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SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări. 6 . pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii.
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
6.5.1. Constituent Phrase 1. Complementary distribution .4. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Insertion 1.3. The Distribution of an Element 1.Contents: 8 1.2. Auxiliary verbs 1.
if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence.1. that is sequences fragmented at random. sequences of the kind her mother very. her mother. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. 1. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. loves. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents.2. very much. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. For instance. Consequently. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Syntactic. Semantic. They are just strings.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course.
Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. 1. should.e. 1. be).) 10 .) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.4. an order given to an interlocutor). (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). etc. we are dealing with a directive (i. (Mi-a spus secretul. must. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically.3.
and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.) 1. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică. etc.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.6. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. an ‘empty’ there subject. live. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. Consider. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. 1. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . for instance.5. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution.
semantic. 12 . Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. whereas (7) is not. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. as the star indicates. If the given context is the one under (6). using your own examples: insertion. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Munt. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. distribution. complementary distribution. this would really hurt. syntactic. Pratice Define and illustrate. How much. pragmatic. he had not yet been able to estimate.
to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 .TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’. To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.
7.4. Polarity Items 2.8. Instances of negation 2.2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.6. affirmative sentences. Negative vs.2. Conclusion. Key terms 2. Tests for negativity 22.214.171.124. Full – local negation 2. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. Key terms .
it asserts something.Positive vs. This example can be compared to: (2)a.2. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. Negative . Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. in that they do not state anything.Declarative vs. He didn’t offer her any chocolates.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) is said to be an assertion. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . For instance. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. Consequently. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. in the sense that it states something.) b. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.
16 .g.other (if –clauses.positive and declarative secret. They told her the ( e. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot.interrogative (e. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .positive sentence .g.Nadina VIŞAN . don’t bother her./ We didn’t come here just to talk.) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. Did they tell her the secret? ) ./ She can’t wait to read that book.g.non-assertion . didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. listen to this. / Come with me.) .assertion .negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.negative (e. / She finally admitted. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ If you like her. comparison./ Don’t do that. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.
A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not.) 17 . Susan dislikes her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs.3. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. In the case of the sentences under (4).Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. For example. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. I met a girl named Susan. John is not happy. (Nu demult. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) b. Susan doesn’t like her friends. word negation. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. John is unhappy. since the negative word not is not present there. (John e nefericit.
namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago.) b. She was not an unattractive woman. since the negative word not is present inside them.) c. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. In other words. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. I was not a little worried. where the word 18 . but their meaning tells us a different story.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. just like in the case of word negation.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. He was not without intelligence. In other words. more precisely the phrase it is part of. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. these sentences look negative. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only.
/ Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. without intelligence./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . Translate the following sentences into English./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. / Când a aflat vestea./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.e. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. semantic negation. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe.
/ Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. dar nu neobişnuit. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. ci doar indecişi. Negative vs. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. affirmative sentences. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. 2. dar nu în mod special.4. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi.
in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. (M-am dus acolo.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (see subsection 1. etc.1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not.). whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. For instance. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (Nu m-am dus acolo. such as do insertion.) (9) I didn’t go there.
whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / I don’t like her very much./ They didn’t leave. incorrect. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / She does not hate animals. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. 22 . does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / We don’t come here often. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / Susan did not get married to Jim. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends.
as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag.Unit two Sentence negation 2. . Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16). and neither do they like her. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. *and neither do they like her. even the smart ones. *not even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative. and they don’t like her either. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible. which does not happen in the case of (18). (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. 4. which is ungrammatical.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. * and they don’t like her either. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. 3.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them.
/ I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / A few of them stayed behind. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. In conclusion. / You have never met her. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / Few of them stayed behind. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / This boy is no good. / They caused us no problems.5.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. they go skiing in the mountains. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. 2. / No problems were caused after all. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English.
(Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. I went nowhere. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (27) a . (N-a venit John). Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. Susan could not go to the theatre.
I never went to his place.) b. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. Not all that glitters is gold. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. I didn’t go anywhere. (N-am văzut nici un student. b. I didn’t see any student.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. All that glitters is not gold. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. No day passed without me thinking of him. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence.) (29) a. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) b. I didn’t see anybody. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. (N-am văzut pe nimeni.) c. no incorporation takes place.Nadina VIŞAN b. 26 . / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.
(Nu citesc romane. / I showed him nothing. seldom. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.V./ They didn’t come to meet her. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. nici măcar din alea scurte. / Not one of them came to meet her. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory./ They never went there.4. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.) They barely read any novels. . / Not a word fell from her lips.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. / Not many women are famous opera composers.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. / None of them liked house music. scarcely. rarely. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / I didn’t see anybody. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / He should not be released.) We seldom watch T. barely. not even short ones. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. / No one ever listens to her. etc. / I saw nobody.
.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Hardly anybody liked him. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. Never have I met a more horrible person.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. şi nu mergem nici la teatru.) d. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) c. which triggers inversion): (35) a. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / Few people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta.) 28 them. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) b. / I scarcely ever see her. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. / I seldom look at her like that. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.
/ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. in the sense that the 29 . / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. never trust a man again. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We seldom receive such generous praise. As you can see from the translation of these examples. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.) They don’t think that he likes them. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / You must on no account touch this machinery.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never.
sound/feel like. seem. the negative meaning is less strong. / I suppose she doesn’t care. look like. we can very well say something like: (38) a. want. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. although not negative in meaning.6. choose. cannot appear in an affirmative context.) 30 . intention. appear. / He reckoned he would not win her over. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. be likely. be probable. etc. expect. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. should be desirable. guess.) b.: think. believe. probability. imagine. suggest. In sentence (37). suppose. intend. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. etc. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. 2. be supposed to. ought to. / I expect he won’t come here again. For example. barely. etc. advise. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. She didn’t lift a finger to help me.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. / They believe she does not like them.
The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. are clearly not grammatical. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). *She likes our chairman at all.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.*She lifted a finger to help me. That is 31 . N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el.2. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. and sentences such as: (39) a. b.
/ Bob is still living at that address. etc. / Don’t worry. it will stop hurting before tomorrow.) Hardly ever vs. before (He didn’t arrive until 5. / Come on. / I can understand both of these 32 . Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I eat caviar most of the times. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. too.) Yet vs. / I have some money. either. / I somehow like him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I somewhat like his proposal. you can still do something about it. / They say he once had someone very close. already (I haven’t seen him yet.). somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. a lot (I don’t like you much.) Much vs. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I still love you) Either vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. some (I haven’t any money.) At all vs. / You needn’t send her anything. / He arrived before 5. / She hardly ever comes here. / Well. / I have already seen him. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I like it . too (I don’t like it. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.) Until vs. / I like you a lot. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. too.) Any more vs. / Well. still (I don’t love you any more.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now.
/ Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. have/be worth a red cent. hurt a fly. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. last a minute. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). bat an eye(lid). leave a stone unturned. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. say / breathe/ understand a word. touch a drop. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. Ion nu e prea deştept. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. flinch. lay a finger on someone. turn a hair. nici unuia dintre noi. / Ajută-mă. move a muscle./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. have a care/ friend in the world. find a trace. mulţumesc. / Peter knows some English and so does John. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. hear a peep. / You must be telling lies. Translate into English. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. crack a smile. see/ feel/ remember a thing.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. sleep a wink. lift/raise/ stir a finger. give a damn/darn. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. know a single person./ I can understand all of these ten English words. de când cu 33 . / You must pay that fine.
/ Nothing succeeds like success. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. / No sooner said than done. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . Translate into Romanian. budge. / I had no end of trouble. / No entry. / No trouble at all. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. nu e vina mea. / Not that I care. / Hotărât lucru. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / No man is wise all the time. he left the room. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. but you really should do something about it. / No hands wanted. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. B: Aşi. / He is no end of a fellow. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. n-a sunat încă. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Never is a long word. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. / No admittance. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / He won’t make old bones. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. he’s a pig. încercând să prindă criminalul.
In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). which is not the case of the sentence under (45). 2. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. say it.Unit two Sentence negation rather). e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Normally. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). b) I love asking some funny remarks. / I hate making any commitments. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone.7./ I saw no one. c) He is anxious to say something. N-am văzut pe nimeni.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. as well: 35 . and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences.
Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. however. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. B: Nu. (Nu. from a syntactic point of view. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. The second negation is somehow independent. nu-mi place. nu îmi place poezia asta.8. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. Key terms.) 2. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta. I don’t like this poem. 36 . nu poezia asta. I don’t. B: Not this poem.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. Conclusion.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. interrogation). 45 .e.
1 Tag Questions 3. Direct vs.1 Yes/No Questions 126.96.36.199.3.3.2 Wh.2. Minor Types of Questions 3.4.2 Echo Questions 3.1. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Key Terms.3 Alternative Questions 3. Optional Exercises .Questions 3. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2.3.
focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.1. If we try to analyze the examples above. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. for a subsequent section. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .Unit three Questions 3. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.
Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. (3) and (4).Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion.g. Pratice Translate the following questions in English. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. (2). pe mama. 48 . sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences.
and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. because. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. Likewise. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. the sequence of the tenses is violated.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. in this case. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). Since the question is not direct any more. 49 . Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). In the case of indirect questions.
/ I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. sau mai bine zis. / He asked me who she is. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / I don’t know whom she fancies. identify the incorrect sentences. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. ce culoare are pielea. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she was. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. spune la un moment dat femeia. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. / I don’t know who she is. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă.
the type of answer the respective question requires. as Quirk shows. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short.Unit three Questions 3. Let us provide 51 .V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.2. being typical of spoken language. In this case. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.
3. (who / talk to last night)? 5.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (how long / wait for me?) 10. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (you / keep a secret) ? 8.2. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .1. (which / you like best) ? 4. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts.
(20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . it has. (Da). are said to be positively – oriented. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. they did. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. (Da). which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion.
make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. A: You’ve been learning German for years. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.. 7. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………... but I want to play basketball a little longer. as in the example: 1.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . 2. 3. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. . ……………? (hear her) B: …. ……. A: You look down. 6. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 4. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. I’ve still got plenty of time. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. (tell me who does it for you) B: ….. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. …………………. A: She had her tenants evicted. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. ……………………………. (speak yet) B: …….. A: Your mother is shouting for you. because you always copy everything I do! 5.
2. 10. what . which When. 3.Unit three Questions B: ………………….. . where. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. A: It’s past your bedtime. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………..questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose.2 Wh – questions Wh. A: There was a terrible car crash. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. .? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . 8. I didn’t get home until late last night. . You could have mentioned it earlier. how. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. 9.. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. ……………………………….
/ I have French lessons twice a week. / That’s my pen. / Kay’s gone out shopping. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. / David’s car was stolen. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. why ever. of course. trying to find places where I resided in life./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / Shirley got married to Ben./ Sara owns two cars./ She dropped her glasses. Nearly two hundred years. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. I cannot do that. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 .000dollars. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / There are six students in my class. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. what ever. (Poppy Z.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / She lives in the suburbs. / My new car cost 10.
Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.) 57 .2.3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.
Who did left the gate open? 18. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. didn’t use he? 11.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. shall we stay? 7. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5. He used to work in a bank. didn’t use he? 4. How far is it the cinema? 10. He used to work in a bank. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. There was a fax for you this morning. How far is it the cinema? 3. wasn’t it there? 17. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. Let’s stay for another few days. can you be? 58 . How long is she be spending in America? 8. Let’s stay for another few days. shall we stay? 14. You can’t be serious. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2.
Toate vechi. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. uneori disperat. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. How long time does it take to get there? 28. will you not? 27. wasn’t it he? 22. plin de germeni virulenţi. That’s your car. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. dacă prin absurd 59 . nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. despre o lume dură. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. ca şi cei ce au fost.Unit three Questions 19. Who did told you about the problem? 31. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. să-mi înfrâng frica. Ani întregi. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. John goes jogging every morning. will you not? 21. deci. How long have you be lived in London? 26. That was Jeremy’s brother. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. deci. isn’t it this? 25. Whose it is this book? 32. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. doesn’t he go? 23. neliniştea infantilă. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Pot reveni.
şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. naiv. neîntrerupt. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. pe care oricum am simţit-o. Şi. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. puturos. B. îi ştiu gustul. străină priceperii lor. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. Riscul? Ratarea. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. umed. mă întreb. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. murdar. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. laşii. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. ghiceam doar unde se află. iar proştii. inactivii. “Spune! striga el. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. indiferent de risc. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. dar şi drumul. pe sub bolţile din care. de atunci. negru. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. picură apa roşietică. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. lung. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă.
shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. golul alb. exclus. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. Tag Questions Tag questions. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.3. 3. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. orbitor. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. didn’t she? . or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. nu se poate. da? (37) Let’s go there. la urma urmei.1. care i-a determinat alegerea. will you? (38) She went to Prague. domnule profesor.Unit three Questions viaţă. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. viaţa? Oare e drept.3.
since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. or falling. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.) A: Oh.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. (Din păcate. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. or “comment tags”. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. if the host sentence is negative. hasn’t she? (Aha. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. is it? (Deci. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i.e. aren’t they? 62 . au fost cheltuiţi. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. au fost cheltuiţi. it’s all spent. The suggestion is that in this case. sarcasm. the tag is negative too). the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. the tag is affirmative too. In this way. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony.
/ I think you like my music. / Let’s eat dinner now. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / I think you don’t like my music. / He has to marry Susan. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / I don’t think you like my music. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Few people like her. / That was your father. / A few people like her. 63 . / You have been invited. / They said he liked music. / I am older than you. / She left an hour ago. / He simply hates empty words. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I am dressed smartly enough. / There is enough food for everyone. after all. / The boy never watched his sister. / You will pick me up at 7. / You will pick me up. / Don’t leave without me. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Each of us is staying.…/ Let me know. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / I may see you tomorrow. / Surely you have enough money. / The boy often watched his sister. / She has a brother. / I must go now. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / She used to talk a lot. / Tell me. / He hates his wife. / That’s your car over there. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You ought not to smoke. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick.
He used to play squash. So you enjoyed my talk. using a question tag at the end. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / He never used to study so hard…. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party./ I’m right about this…. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax….Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4.. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. 5. or what? 3. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam.
2.questions which repeat part or all of the message. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.3. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.) B: Chinese? 65 . / Grants… 3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.1. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.1.3.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. Recapitulatory echo questions . / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.
Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . rather than the repetition. (Închide lumina aia. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.phrase is fronted.2. consternation.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.2.3.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. If the wh. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. disbelief. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. of something just said.
/ I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. with recapitulatory echo questions. (Vai. / I think I’ve found a solution.e. / We are looking for a pixie. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Uită-te la asta.Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. which letter do you 67 . intonation is rising. rather than did you say. dear. / He is interested in music. (i./ We are looking for a purse. am pierdut scrisoarea.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. I’ve lost the letter./ He is interested in blue movies. whereas with explicatory echo questions.
Nadina VIŞAN 3. she knows about it. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So.4. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .
cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. în general. cumnată Fenia. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. că iepuşoara asta de Vica.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. lui Chizlinski. nu purta verighetă. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. lui Luca Horobeţ. cu o casă de copii. oameni aşezaţi. ca să zic aşa. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. da. şi apoi Vica ce zice. Are gust de oameni blânzi. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. să se încolăcească mai bine. Fenio. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. aşa. stricata. acuma sporovăiala. lui Stavre Păici. şi care s-a aciuat. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . şerpoaica.– Crezi tu. după pofte. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. în satul nostru. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. pe Condrat de Vica. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2.
deci. dar cum se face că a 70 .Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. sau cum o chema. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. De asta erai. sus. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. până la călcâie. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. roşu şi galben. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. L-a scos din geamie. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Hogea. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. abia târându-şi picioarele. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii.
se vede prea bine. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
6.2.Coordination and Subordination 4.4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.1.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Key Concepts .Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.3.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Contents: 74 4.5.
which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. cu repros. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. 75 .) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. reproachfully. where there is no indication other than a comma.e.1 Syndetic vs. present) in the sentence. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. that elements are coordinated. i. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. Example (2).Unit four Coordination 4. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e. on the other hand.
namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. you will die.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. vei muri.Nadina VIŞAN 4. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. Conversely. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.) Such examples. From the previously mentioned examples. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.) (4) If you hit my wife. 76 .
but presupposed. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. respectively subordinated constituents. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. from a logical & semantic point of view. we need to specify that. However. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . the second.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.
He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. In the second. the houses were beautiful and ancient. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. of cut gray stone. adorned with cornices. took off his coat and emptied them. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. but the 78 . He wrung the bottom of his trousers. Then he sat down. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. built. His clothes hung to him. He moved and made a slopping noise. John Steinbeck. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. Though the castle had vanished. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. with formal walks under rows of trees. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. took off his shoes and emptied them. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. his shoes squished. with enormous solidity. In the first. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage.
Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. left the house. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. and as the way is with Irish mountains. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. over some of the roughest ground in the country. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. the higher he went the wetter it grew. Cecil Woocham – Smith. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots.
were to take down the name of every man. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. as shown in (9). we should be seriously annoyed. yesterday and the day before yesterday. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. however distinguished. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.3 Sentence vs.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. where we are dealing with a compound constituent.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. As one can easily notice. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.K. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . (G.
/ Joan plays many games. yellow and blue.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 5. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. 9. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Pratice Distinguish coordination. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 3. plays football. / Bob and George are admired by their students.Unit four Coordination example (7). and even tennis. Her pet kitten is black and white. 6 John sang and Mary danced. John is ready and Mary is ready.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. our respective examinations. 4. / Peter and John played football. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Our flag is red. Activity 2 sentences: 1. 8. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 7. / Peter. 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. and I passed. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . John and Mary are ready. but not John. 2.
5. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. 6. Jane 82 .) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. Activity 4 2. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. * John loves cigars and Bill hates.Nadina VIŞAN b. or deleted. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. 3. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars.) c. John writes poetry and Bill prose. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend.) b. John loves and Bill hates cigars. as can be seen in (10b). Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.
as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 83 .Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. than a longer repetitive one. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 7. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. 9. Besides ellipsis. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. So.e. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 8. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. the predication buy a pair of shoes. these syntactical processes. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes.) The common element. i. can be reduced by substitution. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 10. the so-called Principle of Economy. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.
the old men and women 2. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. 4. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. simple books and magazines for children 3. one or (the) other method. 2. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. A citit. Translate the following sentences. some reason or another. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . George and Jane went back to their parents. using reduced structures: 1. 3. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. George and Jane are separated. In certain cases. 4.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau.
. 5. 12. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. for my wallet. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante.. 11. only for damage. 8. of your proposals later on? 3.. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 15.. I need another 100$ ………. .I searched ………. sweet and sour. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. the amount I’ve already saved up. 2. 16. 8. 6. 7.. After all their adventures. A pendulum swings ………. fish and chips. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.You gain some things and you lose others. 13.… 14.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 5. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ………. they reached home………. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. it’s a case of ………… 7.. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. like: salt and pepper. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ………. The police are responsible for maintaining …………. They get on quite well together. Can we discuss the …………. Marks and Spencers. 6. even though they have their little ………….
as in: (17) a. of course. For instance.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. more often than not. 4. the expressive function of coordination is. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. and 86 . *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. Nor sun. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica. nor wind will strike to kiss thee.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. b. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. In fact.4.) There are. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. etc.
(S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. or . I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. both … and . (I-am dat banii.) b.g. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. etc). where the subordinator is repeated. 20 (b)).) In certain cases. too): (20) a. and cherished her. o respectau si o indrageau.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.) c. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me.) 87 . sometimes but. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses.
) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. (Imi place si o admir. and hit my wife. if we were to rewrite the example . I washed and ironed my pants. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. I admire and like her. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife.* I ironed and washed my pants.) b. and you’ll die.) b. I like and admire her. In this case. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. From this point of view. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 . (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. (O admir si imi place.
Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. (If you do that. he failed).) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. Brown experiments with humans. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) . he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) (While Dr. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.Unit four Coordination 1.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare. formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.Contents: 100 5.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. as the name suggests it.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. Unlike in the case of compound sentences . takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you. From the functional point of view. 5.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.g. e.which are based on coordination . (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.) 101 . subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.
even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. such as proud of. in certain cases. for instance. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. (I-a dat cartea. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. for example). We do not presuppose however something like. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. an adverbial item. In a way. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). by an adjective + preposition.) 102 . they are still presupposed by the speaker. sentences) required by the verb (or. we associate it with these objects. For instance.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come.) b. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. to her) and one extra-item. In other words. to add something. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. A second observation. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. The term comes from the verb to adjoin.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. which is the adverbial willingly. related to example (4). That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. The second example.e. 103 . I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. I am afraid that he won’t come. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. an additional one. i. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. Thus.
etc. (Înainte să plece din cameră. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. like. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. such as want. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows.) (11) If you don’t marry me. make.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. I’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. am să mor. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. a închis toate ferestrele. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. So. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses.) 104 . before you decide on what label to stick on an object.
Whoever did that was a genius.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. she looked at me sadly. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. 5.g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. The book that because they home. 3. this to whomever wants it. They came to e.g. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Susan disappeared without saying a word.g. e.She came to him of her own will. 6. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. [. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 4. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. After I told her the story. 2. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .
3. 4. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. not object. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. You suggestion that we should. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. at our age. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. which. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. but he declined. As you can see.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland.) 106 . as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. etc. though it was largely politeness. 5. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. 6. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. 2. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. WHETHER. stating their function: Activity 2 1. was a novelty to Mitzi. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless.He took an intelligent interest in her. FOR.
Where he went is London.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. how. why. (Am vrut să plec imediat. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. where.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail. Who did it was John.) b. when. (E de dorit să plece. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. (15) It is John who did it. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. 107 . which.) (16) a. who.
1. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. Unlike complement clauses. Compare. As you will see. done from a structural point of view. if. however. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. consider the following table. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. before. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In (18). In conclusion.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. which sums up this classification. etc.) (18) She told me this before she left. for instance. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning.
: e.g. I will come back such as because. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. for. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. 109 . etc. at your young age. Dear Ludwig. I will go there because I feel like it. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. Introduced know e. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. whether he will come when I feel like it. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. you understand.g. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. as. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. after. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times.g. back.
As she left the house. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Too.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. she stopped to speak to Monroe. Late that afternoon. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. he said. 2. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . a tightening in her breathing. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek.The day Monroe had died was in May. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. But she thought that no one would call again. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. Accidental Man) b)1.
I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.g.g.g. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.g. a correspondence can be traced.g.g. I told her everything after she arrived. since they are translated differently in English: care vs.g. 111 . I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e. că e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. As you have probably noticed already. That he loved e. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. interesting. However.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.2.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.
Thirdly.2. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. Secondly.1. whenever you identify a wh. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. (Cred că mă place. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. We will come back to that in the next chapter. whereas wh complements are the 112 .) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. So. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. complements.complement. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. In the fourth place. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. i.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect)..e.
She mistrusted her handwriting. a house. but no idea what to do with them. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. outbuildings. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed.g. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Pratice Consider the following text. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. and I do not know how things might stand between us. for no matter how she tried. before. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. a barn. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. I first thought to tell in 113 . after.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. because. c) I am coming home one way or another. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. their introductory elements (e.
(Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.e. it would make you fear to do such again. and I have not the will or the energy. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. these clauses can be complements. According to a structural criterion. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . because they modify. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial).Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective).4.
115 . însă. think of. O zbughi înapoi. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace.g. Pratice Translate the following.e. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. be very careful to use this term correctly. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. ce o fi având. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. answering the question to whom? So. etc. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Nevasta secera în tăcere. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects. îşi spuseseră că Anton. Alţii. după ce că are grâu puţin. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. (…) “Mă. look at. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. interested in. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul.
întâi. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. Nici acum. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. timp de un ceas. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. de fapt. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. Toată lumea înţelesese că. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. izolate de sat. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. cât de bolnavă era. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 .
amânase scrisul. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. deşi cam târziu. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. la Odobeşti. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. de pildă. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. aşa de oţetit. stricau totul. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. Pace nu era. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. acum sunt desluşiţi. Era bine de ştiut. la nişte prieteni comuni. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. În realitate. Iată. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau.
nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război) 118 . frate. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e.
subject relative clauses. whose..g.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. etc). accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. etc. of which. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. 119 .
2. The Co-reference Condition 6.5.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. Key Concepts .188.8.131.52. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.3. Relative Clause Introducers 6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.
The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes.2.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. 121 .) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. 6. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. The Co-reference Condition . It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function.1.
like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. John loves that woman. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. By combining these two clauses.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. 122 .
so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. This way. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The common element woman is present. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 . The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . John offered flowers to that woman.
He told Jim everything about his plans. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. He’s the author who received the prize. WHO 5. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. WHICH 4. frequently used in written language. I bought Jim a book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 2. too. by leaving behind a trace. The students like their teacher. Any of the students would answer to questions. They met those students. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. I love my husband very much. This is my husband. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. None of the students agreed with them. I lost the book’s cover. 4. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. WHO 124 . Susan wants to meet Jane. 5. 3. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 6. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. 9. She came to London. The king was just passing by. I went to London. I had a book. John told his friend a story about the king. I introduced him to Jim. The students like their teacher. 8. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. 7. 10. He liked that book.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. WHERE 3. therefore in spoken English.
WHOSE 7. 2. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. WHOM 10. WHICH 8. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. most of them were from England. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. (Cine strică plateşte.Unit six Relative clauses 6. i. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. TO 11.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. relative clauses are divided into 1. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. . This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.e. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 6.
is no longer overtly expressed. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) • Predicative This was what she intended. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. in a manner of speaking.e. Unlike their sisters. unlike in the case of (14).) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) . it is covert. (Cel care strică plăteşte.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. these relatives cannot function as attributes. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. only their antecedent is no longer expressed.) So.
) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. este zeul meu favorit. who is the god of commerce.) (22) Mercury. care este zeul negoţului. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Du-te unde pofteşti. 127 . They can be thus divided into: 1. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. they define it).) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.) (Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. is my favourite god. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it. who incidentally is the god of commerce. (Mercur. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.
2. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. I have met him where I least expected. 9. 5. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4.This is the village where I spent my youth. who is a genius. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. on whom nobody could depend. this type of relative clauses. 8.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. who came to see me. She. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Shakespeare. is a genius. They are what 128 . can only function as attributes (or modifiers). is a great playwright. 7. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. then it is an attribute. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. i. 10. As we were saying. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Independent I don’t know what you want.e. restrictive relative clauses. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 6.
care a murit acum câţiva ani. who died a few years ago. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. however sad this may be. composed The (Freddie Mercury.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. 6. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. a. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. etc.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.) 2. When the antecedent has no determiner. . (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.
4. can see your shortcomings only too well.) (28) They come to me. (Eu. who am your son. bătrînă morocănoasă. ci o fată a woman. numai eu nu. 3. but a peevish.) Pratice Translate the following. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. iritabilă şi uscată. Mie. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. poftiţi în faţă. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Dintre toate personajele prezente. dried-up old maid.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. care nu sunt o femeie. who neither work nor am anxious. (Ei apeleaza la mine. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. 130 . Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 7. care-ţi sunt fiu. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. 2. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. îţi văd prea bine defectele. ill-tempered. 5. 6. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă.
each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. heard. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils. erau acum în posesia lui.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. than whom few more can be more crashing.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. . (32) service finished late. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan. were now in his possession. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. părăsi camera. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.
The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. too.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . but it is typical of the formal. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive.) c. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. literary style: (37) a. as can be seen in (36d).) b.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples.1. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. The genitive form with which is still in use. Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a.) d. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) b.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. 6. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.5. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.
There are situations when inversion is not obligatory. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 .) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Iris Murdoch.
animals. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. He is not the man which he used to be. but to a type or a function: a. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. of which. … Italy. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.) • states.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) b. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father.) b. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. ships (that can be personified) a. (45) (46) . by the way. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys.
and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. etc. France. It is poor what gets the punches. pe care o privea direct. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. where. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. Poland is the place where Christine was born.2 Relative Adverbs: when.5.Unit six Relative clauses b.) 6. reason. why. (Nu ştiam ce vor. etc. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. how. while. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.) b) dialectal (49) a. their antecedents are nouns expressing places.) 135 (47) . Poland is the place in which Christine was born.) b. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. whom it concerned most closely. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. time.
(S-a dus unde mai fusese.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a.3. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) b.) 6. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) b. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. A system where by a new discovery will arise. This is the place wherefrom they came. He went where he had been before.They left when they decided it was proper to.) b. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) e.) c. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. They returned to the land whence they had come. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. no antecedents are required: (52) a. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.5. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. The place whither he goes is unknown.) When they introduce free relative clauses.) 136 .
) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.
) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. any. 138 (64) his shoes. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. every. . but they are used very infrequently: as.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. not any.5. Honest man as he was. but • in standard language a. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina. much. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. I’ll get you such things as you may want. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.4.) b. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.
să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. Uncle George. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.) c. This is the same one that/as you had before. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. And always on the buttered side. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. him as was in China … (Uncle George.) • in dialect a. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. There’s not many as’ll say that.) c. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. ăl de fusese in China…) b. It’s the dry weather does it. .
This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame.) 140 . (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do.) b. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.
What Inman remembered was this passage. The man who John spoke to is a genius. It seemed a thing 141 . 5. The man John spoke to is a genius. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot.) b. fortifies me. makes me a wart and a wen. This is where we talk money.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. we all have to come to some terms. What I’m saying is.) c. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love.” 4. b. 3. 7.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The man that John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. 6. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. 2.5. That which shows God out of me.3): (72) a.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. Where he was from. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die.
(…) Partly. 10. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. Oh. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. 8. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. he had left Ruby high and dry. The rudeness of eating. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 13. though. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. 11. Ruby said. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. who had not witnessed many dawns.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. 142 . f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. 9. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. which is a lot. 12. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Whatever his fate was. of living.
un var primar. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. pirpiriu. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. (Iris Murdoch. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. pe linie paterna. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. cumnatul unui portughez. divortata.al lui. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. al carei strabunic. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. plutonier. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. Cumnatul meu avea. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. vasnic. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. poate. nu prea sarac. mort de tanar. una din nepoatele unui inginer. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. fiu natural al unui morar.
By extension. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. b.2. Everybody listened to that woman. She was a woman. I lost the cover of the book. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. insurat de trei ori la rand. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. 144 . This is the book.6. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. The opposite phenomenon. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi. Teatru) 6. c. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .
This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 7. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 2. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. 6. has been troubling them forever. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. In the interest of public decency. The difference between (76) and (77). lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 5. no easy answers to which could be offered. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. 9. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . The problem of safe transportation. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 3. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.Unit six Relative clauses b. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 4. 8. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.
4. no matter which. he rarely saw now. They do not function as attributes. 2.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. has been deleted. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). as the case is). the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. 6. was now complete. Irene. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. His friends. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. This story. 146 . Activity 9 were now all gone. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. 3. 5. 10. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries.His father’s friends. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). whose interest he most sincerely shared.
5. De douazeci de ani. 7. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. Nelu.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. închipuirea. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 3. 4. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Toate sfârşeau. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. 2. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pentru alţii. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. himeric. pentru dumneata bunăoară. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. 6.
(Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. 9. 10. nici în searbăda mea versiune.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. 12. a făcut el. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. 8. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. cu surle şi cu tobe. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului.
deşi atât de aproape. 20. fie la teatru. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. pe strada Icoanei. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. Avea acum un fel de vertij. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. 17. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. de unde venea şi Marta. Dacă mă lovea. apărură.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. toată lumea întreba cine e. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 15. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. despre care. 149 . o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. roiuri de fetiţe. din care cauză pe Dora. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. zise ea cu ochii mari. din direcţia căreia apoi. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. 16. În spatele lor. 18. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. până mai adineauri. 14. fie pe stradă. trăia larg de tot. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. dinspre Maria Rosetti. care era foarte “mondenă”.
24. Pentru mine însă. de mine. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. după ce maşina a fost reparată. pe care ea îi admira acum. aveau un stil al lor. 22. 23. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. când au urcat râpa iar.Nadina VIŞAN 21. de sus de unde eram. întâia noapte de război) 150 . până în şosea. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. pe care eu nu-l aveam. Pare-se că snobii.
151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.
Topicalization 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.4.Clause Shift 184.108.40.206. Key Concepts .3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 220.127.116.11.1. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 18.104.22.168.7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.Extraposition 7. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 22.214.171.124.3.3.2. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.3.2. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2. That Deletion 7. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 126.96.36.199.1. That Complements as Subjects 188.8.131.52.
followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. Apart from those introduced by that. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. placed in a marginal position. In other words. (3) Tell me if you need anything. 7.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. but also of infinitival ones.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).1.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. the clause is extraposed. being found not only in the case of that-clauses.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. 153 .
(Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .
It is nice to meet you. 4. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 3. 11. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 6. 10. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 4. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 8. 14. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . 10. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 13.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 2. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 5. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 15. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 9. 7. 7. 9. 8. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 3. 11. It appears that no one voted for him. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 2. It is no use trying to convince her. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 6.
Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 2. I guess it that he will come back. 4. sub poduri.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. după porţi.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 6. 2. 5. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 2. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. în canal. 3. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. atât 156 . mă ascundeam în grabă. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe. zice Lionel. în gropi. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 4. They never expected it that he would come back.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 5. unde se nimerea. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 3.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 18.
fără îndoială. cu ceea ce ţi se dă.” 4. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. excelentă. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. (Nu întotdeauna. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. 5. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 6. 7. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. vor căuta să o zdruncine. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. 157 . dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. fără să cârteşti.
Consequently. 1. Pratice Read the following.) While in the case of extraposition. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world.2. subject clauses are the frequent situation.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.Nadina VIŞAN 7. in the case of topicalization. this asymmetry is undone. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.1. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis.
His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. mere chance would decide. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. 5. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. whether it would finally carry her off. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. He did not blame Gracie. She had always been the slave of chance. he felt no spring of interest in her.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. was inconceivable. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. This was another era. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 3. but not now. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 6. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. 8. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 7. He was utterly gone. 4. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 2. even today. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once.
3. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.) 160 . (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.
(17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. we obtain. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. 161 . the verb to drive).e. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.
/ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. 4.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister. who had just returned from Africa. who had just returned from Africa. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. prime-minister.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. 6. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 7. 5.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 2./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. who had just returned from Africa. 8. 3. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. 162 . / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.
(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.2.
etc. judge.) 164 . That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. promise. consider. desire. etc. predict. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. deem. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. estimate. He announced their engagement. state. They promised him that he would received a new house. suggest. (I-au promis o casă nouă.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.) a. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (Cred că omul este vinovat.: (25) a. They believe that the man is guilty.1.) b.2. explain. deny. afirm.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. They believe the man is guilty.Nadina VIŞAN 7. He announced that they were engaged. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. communicate.) b.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. prefer.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. ibid. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. on condition that. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. hope =>purpose. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English.e.) I like him in that he is smart. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. In older stages of English. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) language. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) 172 . cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. they lose their meaning. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. for example.
as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. . that we wouldn’t doubt it.) b. He gave an answer such.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. That can be deleted.) When the structure contains the word such. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el.) b. He gave such an answer as had expected.) (66) 173 a. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. să o vadă trecând. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.
(Iris Murdoch. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.) 174 . He gave an answer such that I had expected. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ibid.) b. for better or worse.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. (Iris Murdoch. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.
) c.Unit seven That complements 7.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. 175 .3. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. He showed he was able to do it. for instance. He got word they were coming. (69) a. that he uses a relaxed tone. (A prins de veste că ei vin.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. He said he had borrowed her money. say. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. tell).1.) b.3 ‘That Deletion 7. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.
ibid. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. bune.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. 7. *I like it he was here. rele.) (De asemenea.) b. (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN 7. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. they were chained to each other forever. for better or worse. for better or worse. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .3. I like it that he was here.2. because that has been deleted. (Îmi place că e aici. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. they were chained to each other forever.3.3. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.
4. he said.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. simultaneity. 7) They maintain. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) 177 . The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. spuse el. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. (“Este acolo”. 7.) b)He told me that she was there. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. you want me to believe. that they were not too late to leave. which is ungrammatical in English.
I will leave her. he said. The Present complement). (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (A spus că o să o părăsească. In the example below.) b. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. vine el.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (“Era acolo”. He said he would leave her.) b. “She was here”. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their .) Future Perfect -----. spuse el. (Am să o părăsesc. până pleacă ea.) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (Pâna să plece.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (A spus că. He told me that she had been there. o să vină el.
) b. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a. show. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. be aware. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. dream.etc. With such factive verbs as realize. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent. mention.) 179 . whisper. regret.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. wish. believe.) On the other hand. etc. say. think. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. be amazed/concerned. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. notice. forget. insist. hope. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. realize it). discover. report. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.
She realized that all men are fools. He knew that she thought all men were fools. She still believed that the earth was flat.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. (Iris Murdoch.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. She believed that the earth is round. feign habits which are not their own. simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. Consider also: (85) a. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. cu un respect tandru reciproc. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) b. 180 .) b. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. we notice that general truths. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. in tender deference to each other.
) b. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) In (88). (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. 181 .) b.Unit seven That complements 2.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. such as a. Peter said that John will leave at 5. 3. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. There are however cases. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. Peter said that John would leave at 5.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.
The time is 3 o’clock. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. for instance. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. Imagine. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. f) John said that Harry would leave. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. John said that Harry will leave. g) John thought that Harry ran. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. But 182 .) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) John said that Harry was leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day.
John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. geese both grey and white. jaybird. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Crows will relish what presents itself. love of practical jokes. quail. bluebird. Cooper’s hawk. slyness in a fight. whistling swan. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. c. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Translate the following. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. 183 . B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. kingfisher. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. b. lack of pridefulness. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. nighthawk.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. redtailed hawk. She admired their keenness of wit. lark. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck.
As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He died erect. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. he claimed. war hero though he was. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Now here he stood jailed. in the very act of expiring. And they might just hang him. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. But as the battle raged around them. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. He had fought hard through the war. […] During the latter stages of the tale.
on other occasions it has to stay there. object ones up to the attributive function. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). adjective or by a de-verbal noun. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. On certain occasions that can be deleted.Unit seven That complements 7. which they share with wh-complements.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). 185 . adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. or else. from the very frequent subject.
s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Mama. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 2. Fiind 186 . 4. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. cel mai mare. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. peste puţin. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. 3. Când au văzut că mama a plecat.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. Unul din ei. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele.
Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. dacă va mai veni. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. un vis de acesta 187 . 6. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. 8. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. cel puţin pentru un timp. Nu ţi-a trecut. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. aşa. 7. 5. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. va pleca din oraş la vie. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. luminos şi apropiat şi când. de ce constata în sine. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Se mira. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. care îl pândise. 9. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. fericit. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. venind de la avocat. ea.
cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. dar şi teama că. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. lucrul era înfăptuit. liniştit. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 . Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. încă o dată. Astfel de va fi. Acesta. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. 11. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. 12. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. fireşte. şi mândria că a biruit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu.
fără o vorbă scrisă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. Pe toate. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. mai puternic decât oricând. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . unde alerga să mărturisească totul. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. ci numai aşa. 14. după cum. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. spre Jurubiţa. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. să le lămurească pe toate. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.2.7.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.4.Key Concepts .1.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 184.108.40.206.8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.3.8.
b. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (2) a.) b. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) • like that complements. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). It is important that you should know what you need. 193 . (3) a. To love her is something really wonderful. Consider the following: • like that complements. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features).1. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor). That you love her is something wonderful.) b. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. I told her to be more careful in the future. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. It is important for you to know what you need. From this perspective. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details).
etc. For instance. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. the Gerund. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. moduri nepersonale) By convention. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. as opposed to the finite ones. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. d. the Participle) (i. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a.e. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. the Conditional. participial clauses. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.) b. 2. 194 . gerundial clauses.
To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 . (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. namely no ending. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice.) c. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year.) b.
It is nice she to have a dog as a friend.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. 8. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 4. 5. 2. It is vital this factory to be reopened. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 8.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.2. (7) They saw her leave. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 9. the criterion of form.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 10. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 7.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 3. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 6.
) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. (10) 197 . hear. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. 2. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.
(Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. 198 (11) the universe. However./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. Pratice Translate the following. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. 3. . trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. uncharacteristic for literary English.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult.
or the control constructions. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. 199 . (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. to use the appropriate technical term. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. Further on. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. as I have already mentioned. In other words. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.
He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. PRO to forgive divine. PRO to err is human.) b.) 200 .) b. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. I hoped for him to be there in time. (E important ca el să nu greşească. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. So far.) In this situation. şi creştineşte să ierţi. the logical subject. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) Object: (18) a. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. namely the agent of the event.
Semantically.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. He stepped aside for her to enter. him is not the agent of the infinitive. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a. but the patient of the verb persuade. him is related to the main clause verb. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . In other words.) b.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . not to the infinitive. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.
from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. \ She wanted him to leave.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ They tempted him to leave. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ 202 . since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ She promised him to leave. \ They convinced her to come back. I hate animals to be tortured. \ I would love them to come. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. Likewise. \ He persuaded her to come. \ I allowed them to come. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist.
But it is clear that he is a good linguist. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems.) He seems to be a good linguist.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb. \ They really asked her to come back. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. So. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. \ They did not wish her to come back. • Last but not least. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. 203 . This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one.
seem. To sum up the discussion. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. that is not required by certain verbs.). which are said to be free. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. 204 . appear. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. Pratice Translate the following sentences. hate. to meet her. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. etc.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her.
3 The Distribution of PRO . (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. / E greu să îl suporţi. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. need. refuse. decline. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. scheme. omit. deign.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. seek (= try). hope.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. presume. condescend. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. etc. contrive. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. prefer. wish. like. mean. care to.) b) verbs such as abide. etc. dislike. want. 8. try. deserve.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. aspire to. agree to. Compare: (31) a. scorn. desire. propose. hate. expect. etc. bear. intend. manage.) 205 friend. afford.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. endeavour. venture.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. fail. ./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. arrange.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer.
I would like for him to become president of the country.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember. etc. possible. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. For all of them to have been killed is.) b. unlikely. ask. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office.etc. forget. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă.) b. conclude. be important.) 206 . however. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. threaten. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. verbs of liking and disliking. endeavour. I remembered that I had to go to the post office.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. stand. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil.) b. desirable. bear. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi.Nadina VIŞAN b. suggest.) 8. claim. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange.
(E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. Predicative Clauses (39) a. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) b. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine.) 8. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo.) 2.) 207 .) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive.
Nadina VIŞAN 3. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.) 208 knowledge. Like in the case of that complements.) 5. I decided for John to represent us. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) 4. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. the preposition is deleted. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. . this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. but the meaning remains.) b. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii.) b.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Direct Objects (39) a.
6. He is a bastard to work for. You’re an idiot to go there. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară.) d.) e. The stew is delicious to eat.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. She is pretty to look at. curious about.: (42) a. delicious. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. etc. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) c) adverbial of result 209 . Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. This paint is like concrete to work with.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) c.
(final) (Nu-l cunosc. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. / Pe şleau. to tell you the truth. să nu piardă trenul. drept să spun.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. conduci prost. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. / Ehei. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. final or introductory infinitive In this case.) Oh. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. you’re a bad driver.) I’ve never met him.
) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. urge. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. inspire. oblige. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt. inform.) . direct. (49) a. 8. encourage. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. press. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.etc. influence. need. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor. etc. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.) b. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. promise. According to this. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. nu mai vreau să te vad. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. induce. enable. swear.: (51) a. b.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.
/ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. order. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. allow./ And now he 212 . name. etc.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. elect. prevail on.etc. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. permit. nominate. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. choose. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. look to. depend on. etc.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. command. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. vote. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. count on.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest.
) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. be about to. happen.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. this construction is lexically governed. 213 (58) (59) . i.: (55) She appears to like him. (Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (57) He is to come any day now.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. be going to. come. (O să întârzii/ leşin. grow.etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. (Iris Murdoch. etc. etc. seem.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. (Se pare că îi place de el. An Accidental Man) 8. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A. (56) She grew to like him in the end.e.verbs: appear. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.
overhear. observe. feel. be reported. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.: (62) They heard him insult her. be considered.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. that of intention. .Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). be thought. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. is well supported by the syntactical analysis.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. In (57). the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). be rumoured. etc.etc.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. watch.) 8.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. hear. be claimed. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. be alleged. etc. perceive.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. (L-au auzit insultând-o.
know. find. remember. believe. presume. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. (Cred că este un geniu.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. figure. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. imagine. judge.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. picture.) • with a full infinitive: get. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. understand. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. discover. occasion.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier.) 215 (67) . since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. However. prove. recollect. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. deem. consider. cause. have. etc. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii.
suffer.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. etc. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. order. love. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. wish. Harold. mean.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. command. permit.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. choose. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5. expect. they had depressed and fuddled him.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.etc. if he himself was out of spirits. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. prefer.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. he hated anyone to comment 216 . desire. who wasn’t used to men with moods. want.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like.
Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. though he tended to look down on those below it. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. (L. the herd instinct was very strong in him. he didn’t envy those above it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. Both seemed to him a little unreal.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none.P. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. so that we might get to the future and have done. to make sure we attended strictly to business. He suspected hostility at once. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. A little crossly.
Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. 218 . we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. The last criterion. From this perspective. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject.Nadina VIŞAN 8. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not.
sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. într-o zi. un bărbat şi o femeie. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. e) Când doi oameni. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. să-l capete. mai bine219 . Şi tu să fii. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. dar să nu-ţi spună.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. lovit şi umilit. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. de bună seamă. fireşte. E posibil. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. e important ce întrebări pui. de asemenea. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. bunăoară.
gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. avusese dreptate. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare.Delavrancea. (B. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. d-a lungul gâtului. Să spui de pildă.Şt. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. în parte. aşa cum îi apăruse el. să nu vrea să se şteargă. în ploaie.Şt. 220 . sau. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. în jos. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. un picior. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. pe care deja o uitase. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. să traiesc numai cu tusea. ca să nu şi-o amintească. că eşti tânăr. De era vară. încă.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. Însă Paul Achim trăise. în parte. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea.Nadina VIŞAN zis. mai pline de înţeles. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. . Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. mai bine de două decenii. nici măcar în acele puncte unde.
gata să mă supun oricărei porunci.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. nici ca să 221 . vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. şi nu un amant. (Al. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji.. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. de fapt. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). fie ea şi grăbită. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. deşi. orice bucureştean ştie. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui.. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. Într-un cuvânt. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. biata Muti. sunt aici cu tot ce am.. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. ei. Mă laud singură. orice-ar fi. şi prin faţă. prin faţă e coborârea. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. un miros îngrozitor. o mizerie.
(Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 .Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. niciodată ea nu i le pune. ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare. în realitate.
to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . participles.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. verbal nouns.
3.1.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.1.The Participle Contents: 224 9.The Verbal Noun 9.5 Key Concepts .2.Participial Constructions 9.9.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.3.The Gerund 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.
The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. (Susan doarme. Due to this situation. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section.1.1. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction.) 225 . Let us start with the Participle: 9.
) More infrequently.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. 226 . This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. i. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (A venit Susan) b. Susan has been killed. too: (6) Her eye-lids. In (2) the forms come. blood-shot and painted. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). it functions attributively. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. Susan has come.) As you can see in this second case. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu.e. been and killed are past participle forms. the past participle can appear after a noun. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. were closing.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.
) c. ea o luă la fugă. I will arrive there on time. God willing. (Sosind aici. începură să cânte. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. he will eventually marry her. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. When singing. (Ştiind cine era el. people should pay attention to high notes. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite.) d.) c. they started singing.) b. Oh. leul poate să atace.) 227 . Weather permitting. she ran away.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. Arriving here.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. I will arrive there on time.) b. o să ajung la timp. o să ajung la timp. If provoked.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. Knowing who the guy was. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. a lion can attack. mother permitting.
notice. smell. respectively. I found him stealing.) b. (L-au descoperit că fură. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a. (L-am descoperit furând. (Am simţit-o tremurând. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. hear. which stands for an adverbial clause. watch. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. behold. He was found killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. He was found stealing.) b. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) 228 .) ii. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. They found him killed by a bullet.
I heard it said that men are a bore. etc.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. she knew herself dismissed. know.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. hear. etc. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. start. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. etc.) b. etc. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . feel.: When she heard his words.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • Causative verbs: get . have. He’ll soon get things going. recollect. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.) c. send. confess. make a. I must get my hair cut. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (A fost văzut plângând.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. a. leave. set.) b. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. find.) b. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe.) • Causative verbs: get. have.: a. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. keep. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi.
(Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. / Nu după multă vreme. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. Men like shopping made easy. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. command I ordered my bill made out. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.) b. lovit şi plin de sânge./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) • verbs of permission./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă.
the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.e. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).1. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own.2. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. with its lips drawn back. / In any case. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 231 . / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / My Lord. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Unlike the gerund. / Dinny. I should be glad to recall the petitioner.
Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. am plecat. 5. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. se va opri şi ploaia. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. She had heard it all before.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I knew that the murderer was still at large. (Desi nu ştia limba. am plecat. I was astonished at what I saw. (Văzând acestea. using either a present participle. I left. People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. 3. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I left. 4.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . or a past participle: Activity 3 1. It had been uprooted by the gale. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. 6. 2. I have looked through the fashion magazine. 7. the rain will stop. I turned on the light. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. The tree had fallen across the road.
many. 8. 10. Leaving the cinema. I let the dog out of the room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. eyed (3 times). 8. skinned. coloured. eagle. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. dark. drunken.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. mown. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. Tied to the post. wooden. the sea was tossing the post up and down. open. a scorpion bit him. a pot of paint fell on my head. b) Headed (5 times). open. 233 . straight. my hands often get very cold. 9. 5. He sat down to his own dinner. He fed the dog. 2. Read the sentences and try to correct them. Getting out of bed. 7. stricken. haired (twice). covered. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Riding in the first race. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Reading in bed. red (twice). hearted (twice). 12. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Mother punished me for my mistake.shoulder. stony. sharp. broad. Dropped by parachute. 4. 3. 11. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Climbing down the tree. Barking furiously. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. quick. empty. his horse fell at the last jump. lion. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. fishy. 6. I slammed the door of my room. cloth. 9. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. cornered. three. lighted. They began quarreling about how to divide it. bald. an idea suddenly occurred to me. roast. one of the eggs broke. minded (3 times).Running into the room. Passing under a ladder. narrow. shaven. handed. They found the treasure. 10.
bounden. shorn.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. (find) 6. stream. graven.Spielberg.I fell on the ice. The film. are having difficulties in making both ends meet./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. deer._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. shrunken. 7. head. was today taken back to prison. / Many old people . are sold throughout the world. the same verb is missing twice. _______ by S. is expected to be a great hit. rotten. image. The escaped prisoner. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . _____ when their car crashed on the M1. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. ________ hiding in a barn. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. lamb. (produce) 3. I stared at the canvas for ages. meaning. Whales. wealth. (take) 2. duty. plank. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. were taken to hospital. ill-gotten. (hunt). / Swiss watches. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. meat. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. lead. _______ for a bargain. hidden. (admire) 5. _______ my arm. candle. are in grave danger of extinction. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. In the following pairs of sentences. _______ for their elegance and precision.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. eyes. man. b) grass. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (grow) 4. (injure). / Three people. Translate into English: 1.
toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. Şi. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. când strânsă. După câtva timp. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. legume date prin mai multe ape. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. întinse. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . care le rânduia. şi moi. nesigur şi moale. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. 3. trezit. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. precum şi foile de plăcintă. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. le fierbea. 2. O umbreluţă. Şi sufletul său. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. când deschisă. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. 4. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. ca şi cum. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. deodată sufocat. păsări tăiate. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. le cocea.
Likewise. According to this criterion. The Gerund 9.Nadina VIŞAN 9.2. crezi.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. 236 . (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Dacă vezi.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.
just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. Him winning and you losing was surprising.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. In that.2.) b. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features. gerunds differ from participles. That he won and you lost was surprising. Consider the following table. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. His winning and your losing were both surprising.) 9.) b. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features.2.
) Unlike participles. It was illegal to grow a beard. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. *It was illegal growing a beard. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.) 2.) b. Consider (32). A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. as being verbal 238 . An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember.
He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. as offered in the table below: 239 .2. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. It’s no good talking to her. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a.) 3.) b. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) b. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds.) 9. Participles vs. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. Just like in the case of noun phrases. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.
3. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. (prepositional object clause) 5. forms: continuous . may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. 2. (adverbial of time) 4.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. passive ones She was crying. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. Participles may function adverbials: house. perfect. babies suck their thumb. + noun] 1.
/ Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice.
I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 13. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 242 . paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 12. 4. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 3. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. shooting gallery / shooting star. 10. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. eating habits/ eating people. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 2. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 12. 8. 9. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 15. 14. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He was spotted talking to her.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 6. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. crying game / crying woman. 11. 5. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record.
the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode.e. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.) The absence of a determiner like the. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .e. a The absence of an of phrase. but the presence of a direct object (i.Unit nine Ing complements 9. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle.e. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.3.
we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. These are features that normally characterize any noun. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. Thus. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. In the second situation. George’s shooting the attacker. How can we tell? In the first case. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund.
/ The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. the sheriff. 245 . + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / His coming there puzzled her. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten./ His sudden coming puzzled her. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. very large. Jim left quietly./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on.
at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. However. Look.4.Nadina VIŞAN 9. for example. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. whenever we meet an –ing form. With the infinitive. For instance. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). It has been noticed that. the meaning is different. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. ING Forms and Infinitives. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street.
suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. future-oriented value of the infinitive). the infinitive is future-oriented. (S-a oprit din mâncat. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. and the most well-known one.) The first example. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich.) After looking at this example.) . On the other hand.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.g. anterior to the verb in the main clause. containing an infinitive. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. having left) is infrequently used in English. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.
She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. which means that they are similar in meaning. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41).) . both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. i. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.e. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. recollect. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină.e.) As you can see. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.
) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. dar asta este. In the second example. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. the petrol tank is not filled yet.) .Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. but that’s it.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. the action is not completed. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.
The house needs repairing. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Casa trebuie reparată.) 250 .Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.) wedding.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. The house needs to be repaired.human] objects. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. want With [+ human] objects. In the second example. the event has not happened yet. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. e) need.) b. mean has the sense signify.) With [.
I did ask Mr. (take) down her answer. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.’ ‘In any case. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. my Lord. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Lady Corven. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. Croom (try) (follow) one.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. whereas in the second case. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. it’s overrated.’ ‘Tell me.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. (hold) up his pen and (speak). ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. my Lord. however appearances were against us. but they went by too quickly. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. gerund or infinitive.
I just used the word and they fell. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ 252 . and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. he addressed the note. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. and went out (post) it himself. licked the envelope with passion. ‘I do hate (ask) for things. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. Then. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. suddenly.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House.’ said Clare. I must go back now. d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter).’ said Clare.
whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features.5. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Pratice In the following texts. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms.Unit nine Ing complements 9. the 253 . Last but not least. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. Participles mainly function as adverbials.
It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. down. their edges crashing inwards. slowly rising in a swirling motion. The two sides were moving apart. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. Then he saw movement at his feet. then the noise and the cracking stone. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. down into God knows where. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. it 254 . (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. hoping he would see somebody up there. according to the books he read. the enormous split in the earth. He looked up towards the daylight.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. moving up towards his chest. At first. She started coughing. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. someone looking for survivors. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. covering the girl’s head. The sight of the two children. It was like a mist. but then he saw it billowing up from below. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being.
they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. and sunlight. my dear. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. for Dornford was busy on an important case. brightening to winter brilliance. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. Having a French governess. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. 255 . examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. She finished what jobs there were.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. slanted on to her cheek.
totul se animă deodată. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. închizând ochii. În urma slugii. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. Vaucher şi cu mine. Ridicându-se. ucenicul său necredincios. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. and then went riding with her in the rain. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. cei doi Mamona. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr. într-o joi. mama mea. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. 2. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812.
pe Vaucher. Neclintiţi. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. auzit şi zadarnic. se duse lânga mama şi. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. aplecându-se puţin. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. după cum îi spusese mama. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. 3. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. pe mama mea părând absentă. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. la mine. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. Şi deodată. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. dar ştiutoare. o sărută pe frunte. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. afară ploua în continuare. aşezată cu spatele la noi. am ştiut şi cine. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. privit. totul mi se părea cunoscut. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm.
ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu stiva de lemne. dar. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. Au coborât din camion încet. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. cu tot cu baraca. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. şi cu soba. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. 5. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. camionul a plecat. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt.
259 . Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. to retire early from my employment. and meet it right here at home. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. Having regard to the date of drafting. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. and that 263 . and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. this would really hurt. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 6.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. whereas if she went away she would get none. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 7. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. 4. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 12. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. 13. because of pity. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. How this time was to come. in some way. 5. You have been much in my thoughts. 2. and this particularly of late. I am sorry not to have seen you. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. apart from his distress for parents. 3. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 11. since I have decided. How much. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. he had not yet been able to estimate. 10. without profound questioning. he had been advised. 9. was unclear to Mitzi. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward.
Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. 17. 264 . (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. 19. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. one of the eggs broke. / In the end. I was made say Grace before every dinner. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. looking forward had not yet taken place. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. please consider his proposition. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. this always makes us feel embarrassed. he did not come to see her. / Whenever I visited my aunt. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. for attending his sister’s wedding. even for months. 14. / Before you go on changing the subject.
Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. cotton mills at Manchester. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. and it was bound. a little girl. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. At country houses she had met them of course. Tony was a child. Vulgar men did. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . 265 . rather than the hefty type. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. Though much in request before her marriage. They hated trying on. Instead of which she had married. Essentially. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. quite unexpectedly. centered in London and themselves. (and there he was. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. They rushed into shops. of the quick and wiry. it was said. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. her recklessness. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. an open-air person. she said. of all people. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. her old friend Hugh. to end in some awful tragedy. without discovery. She felt as when. Clarissa used to think. She felt herself much older by nature and experience.
Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Reading many novels. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. aveam tot mai 266 . cre s-au nascut lent.Rindurile dvs. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. with all its impatience of restraint. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. nu puteam sa le uit. short of the contacts of love. nu a facut-o pentru asta. ii faceau bine. viguros si vesel in felul lui. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. The closer she allowed him to come to her. the more she would be torturing him.Over the River) 2. si in plus. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. Bolnava nu se simtea. astfel. Cind l-a chemat. (John Galsworthy . de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. to keep abreast of the current. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. De uitat. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. she professed. era un bun sfatuitor. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. but lying in her bath. indeed.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. she was uneasy.
ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Milionarule. nu pricep nimic. cit mai au de trait. (St. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. Banulescu – ibid. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. fa-o. se stie.) 7. pe scaunul lui tare.) 5. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Banulescu – ibid.) 267 . Daca tu.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. latimea si ascutisul labei. Personal. Banulescu – ibid. o data sau de doua ori. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. ca si tine. Banulescu – ibid. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. mi-am zis. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. Ce a iesit. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. lungimea picioarelor. (St. (St.) 6. 4. poate fi compensata. vaazut cindva. (St. are nevoie.
Ernest Richard Atkinson. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. Who when asked about his memories of the War. delivered from the holocaust. Who came home from the war. And had a brother killed in the same battle.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Translate them. a wounded soldier. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. (. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. A story-book romance. Who was may father. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres.. for being a renegade. Cambridge. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Could he be blamed. 2. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Arthur Atkinson M. my grandfather. Who. to Emmanuel College. when I was even younger than you.P. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1.. Who told me.
daughter of an ill-paid journalist. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. and because – but this is mere speculation. Fabianism. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. 4. How 269 . he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. he had already engaged himself? 3. Rachel Williams. deep-set. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. to whom. a moody man.
fără să poată pleca nicăieri. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Ion. la şcoală. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. om mare. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Cum au tăcut ei. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum a ajuns el. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. 270 . uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum a trăit el. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. cu taina aceasta. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Ion. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. satul. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta.
cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. singurul lui stăpân. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. împotriva tuturor. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. Când actriţa. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. greşeli dintr-astea. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. 271 . începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. de mama lor. când voi fi singur.pune totul in discuţie. cu sau fără voie. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. L-au derivat cei din teatru. din franţuzeşte. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el.
parcă începusem s-o uit. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. fostă prietenă din copilărie. Am început. e îndrăgostită de un actor. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. dam buzna peste automobile. sau ridicole. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. provocându-le. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. 272 . asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. 6. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. privindu-mă în ochi. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. de pildă. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. 5. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. ci un sistem de acomodare. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. traversând. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. 4. Într-o vreme. A devenit palid. tânăr şi frumos şi el. pe jumătate prezent. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Tot aşa. 3. continuând. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. nevasta-mea. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire.
ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. 9. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. fără să mă opresc o clipă. ca un acrobat. Am început. Dacă nemţii înaintau. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. E o problemă. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. Aş vrea să mă las jos. De altminteri. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. să merg întins. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. şi dacă merg întins. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. 11. fireşte. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. şi să nu ameţesc. că nu m-am gândit la asta. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. iar. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. orice s-ar întâmpla. 8. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie.Unit ten Revision exercises 7.
Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . Ilie nu-l asculta. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. de la lucruri personale. eu am venit sa va intreb. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Acum isi ferea privirea. 14. cu mirare. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 13. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. 274 . la amintiri. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. nu mai semana. In curind. 16. de la proces. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. La un moment dat. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. dar nu se mai putea. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. de la obiecte de pret. de uimire.Ma. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. se uita in jos. Uite. Ii venea greu. la fata locului. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Greu era din partea asta. nu trebuie sa va suparati. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. la carti. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. 17. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie.. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. nu mai pricepu nimic. Auzindu-l.. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. 15. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Adica tot trecutul. trebuia sa le spuna.
se indeparta nepasator. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. apoi se uitau la Ilie.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ».Ce sa fac. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. 20. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. vorbe asa si-asa. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. which was part of his rich outfit. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. cum zicea Anghel. asa cum facuse pina acum. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. dar. Nu era nevoie. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. Aici era ceva. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Zimbea siret. . 19. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. There was even 275 . Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. fara sa-si dea seama de ce.
Miller at her hotel. to admit that she was a proud. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. the young lady. to move fast. at least. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. She was one 276 . paying no attention. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. resuming her walk. gave an exclamation. He felt then. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. going astray. to take his way home on foot. 4. rude woman. and to declare that they needn’t mind her.Nadina VIŞAN relief. on this occasion. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. for the instant. asked for Mrs. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. But Daisy. He walked a long time. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. 5. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. 3. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. conversationally. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. a simplification. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he.
But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. uncomfortably. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. Her daughter. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. 7.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. smiling and chattering. He left me musing. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. make a point. on the other hand. She rustled forward. She appeared. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. Advising with me. indeed. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. 8. in their own phrase. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal.Walker. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. as to projected changes. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. while residing abroad. as it were. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. often. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. as text book. 6. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. and wondering what the deuce he meant. in radiant loveliness. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. of studying European society. making Paul stop and look at her. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .
as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. 11.’ 278 . Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. was immensely struck with him. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. The agent became a very familiar type to H. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. and. H. though E. wondered what they were talking about.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. 9. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. while Paul. or at any rate not heeding. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. could see he was remarkable. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. with his humorous density. H. not seeing. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. and perceived that it must be something important. was only half satisfied with this. 10. and acute too. H. which was deliberate. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps.
why his question had broken out at that particular moment. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. as he looked back. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. not glancing at him for a moment.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. But she gave him no chance. 14. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. that the haunting wonder which now. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. 15. appeared to fill his whole childhood. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. H. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. had the power to chain his sympathy. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. which was very copious. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. 13. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn.
that she must be on the contrary. disheveled and distracted. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. ironically reserved. 17. dragging herself on her knees. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. The whole establishment. H. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. It was very possible she was capricious. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. and to H. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. as a general thing. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 16. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. where the Pearl of Paraguay. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. At the theatre.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. and there were others. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. yet 280 . proudly. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. 18. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H.
One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. 20. H. 19. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. young men were invited. 281 . 2. *Old. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. It came over H. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. and lurking within this nebulous design. would always be more or less irritating. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. had blown a certain chill.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. Their mistakes and illusions. 3. with the poor. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. on which the damp breath of the streets. didn’t mind. No one ever listens to her.
9. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 11. 10. c) When I saw her sitting there. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. slipped on some steps. walking quickly. Rachel. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. I blundered by. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 5. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. 12. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. striding like a Spartan maid. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 282 . 8. her shining blue feet twinkling. 6. 7. her arms held out. I saw her as a vision. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. Either John or he * have got to give in. “Oh. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. I was definitely going to be sick. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I walked fast. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure.
Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. One or more solutions can be valid: 1.
analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. if they were poor. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. where my servant. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. 3. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. but that we saw and pitied. The old women spoke no English. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. 5. 4. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 2. could cook my meals. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. And then I ventured to add that. which was really alarming. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms.
to settle. distress. would really hurt. was informed. had not been able to estimate. was anxious = was + anxious. his. he. etc. he had not yet been able to estimate. etc.g.g. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: Margaret. this. Munt. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. before they left town. Constituents: how much. at noon. apart form his distress for parents.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to pay their annual visit.apart from his distress = apart from. on a house. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. on Saturday. was anxious. Constituents: He. etc. apart from his distress for parents. 285 . He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. this would really hurt. How much.
SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot./ She finally admitted. negative/ If you like jazz. don’t bother her. second clause is non-assertive. listen to this. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. which is not assertive. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.... negative. it is assertive. negative/ Come with me. interrogative. – comparison. / If you like her.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – non-assertive. interrogative. Second clause is an imperative.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. which context is non-assertive. – first clause is an ifclause./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. – first clause is non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. The sentence is however 286 . – non-assertive. interrogative.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. – assertive/ Don’t do that. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. and is non-assertive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.
but it isn’t Susan. / You have never met 287 ./ Hardly interested in the conference. he was hardly pleased./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all.but to someone else. / She does not hate animals. but not more than she does others./ They weren’t really confused. not even when it’s quiet around. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ When he learned the news. / He wasn’t unusually bright. only irresolute./ Not long ago. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. – they told the truth to somebody else. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. the two brothers dared to protest. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. / They didn’t leave. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. but it wasn’t them./ Susan did not get married to Jim ./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ He was exceptionally cunning. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ He was smart enough. –double negation cancellation. not even this thing. – someone did that. / She does like John. but nothing out of the ordinary. / I don’t like her very much. – someone hates animals. everybody used to travel by coach. – I like somebody else. / Not really convinced by what the had heard.
negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. – I cannot look him in the eye. *did he?/ They caused us no problems. I could hardly wait to hear the news. / Should they not have told her the truth. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. they go skiing in the mountains.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. – negative insertion.. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. Jim felt rather at a loss for words..negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. not even when you were very young. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released...negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. / This is hardly the 288 .negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. did they? / A few of them stayed behind. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.... *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news. not even in my dreams. not even part of it? / Not infrequently.Nadina VIŞAN her.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. were they? / This boy is no good. did they? / No problems were caused after all.
Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / Few people came to see her. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. but she also lent him a car./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Almost nobody liked him. – Not many people came to see her. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – You haven’t eaten a thing./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – I almost never look at those paintings. – I never see her. / I hardly ever look at those paintings.Never shall I trust a man again. when we started our holiday. / Hardly anybody liked him. / You’ve eaten hardly anything.. never trust a man again. / I didn’t leave the 289 .Never before did anything like that happen in our street./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. Activity 8 I shall never.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / I seldom look at her like that. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – I don’t often look at her like that. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances..
/ You must on no account touch this machinery. – I don’t expect he will come here again./ I expect he won’t come here again. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. – They say he never had anyone very close. – 290 . / They believe she does not like them. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares../ I somewhat like his proposal. – On no account must you touch this machinery./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself./ Well. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / She could rely on nobody but him. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time.I don’t like his proposal at all. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). you can’t do anything about it any more. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / Come on. –At no time did we leave the office. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / He reckoned he would not win her over. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – Only on this man could she rely. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. you can still do something about it. – Come on. – They don’t believe she likes them. / They say he once had someone very close. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Don’t worry. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / We will see them again somewhere sometime.
– He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test. / You needn’t send her anything./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. / Well./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has./ I can understand all of these ten English words. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. – She almost always comes here.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. 291 . –Alice still lives here.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. / You must pay that fine../ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – You can’t be telling lies./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. – You should send her something. either. – I can’t understand either of these sentences./ Bob is still living at that address./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / You must be telling lies. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet. / She hardly ever comes here. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives. too. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself.
I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ He was a tough man. / Don’t go on believing him./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Have they rung the bell? No./ You look so tired today. has never studied anywhere. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket. / Please. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death./ 292 . I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall./ They say this Ph./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis.D./ It was clear that something awful had taken place./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Zis si facut. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. Oh. I haven’t seen her in years. to any of us. I haven’t done anything. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. He didn’t move a muscle./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ He’s a happy man. give me a hand.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart./ Nobody told us a thing./ You took his leaving you very hard./ E un baiat de zahar. ever since I got this ulcer. His opinion isn’t worth a cent./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. / Jim is so brave. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ Norocul la noroc trage. I didn’t sleep a wink all night. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. It’s no wonder./ I don’t know a thing about her./ N-are nici cap nici coada. / He can’t have done a thing like that. e un magar. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. He isn’t that smart./ Nimic de facut. not yet.
did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. 293 . I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate.’ ‘Nici o problema. with the same needs they had. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. I had never had the opportunity to prove. slowly.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. parasi camera. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . one way or another. for I thought this threatening./ Nu-i nici un deranj. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. that I was a decent man. nothing.’/ Deloc descurajat. no memory. We had nothing in common.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable .negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant ./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. thrown out. feebly. without too much determination. I hadn’t really expected miracles. no story.
or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. things you do any moment. not as we would like it to be or some other way. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. or if you understood what I meant. Unfortunately. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. I’d be so happy if it were so. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. I was sleepy and tired. but facts. We have to judge it as it is. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. I admit. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. • It was my turn to say something. It’s not made up of theories and the like. let alone irritable. Radu had calmed down. your story. that’s what the world is about. he immediately answered me patronizingly. bad. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. the only 294 . he was sitting beside me. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. Your judgement is false. Not for a moment had I thought that.. You really made me mad. by coming here to the monastery. clear or confusing. good. it’s not words. to say the least. on the front seat. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night.
keep it squeaky clean. too? A gun is power. behind these big. no matter how huge they are. and if you like. or you are lying hidden. it solves troubles. did you ever step up front. you do as you think fit. Look. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. as Baciu would have us be. precious words. me. we are leaving. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. to fight. 295 . although it was a difficult thing to do. keep your conscience clean: you have one. it’s your problem. you can go to Ursu’s. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. it’s yours. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. But what about you and Melania. and an inability to act. soon we’ll be in town. just to please myself. I won’t interfere. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. • So. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. But I was just wondering. clears your way. fear might be hiding. or call the respect of others. either. me. Anyway. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody.
even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. -correct 3. Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. but they gradually got used to it. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. But it was not because I had no answer to give. has yet arrived -correct 2..Negative incorporation 296 . She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. because before is a positive polarity item 2.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . has not arrived yet – double negation. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. or some other woman.Negative raising (transportation) f)1.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket .incorrect. . She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. will he?.Negative attraction b) 1..correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems . . – incorrect. as soon as he delivered it. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face.correct 3. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. firmly determined not to answer immediately. the sentence is incorrect 3. correlatives are mixed 2. The villagers were not very religious.
Her stillness. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. prea răscolit. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. b) But it was rather (API) late. (ibid. (ibid. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Nu putea să se mişte. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. His spirit was too tired. too troubled. nu era 297 . He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). yet. Avea sufletul prea obosit. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. her lack of motion would have to do (API). Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. either (NPI). much less ((NPI) for her.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. not happy at all (NPI). (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. Ştia că are dreptate. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. she couldn’t marry him. No one should know to what torture she was subjected.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it.) Însă era cam târziu. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el.
Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (ibid.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid. e) At length. Ba dimpotrivă. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). 298 . şi destul de hotărât. his heart was beating fast. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. inima îi batea năvalnic. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. if anything (NPI). she looked younger than ever (NPI). which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. he made his way to the screen. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. The Satanic Verses. se îndreptă spre paravan. arăta mai tânără ca oricând.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. (Salman Rushdie. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. and not a little unsteadily. (ibid. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still.
the school wasn’t budging (NPI). the gift was useless. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. Home receded from the prodigal son. care if the school were willing to treat him. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. and probably an administrative headache as well.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. 299 . told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. The point was. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. but his father would have none of it (NPI). It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. i) What did C. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor.) C. (ibid. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. h) C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Ce-i pasă lui C. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă.
incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. . correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. 300 . correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. correct.indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. – indirect question. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question.
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. Stavre Paici. Luca Horobet. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Chizlinski. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. “Now. and then what do you 308 . secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. She has an eye for gentle men. Fenia. she likes to entrance them. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. keep Condrat away from her. yes. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. the bitch. she didn’t wear a ring. they were. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. 2. do you really think that this vixen. to make them lust after her. you are in enough trouble as it is. all godfearing husbands and fathers. now she was chatty. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. Vica. Fenia.
The mullah. a seventy-eight year old lad. dragging his feet listlessly. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. ankle-long flowered calico. her hair pinned with blue combs. G. what’s her name. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. It even takes him a while to go to the window. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. with a railway station and a mosque.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. 4. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. 3. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 .Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. He got him out of his mosque. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. have a girlfriend. the minister of Tartars and Turks. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw.
Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 .
– sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – sentence coordination 2.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE .phrasal coordination (in this case. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 . – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – sentence coordination 7.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. Our flag is red. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. and I passed. John and Mary are ready. our respective examinations. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8.. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – similar situation 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. John and Mary are the newly married couple. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody.) 9. Her pet kitten is black and white. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. yellow and blue. John is ready and Mary is ready.sentence coordination (further reducible) 5.
her idea and John’s. her son and others. 8. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. much satisfaction or little 312 . – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). 6. but John does not play football. 10.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. Activity 5 This book and the other. 5. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 3. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. plays football. 7. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane.) Joan plays many games. your proposal and his. 9. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. your work and mine. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. We can and will demand payment. 2. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Activity 4 1. but not John. many guest or few. and even tennis. that method and those. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students.
Life and soul 5. Touch and go 10.) 6. 4. Bread and butter 16. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. High and low 2. Wear and tear 12. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Over and above 13. 8. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Few and far between 14. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Ups and downs 6. 3. Swings and roundabouts 7. 5. The facts and figures 3. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. Thick and thin 11. Spick and span 9. He read. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. but not simple. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Law and order 8. Pros and cons 4. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 7. etc. Activity 8 1. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Safe and sound 313 . He snapped at him and slapped him.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. To and fro 15. magazines are only for children.
– asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 6.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. Symmetric 13. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 8. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – similar situation 9. inclusive 16. 10. 2. – symmetric. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – symmetric. – asymmetric 18. b. Asymmetric 20. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already.. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. 3. 8. My son and daughter are twins. 10. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. exclusive 15. 3. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. – symmetric 2. – symmetric 10. 2. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. Asymmetric 19. 9. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 9. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Cathy and David have arrived. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 4. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 5.symmetric 11. Neither he nor his wife was/were here.There is a table and some chairs in the room. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. Symmetric 21. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 7. exclusive 17. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. 314 . 6. 1. – symmetric. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. My son and heir is safe. cause-effect Activity 10 1. 5. 7. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 4.
He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. 2. 3.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. nor fowl. 10. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 3. clothes and all. 6. 14. Brother or no brother. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. for better or worse.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. 2. 4. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. 9. ‘Madam. Not only should you rest 315 . 5. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. I’ll still finish this paper. Should he pour water in the basin. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. They came to me. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. thanks for asking. We’ll stick together. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. There are doctors and doctors. No drinking and driving. He went to bed. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. 12. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. 8. (2) 1. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 11. it was too small. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 7. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. By hook or by crook. Her husband is long dead and buried. He’s neither fish. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 15. Jim thought it over for a while.
she started doing a great job. You know. tense like a bow. stop dead in his tracks. an important man. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. both dead and buried. What do you know? The moment Mrs. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. so he’d gone down and died in no time. she knows for sure. just like when he was thirty. And. without mentioning financial matters. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement.Nadina VIŞAN assured. So she’ll listen to him. but he’d come out a cripple. and then. their common ground. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. They hadn’t kept him there too long. Mrs. it would work out fine. and she had this idea to ask Mrs.’ (3) 1. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. as she always does. and she listens to him. From time to time she will launch a helping question. 2. This. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. Her first husband had been a professor. tense with concentration. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. but she blinks in approval. 316 . he’d leap high. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. what’s its name. so he could leap in pursuit. Whatever she tried her hand at. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. he starts lecturing her about life and things. at equal intervals.
functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . – obligatory elements: I. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. is aware.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . looked. told.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as an object (direct). about her problems at home After I told her the story. functioning as an adjunct 2. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . she looked at me sadly. – Susan. you. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.subordinate.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. cannot tell. – she. – she. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. whomever wanted to listen. came. – she. at me Activity 2: 1. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.subordinate. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home.subordinate. functioning as a modifier 3. – obligatory elements: she.subordinate.
subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.Nadina VIŞAN 4. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland . remove our home yet again . at our age.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . that you are choosing exile . Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that we should.subordinate.complement b) 1.subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.
a barn. a house. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. outbuildings. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement.complement. but no idea – relative that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement.
When Anton put the sickle down. staring at each other. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. that kept her constantly tense and grim. But other people. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently.A few days before the war. (…) He dashed back. sickle in hand. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. Activity 5 1. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object/ and done – wh complement. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. direct object. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done.wh complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. without straightening her back. (…) ‘Well. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . subject/ to do such again – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him.
Only he had Ana to think of. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. while they spoke from miles away. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. 2. you need courage even for this small thing. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Not even at this point. while on other occasions he would show caution. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. he will turn back and no longer be daring. For no bold man really falters. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. or if he does.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. 321 . 3. that was for sure. but also his sharp nose. Why! He was not of two minds. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. First. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. rather than a real threat. Ana could not stand a trip now. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. but he doesn’t spurn either. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. or other more hidden means. which he doesn’t rely on completely. as if they were at his beck and call.
and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. We were going to drive to a vineyard. they would ruin the arrangement.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. without really knowing why. In fact. are we getting off again? What is wrong. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. And here’s how this first day looked. he had postponed writing back. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. under the silliest of pretexts. 4. by the cars of some of us. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. although he could have said so earlier. it was the women. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. Twice did we get in the car. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. and on Monday followed another feast). So. in Odobesti. to see some mutual friends. 322 . in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. But it was not ok. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. and twice we were requested to get out. and when things didn’t go as planned. come on.
5. on which this occurred . who was just passing by. 8. He told her the secret. 4. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. all of whom would answer to his questions.restrictive 7. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried.restrictive 2. where I spent my youth . 10. 10. John told his friend a story about the king. The students. 5. 7. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. The students like their teacher. These are people who we cannot tell much about. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. where I least expected 323 .restrictive 6. 4. which was a pity. 7. 6. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. like their teacher. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. This is my husband whom I love very much.She came to London where I went too. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. most of whom were from England. 3. He is the author who they gave a prize to. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . You couldn’t join the party. which was silly of him.restrictive 4. any of whom would answer to questions. 9. 2. I bought Jim a book that he liked.free 8. when we first met . Activity 3 1. 8. 11. 3. Activity 2 1. when the plane will take off restrictive 3.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. why they all left . 6. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.
6. Which – subject 4. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. Where . who think so highly of yourselves. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Where he was from – adjunct. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers.adjunct 10.free Activity 4 1. however sad . He who doesn’t work will never succeed. come up front. Activity 5 1. 2. which . Who . 7. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. the prince chose Cinderella.adjunct 11.subject 9. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. when . When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object.adjunct 5.free 9. Where . where – predicative 7.adjunct 3.Nadina VIŞAN . who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. was very displeased with the situation. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. what their parents made them. 5. You. What Inman remembered – subject. What – direct object 2. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. When . who cannot say a word. I. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute.When Ada remarked – adjunct. 3.subject 8. Why . when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. What I’m saying – subject. Of all the persons there you had to choose me. 4. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.restrictive 10. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall.adjunct 6. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. where we talk money – predicative. Of all the persons there.
whom is ungrammatical due to the [. Whatever his fate was – adjunct.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. – which is ungrammatical due to the [. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition. whatever – predicative 13. which is ungrammatical due to the[.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. what little she knew – direct object.attribute 12. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].Key To Chapter Six Practice object.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. how . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . which requires an accusative form.
whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . in his turn. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. a rather tiny looking man.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. got married and had a daughter. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who. due to its invariable character. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. a sergeant. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. but whose second cousin. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. having changed quite a number of jobs. whose great-grandfather.
. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. whose interest he most sincerely shared.yes 7. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. The problem of safe transportation. – yes 6. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. he requested that the public be excluded.yes 10.no 5. – no pied piping 327 .obligatory 4. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. . . . with deletion of the noun friends].yes 3. – no 4. were now all gone. – yes. Irene. . the safeguarding of which was actually not his task.His father’s friends. In the interest of public decency. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. His friends. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. no easy answers to which could be offered. has been troubling them forever. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – yes 2.obligatory 3. . . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.yes Activity 9 1. – no pied piping 5.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. – obligatory pied piping 2. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. he rarely saw now. – no 9. This story. was now complete.
I am to be envied. 3. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. For twenty years. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. Only an ugly endless dream remained. I did so. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. for instance. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow .Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. In other people’s opinion. where two teams battled every day… 5. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 2. irrespective of age and nature.and he couldn’t thank me enough. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. 328 . thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 7. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. 4. For all the four children. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. the third born son. 6. Nelu. 8. yours. Everything was ending. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. or as of a vast arena.
14. she said. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. on Icoanei street. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 15. All that you have read is rubbish. 16. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. since I don’t really know which my true life is. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. He was suffering from dizziness. 10. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 12. If any of your qualities were to persuade them.R. leaving streets and houses behind. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 329 . Behind them. barely glittering in the distance. staring aimlessly. What you’re saying sounds very nice. where from Marta was coming too. You are newly arrived here. from MR street. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. although she was standing quite close to him. 11. the tram was rattling along. 17. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. which was why he saw Dora very far away. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 13.
She was one of those impeccably dressed women. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. From the vantage point I was in. after the car was fixed. 23. likes and dislikes. had a personal style in clothes. which I did not posses. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. But. I could see my woman falling away from me. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. 330 . we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. 20. 21. who only lived once in this world. But for me. or the many Egyptian dynasties. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. had a huge house in Bucharest. who prompted everyone on the street. in her pursuits. 22. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. While some trees are still green. so optimistic and composed? 19. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. or the clash of stars above. 24. If he had hit me.Nadina VIŞAN 18. day by day. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. She was a woman of means. While we were poor. I don’t know what might have happened. So.
object 5. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – the same as 3. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. subject 4. subject 7. – extraposed. – extraposed. 3. – extraposed. – extraposed. – questionable. 6. – extraposed. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. 2. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. It appears that no one voted for him. He will answer for it that his son is innocent.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. for pragmatic reasons 5. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. 8. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. subject 8. 331 . – extraposed. – extraposed. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. prepositional object 11. subject 9.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. – impossible 7.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. direct object 10. It will be soon announced when you can leave. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It was suggested that they should meet the President.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . object 6. – extraposed. – extraposed. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. direct object 3. subject 2. – unextraposed. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible.
but pragmatically impossible 4. – impossible. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. – impossible. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 15. same as 12.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 9. I guess it that he will come back.. . I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. 14. although a bit intricate 2.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. tense influences the 332 . I don’t expect it that he will come back. It is no use trying to convince her. – incorrect.incorrect. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. but pragmatically impossible 3. 18. Activity 3: 1. They never expected it that he would come back. – grammatical. idiomatic formula 16. same as 12. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. . same as 12. a bit too intricate 5. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 17. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you.grammatical. It is nice to meet you. . Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. – impossible. – impossible 11. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – impossible. – grammatical. – same as 12.correct 4. – correct 2. 10. – the same as 12.
in the pits on the road. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. (Not always. under bridges.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. 5. thus. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. in the ditch. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. 2. behind gates. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. 333 . I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.’ 4. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). 3. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. though. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school.incorrect.’ Lionel says. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. – correct 6.
which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. since the 334 . – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. because it is less ambiguous. Activity 7 1.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.Nadina VIŞAN 6. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 4. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. – the first sentence is the better of the two. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. who had just returned from Africa. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. 2. By saying this. It is less ambiguous than the first. – the second sentence is questionable. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. who had just returned from Africa. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. without trying to protest too much. prime-minister. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. 3. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. 7. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. 8.
7. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 6. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 335 . 8. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. extraposition is obligatory here. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. so there is no need for extraposition. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. – both sentences are grammatical. – the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 5. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. The second and third sentences are grammatical.
Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. (Iris Murdoch. – direct object. ibid.adverbial of sequence/result. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.relative Activity 9 1. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. required by deverbal noun 336 . – complement 2. – relative 3.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. for better or worse. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. – prepositional object. .complement 4. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. coordinated.prepositional object. – relative 5. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. . (Iris Murdoch. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. The idea that he had had earned him good money. – subject.) adverbial of sequence/result.) complement that clauses. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. ibid. – complement that clause. – adverbial of sequence/result. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. they were chained to each other forever. – complement 5. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. .We discovered that our map has disappeared.
– g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. f) John said that Harry would leave. – that is obligatory. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. that deletion is obligatory. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. you want me to believe. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. that they were not too late to leave. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible.
– both sentences are grammatical. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . a. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. c. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. – grammatical sentences. b. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. sequence of tenses is observed 4. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.
Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. While the first is possible because of the generalization. prepeliţe. hawk. quail. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . present perfect instead of past perfect. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. cenuşii şi albe. present instead of simple past. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. – generalization on habits of birds. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. geese both grey and white. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. ciocârlii şi şoimi.
She admired their keenness of wit. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. lipsa de vanitate. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. as evidenced by its drear plumage. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. The generic present is used in this case. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. love of practical jokes. lack of pridefulness. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Crows will relish what presents itself. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. slyness in a fight. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă.
with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. […] During the latter stages of the tale. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Murise în picioare. se ridicase în picioare. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. he claimed. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. tânărul ofiţer. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. tragică şi eroică. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. But as the battle raged around them. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. El căzuse pe spate. in the very act of expiring. He died erect. the young officer. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. He had fought hard through the war.
had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. When he saw me. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Activity 13 1. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. I realized I could not tell him the big news. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. deşi era erou de război. A short while later. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. Acum stătea aici. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. to finish my drawing. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). Luptase din răsputeri în război.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. the oldest. jumped off the bench and ran towards me. How can I explain? I just felt shy. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. When the boys saw that mother had left. And they might just hang him. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. One of them. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. 342 . war hero though he was. But when he reached me. în închisoare. They all had their hands in their pockets. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. mother went home and I was left alone. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. he closed the album. 2. Now here he stood jailed. – similar situation to the one under (c). Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. susţinea el. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. they gathered around my desk.
in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. All his senses were now keen. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. as if he had been drunk.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. or if she would do so again. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. brightly and closely. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. for her vineyard. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 .’ Mr. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. or fear his rage. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. 4. 6. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture.’ 5.
You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal.Nadina VIŞAN to him. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . The last time when we met here you scared me. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. claiming you had no ambition for the future. thinking of him. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. And if things were so. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. 10. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. 7. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. 11. 8. 9. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard.
He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. where he would run to confess everything. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 14. 12. towards Jurubita. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. 13. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. which secretly drove him.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. We either sell them or we don’t. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. without putting anything in a note. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. namely the impatience of this young man. more urgently than ever. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced.
the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. – infinitive continuous. 346 . It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. grammatical 7. grammatical 5. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / He had Mary clean her room. grammatical 3. grammatical 2. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 9. – simple infinitive. It is vital this factory to be reopened.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. grammatical 6. . It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.simple infinitive. – infinitive continuous. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / they saw her leave.. . / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. – perfect infinitive. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. – simple infinitive.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – simple infinitive. grammatical 10.
\ They did not wish [her to come back. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. – Test: He persuaded her. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. Test: *They would have hated her. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. – Test: She promised him. \ They would have hated [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive.] – Accusative + Infinitive.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. Test: * I would like people. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. you need to try harder. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / I want to never see you again. \ I allowed [them to come. Test: *I allowed them. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: They convinced her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. / He is believed to have known her 347 . / It is not too late for him to learn. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. Test: *They did not wish her. Test: *She wanted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She promised him PRO to leave. – Test: They tempted him. – Test: They asked her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I would love them.
/ I have a word to tell you. / I want to tell you what I think of you. . / He is hard to stand. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . / To make a long story short. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / Oh. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. / He is easy to talk to. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. not to miss the train. I don’t need you or your services. / He is young enough to start again. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / I want you to leave my house. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.Nadina VIŞAN for years.obligatory subject control verb 348 . Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is easy to live with.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. Activity 6 Oh. . .obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.
to. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. 1 – PRO. Predicative 4 . Both seemed to him a little unreal. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. If he himself was out of spirits. Subject. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. they had depressed and fuddled him. who wasn’t used to men with moods. 1 – PRO-to. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. so that we might get to the future and have done. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Subject. He suspected hostility at once.Accusative + Infinitive. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. the herd instinct was very strong in him. 1] A little crossly. 349 . he didn’t envy those above it. Harold. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. extraposed 2 – PRO-to.
PRO controlled by ‘me’. And you might also be hit and humiliated. we seem to forget about our own pain. 350 . or better said. f) The passing time is important. more meaningful. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. e) When two persons. PRO controlled by ‘she’. true. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. PRO controlled by ‘she’. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. object 2 – PRO –to. cautiously. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. One day. But when we need to comfort others. direct object 3 – PRO –to. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. c) Unlike plane trips. man and woman. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. more believable than evidence itself. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. excitedly. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. 1 – PRO-to. slowly. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. PRO controlled by ‘him’.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully.
which he had already forgotten. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. my wish being only to please and serve. He had not been able to leave Dr. I am indeed praising my own merits. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. even when this love is hurried. that you are young. not to want to wipe it off. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Moroi says heavily. k) With this considerable dowry. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. in the street. while swearing to change my way of life. Stroescu.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. Mrs. If it was summer. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. not even those parts where he had been half-right. tickled by the trickles of sweat. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. And to actually start to believe you are so. That is it. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. or. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. as he had appeared to him in the rain. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. to live only with your coughing. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. for instance. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. h) I want us to go. or their talk that night. And I would care for this man so deeply. S. all down our neck. 351 . since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself.
She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. or to speak so fast. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. Well. 352 . haphazardly. met by squalor and terrible smells.Nadina VIŞAN In a word. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. for that’s the door people get off by. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. she was suddenly so shocked. no matter what. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. every Bucharester knows it. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. here I am with all of my own. ready to submit to any demand. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. poor Muti. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). If you will have what I can give you.
/ The blow left him sprawled under the table. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ He went to have a tooth pulled. / They found it thrown in a corner.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ Don’t keep him waiting. – Attributive past participle./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. 353 . / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. with its lips drawn back. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum./ She sent him shopping. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face.. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. badly beaten and bloodied. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.
I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Turning on the light. 3. 7. 9. – As she was running into the room. Finding the treasure. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Having fed the dog. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. sitting taut between her father and her sister. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. a rug caught her foot and she fell./ Running into the room. – Attributive present participle. 8.She didn’t want to hear the story again. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. Sleeping in the next room. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 10. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I was astonished at what I saw. Attributive present participle. 5. a rug caught her foot and she fell. they began quarreling about how to divide it. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. he sat down to his own dinner. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. having heard it all before. Activity 4 1. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. The tree had fallen across the road.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. Knowing that the murderer was still at large.Running into the room. 2. having been uprooted by the gale. I slammed the door of my room. Accusative + present participle / In any case. Having looked through the fashion magazine. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 4. 6.
– As he was climbing down the tree. cloth-covered. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 7. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 11. sharp-eyed/minded. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. red-handed. Dropped by parachute. a scorpion bit him. 3. – As he was riding in the first race. Barking furiously. 355 . Riding in the first race. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. the sea was tossing the post up and down. – As he was tied to the post. one of the eggs broke. broad-shouldered. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. stony-hearted. Reading in bed. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. Getting out of bed. my hands often get very cold. 9. Tied to the post. – When I read in bed. – As he left the cinema. 2. a scorpion bit him. wooden-headed. fishy-eyed. his horse fell at the last jump. his horse fell at the last jump./ Reading in bed. – As I was passing under a ladder. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. – As he was getting out of bed. 5. Passing under a ladder. / Getting out of bed. the sea was tossing it up and down. a pot of paint fell on my head. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. lion-hearted. an idea suddenly occurred to me. – As the dog was barking furiously. my hands often get very cold. I often get very cold hands. I let the dog out of the room. he broke one of the eggs. I let it out of the room. Climbing down the tree. empty-headed. an idea suddenly occurred to me. one of the eggs broke. 10. 8. Activity 5 Fair-haired. a pot of paint fell on my head. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. / Climbing down the tree. he was bit by a scorpion. 4. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 12. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. many-coloured. narrow-minded. bald-headed. open-minded. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. Leaving the cinema. 6. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. three-coloured.
the shoulders barely hidden by lace. are sold throughout the world. (find) 6. injured when their car crashed on the M1. Activity 7 1. eagle-eyed. produced by S. were taken to hospital. shaven head. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (take) 2. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. The escaped prisoner. shorn lamb. sunken eyes. / Three people. The film. (hunt).I fell on the ice. hunting for a bargain. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. is expected to be a great hit. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. injuring my arm. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. / Many old people. stricken deer./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (injure). rotten plank. shrunken stream. open-hearted. 7. / Swiss watches. bounden duty. Activity 8 1.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (produce) 3. was today taken back to prison. (admire) 5. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. Whales. straight-shouldered. found hiding in a barn. graven image.Spielberg. ill-gotten wealth. 356 . lighted candle. drunken man. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. roast meat. I stared at the canvas for ages. are in grave danger of extinction. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. mown grass. (grow) 4. hidden meaning. dark-skinned. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. admired for their elegance and precision.
2. sprinkled with sticky flour. the fish. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. yet left them room to sway free. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. seeking some promised land. 357 . and moreover. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. flat and soft. bake them. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. He felt close to his father. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. the twice rinsed vegetables. 3. the carved chicken. in charge of his house and lands. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. 4. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. thrown in the pots. After a while. And his soul. A parasol. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. then put up. hovering uncertain and soft. now taken down. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. boil them. So. streaked with yellow veins of fat. and the puffed pastry beds. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. he were struggling for breath.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. suddenly suffocated. its scales scraped off by the knife. he started peering anxiously around as if. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves.
/ She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. He smiled to hear her talking in that way./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. Gambling is his favourite pastime. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. . / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. Activity 10 1. he left the store without buying a thing. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. – participle (attribute) 2. / I told him not to bother putting things back. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / After annoying the shop-assistant. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. – Accusative + participle 3. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine.gerund 5./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. / I am sorry for being so late. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. – gerund (subject) 4.
possessive ING (predicative) 7. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs. preceded by preposition). – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. 8. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. . The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. – Nominative + participle 13. – gerund (half or full. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. He was spotted talking to her. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. gerund (has a direct object) 359 .possessive ING (direct object) 9. – gerund (prepositional object) 15.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – gerund (attribute. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence.participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs.
take down her answer. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. – verbal noun (has determiner. we had done nothing to be ashamed of. adjective. adjective.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare. Lady Corven. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. hold up his pen and speak. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. my Lord. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock.’ ‘Tell me. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.’ 360 .. I did ask Mr.. however appearances were against us. – gerund (full.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. Croom to try to follow one. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. but they went by too quickly. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. – verbal noun (has adjective).verbal noun (has determiner. – gerund or verbal noun. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.
’ 361 . it’s overrated. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. my Lord. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. and went out to post it himself. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. licked the envelope with passion. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. I just used the word and they fell. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. ‘I do hate asking for things. the sisters started about eleven o’clock.’ said Clare. Then. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. I must go back now. he addressed the note. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. suddenly.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I spend all my time hunting a job. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.
adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. adverbial of time. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. after verb of perception. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. The two sides were moving apart. hoping (participle. slightly 362 . It was like a mist. slowly rising (participle. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. He looked up towards the daylight. attribute). functions as direct object) and then the ground.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. The sight of the two children. First the crack snaking (half gerund. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. following the verb ‘remember’. down. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. direct object) towards him. direct object). attribute). gerund. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object) from below. attribute) in a swirling motion. …while their edges were crashing inwards). but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. someone looking for survivors (participle. attribute. At first. attribute. The collapsing shops (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. (participle. attribute. attribute.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. Has a complex subject) in the hole. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. village which is burning). down into God knows where. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. the very earth opening up (half gerund. elliptical here. then the noise and the cracking stone. the enormous split in the earth. Then he saw movement at his feet. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. according to the books he read. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. covering (participle. one. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. early. direct object). That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. moving up (participle. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. etc. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. you.e. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing.). adverbial of reason). i. has ‘of’ phrase). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . my dear. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. prepositional object.
and not only in my imagination or theirs. and then went riding (participle. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. brightening (participle. the two Mamonas. reluctant or not. preceded by preposition. Young Mamona left the room without a word. Having a French governess (participle. examining (participle. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. adverbial of reason). adverbial of manner). (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. Vaucher and I. mother. attribute) a sudden whoop. She finished what jobs there were. slanted on to her cheek. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. and everything got suddenly animated. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. Standing up. adverbial of manner). and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. So. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. which beckoned to 364 .Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. and sunlight. attribute) stopped dead. we were all gathered in that room. attribute) to winter brilliance. And. preceded by preposition. for Dornford was busy on an important case. a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English.
Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. he looked like someone who did. bending a little. I knew who it would be. closing my eyes. her back towards us. Vaucher might have known that too. about concentrating all our resources. who knows. as mother had ordered him. sitting in his puddle. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. and to Young Mamona. to me. let alone greet us or say something. without taking his sack off his shoulders. 3. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. And then. he went to mother and. about sparing no effort. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. and ended his life in the year 1821. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. killed by Young Mamona. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. 2. Not so unimaginable though. And. he found us sitting each in his place. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. too. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. his disloyal apprentice. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. and smelling so hard of rain. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. in the year 1812. So when Old Mamona came in. Entering our house on a Thursday. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . He cast us a swift glance. to Vaucher. each carrying a wooden box. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. kissed her forehead. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. 4. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. for anyway.
of taking notes and rewriting them. futile. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. barrack. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. long board table. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. wood pile. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. each pausing before jumping down. everything seemed familiar. And suddenly. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. 5. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. already seen and heard. And all around them was the great field 366 . the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. stove. They got off the truck slowly. But. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. as an afterthought.
They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. 367 . The next thing was to go to the well.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
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