated by object in English.He took an intelligent interest in her.) 106 . 6. though it was largely politeness. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. was a novelty to Mitzi.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. stating their function: Activity 2 1. WHETHER.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. 3.

who. how. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (E de dorit să plece.) b.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. etc. which. when. why.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. 107 .) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. Who did it was John. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (16) a.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. Where he went is London. where. (15) It is John who did it. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.

The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. In conclusion. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 .Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although.1. before. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. done from a structural point of view. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.) (18) She told me this before she left. however. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. As you will see. In (18).) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. which sums up this classification. consider the following table. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. for instance. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. Unlike complement clauses. if. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. Compare. etc. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost.

I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.g.g. whether he will come when I feel like it. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. 109 . surely you cannot sincerely believe. Dear Ludwig. Introduced know e.g. you understand. I will go there because I feel like it. at your young age. back. for.: e. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. after. as. I will come back such as because. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. etc.

she stopped to speak to Monroe. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. As she left the house. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.The day Monroe had died was in May. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. But she thought that no one would call again. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. he said. Too. Late that afternoon.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. 2. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . but he asked her to wake him when she returned. a tightening in her breathing. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. Accidental Man) b)1.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences.

Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. However.g. 111 . I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. I told her everything after she arrived. interesting. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that.2. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g. That he loved e. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. As you have probably noticed already. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.g. a correspondence can be traced.g.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. că e.

Secondly. whereas wh complements are the 112 . This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. Thirdly. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.1. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. whenever you identify a wh.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. In the fourth place.2. complements. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.. (Cred că mă place. We will come back to that in the next chapter. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. i. So.e.complement. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.

she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but no idea what to do with them. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. because. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. Pratice Consider the following text. for no matter how she tried. after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. a house. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. c) I am coming home one way or another. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano.g. outbuildings. a barn. I first thought to tell in 113 . The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. She mistrusted her handwriting. before. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. their introductory elements (e. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials.

e. According to a structural criterion. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). it would make you fear to do such again. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. because they modify. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. these clauses can be complements. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.4. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . and I have not the will or the energy. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.

think of. look at. answering the question to whom? So. Pratice Translate the following. Nevasta secera în tăcere. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. etc.e. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Alţii. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. după ce că are grâu puţin. însă. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. interested in.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. îşi spuseseră că Anton. 115 . (…) “Mă. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. O zbughi înapoi. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. be very careful to use this term correctly. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.g. ce o fi având. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i.

se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . cât de bolnavă era. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. întâi. de fapt. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. Nici acum. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. izolate de sat. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. Toată lumea înţelesese că. timp de un ceas.

Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. În realitate. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. deşi cam târziu. la Odobeşti. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. amânase scrisul.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. stricau totul. Era bine de ştiut. acum sunt desluşiţi. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. aşa de oţetit. de pildă. la nişte prieteni comuni. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Pace nu era. Iată. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă.

Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. întâia noapte de război) 118 . (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. frate.

. 119 . of which. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.g. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). whose. subject relative clauses. etc.

Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.4. Key Concepts . The Co-reference Condition 6.2.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.1.6.5. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.7.3. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.

We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. The Co-reference Condition .1. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. 121 . (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.2.

By combining these two clauses. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. John loves that woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. 122 . like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.

This way. 123 . The common element woman is present. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. John offered flowers to that woman. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate.

The king was just passing by. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. too. 3. therefore in spoken English. She came to London. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. 9. 5. 7. He told Jim everything about his plans. The students like their teacher. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. WHICH 4. WHO 124 . I went to London. He liked that book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 8. This is my husband. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. I lost the book’s cover. WHERE 3. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. Susan wants to meet Jane. The students like their teacher.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. 6. 4. They met those students. I love my husband very much. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. Any of the students would answer to questions. by leaving behind a trace. frequently used in written language. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 2. I introduced him to Jim. I had a book. He’s the author who received the prize. WHO 5. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I bought Jim a book. John told his friend a story about the king. None of the students agreed with them. 10.

) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.Unit six Relative clauses 6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. WHICH 8. 2. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. (Cine strică plateşte. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. relative clauses are divided into 1. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. . i. TO 11. WHOSE 7.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man.e. WHOM 10. WHOM 6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. most of them were from England.

unlike in the case of (14). these relatives cannot function as attributes. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled.) So. (Cel care strică plăteşte. is no longer overtly expressed. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. Unlike their sisters. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. in a manner of speaking.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best.e. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. it is covert.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.

) (22) Mercury. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. (Mercur.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. 127 . (Du-te unde pofteşti. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. who is the god of commerce. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. They can be thus divided into: 1.) (Mercury. who incidentally is the god of commerce.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. este zeul meu favorit. is my favourite god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. They only provide supplementary information about it. they define it). care este zeul negoţului.

i. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 9. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. 2.This is the village where I spent my youth. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. I have met him where I least expected. was the one we all welcomed and admired. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). on whom nobody could depend. is a genius. She. Shakespeare.e. Independent I don’t know what you want. As we were saying. then it is an attribute.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 7. They are what 128 . this type of relative clauses. 8. On the day on which this occurred I was away. is a great playwright. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. restrictive relative clauses. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. who came to see me. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 10. 5. 6. who is a genius.

(Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. who died a few years ago. When the antecedent has no determiner. composed The (Freddie Mercury. etc. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. etc.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. 6. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. care a murit acum câţiva ani.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. .) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. however sad this may be. a.) 2.

(Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. care nu sunt o femeie. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. who neither work nor am anxious. îţi văd prea bine defectele. Mie.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). can see your shortcomings only too well. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. iritabilă şi uscată. 3. 5. Dintre toate personajele prezente.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. but a peevish. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. 4. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. dried-up old maid. ci o fată a woman. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Pratice Translate the following. ill-tempered. numai eu nu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 130 . căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. 7.) (28) They come to me. who am your son. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. (Ei apeleaza la mine. bătrînă morocănoasă. 6. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 2. (Eu. care-ţi sunt fiu. poftiţi în faţă.

) (35) The compositions of Cardan. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. were now in his possession.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony.Unit six Relative clauses 6. . (32) service finished late. părăsi camera. heard.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. erau acum în posesia lui.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. than whom few more can be more crashing.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.

5. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. 6.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. but it is typical of the formal.) d. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. The genitive form with which is still in use. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.) c.1.) b.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. literary style: (37) a. too.) b. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. as can be seen in (36d). (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina.

(Iris Murdoch. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .Unit six Relative clauses form of which. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.

This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) b.) b. ships (that can be personified) a. … Italy. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. He is not the man which he used to be. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (45) (46) . revoluţionarul care este în esenţă.) • states.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. but to a type or a function: a.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. of which. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. animals. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. by the way.

) b) dialectal (49) a. France.) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. why. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. time. while. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.2 Relative Adverbs: when. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. Poland is the place where Christine was born. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.5. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. etc. It is poor what gets the punches. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. pe care o privea direct. reason.) 6. (Nu ştiam ce vor. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. where.) 135 (47) . …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. how.Unit six Relative clauses b. etc. whom it concerned most closely. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.

(Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) 136 . A system where by a new discovery will arise. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. He went where he had been before. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.) e.They left when they decided it was proper to. They returned to the land whence they had come. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) b. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) c.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. This is the place wherefrom they came. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.3. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch. The place whither he goes is unknown.) 6. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.5. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.

the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. Moreover.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.

(Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. I’ll get you such things as you may want.) b.5. any.4. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. every. . Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. much. but they are used very infrequently: as. but • in standard language a.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. not any. Honest man as he was.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. 138 (64) his shoes.

să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. him as was in China … (Uncle George. And always on the buttered side. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. There’s not many as’ll say that. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. Uncle George. .) • in dialect a. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. ăl de fusese in China…) b. There is no man but feels pity for starving children.) c.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. It’s the dry weather does it.) c. This is the same one that/as you had before. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute.

) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.

which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. we all have to come to some terms. makes me a wart and a wen. b.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. fortifies me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. It seemed a thing 141 . (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.5.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. What Inman remembered was this passage. The man John spoke to is a genius. This is where we talk money. What I’m saying is. The man who John spoke to is a genius. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.) b.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 2. 5. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. The man that John spoke to is a genius. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. Where he was from.3): (72) a. That which shows God out of me. 7. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 3. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. 6.) c.” 4.

Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. 142 . she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. which is a lot. (…) Partly. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 8. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. Oh.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. who had not witnessed many dawns. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Whatever his fate was. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. he had left Ruby high and dry. though. of living. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. 10. 13. Ruby said. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 9. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 11. The rudeness of eating. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. 12. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag.

divortata.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. (Iris Murdoch. vasnic.al lui. nu prea sarac. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. cumnatul unui portughez. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. fiu natural al unui morar. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. Cumnatul meu avea. un var primar. una din nepoatele unui inginer. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. pirpiriu. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. plutonier. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. pe linie paterna. mort de tanar. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. poate. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. al carei strabunic. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer.

Teatru) 6. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. By extension. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. The opposite phenomenon. insurat de trei ori la rand. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. 144 . She was a woman. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a.2. I lost the cover of the book. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. c. This is the book. b. Everybody listened to that woman. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu.6. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .

) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. has been troubling them forever. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 5. 9. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. 4. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. no easy answers to which could be offered. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 6. acting again as a genuine pied piper. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . 7. he requested that the public be excluded. 8. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 3. In the interest of public decency.Unit six Relative clauses b. 2. The problem of safe transportation. The difference between (76) and (77). as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.

but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. 3. They do not function as attributes. 5. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. 146 . Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). whose interest he most sincerely shared.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. no matter which. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. 6. as the case is). for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.His father’s friends. 10. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. has been deleted. was now complete. Irene. Activity 9 were now all gone. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 2. This story. he rarely saw now. 4. His friends.

A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). Toate sfârşeau. 3. Nelu. Pentru alţii. De douazeci de ani. pentru dumneata bunăoară. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. 5. 7. 2. 4. himeric. 6. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . închipuirea.

Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. cu surle şi cu tobe. 10. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. nici în searbăda mea versiune. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. a făcut el. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. 12. 8. 9.

despre care. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. până mai adineauri. dinspre Maria Rosetti. 16. 17. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. 18. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. Dacă mă lovea. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. trăia larg de tot. din direcţia căreia apoi. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Avea acum un fel de vertij. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. apărură. 14. fie pe stradă. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. fie la teatru. 149 . nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. zise ea cu ochii mari. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. pe strada Icoanei. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. deşi atât de aproape. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. 20. roiuri de fetiţe. În spatele lor. toată lumea întreba cine e. de unde venea şi Marta. din care cauză pe Dora. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. 15. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. care era foarte “mondenă”.

vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. până în şosea. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. pe care eu nu-l aveam. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. Pentru mine însă. de mine. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. de sus de unde eram. pe care ea îi admira acum. când au urcat râpa iar. 23.Nadina VIŞAN 21. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. 22. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. aveau un stil al lor. 24. Pare-se că snobii. după ce maşina a fost reparată. întâia noapte de război) 150 . alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii.

Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 . by stating their syntactic function.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes.

1. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.4.3.2.1.2.4.2.2.1. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.3.2. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.1. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.Clause Shift 7.3.Topicalization 7.3.1.2.7.6.1. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.3. That Complements as Subjects 7.Extraposition 7.5.1. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.2. Key Concepts . That Complements as Direct Objects 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.3.2.5. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.3. That Deletion 7.2.

Apart from those introduced by that. but also of infinitival ones. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. In other words.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. 153 . 7. placed in a marginal position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. the clause is extraposed. (3) Tell me if you need anything. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.

Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.

It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 6. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 2. 9. It appears that no one voted for him. 2. 10. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 3. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 6. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 4. 14. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 13. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It was suggested that they should meet the President. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 15.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 7. It is no use trying to convince her. 8.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. They considered it very silly of her to 155 .It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 4. 8. It is nice to meet you. 9. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 3. 11. 5. 11. 10. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 7. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar.

It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. după porţi. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. în gropi.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. în canal. 5. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. 3.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. 6. zice Lionel. 18. atât 156 . 4. sub poduri. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. 3. 5. mă ascundeam în grabă. 2. 3. I don’t expect it that he will come back. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. They never expected it that he would come back.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. 4. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 2. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. unde se nimerea. I guess it that he will come back. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.

E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. vor căuta să o zdruncine. fără îndoială. (Nu întotdeauna. 7. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. excelentă. 6. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 157 . răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Mi s-a părut chiar că.” 4. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. 5. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. fără să cârteşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. cu ceea ce ţi se dă.

2. 1. Consequently.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 .1. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. Pratice Read the following.) While in the case of extraposition. this asymmetry is undone. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.Nadina VIŞAN 7. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. subject clauses are the frequent situation. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. in the case of topicalization. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.

The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. but not now. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. was inconceivable. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. He did not blame Gracie. 7. He was utterly gone. This was another era. 4. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 6. mere chance would decide. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. She had always been the slave of chance. 8.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. 5. he felt no spring of interest in her. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. even today. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. whether it would finally carry her off. 2. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 3. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke.

The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.3. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.) 160 .1.

Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. we obtain. 161 .Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. the verb to drive).e. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.

Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 2.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. 7. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 4. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 3. who had just returned from Africa. 8. prime-minister. who had just returned from Africa. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 5.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. 6. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 162 .Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.

(Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.Unit seven That complements 7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.

(Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. communicate.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) b. etc.2. prefer. He announced that they were engaged. etc.1. They believe the man is guilty. judge. They believe that the man is guilty. consider. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (Cred că omul este vinovat.) a.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. desire.) b.: (25) a. state. He announced their engagement. They promised him that he would received a new house.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. explain.Nadina VIŞAN 7. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. deem. deny.) 164 . (I-au promis o casă nouă. promise. predict. suggest. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. afirm. estimate.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
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(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
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(36)

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That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
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Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
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b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
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That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

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the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. ibid.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning.e. hope =>purpose.) language.) 172 . … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. they lose their meaning. In older stages of English. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. on condition that.) I like him in that he is smart. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. for example. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.

He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. That can be deleted. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. that we wouldn’t doubt it. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him.) b.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc.) b. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him.) (66) 173 a. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. . He gave such an answer as had expected. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. să o vadă trecând. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He gave an answer such. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) When the structure contains the word such.

He gave an answer such that I had expected. for better or worse.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.We discovered that our map has disappeared. (Iris Murdoch. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. ibid. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. they were chained to each other forever. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. (Iris Murdoch. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. ibid. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.) b.) 174 .

When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.1. (A prins de veste că ei vin. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. He showed he was able to do it. (69) a. He said he had borrowed her money. say. He got word they were coming. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. 175 .3.3 ‘That Deletion 7. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.) b.Unit seven That complements 7. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. that he uses a relaxed tone. tell). for instance.) c.

) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and.) b. 7.2. they were chained to each other forever.Nadina VIŞAN 7. ibid. for better or worse.3.3. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . rele. I like it that he was here. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. for better or worse. because that has been deleted. *I like it he was here.) (De asemenea. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. they were chained to each other forever. (Îmi place că e aici.3. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. bune. (Iris Murdoch.

7. you want me to believe. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. simultaneity. which is ungrammatical in English. spuse el. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. that they were not too late to leave.) b)He told me that she was there.) 177 . (“Este acolo”. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.4. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 7) They maintain. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. he said. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause.

“She was here”. o să vină el.) b. (“Era acolo”.) b. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. spuse el. The Present complement). (Pâna să plece.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. He said he would have arrived by the time she left.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. până pleacă ea.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. He told me that she had been there. vine el. (A spus că.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. he said. In the example below.) b. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.) Future Perfect -----. He said he would leave her. (A spus că o să o părăsească. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. I will leave her. (Am să o părăsesc. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .

think. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. say. realize it). With such factive verbs as realize. etc. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.) 179 . report. wish. insist. forget. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. mention. believe.etc. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. notice. hope. dream.) b. be aware. regret. whisper. discover.) On the other hand. be amazed/concerned. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. show.

) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. She realized that all men are fools. She believed that the earth is round. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. in tender deference to each other. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. feign habits which are not their own. Consider also: (85) a. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) b. He knew that she thought all men were fools.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. cu un respect tandru reciproc. (Iris Murdoch.) b.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. we notice that general truths. 180 . She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.

181 . Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. 3. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. such as a.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police.Unit seven That complements 2. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) b. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative.) In (88). Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. There are however cases.

for instance. c) John said that Harry is leaving. But 182 . f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. d) John said that Harry was leaving. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. The time is 3 o’clock. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. Imagine. John said that Harry will leave. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas.

which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. nighthawk. redtailed hawk. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. kingfisher. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Crows will relish what presents itself. b. lark. c.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. jaybird. bluebird. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. She admired their keenness of wit. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. geese both grey and white. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. slyness in a fight. love of practical jokes. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. lack of pridefulness. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. quail. Cooper’s hawk. Translate the following. 183 . h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. whistling swan. as evidenced by its drear plumage. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here.

Now here he stood jailed. […] During the latter stages of the tale. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. And they might just hang him. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. war hero though he was. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. He had fought hard through the war.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. He died erect. in the very act of expiring. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer. he claimed. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. But as the battle raged around them. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.

object ones up to the attributive function. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. from the very frequent subject. 185 .5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. or else. on other occasions it has to stay there. On certain occasions that can be deleted. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).Unit seven That complements 7. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. which they share with wh-complements. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. adjective or by a de-verbal noun.

ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. 2. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. Mama. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Unul din ei. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. cel mai mare. 4. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Fiind 186 . cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. peste puţin. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. 3. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti.

niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. venind de la avocat. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. va pleca din oraş la vie. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Se mira. 9. ea. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. 6. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. cel puţin pentru un timp. fericit. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. 7. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. 5. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. Nu ţi-a trecut. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. dacă va mai veni. un vis de acesta 187 . Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. 8. luminos şi apropiat şi când. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. aşa. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. care îl pândise. de ce constata în sine.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră.

aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. încă o dată. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. 11. 12. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. liniştit. Acesta. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. fireşte. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. şi mândria că a biruit. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. Astfel de va fi. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. dar şi teama că. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. lucrul era înfăptuit. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu.

fără o vorbă scrisă. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. 14. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . spre Jurubiţa. ci numai aşa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Pe toate. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. să le lămurească pe toate. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. mai puternic decât oricând. după cum.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .

8.3.2.4.Key Concepts .1.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.7.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.9.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.6.5.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.

(3) a. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). 193 . To love her is something really wonderful. From this perspective. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.1.) b. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. That you love her is something wonderful. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. Consider the following: • like that complements.) b. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). It is important that you should know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. (2) a. b. It is important for you to know what you need. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). I told her to be more careful in the future. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) • like that complements.

they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. participial clauses.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. the Gerund. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. 2. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. gerundial clauses. 194 . For instance. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative.) b.e. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. moduri nepersonale) By convention. etc. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. the Participle) (i. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. d. as opposed to the finite ones. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. the Conditional.

) 195 . it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) b. namely no ending. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte.) c. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features.

3. 5. the criterion of form. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 8. 10.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 7. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 2. 9.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. (7) They saw her leave. 8. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend.2. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. 4. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It is vital for our factory to be reopened.

according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. hear. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. 2. (10) 197 .) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front.

) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. However. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 198 (11) the universe. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. Pratice Translate the following. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. . the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. 3.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. uncharacteristic for literary English.

(13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. Further on. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. or the control constructions.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. as I have already mentioned. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. 199 . to use the appropriate technical term. In other words. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.

(A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat. PRO to forgive divine. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction.) b.) 200 . as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. (E important ca el să nu greşească. the logical subject. I hoped for him to be there in time. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. şi creştineşte să ierţi.) In this situation.) Object: (18) a. (E omeneşte să greşeşti.) b. PRO to err is human. So far. It is important for him not to err. namely the agent of the event.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.

) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . not to the infinitive. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. He stepped aside for her to enter. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. Semantically. him is related to the main clause verb. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but a PRO-TO one: 201 .) b. but the patient of the verb persuade.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. him is not the agent of the infinitive. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. In other words.

This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. Likewise. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ He persuaded her to come. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ I would love them to come. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. \ They convinced her to come back. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. I hate animals to be tortured. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ They tempted him to leave. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. \ I allowed them to come. \ She promised him to leave. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ She wanted him to leave. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. \ 202 .

So.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. 203 . \ They really asked her to come back. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. • Last but not least. \ They did not wish her to come back. But it is clear that he is a good linguist.) He seems to be a good linguist. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26). hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.

hate. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli.). / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. with special semantic and syntactic properties. seem. to meet her. that is not required by certain verbs. To sum up the discussion./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. which are said to be free. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. appear. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. etc. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. Pratice Translate the following sentences. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. 204 .

endeavour. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. scorn. / E greu să îl suporţi. want. deign. presume. arrange./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. intend.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. hate. manage. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. wish. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. try. 8.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. hope. omit. expect. like. refuse. aspire to. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. decline.) 205 friend. . propose. condescend. venture. etc. scheme. care to.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. deserve. agree to. etc. dislike. etc. bear.) b) verbs such as abide. need. seek (= try). Compare: (31) a. contrive.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. prefer. afford. fail.3 The Distribution of PRO .: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. desire. mean.

(Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. stand. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. threaten. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.) 8.etc. conclude.Nadina VIŞAN b. claim. however. bear. ask. suggest.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. endeavour. be important. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. verbs of liking and disliking. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. possible.) 206 . unlikely. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. etc.) b. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. forget.) b. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. desirable.) b. I hate that you should say a thing like this. I would like for him to become president of the country.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. For all of them to have been killed is.

Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. Predicative Clauses (39) a. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) 2. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 207 .5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) b. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) 8. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.

) 5.) b.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. . (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.Nadina VIŞAN 3. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Direct Objects (39) a. but the meaning remains. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. the preposition is deleted. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. I decided for John to represent us. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.) 208 knowledge.) 4. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Like in the case of that complements. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.) b.

You’re an idiot to go there. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty.) d. curious about. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) c) adverbial of result 209 . Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. He is a bastard to work for. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo.) e. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. This paint is like concrete to work with. The stew is delicious to eat. delicious. 6. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. etc. She is pretty to look at.: (42) a. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) b.) c. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.

/ Ehei. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. drept să spun. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Pe şleau.) Oh. you’re a bad driver. conduci prost. final or introductory infinitive In this case. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. to tell you the truth. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 .) I’ve never met him. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. să nu piardă trenul. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei.

oblige. swear.: (51) a. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. promise.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba.) b. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. nu mai vreau să te vad. press. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. enable. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. According to this. influence.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. inform. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. encourage. etc. induce. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica.etc. direct. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. b. 8. urge.) . need. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. (49) a. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. inspire. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.

) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. permit. etc.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. depend on. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului./ And now he 212 .) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. order. name. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. count on. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. command. elect.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. / I do not intend to tell him that myself.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. allow. etc.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. choose.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. nominate. vote.etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. prevail on. look to.

be about to.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. etc. seem.: (55) She appears to like him.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. be going to. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (O să întârzii/ leşin.etc. An Accidental Man) 8. this construction is lexically governed. come.verbs: appear. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. i.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Se pare că îi place de el. etc. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (Iris Murdoch.e. grow. happen. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). 213 (58) (59) . (57) He is to come any day now.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.

(Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. hear.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. In (57). hence there is no control situation whatsoever. .: (62) They heard him insult her. be claimed.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. overhear. etc. feel.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. be alleged. observe. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. (L-au auzit insultând-o. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul. perceive. be considered.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. that of intention. watch. be rumoured. etc.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see.etc. be thought.) 8.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. be reported. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).

there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. judge. prove. etc. picture. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. figure. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. However.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. discover. believe.) • with a full infinitive: get. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. presume. deem. consider. find. remember. cause. know. have.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. understand.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one.) 215 (67) . imagine. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. occasion. recollect.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. (Cred că este un geniu. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.

want.etc. permit. etc. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. who wasn’t used to men with moods. command.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. if he himself was out of spirits.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. they had depressed and fuddled him.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. choose. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. love. wish.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. prefer. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. suffer. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. mean.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. desire. expect. order. Harold.

b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. He suspected hostility at once. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. Both seemed to him a little unreal. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. (L. so that we might get to the future and have done. though he tended to look down on those below it. he didn’t envy those above it. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . to make sure we attended strictly to business. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. A little crossly.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.P. the herd instinct was very strong in him.

we can speak about bare and full infinitives. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. The last criterion. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. From this perspective. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. 218 . Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.Nadina VIŞAN 8.

ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. E posibil. e important ce întrebări pui. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. într-o zi. bunăoară. Şi tu să fii. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. dar să nu-ţi spună. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. e) Când doi oameni. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. mai bine219 . fireşte. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. să-l capete. lovit şi umilit. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. de bună seamă. de asemenea. un bărbat şi o femeie. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure.

Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. să nu vrea să se şteargă. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. ca să nu şi-o amintească. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. să traiesc numai cu tusea.Nadina VIŞAN zis. mai pline de înţeles. în ploaie. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. . care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. sau. pe care deja o uitase. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. încă. (B.Delavrancea. Însă Paul Achim trăise. aşa cum îi apăruse el. în parte. că eşti tânăr. un picior. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. în parte. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. în jos. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B.Şt. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. De era vară. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. 220 . d-a lungul gâtului.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Să spui de pildă.Şt. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. mai bine de două decenii. avusese dreptate. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte.

ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. şi nu un amant. o mizerie. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. şi prin faţă. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. biata Muti. un miros îngrozitor. au bătut la tot felul de uşi. Mă laud singură. nici ca să 221 . fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor).. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. prin faţă e coborârea. (Al.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. sunt aici cu tot ce am. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. orice-ar fi.. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. orice bucureştean ştie. deşi. Într-un cuvânt.. de fapt. ei.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. fie ea şi grăbită. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă.

niciodată ea nu i le pune. parcă la întâmplare. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. în realitate. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.

4.5 Key Concepts .1.1.The Verbal Noun 9.3.2.3.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Participial Constructions 9.2.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.9.2.1.1.The Gerund 9.2.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2.

Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Due to this situation.1. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. (Susan doarme. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.) 225 .1. Let us start with the Participle: 9. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.1. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.

This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.) More infrequently. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. been and killed are past participle forms. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. too: (6) Her eye-lids. Susan has been killed. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). i. it functions attributively. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss.e. (A venit Susan) b. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. 226 .) As you can see in this second case. blood-shot and painted.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. Susan has come. the past participle can appear after a noun. In (2) the forms come. were closing.

she ran away.) c. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) c. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. he will eventually marry her. Knowing who the guy was.) d. If provoked. ea o luă la fugă.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. Arriving here. When singing.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. a lion can attack. începură să cânte. (Ştiind cine era el. I will arrive there on time. they started singing.) 227 . people should pay attention to high notes. I will arrive there on time. leul poate să atace. Weather permitting. God willing. Oh.) b. (Sosind aici. mother permitting. o să ajung la timp.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a.) b. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.

I found him stealing. He was found stealing.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. respectively. (L-am descoperit furând. (L-au descoperit că fură. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. smell. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. He was found killed by a bullet. hear.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. notice. (Am simţit-o tremurând. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) 228 .) b.) ii.) b. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. which stands for an adverbial clause. watch. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. behold. They found him killed by a bullet.

(Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. she knew herself dismissed. know.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. make a.) c. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. (A fost văzut plângând.) • Causative verbs: get.) b. feel. hear.) b.: a. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. have.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund.) b. confess. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I must get my hair cut.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. etc. recollect. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. etc. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. leave. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. set. etc.) • Causative verbs: get . He’ll soon get things going. have. recollect.: When she heard his words. find. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. send. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 .) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. start. keep. I heard it said that men are a bore. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. etc. a.) • mental perception verbs: remember. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.

(I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. Men like shopping made easy.) • verbs of permission. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. command I ordered my bill made out. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu după multă vreme./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 .) b. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. lovit şi plin de sânge. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.

/ She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. Unlike the gerund. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. with its lips drawn back. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. you gave instructions to have your wife watched.1.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her.e. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / My Lord.2. 231 . heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. / Dinny. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / In any case. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.

or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. The tree had fallen across the road. 3. 5. am plecat. using either a present participle.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 4. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 7. (Văzând acestea. I was astonished at what I saw. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I left.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. se va opri şi ploaia. I knew that the murderer was still at large. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. am plecat. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. the rain will stop. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. (Desi nu ştia limba. People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I turned on the light.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. I left. I have looked through the fashion magazine. 2. It had been uprooted by the gale. 6. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. She had heard it all before.

2.Running into the room. 10. drunken. fishy. Passing under a ladder.shoulder. red (twice). coloured. eyed (3 times). narrow. 12. covered. Reading in bed. 6. I slammed the door of my room. He sat down to his own dinner. straight. roast. He fed the dog. open. Mother punished me for my mistake. stricken. 3. minded (3 times). lion. 7. handed. Dropped by parachute. Barking furiously. shaven. They began quarreling about how to divide it. 8. 8. hearted (twice). b) Headed (5 times). mown. 233 . 10. 9. lighted. cornered. 4. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. Read the sentences and try to correct them. my hands often get very cold. I let the dog out of the room. They found the treasure. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. the sea was tossing the post up and down. his horse fell at the last jump. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. stony. haired (twice). cloth.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. a scorpion bit him. Tied to the post. 11. Leaving the cinema. one of the eggs broke. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. eagle. three. wooden. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. bald. an idea suddenly occurred to me. broad. quick. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. sharp. empty. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 9. dark. many. a pot of paint fell on my head. skinned. Climbing down the tree. 5. Riding in the first race. Getting out of bed. open. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Sitting in the dentist’s chair.

wealth. lamb. (find) 6. The escaped prisoner. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. _______ my arm. man._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.I fell on the ice. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. (take) 2. _______ for their elegance and precision. head. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. shrunken.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. was today taken back to prison. were taken to hospital.Spielberg. shorn. duty. 7. The film. In the following pairs of sentences. / Three people. lead. I stared at the canvas for ages. (injure). meaning.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. rotten. (produce) 3. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. eyes. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. meat. b) grass. are in grave danger of extinction. stream. _______ for a bargain. ill-gotten. _______ by S. / Swiss watches. Whales. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. are sold throughout the world. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. (hunt). _______ for their valuable oil and meat. plank. hidden. image. ________ hiding in a barn. bounden. candle. Translate into English: 1. the same verb is missing twice. deer. (grow) 4. is expected to be a great hit. (admire) 5. / Many old people ./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. graven.

3. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. deodată sufocat. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. păsări tăiate. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. ca şi cum. şi moi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. le cocea. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. precum şi foile de plăcintă. nesigur şi moale. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. 2. O umbreluţă. 4. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. După câtva timp. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. le fierbea. Şi. când deschisă. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. când strânsă. Şi sufletul său. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. trezit. care le rânduia. întinse. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. legume date prin mai multe ape. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi.

(Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund.2. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. (Dacă vezi. 236 . If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. According to this criterion. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. crezi. Likewise.Nadina VIŞAN 9.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. The Gerund 9.1. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.2.

2. His winning and your losing were both surprising. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. In that. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.) b. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.2. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features.) 9. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Him winning and you losing was surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising. Consider the following table. gerunds differ from participles. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.) b. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.

) Unlike participles. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. It was illegal to grow a beard. as being verbal 238 . Consider (32). (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. *It was illegal growing a beard. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles.) b.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1.) 2. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.

Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) 3.2. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea.3. It’s no good talking to her. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. Just like in the case of noun phrases. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. Participles vs. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) b. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.) b.) 9. as offered in the table below: 239 . (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.

2. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . (prepositional object clause) 5. passive ones She was crying. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. perfect. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. 3. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. babies suck their thumb. + noun] 1. (adverbial of time) 4. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. forms: continuous .Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb.

/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition.

pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 242 . 12. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. crying game / crying woman. eating habits/ eating people. 2. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. 5. shooting gallery / shooting star. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 4. 13. 7. Gambling is his favourite pastime. swimming duck / swimming trunks. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 9. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 8. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 10. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 3. 14. 6. 11. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 12. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. He was spotted talking to her. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. 15.

e.Unit nine Ing complements 9. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. a The absence of an of phrase. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . which can be identified by: The presence of the (i. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.3. but the presence of a direct object (i.) The absence of a determiner like the. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar.

In the second situation. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. Thus. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. These are features that normally characterize any noun. George’s shooting the attacker. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs.

/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. Jim left quietly. very large. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ His sudden coming puzzled her. 245 . / His coming there puzzled her. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.

However. the meaning is different. Look. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. For instance. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.Nadina VIŞAN 9. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. whenever we meet an –ing form. for example. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. It has been noticed that.4. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). With the infinitive.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . ING Forms and Infinitives. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street.

) . (S-a oprit din mâncat.g. having left) is infrequently used in English. anterior to the verb in the main clause.) The first example. and the most well-known one. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. future-oriented value of the infinitive). we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. containing an infinitive. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.) After looking at this example.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. the infinitive is future-oriented. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. On the other hand. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.

) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning.) . (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. i. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. recollect. which means that they are similar in meaning. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.e. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) As you can see.e. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning.

) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. In the second example.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. the petrol tank is not filled yet. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. the action is not completed.) . the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. dar asta este. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. but that’s it. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină.

human] objects.) wedding. (Casa trebuie reparată. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.) b. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. mean has the sense signify.) 250 . The house needs to be repaired. e) need.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) With [. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. the event has not happened yet. In the second example. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Casa trebuie reparată. The house needs repairing. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. want With [+ human] objects.

What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ ‘Tell me. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. however appearances were against us.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. (take) down her answer. my Lord. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘In any case. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. it’s overrated. gerund or infinitive. Croom (try) (follow) one. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . my Lord.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. but they went by too quickly. whereas in the second case. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. Lady Corven. I did ask Mr. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.

’ said Clare. Then.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ said Clare. he addressed the note. and went out (post) it himself. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ 252 .’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. I spend all my time (hunt) a job.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. I just used the word and they fell. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I must go back now. licked the envelope with passion.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. suddenly. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.

Participles mainly function as adverbials.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Last but not least. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. the 253 . although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal.5. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Pratice In the following texts. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.

then the noise and the cracking stone. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. The two sides were moving apart. their edges crashing inwards. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. down into God knows where. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. Then he saw movement at his feet. hoping he would see somebody up there. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. the enormous split in the earth. it 254 . down. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. someone looking for survivors. It was like a mist.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. covering the girl’s head. She started coughing. He looked up towards the daylight. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. The sight of the two children. but then he saw it billowing up from below. At first. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. slowly rising in a swirling motion. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. moving up towards his chest. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. according to the books he read. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole.

slanted on to her cheek. brightening to winter brilliance. and sunlight. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. She finished what jobs there were. looking idly out over the Temple lawn.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. my dear. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. Having a French governess. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. 255 . (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. for Dornford was busy on an important case. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. într-o joi. închizând ochii. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. and then went riding with her in the rain.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. Ridicându-se. ucenicul său necredincios. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. 2. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. cei doi Mamona. În urma slugii. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. totul se animă deodată. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. mama mea. Vaucher şi cu mine.

3. privit. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . aşezată cu spatele la noi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. am ştiut şi cine. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. Şi deodată. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. pe mama mea părând absentă. auzit şi zadarnic. Neclintiţi. aplecându-se puţin. la mine. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. dar ştiutoare. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. totul mi se părea cunoscut. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. pe Vaucher. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. o sărută pe frunte. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. după cum îi spusese mama. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. se duse lânga mama şi. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. afară ploua în continuare. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia.

Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu masa lungă de scândură. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. cu tot cu baraca. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. 5. şi cu stiva de lemne. şi. şi cu soba. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. dar. camionul a plecat. Au coborât din camion încet. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale.

Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. 259 .

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

11. Having regard to the date of drafting. 3. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. How much. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. 5. 10. and meet it right here at home. this would really hurt. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. he had been advised. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. and that 263 . for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. 12. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 7. How this time was to come. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 4. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. and this particularly of late. since I have decided. in some way. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. he had not yet been able to estimate. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. I am sorry not to have seen you. whereas if she went away she would get none. because of pity. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. You have been much in my thoughts. 9. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 2. apart from his distress for parents. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 13. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. to retire early from my employment. 6. without profound questioning. was unclear to Mitzi.

/ You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. he did not come to see her. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. looking forward had not yet taken place. even for months. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. / Whenever I visited my aunt. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. 264 . one of the eggs broke. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / In the end. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 17. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. / Before you go on changing the subject. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. please consider his proposition. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 19. this always makes us feel embarrassed. 14. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. I was made say Grace before every dinner. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. for attending his sister’s wedding. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins.

quite unexpectedly. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Essentially. Clarissa used to think. an open-air person.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. 265 . They hated trying on. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Vulgar men did. rather than the hefty type. Tony was a child. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . a little girl. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. of all people. She felt as when. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. her old friend Hugh. cotton mills at Manchester. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. They rushed into shops. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. of the quick and wiry. it was said. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. (and there he was. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. centered in London and themselves. Though much in request before her marriage. to end in some awful tragedy. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. without discovery. and it was bound. At country houses she had met them of course. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. she said. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. Instead of which she had married. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. her recklessness.

de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. she professed. De uitat. Bolnava nu se simtea.Over the River) 2. astfel. Cind l-a chemat. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. viguros si vesel in felul lui. she was uneasy. Reading many novels. nu a facut-o pentru asta. The closer she allowed him to come to her. nu puteam sa le uit. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. era un bun sfatuitor. to keep abreast of the current. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. cre s-au nascut lent. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme.Rindurile dvs. si in plus. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. aveam tot mai 266 . the more she would be torturing him. (John Galsworthy . short of the contacts of love. ii faceau bine. with all its impatience of restraint. indeed. but lying in her bath. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul.

poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. are nevoie. nu pricep nimic. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. Ce a iesit. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. latimea si ascutisul labei. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici.) 5. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. o data sau de doua ori. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. Personal. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. Milionarule. Banulescu – ibid. (St.) 7. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. vaazut cindva. printr-o asistenta activa din afara.) 6. Banulescu – ibid. 4. lungimea picioarelor. (St. (St. (St.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. mi-am zis. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. Banulescu – ibid. poate fi compensata. Daca tu. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul.) 267 . pe scaunul lui tare. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. se stie. ca si tine. cit mai au de trait. fa-o. Banulescu – ibid.

Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who when asked about his memories of the War. a wounded soldier. when I was even younger than you. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Could he be blamed.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. (. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. Who came home from the war. Translate them. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. delivered from the holocaust. my grandfather. Ernest Richard Atkinson.. 2.P. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Who was may father. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Arthur Atkinson M.. to Emmanuel College. Who told me. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. Cambridge. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. for being a renegade. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. A story-book romance. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who.

How 269 . mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. a moody man. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. deep-set.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. Rachel Williams. Fabianism. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. 4. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. to whom. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. he had already engaged himself? 3. and because – but this is mere speculation. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest.

How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. la şcoală. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. om mare. Cum a trăit el. Cum au tăcut ei. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Ion. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. cu taina aceasta. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum a ajuns el. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. 270 . nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. satul. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Ion. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată.

când voi fi singur. 271 . greşeli dintr-astea. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. împotriva tuturor. L-au derivat cei din teatru. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. de mama lor. cu sau fără voie. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. din franţuzeşte. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6.pune totul in discuţie. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Când actriţa. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. singurul lui stăpân. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe.

nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. Am început. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. privindu-mă în ochi. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. 6. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. 272 . şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. nevasta-mea. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. dam buzna peste automobile. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Tot aşa. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. continuând. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. fostă prietenă din copilărie. 4. e îndrăgostită de un actor. sau ridicole. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. de pildă. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. 5. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. ci un sistem de acomodare. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. Într-o vreme. A devenit palid. pe jumătate prezent. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. parcă începusem s-o uit. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. 3. traversând. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. uneori şi astăzi chiar. tânăr şi frumos şi el. provocându-le. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe.

I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. 9. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. Dacă nemţii înaintau. şi dacă merg întins. Am început. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. E o problemă. şi să nu ameţesc. iar. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. că nu m-am gândit la asta. să merg întins. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. De altminteri. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. ca un acrobat. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. 8. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. Aş vrea să mă las jos. 11. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. fireşte. orice s-ar întâmpla. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două.

13. 17. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Acum isi ferea privirea. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . dar nu-i spuse si de ce. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. trebuia sa le spuna. de la proces. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. la fata locului. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Greu era din partea asta. Adica tot trecutul. Ilie nu-l asculta..Ma. nu mai pricepu nimic. se uita in jos. la carti. de la lucruri personale. Auzindu-l. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. cu mirare.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Uite. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git.. de uimire. parca i-ar fi fost frica. In curind. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. 14. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. 15. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. de la obiecte de pret. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. 16. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. eu am venit sa va intreb. nu mai semana. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Ii venea greu. dar nu se mai putea. La un moment dat. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. la amintiri. 274 . Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel.

bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. apoi se uitau la Ilie. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». fara sa-si dea seama de ce. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. There was even 275 . « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ».Unit ten Revision exercises 18. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Nu era nevoie. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija.Ce sa fac. asa cum facuse pina acum. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. se indeparta nepasator. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. . cum zicea Anghel. vorbe asa si-asa. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. dar. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. 20. Aici era ceva. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. Zimbea siret. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. which was part of his rich outfit. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. 19.

the young lady.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2.Miller at her hotel. on this occasion. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. a simplification. to admit that she was a proud. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. going astray. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. 5. resuming her walk. gave an exclamation. rude woman. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. 3. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. He felt then. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. She was one 276 . to move fast. 4. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. He walked a long time. at least. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. for the instant. conversationally. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. But Daisy. to take his way home on foot. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. asked for Mrs. paying no attention.Nadina VIŞAN relief. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions.

so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. She appeared. and wondering what the deuce he meant. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. on the other hand. as it were. 8. Her daughter. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. of studying European society. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. indeed. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. in their own phrase. as text book. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. smiling and chattering. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. uncomfortably. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. making Paul stop and look at her.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. 6. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to.Walker. He left me musing. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. She rustled forward. often. in radiant loveliness. as to projected changes. while residing abroad. 7. make a point. Advising with me.

by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. H. 9. could see he was remarkable. which was deliberate. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. though E. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. or at any rate not heeding. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. The agent became a very familiar type to H. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. H. while Paul. with his humorous density. and acute too. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. was immensely struck with him. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. and perceived that it must be something important. not seeing.’ 278 . whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. H. and. wondered what they were talking about. 11. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. was only half satisfied with this. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. 10.

She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. that the haunting wonder which now. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. H. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. which was very copious. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. not glancing at him for a moment. had the power to chain his sympathy. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. appeared to fill his whole childhood. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. as he looked back. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. 15. 13. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . 14. But she gave him no chance.

had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. 17. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. At the theatre. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. that she must be on the contrary. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. 18. disheveled and distracted. yet 280 . ironically reserved. proudly. and to H. The whole establishment. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. It was very possible she was capricious. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. dragging herself on her knees. 16. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. as a general thing. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. and there were others. where the Pearl of Paraguay.

(Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. 20. 2. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. young men were invited. 19. had blown a certain chill. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. and lurking within this nebulous design. H. *Old. Their mistakes and illusions. on which the damp breath of the streets. didn’t mind.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. It came over H. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. 3. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. with the poor. No one ever listens to her. would always be more or less irritating. 281 .

They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. slipped on some steps.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 12. 8. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. “Oh. 11. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. 10. 9. 7. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. Either John or he * have got to give in. I walked fast. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 282 . I saw her as a vision. her shining blue feet twinkling. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I was definitely going to be sick. Rachel. her arms held out. 6. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. c) When I saw her sitting there. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. walking quickly. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 5. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. striding like a Spartan maid. I blundered by.

The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6.

5. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 4. 3. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. which was really alarming. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. where my servant. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. but that we saw and pitied. And then I ventured to add that. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . 2. The old women spoke no English. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. could cook my meals. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. if they were poor.

had not been able to estimate. this. this would really hurt. Constituents: He.g. etc. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious. distress. on Saturday. was anxious = was + anxious. Constituents: how much. etc. Constituents: Margaret. etc. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. on a house. 285 . that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. apart from his distress for parents. How much. to settle. at noon.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. would really hurt. apart form his distress for parents. was informed. his. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. before they left town. Munt. to pay their annual visit.apart from his distress = apart from.g. he. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. he had not yet been able to estimate.

– non-assertive. The sentence is however 286 .semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.. – comparison. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. which is not assertive. which context is non-assertive. negative. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. negative/ Come with me. – first clause is non-assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.. interrogative./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. listen to this. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). – first clause is an ifclause. second clause is non-assertive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.. it is assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. – assertive/ Don’t do that. interrogative. and is non-assertive. / If you like her. don’t bother her. – non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . interrogative./ She finally admitted.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. Second clause is an imperative. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.

/ I can hardly understand what they are saying. – I like somebody else. but it wasn’t them. – someone hates animals. but nothing out of the ordinary. not even this thing.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / They didn’t leave. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night./ He was exceptionally cunning. but it isn’t Susan. he was hardly pleased. / She does not hate animals. / She does like John. / You have never met 287 ./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ They weren’t really confused. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. – someone did that. –double negation cancellation. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall.but to someone else./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. the two brothers dared to protest. but not more than she does others. / I don’t like her very much. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. everybody used to travel by coach./ Hardly interested in the conference./ He was smart enough./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ Not long ago. – they told the truth to somebody else./ When he learned the news. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. only irresolute. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty. not even when it’s quiet around. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem.

negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. did they? / No problems were caused after all... – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye..negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. – negative insertion. – I cannot look him in the eye. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem..Nadina VIŞAN her.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / This is hardly the 288 .negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. not even when you were very young. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.. Jim felt rather at a loss for words.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody..negative incorporation / None of them liked house music... did they? / A few of them stayed behind. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. they go skiing in the mountains..negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. were they? / This boy is no good. not even in my dreams. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Should they not have told her the truth.

/ A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way.. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / Hardly anybody liked him. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / Few people came to see her. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. Activity 8 I shall never. never trust a man again. – I don’t often look at her like that. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – I almost never look at those paintings./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. but she also lent him a car. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Not many people came to see her.. when we started our holiday. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. – I never see her. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. – Almost nobody liked him../ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.Never shall I trust a man again. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / I seldom look at her like that. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain.

/ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. – 290 . / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / Come on. – On no account must you touch this machinery. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over.. – Come on. – I don’t expect he will come here again. – They say he never had anyone very close. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. –At no time did we leave the office. / She could rely on nobody but him. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.I don’t like his proposal at all. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – Nowhere could the keys be found. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares./ I expect he won’t come here again./ Well. – They don’t believe she likes them. it will stop hurting before tomorrow./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / They believe she does not like them. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / Don’t worry. / They say he once had someone very close. you can still do something about it. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. you can’t do anything about it any more./ I somewhat like his proposal. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. – Only on this man could she rely. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself.

/ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did./ Bob is still living at that address. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / She hardly ever comes here. / You must be telling lies./ I nearly always have to clean it myself.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. –Alice still lives here. – You should send her something./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. either. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I can understand all of these ten English words. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – She almost always comes here.. / You needn’t send her anything./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / You must pay that fine. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / Well. too. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – You can’t be telling lies. 291 . – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.

/ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. give me a hand. / Jim is so brave. Oh./ Norocul la noroc trage./ You look so tired today. not yet. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. has never studied anywhere. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing. to any of us./ 292 . He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. It’s no wonder. e un magar./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ Am avut un car de necazuri. I haven’t done anything./ Nu spune nu niciodata. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. / Don’t go on believing him./ You took his leaving you very hard./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ E un baiat de zahar.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ N-are nici cap nici coada.D. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. He isn’t that smart. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. I haven’t seen her in years./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ They say this Ph. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is./ Nimic de facut./ He’s a happy man./ Nobody told us a thing. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. He didn’t move a muscle./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici. / Please. ever since I got this ulcer./ Zis si facut./ I don’t know a thing about her./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ He was a tough man./ Have they rung the bell? No. / He can’t have done a thing like that. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death.

/ You have to take care that nothing bad will happen.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . without too much determination. feebly. thrown out. no memory. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. I hadn’t really expected miracles. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. 293 . slowly. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.’/ Deloc descurajat. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. one way or another./ Nu-i nici un deranj. that I was a decent man.’ ‘Nici o problema. no story. I had never had the opportunity to prove./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. for I thought this threatening.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. parasi camera. We had nothing in common. nothing.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. with the same needs they had.

Unfortunately. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. Radu had calmed down. clear or confusing. We have to judge it as it is. It’s not made up of theories and the like.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. to say the least. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. You really made me mad. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. but facts. good. not as we would like it to be or some other way. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. Your judgement is false.. • It was my turn to say something. I was sleepy and tired. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. Not for a moment had I thought that. let alone irritable. bad. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. or if you understood what I meant. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. I admit. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. your story. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. it’s not words. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. that’s what the world is about. by coming here to the monastery. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. the only 294 . but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. I’d be so happy if it were so. on the front seat. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. he immediately answered me patronizingly. things you do any moment. he was sitting beside me. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase.

who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. it’s your problem. But what about you and Melania. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. it’s yours. or you are lying hidden. and an inability to act. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. either. clears your way. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. it solves troubles. too? A gun is power. we are leaving. to fight. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. did you ever step up front. soon we’ll be in town. I won’t interfere. you can go to Ursu’s. or call the respect of others. me. Anyway. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. Look. 295 . behind these big. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. and if you like. precious words. me. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. • So. no matter how huge they are. keep your conscience clean: you have one. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. just to please myself. as Baciu would have us be. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. keep it squeaky clean. you do as you think fit. although it was a difficult thing to do. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. fear might be hiding. But I was just wondering.

– incorrect. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. but they gradually got used to it. as soon as he delivered it. But it was not because I had no answer to give. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi.Negative incorporation 296 . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.incorrect. -correct 3. because before is a positive polarity item 2. has not arrived yet – double negation. the sentence is incorrect 3.. The villagers were not very religious.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. has yet arrived -correct 2.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. firmly determined not to answer immediately. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. will he?. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. .Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. . he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days .Negative attraction b) 1. correlatives are mixed 2.correct 3..Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. or some other woman. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi.

Her stillness. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. (ibid. (ibid. too troubled. much less ((NPI) for her. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Avea sufletul prea obosit. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. nu era 297 .Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. yet. not happy at all (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. prea răscolit. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. Ştia că are dreptate. b) But it was rather (API) late. either (NPI). One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. she couldn’t marry him. Nu putea să se mişte. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei.) Însă era cam târziu. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). her lack of motion would have to do (API).

(ibid. Ba dimpotrivă. his heart was beating fast. e) At length.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. inima îi batea năvalnic. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (Salman Rushdie. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). and not a little unsteadily. if anything (NPI). and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. she looked younger than ever (NPI). which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. şi destul de hotărât. The Satanic Verses. (ibid. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. he made his way to the screen. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. se îndreptă spre paravan.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. 298 .

reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. i) What did C. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. the gift was useless. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). The point was. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. 299 . Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Home receded from the prodigal son. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make.) C. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. h) C. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. (ibid. Ce-i pasă lui C. care if the school were willing to treat him. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. and probably an administrative headache as well. but his father would have none of it (NPI).

correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. 300 . as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. . correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.indirect question. – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
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Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
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What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
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another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
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happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
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happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

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Fenia. the bitch. now she was chatty. to make them lust after her. keep Condrat away from her. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. “Now. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. yes. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. she didn’t wear a ring. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. She has an eye for gentle men. Fenia. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. 2. all godfearing husbands and fathers. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. they were. do you really think that this vixen. Stavre Paici. Chizlinski. you are in enough trouble as it is. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. and then what do you 308 . Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Luca Horobet. Vica. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. she likes to entrance them. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village.

what’s her name. ankle-long flowered calico. with a railway station and a mosque. 4. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. It even takes him a while to go to the window. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. a seventy-eight year old lad. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. her hair pinned with blue combs. 3. dragging his feet listlessly. The mullah. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. G. have a girlfriend. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 .Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. the minister of Tartars and Turks.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. He got him out of his mosque. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha.

tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic.

due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. John is ready and Mary is ready.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced.. and I passed. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will..COORDINATION Activity 2 1. John and Mary are ready. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. – sentence coordination 2. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. – sentence coordination 7.phrasal coordination (in this case. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. Her pet kitten is black and white. John and Mary are the newly married couple. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.) 9. – similar situation 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . our respective examinations. Our flag is red. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . yellow and blue.

Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Activity 4 1. much satisfaction or little 312 . A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. that method and those.) Joan plays many games. Activity 5 This book and the other. 2.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. your work and mine. 7. her idea and John’s. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 5. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. many guest or few. plays football. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. We can and will demand payment. 10. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. 6. 8. but not John. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 9. your proposal and his. her son and others. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 3. but John does not play football. and even tennis.

magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. 4. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. To and fro 15. He read. 7. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Few and far between 14. Thick and thin 11.) 6. 3. 5. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. 8. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. High and low 2. Pros and cons 4. etc. Life and soul 5. Safe and sound 313 . but not simple. (I have always fought for progress and always will. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. magazines are only for children. Ups and downs 6. The facts and figures 3. Bread and butter 16. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Swings and roundabouts 7. He snapped at him and slapped him.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. I have always fought and will fight for progress. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Wear and tear 12. Activity 8 1. Spick and span 9. Over and above 13. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Law and order 8. Touch and go 10.

The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Asymmetric 20. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 8. Symmetric 21. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 6. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 7. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. – symmetric. inclusive 16. 2. 8. Asymmetric 19. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 2. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – similar situation 9. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. My son and daughter are twins. exclusive 17. 6. 7. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 4. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire.symmetric 11. – symmetric. – symmetric. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 4. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. 3. Cathy and David have arrived. Symmetric 13. 5. 9. – asymmetric 18. 10. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire.. 5. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. 9. My son and heir is safe.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 3. exclusive 15. 1. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. – symmetric 10. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12.There is a table and some chairs in the room. – symmetric 2. Not John but his two sons are to blame. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 10. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 314 . b.

for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. 4. 8. 9. Jim thought it over for a while. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. 15. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. He went to bed. 14. 2. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. 6. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 12. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 2. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. Not only should you rest 315 . There are doctors and doctors. clothes and all. for better or worse.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. No drinking and driving. 10. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. By hook or by crook. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 5. nor fowl. thanks for asking. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. I’ll still finish this paper. 7. 3. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. (2) 1. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. Brother or no brother. He’s neither fish. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. We’ll stick together. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. They came to me. ‘Madam. 3. Should he pour water in the basin. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. it was too small. Her husband is long dead and buried.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 11. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions.

And. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. just like when he was thirty. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. an important man. Her first husband had been a professor. 2. but she blinks in approval. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. but he’d come out a cripple. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. she started doing a great job. This. he starts lecturing her about life and things. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. their common ground. Mrs. what’s its name. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. without mentioning financial matters. You know. From time to time she will launch a helping question. stop dead in his tracks. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. What do you know? The moment Mrs. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. as she always does. and she listens to him. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. so he could leap in pursuit. 316 . Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. he’d leap high. so he’d gone down and died in no time. Whatever she tried her hand at. she knows for sure. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. and then. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. They hadn’t kept him there too long.Nadina VIŞAN assured. tense with concentration. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. So she’ll listen to him. at equal intervals. it would work out fine. tense like a bow. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere.’ (3) 1. both dead and buried. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison.

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. – obligatory elements: she. – obligatory elements: I.subordinate.subordinate. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. functioning as an adjunct 2. – Susan. told. at me Activity 2: 1. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . functioning as a modifier 3. about her problems at home After I told her the story.subordinate.subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . – she. – she. cannot tell. looked. you. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . – she. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. whomever wanted to listen. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . functioning as an object (direct).subordinate. came. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. is aware. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. she looked at me sadly.

functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that you are choosing exile .subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.complement b) 1. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 .subordinate.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5.Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that we should. remove our home yet again .subordinate. at our age.

coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. outbuildings. direct object b) to dry it – complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. a house. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . a barn.complement. but no idea – relative that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement.

staring at each other. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. sickle in hand. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . Activity 5 1. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object. When Anton put the sickle down. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me .wh complement. (…) ‘Well. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. direct object/ to sit there – complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. that kept her constantly tense and grim. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. But other people. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly.A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. without straightening her back. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement.

although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. but also his sharp nose. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. that was for sure. you need courage even for this small thing. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. Why! He was not of two minds.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. For no bold man really falters. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Only he had Ana to think of. while they spoke from miles away. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. Not even at this point. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. 3. but he doesn’t spurn either. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. which he doesn’t rely on completely. he will turn back and no longer be daring. First. or other more hidden means. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. rather than a real threat. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Ana could not stand a trip now. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. 321 . 2. or if he does. as if they were at his beck and call. while on other occasions he would show caution.

The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. they would ruin the arrangement. and when things didn’t go as planned. and on Monday followed another feast). without really knowing why. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. he had postponed writing back. by the cars of some of us. But it was not ok. And here’s how this first day looked. We were going to drive to a vineyard. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. are we getting off again? What is wrong. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. 4. So. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. in Odobesti. although he could have said so earlier. and twice we were requested to get out. Twice did we get in the car. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. it was the women. come on. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. In fact. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. under the silliest of pretexts. 322 . not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. to see some mutual friends.

5. 4. 8.restrictive 6.restrictive 7. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.free 8. Activity 2 1. These are people who we cannot tell much about. John told his friend a story about the king. 8. 5. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 10. 2. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 6. any of whom would answer to questions. why they all left . 6. when we first met . To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. 7. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 9. 3.restrictive 2. The students. You couldn’t join the party. like their teacher. Activity 3 1. most of whom were from England. all of whom would answer to his questions. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. who was just passing by. 4. where I least expected 323 . That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. where I spent my youth . 3. He told her the secret.restrictive 4.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 10.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . which was a pity. 7. This is my husband whom I love very much. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. on which this occurred . They met those students none of whom agreed with them. which was silly of him.She came to London where I went too. The students like their teacher. 11. Who are you writing this letter to? 9.

when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. 4.free Activity 4 1. which . the prince chose Cinderella. 2. What – direct object 2. 3. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Why .subject 8. 5. who think so highly of yourselves. When . Activity 5 1. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. You.subject 9. where we talk money – predicative.adjunct 3.Nadina VIŞAN .adjunct 5. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. What I’m saying – subject. 6. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. 7. Who . was very displeased with the situation. Where he was from – adjunct. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . Of all the persons there you had to choose me. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. Which – subject 4. What Inman remembered – subject. who cannot say a word. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Where . This isn’t the Bucharest I know.When Ada remarked – adjunct. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. come up front.adjunct 10.adjunct 6.restrictive 10. however sad .adjunct 11.free 9. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. Of all the persons there. I. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. where – predicative 7. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. what their parents made them. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. Where . when .

what . whatever – predicative 13.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. which requires an accusative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. which is ungrammatical due to the[. how .human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. what little she knew – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form.attribute 12.

in his turn. due to its invariable character. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. but whose second cousin. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. a rather tiny looking man. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a sergeant. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . who. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. got married and had a daughter. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. having changed quite a number of jobs. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. whose great-grandfather.

and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. has been troubling them forever. In the interest of public decency. Irene. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. – no pied piping 327 . – no pied piping 5. were now all gone. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. . – yes. . . with deletion of the noun friends]. The problem of safe transportation. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.obligatory 3.obligatory 4.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. he requested that the public be excluded.His father’s friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. – no 9. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. This story. . although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other.yes Activity 9 1. – no 4. he rarely saw now. – yes 2. – yes 6.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1.yes 3.yes 7. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. whose interest he most sincerely shared. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. was now complete. – obligatory pied piping 2. .no 5. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. .yes 10. His friends. no easy answers to which could be offered. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.

He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. I am to be envied. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. Everything was ending. Nelu. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. 8. For all the four children. yours. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 2. I did so. irrespective of age and nature. Only an ugly endless dream remained. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 328 . or as of a vast arena. for instance.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 4. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. the third born son. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 7. where two teams battled every day… 5. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth.and he couldn’t thank me enough. For twenty years. 6. 3. In other people’s opinion. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town.

furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. 10. since I don’t really know which my true life is. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. she said. on Icoanei street. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. 329 . 14. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. where from Marta was coming too. 12. You are newly arrived here. All that you have read is rubbish. leaving streets and houses behind. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. barely glittering in the distance. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. Behind them. He was suffering from dizziness. 15. 17. from MR street.R.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. the tram was rattling along. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. What you’re saying sounds very nice. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 11. Let me tell you my last conclusion. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. 16. 13. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. staring aimlessly. although she was standing quite close to him. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells.

or the clash of stars above. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. 23. I could see my woman falling away from me. had a personal style in clothes. But. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. after the car was fixed. While we were poor. So. had a huge house in Bucharest. who prompted everyone on the street. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. If he had hit me. in her pursuits. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. who only lived once in this world. so optimistic and composed? 19. or the many Egyptian dynasties. 330 . 22. likes and dislikes. day by day. 21. She was a woman of means. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. While some trees are still green. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. I don’t know what might have happened. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. From the vantage point I was in. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. 24. which I did not posses. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 20. But for me.Nadina VIŞAN 18.

It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. subject 8. 8. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. object 5. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – unextraposed. – extraposed. It will be soon announced when you can leave. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. – questionable. subject 9.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 2. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. 3. It was suggested that they should meet the President. – extraposed. 331 . – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. – extraposed. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. prepositional object 11.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. object 6.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. – extraposed. 6. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. for pragmatic reasons 5. – the same as 3.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. – impossible 7. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 7. – extraposed. subject 4. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. subject 2. It appears that no one voted for him. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. direct object 10. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. direct object 3.

They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. same as 12. – impossible 11. 18.. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. 15. – correct 2. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. although a bit intricate 2. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – same as 12. 17. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 14. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. but pragmatically impossible 3. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. Activity 3: 1.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. 10. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.correct 4. idiomatic formula 16.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. . a bit too intricate 5.grammatical. – impossible. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. – impossible. They never expected it that he would come back. same as 12. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. tense influences the 332 . – incorrect. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. I guess it that he will come back. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible. – impossible. . same as 12.grammatical. It is no use trying to convince her. It is nice to meet you.incorrect. but pragmatically impossible 4. – the same as 12. – grammatical. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 9. – grammatical. .

3. 333 . When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. thus. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can.’ 4.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. in the ditch. 2. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. (Not always. though. 5.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. under bridges. in the pits on the road. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. behind gates. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. I hurriedly hid wherever I could.incorrect. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. – correct 6.’ Lionel says.

It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. since the 334 . 2. prime-minister. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. 8. 3. By saying this. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. – the first sentence is the better of the two. Activity 7 1.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it.Nadina VIŞAN 6. – the second sentence is questionable. because it is less ambiguous. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 4. who had just returned from Africa. 7. without trying to protest too much. who had just returned from Africa. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. It is less ambiguous than the first.

This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 7. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. – both sentences are grammatical. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. 8. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 6. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. The second and third sentences are grammatical. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. extraposition is obligatory here. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. 5. 335 . / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. so there is no need for extraposition. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.

The idea that he had had earned him good money. – complement 2. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. – subject. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever. – complement 5.complement 4. . – complement that clause.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. – direct object. – adverbial of sequence/result. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. ibid. – prepositional object. (Iris Murdoch. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. . – relative 3. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. .relative Activity 9 1. – relative 5. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. ibid. . – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever.We discovered that our map has disappeared. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by deverbal noun 336 . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. coordinated. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed.) adverbial of sequence/result.adverbial of sequence/result.prepositional object. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.) complement that clauses.

– that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. that they were not too late to leave. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. d) John said that Harry was leaving. that deletion is obligatory. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. you want me to believe. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – that is obligatory. h) John thought that Harry had run.

– both sentences are grammatical. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. b. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. a. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. – grammatical sentences. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. c. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.

present perfect instead of past perfect. ciocârlii şi şoimi. lark. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. quail. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. present instead of simple past. hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. While the first is possible because of the generalization. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. geese both grey and white. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. prepeliţe. – generalization on habits of birds. cenuşii şi albe. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici.

A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. slyness in a fight. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. as evidenced by its drear plumage. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Crows will relish what presents itself. She admired their keenness of wit. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. lack of pridefulness. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. love of practical jokes. The generic present is used in this case. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. lipsa de vanitate. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă.

d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. the young officer. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. he claimed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . încercând să-i uşureze chinul. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Murise în picioare. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. tragică şi eroică. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. He had fought hard through the war. tânărul ofiţer. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. in the very act of expiring. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. El căzuse pe spate. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. But as the battle raged around them. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. se ridicase în picioare. He died erect. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie.

342 . And they might just hang him. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. I realized I could not tell him the big news. When he saw me. war hero though he was. One of them. A short while later. he closed the album. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. deşi era erou de război. They all had their hands in their pockets. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now).Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. mother went home and I was left alone. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. How can I explain? I just felt shy. 2. susţinea el. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. Activity 13 1. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. în închisoare. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. When the boys saw that mother had left. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. around seventeen or eighteen years old. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. But when he reached me. to finish my drawing. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Acum stătea aici. they gathered around my desk. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Luptase din răsputeri în război. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. Now here he stood jailed. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. the oldest. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. – similar situation to the one under (c). Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat.

The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. 4. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. brightly and closely.’ 5. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently.’ Mr. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. 6. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. All his senses were now keen. as if he had been drunk. or if she would do so again. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. for her vineyard. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. or fear his rage. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him.

But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. 8. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. claiming you had no ambition for the future. thinking of him. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 11. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 10. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. 7. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. The last time when we met here you scared me.Nadina VIŞAN to him. 9. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. And if things were so. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. he would achieve his goal and be a victor.

Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. 12. namely the impatience of this young man. We either sell them or we don’t. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. which secretly drove him. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 13. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. 14. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. without putting anything in a note. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. where he would run to confess everything. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . more urgently than ever. towards Jurubita. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion.

/ He was forced to send Tom on the front. – perfect infinitive. – infinitive continuous.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . 346 .ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 2.. – simple infinitive. grammatical.simple infinitive. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – infinitive continuous.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. . grammatical 5. grammatical 6. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / they saw her leave. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. grammatical 10. It is vital this factory to be reopened. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. – simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical 3. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. grammatical 7. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 9. .

you need to try harder. / I want to never see you again. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. \ They really asked her PRO to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They tempted him. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. – Test: He persuaded her. Test: * I would like people. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: *I allowed them. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: *They did not wish her. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I would love them. \ She promised him PRO to leave.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. – Test: They asked her. – Test: She promised him. / It is not too late for him to learn. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I allowed [them to come. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. Test: *She wanted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / In order to fully understand what that book is about. \ I would love [ them to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. Test: *They would have hated her. – Test: They convinced her.

/ He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. . . / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / I want you to leave my house.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / He is hard to stand.Nadina VIŞAN for years. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. . / I have a word to tell you. I don’t need you or your services. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / Oh. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is easy to live with. / He is easy to talk to. / To make a long story short. . – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. Activity 6 Oh. / He is young enough to start again. / I want to tell you what I think of you. not to miss the train.

1] A little crossly. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. so that we might get to the future and have done. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. 1 – PRO. If he himself was out of spirits. Harold. he didn’t envy those above it. Predicative 4 . Subject. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Subject. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. who wasn’t used to men with moods. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. they had depressed and fuddled him. He suspected hostility at once. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.Accusative + Infinitive. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. 1 – PRO-to. the herd instinct was very strong in him. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1].to. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 349 .

what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. 1 – PRO-to. One day. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. slowly. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. cautiously. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. c) Unlike plane trips. 350 . or better said. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. But when we need to comfort others. more meaningful. PRO controlled by ‘she’. we seem to forget about our own pain. PRO controlled by ‘me’. excitedly. And you might also be hit and humiliated. object 2 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. more believable than evidence itself. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. e) When two persons. man and woman. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. f) The passing time is important. direct object 3 – PRO –to. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. PRO controlled by ‘him’. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. true.

Although that talk deserved to be remembered. 351 . or their talk that night. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. That is it. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. Mrs. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. even when this love is hurried. which he had already forgotten. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. as he had appeared to him in the rain. And to actually start to believe you are so. in the street. Moroi says heavily. And I would care for this man so deeply. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. not even those parts where he had been half-right. my wish being only to please and serve. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. k) With this considerable dowry. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. tickled by the trickles of sweat.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. to live only with your coughing. while swearing to change my way of life. h) I want us to go. not to want to wipe it off. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. that you are young. If it was summer. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. all down our neck. S. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. or. He had not been able to leave Dr. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. I am indeed praising my own merits. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. Stroescu. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. for instance.

If you will have what I can give you. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. here I am with all of my own. poor Muti. ready to submit to any demand. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. Well. every Bucharester knows it. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). met by squalor and terrible smells.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. for that’s the door people get off by. or to speak so fast. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. haphazardly. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. 352 . she was suddenly so shocked. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. no matter what.

/ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. with its lips drawn back.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ The blow left him sprawled under the table. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head./ He went to have a tooth pulled. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. badly beaten and bloodied.. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ She sent him shopping. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. 353 . / They found it thrown in a corner. – Attributive past participle. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made./ Don’t keep him waiting. so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.

she caught her foot in a rug and fell. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. 3. they began quarreling about how to divide it. 7. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having fed the dog.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Having looked through the fashion magazine.Running into the room. Attributive present participle. having heard it all before. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. Activity 4 1. he sat down to his own dinner./ Running into the room. Sleeping in the next room. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. sitting taut between her father and her sister. 6. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 8. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. I slammed the door of my room. 2. – Attributive present participle. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 5. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. 10. I was astonished at what I saw. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Turning on the light. 9. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . having been uprooted by the gale.She didn’t want to hear the story again. The tree had fallen across the road. – As she was running into the room. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 4. Finding the treasure.

I let the dog out of the room. 4. – When I read in bed. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. a scorpion bit him. – As he was getting out of bed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. Riding in the first race. / Climbing down the tree. / Getting out of bed. the sea was tossing the post up and down. one of the eggs broke. 10. he broke one of the eggs. three-coloured. Reading in bed. Dropped by parachute. my hands often get very cold. 6. 3. his horse fell at the last jump. – As he left the cinema. Tied to the post. 2. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. open-minded. Activity 5 Fair-haired. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. bald-headed. narrow-minded./ Reading in bed. stony-hearted. 355 . 11. – As I was passing under a ladder. 9. wooden-headed. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As he was climbing down the tree. fishy-eyed. he was bit by a scorpion. Leaving the cinema. broad-shouldered. 12. – As the dog was barking furiously. 8.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. I let it out of the room. red-handed. I often get very cold hands. an idea suddenly occurred to me. his horse fell at the last jump. Barking furiously. sharp-eyed/minded. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. 5. my hands often get very cold. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. a scorpion bit him. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. the sea was tossing it up and down. – As he was tied to the post. many-coloured. a pot of paint fell on my head. Passing under a ladder. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. an idea suddenly occurred to me. cloth-covered. 7. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. – As he was riding in the first race. Climbing down the tree. one of the eggs broke. empty-headed. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Getting out of bed. lion-hearted.

Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. / Many old people. (produce) 3. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. 356 . finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. stricken deer. are in grave danger of extinction. injured when their car crashed on the M1. injuring my arm. / Three people. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. rotten plank. admired for their elegance and precision. ill-gotten wealth. The film.I fell on the ice. is expected to be a great hit. I stared at the canvas for ages. eagle-eyed. (find) 6. graven image. shrunken stream. were taken to hospital. open-hearted. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. mown grass. shaven head. hidden meaning. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. bounden duty. shorn lamb. produced by S. Activity 7 1. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. found hiding in a barn. / Swiss watches. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (injure). (hunt).Spielberg. lighted candle. 7. (admire) 5. hunting for a bargain. Whales. drunken man. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. straight-shouldered. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. The escaped prisoner. Activity 8 1. was today taken back to prison. (take) 2. (grow) 4. sunken eyes. are sold throughout the world. dark-skinned. roast meat.

She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. then put up. yet left them room to sway free. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. suddenly suffocated. he were struggling for breath. he started peering anxiously around as if. its scales scraped off by the knife. 2. A parasol. streaked with yellow veins of fat. hovering uncertain and soft. thrown in the pots. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. So. the carved chicken. 357 . in charge of his house and lands. boil them. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. After a while. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. bake them. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. seeking some promised land. 3. the fish. and moreover. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. now taken down. sprinkled with sticky flour. 4. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. He felt close to his father. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. flat and soft. and the puffed pastry beds. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. And his soul. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the twice rinsed vegetables.

. Gambling is his favourite pastime. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / After annoying the shop-assistant. Activity 10 1. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. – participle (attribute) 2. – Accusative + participle 3. – gerund (subject) 4. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. he left the store without buying a thing.gerund 5. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / I am sorry for being so late. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats.

– gerund (prepositional object) 15. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – Nominative + participle 13. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. possessive ING (predicative) 7. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly.possessive ING (direct object) 9. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. – gerund (half or full. He was spotted talking to her. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. – gerund (attribute. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. preceded by preposition). He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. 8. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally.participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. .

‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. Croom to try to follow one. hold up his pen and speak.’ ‘Tell me. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. Lady Corven. my Lord.. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. take down her answer. adjective..’ 360 . – gerund or verbal noun. adjective. – gerund (full. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. – verbal noun (has adjective). but they went by too quickly. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. I did ask Mr. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – verbal noun (has determiner.verbal noun (has determiner. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. however appearances were against us.

Then.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent.’ said Clare.’ said Clare. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. ‘I do hate asking for things. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. suddenly. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. my Lord. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. I spend all my time hunting a job. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ 361 . but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. I just used the word and they fell. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. I must go back now. it’s overrated. licked the envelope with passion. and went out to post it himself. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. he addressed the note.

the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. down. Has a complex subject) in the hole. functions as direct object) and then the ground. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. following the verb ‘remember’. direct object) from below. someone looking for survivors (participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) towards him. (participle. village which is burning). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. attribute. down into God knows where. hoping (participle. The collapsing shops (participle. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. elliptical here. He looked up towards the daylight. …while their edges were crashing inwards). l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. adverbial of time. It was like a mist. attribute). the very earth opening up (half gerund. attribute. Then he saw movement at his feet. The sight of the two children.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. after verb of perception. direct object). he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. attribute. the enormous split in the earth. First the crack snaking (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. slightly 362 . direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. attribute). At first. gerund. The two sides were moving apart. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. attribute) in a swirling motion. slowly rising (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. attribute.

early. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. prepositional object. etc. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. covering (participle.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. i. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. adverbial of reason). m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. one. has ‘of’ phrase).e. direct object). subject of ‘being’) being (participle. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. you. moving up (participle.). according to the books he read. my dear. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. the chief occupation of the people of these islands.

waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. preceded by preposition. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. reluctant or not. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. adverbial of manner). Young Mamona left the room without a word. She finished what jobs there were. and then went riding (participle. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) a sudden whoop. brightening (participle. slanted on to her cheek. examining (participle. And. and sunlight. mother. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. a door was opened and as a servant entered. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) stopped dead. Standing up. adverbial of reason). adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. preceded by preposition. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. the two Mamonas. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. and not only in my imagination or theirs. for Dornford was busy on an important case. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. and everything got suddenly animated. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. which beckoned to 364 . adverbial of manner). Having a French governess (participle. So. attribute) to winter brilliance. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. Vaucher and I.

about sparing no effort. too. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. 3. and smelling so hard of rain. sitting in his puddle. closing my eyes. his disloyal apprentice. He cast us a swift glance. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . for anyway. bending a little. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . who knows. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. he went to mother and. So when Old Mamona came in. And then. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. Vaucher might have known that too. her back towards us. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. Entering our house on a Thursday. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. kissed her forehead. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. and ended his life in the year 1821. let alone greet us or say something. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. And. to Vaucher. each carrying a wooden box. he found us sitting each in his place. I knew who it would be. as mother had ordered him. 2. he looked like someone who did. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. killed by Young Mamona. in the year 1812. Not so unimaginable though. about concentrating all our resources. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. and to Young Mamona. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. to me.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. 4. without taking his sack off his shoulders.

although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. wood pile. of taking notes and rewriting them. stove. And suddenly. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. 5. already seen and heard. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. And all around them was the great field 366 . each pausing before jumping down. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. futile. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. everything seemed familiar. as an afterthought. They got off the truck slowly. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. barrack. But. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. long board table. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area.

Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The next thing was to go to the well. 367 . The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

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