This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă
Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006
ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11
TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36
THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57
3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65
3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68
FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114
SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138
6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146
SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160
7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171
7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176
7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218
NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231
9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239
9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253
TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284
KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite
6 . titularizare şi grad. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat.de rezolvări.
ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .
Auxiliary verbs 1. The Distribution of an Element 1.5. Constituent Phrase 1.Contents: 8 1. Complementary distribution . Insertion 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 184.108.40.206.2.6.
that is sequences fragmented at random. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. her mother. They are just strings. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. loves.1.2. 1. or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. Consequently. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. For instance. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . Semantic. sequences of the kind her mother very.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. very much. Syntactic.
an order given to an interlocutor). semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have.Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. must.) 10 . we are dealing with a directive (i.4. 1.3. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. should. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. be). 1. (Mi-a spus secretul.e. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). etc.
) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . This element cannot appear in any kind of context. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. for instance. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.5. live. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects.6. etc.) 1. 1. Consider. an ‘empty’ there subject. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear.
This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. using your own examples: insertion. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. Pratice Define and illustrate. as the star indicates. How much. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. complementary distribution. whereas (7) is not. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. he had not yet been able to estimate. distribution. semantic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. pragmatic. syntactic. Munt.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. this would really hurt. If the given context is the one under (6). 12 .
13 . To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation).TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.
Conclusion. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2.2. Polarity Items 2. Key terms 2. Negative vs.6.5. Instances of negation 2. Full – local negation 2. Key terms .220.127.116.11.4. Tests for negativity 2.7. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. affirmative sentences.
) is said to be an assertion.) b. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. it asserts something. For instance.Declarative vs. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. in the sense that it states something. Negative . Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. This example can be compared to: (2)a. Consequently. We do not therefore have two independent systems: .2. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’.Positive vs. The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 .Unit two Sentence negation 2. in that they do not state anything.
/ She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. They told her the ( e.g. / Come with me.assertion .) .positive and declarative secret.g.non-assertion . listen to this. comparison.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret.Nadina VIŞAN . / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much.) . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.interrogative (e./ Don’t do that./ If you like her. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.negative (e. / She finally admitted. didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz. subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. 16 ./ We didn’t come here just to talk. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) ./ She can’t wait to read that book.g.positive sentence .other (if –clauses. don’t bother her. Did they tell her the secret? ) .
(Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. For example. we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. since the negative word not is not present there.Unit two Sentence negation 2. Susan doesn’t like her friends. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. (John e nefericit. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. (Nu demult. I met a girl named Susan. John is not happy. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. John is unhappy.) 17 . Susan dislikes her friends. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples.3.) b. In the case of the sentences under (4). word negation.
) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. more precisely the phrase it is part of. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. I was not a little worried. just like in the case of word negation. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. where the word 18 . (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult. but their meaning tells us a different story.) c. since the negative word not is present inside them. She was not an unattractive woman. In other words. the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea.) b. these sentences look negative. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. He was not without intelligence. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare.
a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night.e. without intelligence. / Când a aflat vestea. / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or .Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema. semantic negation. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. Translate the following sentences into English. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat.
Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John. domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. affirmative sentences. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu erau nelămuriţi. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. dar nu neobişnuit. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. ci doar indecişi. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. dar nu în mod special. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. 2. Negative vs. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 .4.
such as do insertion.) (9) I didn’t go there. For instance.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes. whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. (Nu m-am dus acolo. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry).Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. etc.1. (see subsection 1.). Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. (M-am dus acolo. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government.
/ They didn’t leave.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. / She does not hate animals. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. / We don’t come here often. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. / Susan did not get married to Jim. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. / I don’t like her very much. incorrect. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. 22 . / Susan was not bitten by a dog.
and neither do they like her. which is ungrammatical. Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. Example (14) is syntactically negative.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. even the smart ones.Unit two Sentence negation 2. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. which does not happen in the case of (18). not even the smart ones. *not even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. and they don’t like her either. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. *and neither do they like her. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. * and they don’t like her either. 3. . 4. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.
/ They caused us no problems.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / A few of them stayed behind. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. In conclusion. / You have never met her. By applying these tests to the sentence in question. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently. / No problems were caused after all. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Few of them stayed behind. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. 2. they go skiing in the mountains. / This boy is no good. / Not always a witty interlocutor.5. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 .
(Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (27) a . I went nowhere.Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). Susan could not go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 . (N-a venit John). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner.
All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a.) (29) a. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. / I didn’t ever go to his place.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. no incorporation takes place. b. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. All that glitters is not gold. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el.) c. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el.Nadina VIŞAN b.) b. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur. I didn’t see any student. (N-am văzut nici un student.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. I didn’t see anybody. I didn’t go anywhere. No day passed without me thinking of him. 26 . I never went to his place. Not all that glitters is gold. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri.) b.
/ Not many women are famous opera composers. etc. / No one ever listens to her.) We seldom watch T. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man.V. and we don’t go to the theatre either./ They never went there. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / I showed him nothing. / She said not a word when I spoke to her.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative./ They didn’t come to meet her. . / He should not be released. rarely. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad. scarcely. barely. seldom.4.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / None of them liked house music. / I didn’t see anybody. not even short ones. / I saw nobody. / Not a word fell from her lips. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction. (Nu citesc romane. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. / Not one of them came to meet her. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly.) They barely read any novels. nici măcar din alea scurte.
emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat.) d. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. . / I scarcely ever see her.) c. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor. which triggers inversion): (35) a. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc. negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / Few people came to see her. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing.) b. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / I seldom look at her like that. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / Hardly anybody liked him.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. Hardly have they heard a thing like that.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. Never have I met a more horrible person. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) 28 them.
in the sense that the 29 . / You must on no account touch this machinery. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. never trust a man again. As you can see from the translation of these examples. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / She could rely on nobody but him. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei. sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never.) They don’t think that he likes them.
barely. appear. / They believe she does not like them.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. be supposed to. suppose. advise. probability. In sentence (37). seem.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. we can very well say something like: (38) a. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. the negative meaning is less strong. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. although not negative in meaning.6. sound/feel like. choose. / I suppose she doesn’t care. / I expect he won’t come here again. ought to. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. 2. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. cannot appear in an affirmative context. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. want. believe. etc. etc. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.) b. intention. etc. imagine.: think.) 30 . be probable. be likely. She didn’t lift a finger to help me. should be desirable. guess. look like. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. intend. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. expect. For example. suggest.
* Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă. Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items. That is 31 . They are not usable in an affirmative environment. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el. b. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. *She likes our chairman at all. I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context.2. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. are clearly not grammatical.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples.*She lifted a finger to help me. and sentences such as: (39) a. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.
/This experiment has revealed something of importance already. too (I don’t like it. a lot (I don’t like you much. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / Come on. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / I like it . / Don’t worry.).) At all vs.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. still (I don’t love you any more.) Much vs. too. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I somewhat like his proposal. / I still love you) Either vs. either. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) Yet vs. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / He arrived before 5. / Well. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.) Any more vs. / Bob is still living at that address. / I have already seen him. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / You needn’t send her anything. / I eat caviar most of the times. / Well. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all. you can still do something about it.) Hardly ever vs. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I can understand both of these 32 . / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / She hardly ever comes here. / I somehow like him. some (I haven’t any money. / They say he once had someone very close. / I have some money. etc. too.) Until vs. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I like you a lot.
/ Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. / Peter knows some English and so does John. hurt a fly. de când cu 33 . / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. crack a smile. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ I can understand all of these ten English words. have/be worth a red cent. Ion nu e prea deştept. mulţumesc. move a muscle. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. sleep a wink. see/ feel/ remember a thing. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile. Translate into English. / Ajută-mă. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. lay a finger on someone. hear a peep. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. find a trace. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. leave a stone unturned./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. nici unuia dintre noi. give a damn/darn. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). touch a drop. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. turn a hair. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / You must pay that fine. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. last a minute. flinch. know a single person. say / breathe/ understand a word. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri. / You must be telling lies. have a care/ friend in the world. bat an eye(lid).
/ Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. As you have noticed from the exercises above. Translate into Romanian. budge. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / No man is wise all the time. nu e vina mea. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / I had no end of trouble. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / Not that I care. / Hotărât lucru. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / Nothing succeeds like success. B: Aşi. but you really should do something about it. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. / Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. N-are nici o grijă pe lume. încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. / He won’t make old bones. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. he’s a pig. / No admittance. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. încercând să prindă criminalul. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. he left the room. / No entry. / No hands wanted. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . n-a sunat încă. / No sooner said than done. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. / No trouble at all. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. / Never is a long word. / He is no end of a fellow. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. dar nici para chioară în buzunar.
In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences./ I saw no one. say it. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). as well: 35 . Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). / I hate making any commitments.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. N-am văzut pe nimeni. Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. b) I love asking some funny remarks. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it.Unit two Sentence negation rather). c) He is anxious to say something. 2. Normally.
The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. I don’t. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction.) 2. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. nu poezia asta. B: Not this poem. Key terms. nu îmi place poezia asta. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives. Conclusion. (Nu. it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. from a syntactic point of view.8. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. nu-mi place. B: Nu. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences. I don’t like this poem. 36 . We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. The second negation is somehow independent. however. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English.
Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea
dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative
Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)
Nadina VIŞAN 44 .
To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English. 45 . interrogation).THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e.
2. Optional Exercises .2 Wh.3. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3. Minor Types of Questions 3.3 Alternative Questions 18.104.22.168. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 22.214.171.124 Tag Questions 3.3.2 Echo Questions 3. Key Terms. Direct vs.2.2.1 Yes/No Questions 3.Questions 3.
1. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.Unit three Questions 3.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. If we try to analyze the examples above. English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet. for a subsequent section. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions. focusing on direct questions mainly. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 .
g. pe mama. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. (2). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. (3) and (4). Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. 48 . paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Pratice Translate the following questions in English.Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences.
It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). Since the question is not direct any more. In the case of indirect questions. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. 49 . Likewise. the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the sequence of the tenses is violated. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). because. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. in this case.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions.
am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. spune la un moment dat femeia. c) Ştii ce. / He asked me who she was. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. identify the incorrect sentences. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. / I don’t know whom she fancies. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. sau mai bine zis. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / I don’t know who she is. / He asked me who she is. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 . ce culoare are pielea.
In this case. Short questions tend to lose some of their content. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Let us provide 51 . one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer. being typical of spoken language. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. the type of answer the respective question requires.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is. as Quirk shows.Unit three Questions 3.2. those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer.
Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 . (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (which / you like best) ? 4. 3.1.2.Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3.
(Da). except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. instead of Negative Polarity ones. A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. are said to be positively – oriented. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. (Da).Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. it has. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. they did.
It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 3. I’ve still got plenty of time. but I’ve got to babysit tonight.? (a mean thing to do) 54 . A: Your mother is shouting for you.Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. 2. but I want to play basketball a little longer. (speak yet) B: ……. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. because you always copy everything I do! 5... as in the example: 1.. A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. 6. 7. A: You’ve been learning German for years. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. ……………………………. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. ……………? (hear her) B: …. ……. …………………. A: You’re still in your pyjamas. A: She had her tenants evicted. A: You look down. ... 4. Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.
…………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. 3..questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. which When. . 8.. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.2. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. . 10. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 . A: It’s past your bedtime.2 Wh – questions Wh. You could have mentioned it earlier. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: ……………………. where. what . 9. . ……………………………….Unit three Questions B: …………………. I didn’t get home until late last night.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. how.. A: There was a terrible car crash.
/ I went to Hawaii on holiday. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. / That’s my pen. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. / Shirley got married to Ben. / There are six students in my class. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. / She lives in the suburbs. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans.000dollars. what ever. trying to find places where I resided in life. (Poppy Z. why ever./ We’ve lived here for ten years. / Kay’s gone out shopping. / My new car cost 10. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”./ Sara owns two cars./ She dropped her glasses. / David’s car was stolen./ I have French lessons twice a week. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. Nearly two hundred years. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are. I cannot do that. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. of course.
) 57 .2. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette.3. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu.
shall we stay? 7. didn’t use he? 11. wasn’t it there? 17. Let’s stay for another few days. Who did left the gate open? 18. There was a fax for you this morning. How long is she be spending in America? 8. You can’t be serious. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How long is she be spending in America? 15. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. How far is it the cinema? 10. How far is it the cinema? 3. He used to work in a bank. He used to work in a bank. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. can you be? 58 . Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. didn’t use he? 4. shall we stay? 14. Let’s stay for another few days. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1.
Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following. să-mi înfrâng frica. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Ani întregi. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. despre o lume dură. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Toate vechi. How long have you be lived in London? 26. dacă prin absurd 59 . oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. uneori disperat. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. will you not? 27. plin de germeni virulenţi. isn’t it this? 25. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. That’s your car. Who did told you about the problem? 31. John goes jogging every morning. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. wasn’t it he? 22. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. That was Jeremy’s brother. ca şi cei ce au fost. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. doesn’t he go? 23. Pot reveni.Unit three Questions 19. How long time does it take to get there? 28. deci. deci. neliniştea infantilă. will you not? 21. Whose it is this book? 32. Don’t forget to take some spare socks.
contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . iar proştii. picură apa roşietică. laşii. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. negru. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. dar şi drumul. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. ghiceam doar unde se află. Şi. neîntrerupt. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. indiferent de risc. B. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. puturos. Riscul? Ratarea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. mă întreb. inactivii. umed. pe sub bolţile din care. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. “Spune! striga el. de atunci. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. străină priceperii lor. pe care oricum am simţit-o. lung. naiv. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. îi ştiu gustul. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. murdar.
3. golul alb. când nu-i pot face nici un bine.3.Unit three Questions viaţă. nu se poate. exclus. domnule profesor. la urma urmei. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo. orbitor. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. care i-a determinat alegerea. viaţa? Oare e drept. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. 3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door. Tag Questions Tag questions. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. didn’t she? . când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. da? (37) Let’s go there. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi.1. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga. will you? (38) She went to Prague. or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English.
The suggestion is that in this case. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa.e. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. au fost cheltuiţi. (Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. sarcasm. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. or falling. or “comment tags”. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. hasn’t she? (Aha. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. is it? (Deci.) A: Oh. aren’t they? 62 . the tag is negative too). au fost cheltuiţi. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. it’s all spent. if the host sentence is negative. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. the tag is affirmative too. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. (Din păcate. In this way.
/ I think you like my music. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / Let’s eat dinner now. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / That was your father. / You will pick me up. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / The boy never watched his sister. / She has a brother. / I am dressed smartly enough. / I may not see you tomorrow. / You have been invited. / Everyone felt happy about it. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / I don’t think you like my music. / They said he liked music. nu?) • with a falling intonation. / I am older than you. after all.…/ Let me know. / She used to talk a lot. / That’s your car over there. / I may see you tomorrow. / Few people like her. / Don’t leave without me. / A few people like her. / You ought not to smoke. / Surely you have enough money. / He simply hates empty words. / The boy often watched his sister. / Each of us is staying. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / There is enough food for everyone. / Tell me. / I think you don’t like my music. / He has to marry Susan. 63 . / You will pick me up at 7. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / He hates his wife. / She left an hour ago.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / I must go now.
isn’t it? / Is this a great party. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. So you enjoyed my talk.. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. or what? 3. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. / He never used to study so hard…. using a question tag at the end. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. 5. He used to play squash. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam./ I’m right about this…. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education.
/ Teachers… Students’ parents often support them. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.1. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia. recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.questions which repeat part or all of the message.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.2. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn. Recapitulatory echo questions .1. / Grants… 3.3.2.) B: Chinese? 65 . Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.2.3. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.
disbelief.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. The difference between recapitulatory 66 .) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. rather than the repetition. of something just said. consternation.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.3. If the wh. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Închide lumina aia. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place.2.phrase is fronted.2.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh.
intonation is rising. / We are looking for a pixie. with recapitulatory echo questions.e./ He is interested in blue movies. rather than did you say. dear. (Uită-te la asta. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a solution. whereas with explicatory echo questions. / He is interested in music.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean. am pierdut scrisoarea./ We are looking for a purse. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. which letter do you 67 .Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Vai. (i. I’ve lost the letter.
recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert.Nadina VIŞAN 3.4.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 . does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. she knows about it. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book.
Are gust de oameni blânzi. şi care s-a aciuat. lui Luca Horobeţ. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit. Fenio. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . cu o casă de copii. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. şi apoi Vica ce zice. cumnată Fenia. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. acuma sporovăiala. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. să se încolăcească mai bine. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. da. pe Condrat de Vica. acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. în satul nostru. ca să zic aşa.– Crezi tu. în general. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. lui Chizlinski. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. oameni aşezaţi. după pofte. aşa. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. lui Stavre Păici. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. nu purta verighetă. stricata. şerpoaica.Nu ştiam unde mă duce.
până la călcâie. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. deci. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. sau cum o chema. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. roşu şi galben. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. L-a scos din geamie. dar cum se face că a 70 . curat ca pereţii de Paşti. Hogea. De asta erai. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. sus. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. abia târându-şi picioarele. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere.
dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul. furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine. niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 .
FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English. to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .
Contents: 74 4.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.2.1.Coordination and Subordination 4.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.6.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.4.Key Concepts .3.5.
75 . cu repros. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. where there is no indication other than a comma. that elements are coordinated. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. present) in the sentence. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. reproachfully.1 Syndetic vs. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination.e. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination.Unit four Coordination 4. Example (2). is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination. on the other hand.e. which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. i.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination.
you will die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting.) (4) If you hit my wife. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent.Nadina VIŞAN 4. coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. From the previously mentioned examples. 76 . Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions. vei muri. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view.2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Conversely.) Such examples. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection.
we need to specify that. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. However. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion. the second.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. respectively subordinated constituents. from a logical & semantic point of view. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. but presupposed. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.
Then he sat down. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. built. Though the castle had vanished. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. of cut gray stone. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. the houses were beautiful and ancient. adorned with cornices. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. His clothes hung to him. John Steinbeck. He moved and made a slopping noise. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. with enormous solidity. his shoes squished. In the second. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. but the 78 . took off his coat and emptied them. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. In the first. with formal walks under rows of trees. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. took off his shoes and emptied them. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky.
After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. Cecil Woocham – Smith. over some of the roughest ground in the country. the higher he went the wetter it grew. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. and as the way is with Irish mountains. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. left the house. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins.
(L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. were to take down the name of every man. we should be seriously annoyed. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . as shown in (9). where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4. As one can easily notice. the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (G. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.K.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. however distinguished. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. who was caught at a University Extension lecture. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination.3 Sentence vs.
Pratice Distinguish coordination.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. but not John. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. 3. 4. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John is ready and Mary is ready. plays football. / Bob and George are admired by their students.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. / Joan plays many games. 8. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. our respective examinations. and even tennis. 5. John and Mary are the newly married couple. Activity 2 sentences: 1. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. / Peter. Her pet kitten is black and white. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. and I passed. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. John and Mary are ready. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . 7. 2. yellow and blue. 9. 6 John sang and Mary danced.Unit four Coordination example (7). / Peter and John played football. Our flag is red.
Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. Jane 82 . Activity 4 2. or deleted.Nadina VIŞAN b. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. 3. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John loves and Bill hates cigars. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates.) c. 5. John writes poetry and Bill prose. as can be seen in (10b). Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1.) b. 6.
(Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. So. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. 10. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. 83 . Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. the so-called Principle of Economy. 9. the predication buy a pair of shoes. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. i. these syntactical processes.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure. 8. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying.) The common element. Besides ellipsis. can be reduced by substitution. than a longer repetitive one.e. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. 7. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle.
Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. the old men and women 2. 3. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. some reason or another. George and Jane are separated. 4. since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. A citit. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another. In certain cases. Translate the following sentences. using reduced structures: 1. simple books and magazines for children 3. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. 4. George and Jane went back to their parents. one or (the) other method. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 2.
… 14. fish and chips. 15. of your proposals later on? 3.You gain some things and you lose others. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….. 12. 5. 5. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. like: salt and pepper. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . 6. 7. 6. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 11. 2. 13.. for my wallet. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. 8. A pendulum swings ………. it’s a case of ………… 7. the amount I’ve already saved up. Marks and Spencers. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Can we discuss the …………. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….I searched ………. sweet and sour. 8. even though they have their little …………. they reached home……….. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres.. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. They get on quite well together.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc.. . The police are responsible for maintaining …………. I need another 100$ ………. 16. After all their adventures. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. only for damage. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4.. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori.
Nor sun. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. b. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless.4. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. and 86 . which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. For instance.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.) There are. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. the expressive function of coordination is. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. of course. etc. more often than not. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. In fact. 4. as in: (17) a.
sometimes but.) c.g.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. (I-am dat banii. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. (Ei o placeau pe Susan. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and. both … and . and cherished her. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.) b. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.) 87 .) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. 20 (b)). o respectau si o indrageau.) In certain cases. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. etc). (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. or . too): (20) a. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her. where the subordinator is repeated.
(Imi place si o admir. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. I washed and ironed my pants. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. I like and admire her. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines.) b. and hit my wife. (O admir si imi place. and you’ll die. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. I admire and like her. the order of these conjuncts is fixed. In this case. From this point of view. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.* I ironed and washed my pants. if we were to rewrite the example .Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes.) b. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a.
) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay.) while/whereas – interpretation Dr.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.Unit four Coordination 1. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .) (While Dr. he failed). Brown experiments with humans. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit. (If you do that. Dr. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.
2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.
4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.
OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.
4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94
ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
stropitoarea în casă?
materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly. 97 .Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.
Nadina VIŞAN 98 .
FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .
4 Key Concepts .1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. as the name suggests it.g. turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.) 101 . e. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. From the functional point of view.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.which are based on coordination . If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. (Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. 5. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.
by an adjective + preposition. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. (I-a dat cartea.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. an adverbial item. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. for instance. For instance. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. sentences) required by the verb (or. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. We do not presuppose however something like.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. In a way.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it.) 102 . (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. in certain cases. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. we associate it with these objects. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. they are still presupposed by the speaker. such as proud of.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. for example).
These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. Thus. an additional one. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. A second observation. i. In other words. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. 103 .) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object.) b. related to example (4). The term comes from the verb to adjoin. I am afraid that he won’t come.e. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to her) and one extra-item. The second example.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book. to add something. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. but its effect remains even after its wipeout. which is the adverbial willingly. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition.
etc. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. before you decide on what label to stick on an object. I’ll die.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. a închis toate ferestrele. am să mor. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. So.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine. make. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective.) (11) If you don’t marry me. such as want. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs. (Înainte să plece din cameră.) 104 . (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. like.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least.
Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. 6.g. [. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1. 5.g. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 2. They came to e. this to whomever wants it. The book that because they home.She came to him of her own will.g. 4. Whoever did that was a genius.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 3. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 . she looked at me sadly. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. e. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. After I told her the story.
He took an intelligent interest in her. 6. at our age. etc. 3. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. 2.) 106 . As you can see. stating their function: Activity 2 1. 5. FOR. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. but he declined. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. You suggestion that we should. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. though it was largely politeness. in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. which. 4. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. was a novelty to Mitzi. not object. WHETHER. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God.
where. why. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. when. (15) It is John who did it.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) b. (E de dorit să plece. which.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare. 107 . etc.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune. who. how.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. Where he went is London.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. (Ştiam că mă simpatizează.) (16) a. (Am vrut să plec imediat. Who did it was John.) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis.
etc. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. In conclusion.1.) (18) She told me this before she left. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. In (18). before. (Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. however. Unlike complement clauses. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. consider the following table. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. Compare. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. As you will see. done from a structural point of view. if. for instance. which sums up this classification.
I will come back such as because. whether he will come when I feel like it.g.g. at your young age. for. you understand. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. I will go there because I feel like it. etc. as. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. 109 . Dear Ludwig. after.g. Introduced know e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. surely you cannot sincerely believe. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. back.: e. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings.
she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. Too. 2. But she thought that no one would call again. Late that afternoon. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. he said.The day Monroe had died was in May. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. As she left the house. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. she stopped to speak to Monroe. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. a tightening in her breathing.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Accidental Man) b)1.
g.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5. As you have probably noticed already.g. Wh Complements can be subjects: e. 111 . That he loved e. a correspondence can be traced. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. că e. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. I told her everything after she arrived.g.g. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses. However.g. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. interesting.g. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.2. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture.
. We will come back to that in the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. (Cred că mă place. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly. So.e. i. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. Secondly. Thirdly.1. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. whenever you identify a wh. you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. In the fourth place. whereas wh complements are the 112 . This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings.Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect).2. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me.complement.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. complements. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter.
etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. because. a house. c) I am coming home one way or another. for no matter how she tried. but no idea what to do with them. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. She mistrusted her handwriting. I first thought to tell in 113 . None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. and I do not know how things might stand between us. their introductory elements (e. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. a barn. before. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out.g. Pratice Consider the following text. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. after. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. outbuildings.
because they modify. and I have not the will or the energy. wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial). these clauses can be complements. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate.4. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). it would make you fear to do such again. Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one.e. According to a structural criterion. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective).
care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. 115 . însă. interested in.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Alţii.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. Pratice Translate the following. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. answering the question to whom? So. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. îşi spuseseră că Anton. O zbughi înapoi. după ce că are grâu puţin. dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. be very careful to use this term correctly. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. think of. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. (…) “Mă. etc. look at. ce o fi având. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. Nevasta secera în tăcere.e.g. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.
Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. timp de un ceas. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila. întâi. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Toată lumea înţelesese că. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. (Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. izolate de sat. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. cât de bolnavă era. deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. Nici acum. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. de fapt. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer.
cu automobilele unora dintre ei. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Era bine de ştiut. acum sunt desluşiţi. Pace nu era. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. deşi cam târziu. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. de pildă. la Odobeşti. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. la nişte prieteni comuni. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. În realitate. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit. aşa de oţetit. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. stricau totul. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Iată. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. amânase scrisul. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . iar când nu izbuteau de la început. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare.
ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. întâia noapte de război) 118 . frate. nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar.
accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. whose..SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses.g. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence. subject relative clauses. of which. etc. etc). 119 .
Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6. The Co-reference Condition 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6.6. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.4. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Key Concepts .5.3. The Classification of Relative Clauses 126.96.36.199.1.
(1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.Unit six Relative clauses 6. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section.2. The Co-reference Condition . 6. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. 121 . b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see.1.) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane.
By combining these two clauses. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. John loves that woman. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. 122 . Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.
we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. John offered flowers to that woman. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The common element woman is present. 123 . The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. This way.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a.
She doesn’t know anything about Jane. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. I introduced him to Jim. The king was just passing by. Susan wants to meet Jane. 5. Any of the students would answer to questions. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. 9. I had a book. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one. too. He’s the author who received the prize. She came to London. 6. 2. 10. WHICH 4. I lost the book’s cover. WHERE 3. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. This is my husband. WHO 5. 8.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. therefore in spoken English. They met those students. 7. None of the students agreed with them. I love my husband very much. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. I went to London. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. The students like their teacher. by leaving behind a trace. 3. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. I bought Jim a book. John told his friend a story about the king. WHO 124 . frequently used in written language. The students like their teacher. He told Jim everything about his plans. He liked that book. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. 4.
WHOSE 7.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent. that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. WHICH 8. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. (Cine strică plateşte. most of them were from England.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. WHOM 6. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party. TO 11. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. WHOM 10. . i. relative clauses are divided into 1. 2. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo.Unit six Relative clauses 6.e.
as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) .e. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Cel care strică plăteşte.Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need. these relatives cannot function as attributes. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. it is covert. is no longer overtly expressed. Unlike their sisters. (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) • Predicative This was what she intended. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) So.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. unlike in the case of (14). (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. in a manner of speaking.
) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They only provide supplementary information about it. They can be thus divided into: 1. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. who is the god of commerce. is my favourite god. 127 .) (Mercury. who incidentally is the god of commerce. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu.) (22) Mercury. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography. care este zeul negoţului. (Du-te unde pofteşti. (Mercur. este zeul meu favorit.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. they define it).
2. I have met him where I least expected. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. who is a genius. on whom nobody could depend.This is the village where I spent my youth. is a genius. Independent I don’t know what you want. On the day on which this occurred I was away. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function.e. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. 7. this type of relative clauses. was the one we all welcomed and admired. 9. i. 10. 8. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. As we were saying. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. She. restrictive relative clauses. They are what 128 . who came to see me. Shakespeare. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). is a great playwright. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. 6. 5. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. then it is an attribute.
who died a few years ago. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. a. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. When the antecedent has no determiner. composed The (Freddie Mercury. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. etc.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. care a murit acum câţiva ani. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. Consider the following points of discussion: 1.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons.) 2. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian. 6. . it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. etc. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. however sad this may be.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause.
(Eu. 6. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. 5. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. (Ei apeleaza la mine. 2. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. can see your shortcomings only too well. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. numai eu nu. who am your son. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1.) Pratice Translate the following. îţi văd prea bine defectele.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). who neither work nor am anxious. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. ill-tempered. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. ci o fată a woman. care nu sunt o femeie. care-ţi sunt fiu. dried-up old maid. Dintre toate personajele prezente. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. Mie. 4. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa.Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. 130 . but a peevish.) (28) They come to me. 7. 3. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine.) Anybody else would have done something except myself. poftiţi în faţă. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. iritabilă şi uscată. bătrînă morocănoasă.
părăsi camera. . each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. (32) service finished late.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. were now in his possession.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă. heard. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.Unit six Relative clauses 6.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. than whom few more can be more crashing. erau acum în posesia lui.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods.
Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects. literary style: (37) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.5.) d. 6. as can be seen in (36d). We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. too.) b. The genitive form with which is still in use. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position.) b. The woman whose painting I sold was very young.) c.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . but it is typical of the formal. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat.1.
(Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. (Iris Murdoch. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.
al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. of which. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. He is not the man which he used to be. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. (45) (46) .) b. but to a type or a function: a. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. animals.) • states.) b. ships (that can be personified) a. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. by the way. … Italy. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is.
whom it concerned most closely.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. pe care o privea direct.) 135 (47) . and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) b. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. etc.) b) dialectal (49) a. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa.Unit six Relative clauses b. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. It is poor what gets the punches. (Nu ştiam ce vor.) 6. why. France. time. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. etc. reason.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. where. how. while.
A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.3.) e.5. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) b. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul. They returned to the land whence they had come.) When they introduce free relative clauses. He went where he had been before. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.) b.) c. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) b. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.) 136 . (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. The place whither he goes is unknown. (S-a dus unde mai fusese. This is the place wherefrom they came. no antecedents are required: (52) a.) 6. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most.
) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 . never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.
Honest man as he was. . but they are used very infrequently: as. I’ll get you such things as you may want.) b. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. much. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. not any. any.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. 138 (64) his shoes. but • in standard language a. (Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.5. every.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată.4. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era.
And always on the buttered side. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. This is the same one that/as you had before.) • in dialect a. the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. . (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. It’s the dry weather does it. ăl de fusese in China…) b.) c.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor. him as was in China … (Uncle George.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară. There’s not many as’ll say that. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. Uncle George.) c. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a.
(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot.) b. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) 140 . (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67).
3. What I’m saying is. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. This is where we talk money. makes me a wart and a wen. 5.5.) c. Where he was from. 7. What Inman remembered was this passage.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. b.3): (72) a. It seemed a thing 141 . which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. 2. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. The man who John spoke to is a genius.) b. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 6. The man that John spoke to is a genius.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. we all have to come to some terms. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. fortifies me.” 4. That which shows God out of me. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. The man John spoke to is a genius.
Ruby said. he had left Ruby high and dry. who had not witnessed many dawns. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here. though. 142 . h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. Oh. 12. of living. 10. 11. (…) Partly. which is a lot. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 13. 8.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. Whatever his fate was. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good. 9. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. The rudeness of eating. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada.
al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. vasnic. poate. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. cumnatul unui portughez. nu prea sarac. fiu natural al unui morar.al lui. plutonier. divortata. al carei strabunic. un var primar. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. Cumnatul meu avea. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. una din nepoatele unui inginer. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. pe linie paterna. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. pirpiriu. (Iris Murdoch. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . s-a casatorit si a avut o fata.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. This is the horse that kicked the policeman. mort de tanar.
la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. This is the book. The opposite phenomenon. 144 . by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. I lost the cover of the book. b. Teatru) 6.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi.6. She was a woman. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5. Everybody listened to that woman. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ .Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. By extension. insurat de trei ori la rand.2. c.
the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. has been troubling them forever. 4. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.Unit six Relative clauses b. In the interest of public decency. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 8. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 2. 6. The problem of safe transportation. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 5. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. he requested that the public be excluded. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. acting again as a genuine pied piper. 3. 9. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. no easy answers to which could be offered. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 7. The difference between (76) and (77).
he rarely saw now. Irene.7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. was now complete. as the case is). The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. no matter which. 6. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. 4. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). 2. 3. Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not.His father’s friends. 5. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions. whose interest he most sincerely shared. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. They do not function as attributes. Activity 9 were now all gone. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 10. This story. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. His friends. 146 . Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. has been deleted.
de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. 3. pentru dumneata bunăoară. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. sunt vrednic de invidiat. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri. himeric. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. Nelu. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . 7. Pentru alţii. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. 6. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 5. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). De douazeci de ani. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Toate sfârşeau. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. închipuirea.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. 4. 2.
Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. 10. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. 12. nici în searbăda mea versiune. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică.Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. cu surle şi cu tobe. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. a făcut el. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . 9. nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. 8. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte.
ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. zise ea cu ochii mari. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. 14. apărură. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. dinspre Maria Rosetti. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. de unde venea şi Marta. din direcţia căreia apoi. cu sclipiri abia vizibile.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. despre care. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. În spatele lor. trăia larg de tot. fie la teatru. Dacă mă lovea. deşi atât de aproape. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. Avea acum un fel de vertij. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. roiuri de fetiţe. 149 . izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. pe strada Icoanei. 20. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19. 18. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. din care cauză pe Dora. până mai adineauri. care era foarte “mondenă”. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. 16. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. 17. toată lumea întreba cine e. 15. fie pe stradă.
pe care ea îi admira acum. aveau un stil al lor. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. întâia noapte de război) 150 .Nadina VIŞAN 21. 24. pe care eu nu-l aveam. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. 23. de mine. când au urcat râpa iar. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. Pentru mine însă. Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. 22. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. de sus de unde eram. după ce maşina a fost reparată. până în şosea. Pare-se că snobii. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina.
Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses. 151 .SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.
Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.5. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 220.127.116.11.3.3.6. That Deletion 7. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.3.4. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7.7. That Complements as Subjects 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.Clause Shift 7.3.2.Extraposition 7.3.2. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 18.104.22.168.Topicalization 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2.2. Key Concepts .1.2. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.4.
7. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. placed in a marginal position.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. 153 . followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. but also of infinitival ones.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi. (3) Tell me if you need anything. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. the clause is extraposed.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. In other words. Apart from those introduced by that.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover.
(A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 . (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită.) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.
You may depend on it that I will pick you up. 15. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It is nice to meet you. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 7. 8. 14. 10. 3. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It is no use trying to convince her. It appears that no one voted for him. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 8. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 9.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 10.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 5. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 2. 4. 11. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 7. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 9. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 11. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 4. 2. 13. 6. 6.
unde se nimerea. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. 6. după porţi.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 5. în gropi. 2. în canal. 3.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. zice Lionel. 4. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. atât 156 . 2. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. mă ascundeam în grabă. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. sub poduri. 4. 2. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 3. 18.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 3. I guess it that he will come back. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 5. They never expected it that he would come back. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.
7. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). excelentă. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. fără să cârteşti. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Mi s-a părut chiar că. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă.” 4. 6. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. cu ceea ce ţi se dă. fără îndoială. Spunând cele ce-am spus. 157 . precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. (Nu întotdeauna. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. vor căuta să o zdruncine. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. 5.
Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. 1. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . Consequently. this asymmetry is undone. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.2. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below.) While in the case of extraposition. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun.1. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny. in the case of topicalization. we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega. subject clauses are the frequent situation. Pratice Read the following.Nadina VIŞAN 7.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.
whether it would finally carry her off.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . 6. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 7. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. but not now. She had always been the slave of chance. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. 4. 8. he felt no spring of interest in her. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. 5. was inconceivable. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. He did not blame Gracie. This was another era. 2. He was utterly gone. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 3. mere chance would decide. even today.
The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded.3. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş.) 160 .
The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. (Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. the verb to drive).e.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position. 161 . because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. we obtain. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers.
5.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 2. who had just returned from Africa. 3. who had just returned from Africa./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. prime-minister. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 162 . 7. 4. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 6. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. who had just returned from Africa. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 8./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.
) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements.Unit seven That complements 7. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects.2. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta.
deem. deny.) b. explain.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă. predict. desire.) 164 . communicate.) b. (Cred că omul este vinovat. suggest.Nadina VIŞAN 7. etc.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat. promise. (Şi-a anunţat logodna. afirm. judge. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. They believe the man is guilty.2. consider. They believe that the man is guilty.1. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. etc. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici. He announced that they were engaged. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi. state. (I-au promis o casă nouă. estimate.) a.: (25) a. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. He announced their engagement. prefer. They promised him that he would received a new house.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say.
Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)
a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.
(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)
7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)
cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. ibid. … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) language.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) 172 .) I like him in that he is smart. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. for example. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i. they lose their meaning.e. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. In older stages of English. on condition that. hope =>purpose.
(I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. that we wouldn’t doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him. să o vadă trecând. He gave such an answer as had expected. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. He gave an answer such. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so.) b. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass.) (66) 173 a.) When the structure contains the word such. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. . (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) b. That can be deleted.
) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. (Iris Murdoch.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. ibid. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch.) 174 . 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.) b. for better or worse.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.
say.Unit seven That complements 7.3. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta. (A prins de veste că ei vin. He said he had borrowed her money.3 ‘That Deletion 7. that he uses a relaxed tone. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce. (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.) c. 175 .) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still. (69) a. He showed he was able to do it.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. for instance. tell).) b. He got word they were coming.
You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) .) b.Nadina VIŞAN 7. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.3. rele. for better or worse. for better or worse. because that has been deleted.) (De asemenea. bune. (Îmi place că e aici. 7.2. they were chained to each other forever.3. they were chained to each other forever.3.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. ibid. I like it that he was here. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly. (Iris Murdoch. *I like it he was here. condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt.
spuse el. 7.) 177 . 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. he said. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. which is ungrammatical in English. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. that they were not too late to leave.4. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. you want me to believe.) b)He told me that she was there. (“Este acolo”. simultaneity. 7) They maintain.
(A spus că o să o părăsească. “She was here”. In the example below. I will leave her. spuse el. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. The Present complement). până pleacă ea.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. the verb realize is said to be a factive verb.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. He told me that she had been there. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . vine el.) Future Perfect -----. He said he would leave her. (“Era acolo”. (Pâna să plece.) b.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. he said. (A spus că.) b. He will have arrived by the time she leaves.) b. o să vină el.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. (Am să o părăsesc.
forget. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. insist. whisper. be aware. hope.) On the other hand. show. be amazed/concerned. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. With such factive verbs as realize. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a.etc. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. think. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu. dream. realize it). mention. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. discover.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. say.) b. notice. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. report. regret. believe. wish.) 179 . etc. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause.
The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită. in tender deference to each other. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. 180 . simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. She believed that the earth is round. feign habits which are not their own. She realized that all men are fools. we notice that general truths. He knew that she thought all men were fools.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. Consider also: (85) a. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti.) b.) b. (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti.
(Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. such as a. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule.) In (88). simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) b.) b. Peter said that John would leave at 5. 181 . There are however cases. Peter said that John will leave at 5. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia.Unit seven That complements 2.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here.
b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. c) John said that Harry is leaving. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. Imagine. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. But 182 . f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. John said that Harry will leave. that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. The time is 3 o’clock. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. f) John said that Harry would leave. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. for instance.
Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. She admired their keenness of wit. b. as evidenced by its drear plumage. nighthawk. geese both grey and white. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. bluebird. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. kingfisher. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. lark. whistling swan. 183 . Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. slyness in a fight. c. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. lack of pridefulness. Crows will relish what presents itself. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. love of practical jokes. jaybird. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. quail. a. redtailed hawk. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Cooper’s hawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Translate the following.
which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. he claimed. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. But as the battle raged around them. Now here he stood jailed. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. the young officer. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. […] During the latter stages of the tale. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. in the very act of expiring. war hero though he was. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. He had fought hard through the war. He died erect. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. And they might just hang him. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds.
On certain occasions that can be deleted. A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements).Unit seven That complements 7. from the very frequent subject. 185 . or else. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). which they share with wh-complements. object ones up to the attributive function. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). adjective or by a de-verbal noun. on other occasions it has to stay there.
că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. cel mai mare. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. 2. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. peste puţin. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. 4. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Mama. Unul din ei. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Fiind 186 . cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele.
îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. 7. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. aşa. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. cel puţin pentru un timp. 8.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. ea. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. un vis de acesta 187 . Nu ţi-a trecut. 9. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. va pleca din oraş la vie. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. Se mira. care îl pândise. venind de la avocat. 5. fericit. 6. de ce constata în sine. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. dacă va mai veni. luminos şi apropiat şi când. învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute.
Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. Astfel de va fi. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 .Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. 12. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. 11. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. dar şi teama că. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. fireşte. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. liniştit. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. încă o dată. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare. şi mândria că a biruit. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Acesta. lucrul era înfăptuit. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. – La ceea ce mă gândesc.
pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . fără o vorbă scrisă. 14. spre Jurubiţa. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. după cum.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. mai puternic decât oricând. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron. ci numai aşa. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. Pe toate. să le lămurească pe toate.
Nadina VIŞAN 190 .
EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .
The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.8.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.Key Concepts .The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.9.1.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 22.214.171.124.4.A Classification of Infinitives 8.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.3.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.5.8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.
infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. 193 . infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1.) b. It is important that you should know what you need. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).) b.) • like that complements. Consider the following: • like that complements. To love her is something really wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. (2) a. b.1. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). It is important for you to know what you need. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). I told her that she should be more careful in the future. From this perspective. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). I told her to be more careful in the future. That you love her is something wonderful. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie. (3) a. and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have.
d. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. the Participle) (i. moduri nepersonale) By convention. participial clauses. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. 2. the Gerund. the Conditional.) b. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. gerundial clauses. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. as opposed to the finite ones. 194 . the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence.e. For instance. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. etc.
If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.) c. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. namely no ending.) b. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) 195 . To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.
Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile .2. 9.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 10. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. 2. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 5. 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 6. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 3. 8. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. 7. (7) They saw her leave. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. the criterion of form. It is vital this factory to be reopened. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.
(A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. 2. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. (10) 197 .) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. hear. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.
) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul. Pratice Translate the following. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. 198 (11) the universe. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte. uncharacteristic for literary English. 3. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. .) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. However.
so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. as I have already mentioned. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. or the control constructions. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. to use the appropriate technical term. In other words. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave. 199 . Further on. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection.Unit eight Infinitive complements because.
namely the agent of the event. şi creştineşte să ierţi. I hoped for him to be there in time. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. PRO to err is human.) Object: (18) a.) 200 . PRO to forgive divine. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. It is important for him not to err. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR.) In this situation. So far. the logical subject. (E important ca el să nu greşească.) b. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) b. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause.
) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. (Cred că este un lingvist competent.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. Semantically. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). him is related to the main clause verb. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure. In other words. He stepped aside for her to enter. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre. not to the infinitive. but the patient of the verb persuade. him is not the agent of the infinitive.) b.
This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. \ She promised him to leave. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ They tempted him to leave. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. \ I would love them to come. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. I hate animals to be tortured. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ She wanted him to leave. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ They convinced her to come back. \ I allowed them to come. Likewise. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. \ 202 . nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ He persuaded her to come.
) He seems to be a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. \ They did not wish her to come back. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. So. \ They really asked her to come back.) In examples (25) and (26). 203 . (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. • Last but not least.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună.
/ Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. 204 . /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. which are said to be free. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. that is not required by certain verbs. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei.). with special semantic and syntactic properties. To sum up the discussion. appear. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. to meet her. hate. seem. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. etc. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her.Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her.
scorn. want. arrange. deserve. / E greu să îl suporţi. wish. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. mean.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. refuse. need. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. aspire to. expect. fail.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. etc. endeavour. agree to.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea. bear. propose. venture. try. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. decline.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. condescend. prefer. 8.3 The Distribution of PRO . presume. etc. etc. hate. hope. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt.) 205 friend.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. care to. dislike. desire. manage. omit. scheme. afford. intend. seek (= try). (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. like. deign. contrive. ./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere.) b) verbs such as abide. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. Compare: (31) a.
suggest. claim.) b. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. endeavour. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. I hate that you should say a thing like this. threaten. verbs of liking and disliking. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. etc. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. however. forget. bear. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva.) b. ask.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.) b.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.) 206 . desirable.) 8. conclude. stand. For all of them to have been killed is.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor.etc. I would like for him to become president of the country. possible. be important. unlikely. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării.Nadina VIŞAN b. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.
The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.) b. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.) 8. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) 207 .) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. Predicative Clauses (39) a. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) 2. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. (A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.
but the meaning remains. I decided for John to represent us. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John.) b. Like in the case of that complements.) b. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) 208 knowledge. the preposition is deleted.) 5. Direct Objects (39) a. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert.) 4.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. . this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight.
) c. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.: (42) a. delicious.) b. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. curious about. You’re an idiot to go there.) d. The stew is delicious to eat.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.) c) adverbial of result 209 . This paint is like concrete to work with. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. etc. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) e. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. He is a bastard to work for. 6. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez. She is pretty to look at.
you’re a bad driver.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament. drept să spun. final or introductory infinitive In this case. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. (final) (Nu-l cunosc. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept.) Oh.) I’ve never met him. să nu piardă trenul. / Pe şleau. the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. to tell you the truth. trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. / Ehei. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. conduci prost. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă.
(49) a. swear. enable. b.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare.: (51) a. nu mai vreau să te vad. According to this.) . promise. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.etc. encourage. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. etc. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. direct. need. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. induce. influence. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. inform. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. inspire.) b.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO. oblige. press. 8. urge. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself.
) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. choose. etc. depend on. order./ And now he 212 . vote.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. nominate. allow. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. elect.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. name. permit. etc.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. look to. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital.etc. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. prevail on. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. command.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint. count on.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on.
(Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. 213 (58) (59) . grow. be going to. happen.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. etc.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned. seem. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. An Accidental Man) 8. (56) She grew to like him in the end.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. be about to.etc. etc. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5).e. come. i.: (55) She appears to like him. (Iris Murdoch. (57) He is to come any day now.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze. this construction is lexically governed. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Se pare că îi place de el.verbs: appear.
be alleged. the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint).etc. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.) 8. be claimed. etc. be considered.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. .: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. be reported. that of intention.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). is well supported by the syntactical analysis. overhear.: (62) They heard him insult her. (L-au auzit insultând-o. watch. hear. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. In (57). feel. be rumoured. be thought.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. perceive. etc. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. observe. hence there is no control situation whatsoever.
consider. recollect. find.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume.) • with a full infinitive: get. know. However. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. believe. understand. discover. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.) 215 (67) . etc. (Cred că este un geniu. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make. deem. occasion. figure. cause. presume. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. let I’ll have you learn this in no time.: (68) I believe him to be a genius.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. picture. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. have. imagine. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. remember.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. judge. prove.
order.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. command. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. want. these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. mean.etc. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. desire. etc. wish. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. suffer. who wasn’t used to men with moods. if he himself was out of spirits.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. love.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. they had depressed and fuddled him. he hated anyone to comment 216 . (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. choose.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs. expect. prefer. permit. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. Harold.
She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. He suspected hostility at once. (L. he didn’t envy those above it. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. the herd instinct was very strong in him. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. though he tended to look down on those below it. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. to make sure we attended strictly to business. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.P. b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. so that we might get to the future and have done.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. Both seemed to him a little unreal. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. A little crossly.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it.
We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The last criterion. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. 218 .9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. we can speak about bare and full infinitives. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects.Nadina VIŞAN 8. From this perspective.
e important ce întrebări pui. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. Şi tu să fii. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. dar să nu-ţi spună. fireşte. mai bine219 . ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. de asemenea. de bună seamă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. E posibil. lovit şi umilit.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. e) Când doi oameni. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. un bărbat şi o femeie. să-l capete. într-o zi. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. bunăoară.
dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. mai bine de două decenii. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. un picior. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. ca să nu şi-o amintească. mai pline de înţeles. Însă Paul Achim trăise. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns.Şt. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. sau. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. De era vară. d-a lungul gâtului. pe care deja o uitase. mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.Şt. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. în jos. să traiesc numai cu tusea.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. încă. să nu vrea să se şteargă. (B. . Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în parte. 220 . în ploaie. avusese dreptate. în parte.Nadina VIŞAN zis. aşa cum îi apăruse el. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică. că eşti tânăr. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt.Delavrancea. Să spui de pildă.
ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. prin faţă e coborârea. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. de fapt. nici ca să 221 . fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. orice bucureştean ştie. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. Mă laud singură. (Al. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere.. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu.. deşi. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. Într-un cuvânt. şi nu un amant. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. fie ea şi grăbită. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. o mizerie. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. ei. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. biata Muti. sunt aici cu tot ce am.. gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. orice-ar fi. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. un miros îngrozitor. şi prin faţă. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă.. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri.
niciodată ea nu i le pune.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care. parcă la întâmplare. în realitate.
participles.NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 . verbal nouns.
3.Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Gerunds 126.96.36.199.2.1.1.The Gerund 188.8.131.52 Key Concepts .2.The Verbal Noun 9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.1. ING Forms and Infinitives 184.108.40.206.3.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.The Participle Contents: 224 9.
One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us start with the Participle: 9. Due to this situation. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. (Susan doarme. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1.1.) 225 . Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping.
were closing.e. (A venit Susan) b. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. Susan has been killed. too: (6) Her eye-lids. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). i.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. been and killed are past participle forms.) More infrequently. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii.) As you can see in this second case. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. Susan has come. 226 . Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. it functions attributively. In (2) the forms come. blood-shot and painted. the past participle can appear after a noun.
(adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă.) b. leul poate să atace.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. mother permitting. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. I will arrive there on time. he will eventually marry her. ea o luă la fugă.) 227 . If provoked. Knowing who the guy was. When singing. Oh. Weather permitting. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie. o să ajung la timp. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) c. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte.) b. they started singing. a lion can attack. she ran away. (Ştiind cine era el.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat. începură să cânte. Arriving here. people should pay attention to high notes.) d. God willing. o să ajung la timp. (Sosind aici.) c. I will arrive there on time.
I found him stealing.) b. He was found killed by a bullet. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. notice.) b.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. smell. (L-am descoperit furând. They found him killed by a bullet. He was found stealing. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. which stands for an adverbial clause.) 228 . (Am simţit-o tremurând.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. hear. perceive (11) I felt her trembling. (L-au descoperit că fură. watch. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte. behold. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) ii. respectively.
find. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare.: When she heard his words. etc. He’ll soon get things going.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . hear.) • Causative verbs: get. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. she knew herself dismissed. feel. etc. I must get my hair cut. have.) c. start. make a.) b. leave.) b. confess. (A fost văzut plângând. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. etc. have. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. keep.) • mental perception verbs: remember.) • Causative verbs: get . send. know. a. recollect.: a. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow.) b. set. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. etc. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I heard it said that men are a bore.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. recollect. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare.
He wanted his car fixed immediately. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / Nu după multă vreme.) b./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat. command I ordered my bill made out./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • verbs of permission. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. Men like shopping made easy. (Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile. lovit şi plin de sânge./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota.
e. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures. with its lips drawn back. 231 . the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever.2. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. Unlike the gerund. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. Nominative or Accusative + Participle). / My Lord. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / In any case. / Dinny. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.1. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9.
6. the rain will stop.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. People were sleeping in the next room.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing. She had heard it all before. 2. The tree had fallen across the road. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. or a past participle: Activity 3 1.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. 3. she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. I left. It had been uprooted by the gale. I turned on the light. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. I was astonished at what I saw.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. se va opri şi ploaia. 5. using either a present participle. I knew that the murderer was still at large. 4. 7.She didn’t want to hear the story again. (Văzând acestea. am plecat. I have looked through the fashion magazine. I left. am plecat. (Desi nu ştia limba. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date.
233 .shoulder. coloured. skinned. He sat down to his own dinner. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. open. Riding in the first race. roast. lighted. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. 10. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1. fishy. a scorpion bit him. lion. eagle. an idea suddenly occurred to me. stony. hearted (twice). open. I let the dog out of the room. shaven. Barking furiously. his horse fell at the last jump. many. 9. 3. haired (twice). Sitting in the dentist’s chair. dark. straight. stricken. They began quarreling about how to divide it. bald. Leaving the cinema.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. empty. narrow. 5. cornered. He fed the dog. broad. I slammed the door of my room. 7. Mother punished me for my mistake. minded (3 times). They found the treasure. Read the sentences and try to correct them. sharp. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. wooden. a pot of paint fell on my head. Dropped by parachute. cloth. quick. covered. 8. red (twice). three.Running into the room. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. one of the eggs broke. mown. 12. Tied to the post. my hands often get very cold. b) Headed (5 times). the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 6. Climbing down the tree. handed. a rug caught her foot and she fell. drunken. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. 9. the sea was tossing the post up and down. Passing under a ladder. 10. Getting out of bed. 11. eyed (3 times). 2. 8. Reading in bed. 4. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him.
/ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. deer. bounden. meaning. are sold throughout the world. head. shorn. candle.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. eyes. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. man. shrunken. / Many old people . / Swiss watches. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. The film. (hunt).I fell on the ice. are in grave danger of extinction._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. ________ hiding in a barn. Whales. I stared at the canvas for ages. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. The escaped prisoner. _______ by S. _______ my arm. rotten. duty.Spielberg. _______ for their elegance and precision. lead. ill-gotten. wealth. plank. _____ when their car crashed on the M1. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. stream. 7. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . image. (take) 2. / Three people. b) grass. (injure). / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. is expected to be a great hit. was today taken back to prison. were taken to hospital. graven. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. (admire) 5. In the following pairs of sentences. the same verb is missing twice. (find) 6. Translate into English: 1. _______ for a bargain. hidden. ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. lamb. (grow) 4. (produce) 3. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. meat.
toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. când strânsă. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. păsări tăiate. şi moi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. O umbreluţă.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. ca şi cum. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. trezit. le cocea. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. le fierbea. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie. nesigur şi moale. legume date prin mai multe ape. 4. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. Şi. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. 3. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. deodată sufocat. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . 2. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. Şi sufletul său. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. precum şi foile de plăcintă. După câtva timp. care le rânduia. când deschisă. întinse.
one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. Likewise. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.2. (Dacă vezi.1.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. The Gerund 9.Nadina VIŞAN 9. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.2. 236 .) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. According to this criterion. crezi.
(M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. gerunds differ from participles. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.2. In that.) b.2.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.) b. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Consider the following table. Him winning and you losing was surprising. That he won and you lost was surprising. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) 9. whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 .
Consider (32). gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.) Unlike participles. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă. as being verbal 238 . *It was illegal growing a beard.) 2. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) b. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. It was illegal to grow a beard.
as offered in the table below: 239 . Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds. Participles vs.) b. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a.) 9. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are.) 3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. Just like in the case of noun phrases.Unit nine Ing complements in nature. It’s no good talking to her.3. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată.) b. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor.2. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii.
2. + noun] 1. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 . 3. (adverbial of time) 4. forms: continuous . Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home.Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. passive ones She was crying. Participles may function adverbials: house. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. perfect. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. babies suck their thumb.
/ După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 . / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii.
boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 3. 5. shooting gallery / shooting star. He was spotted talking to her. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 242 . 15. 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 11. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. eating habits/ eating people. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. swimming duck / swimming trunks. 4. 8. 12. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. 12. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 2. 10. Gambling is his favourite pastime.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. 13. 9. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. crying game / crying woman. 14. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. 6. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence.
which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.e.3. but the presence of a direct object (i.Unit nine Ing complements 9. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: .) The absence of a determiner like the.e. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund.e. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i. a The absence of an of phrase.
we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 .) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. Thus. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. In the second situation. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. George’s shooting the attacker. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare. How can we tell? In the first case. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun.
/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. Jim left quietly. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping./ His sudden coming puzzled her. 245 . the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. very large. / His coming there puzzled her. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. the sheriff.
whenever we meet an –ing form. ING Forms and Infinitives. With the infinitive. Look. the meaning is different. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by.Nadina VIŞAN 9. we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). However.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. For instance. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. for example. It has been noticed that. The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case.4. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada.
(S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. and the most well-known one. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential.g. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. the infinitive is future-oriented.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. On the other hand.) After looking at this example. future-oriented value of the infinitive). we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. having left) is infrequently used in English. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. (S-a oprit din mâncat.) . anterior to the verb in the main clause. the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen.) The first example. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented. containing an infinitive. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.
We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). i.e.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) . This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. recollect. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol.e. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive.) As you can see.Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. which means that they are similar in meaning.
dar asta este. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor.) . (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. the petrol tank is not filled yet. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. but that’s it.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth. the action is not completed. In the second example. (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele.
these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) wedding.) With [. want With [+ human] objects.) b.human] objects. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. the event has not happened yet. (Casa trebuie reparată. e) need. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparată.) 250 . they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. The house needs repairing. mean has the sense signify.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. In the second example. s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză.
why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. my Lord. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. I did ask Mr. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. (hold) up his pen and (speak).’ ‘In any case. Croom (try) (follow) one.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. however appearances were against us. as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. but they went by too quickly.’ ‘Tell me. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. gerund or infinitive. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. (take) down her answer. whereas in the second case. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. it’s overrated. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . Lady Corven.
he addressed the note. I must go back now. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. suddenly.’ 252 .’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare. Then. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. I just used the word and they fell. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. and went out (post) it himself.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ said Clare.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. licked the envelope with passion. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.
Unit nine Ing complements 9.5. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. Participles mainly function as adverbials. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. Last but not least. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Pratice In the following texts. the 253 . identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive.
He looked up towards the daylight. hoping he would see somebody up there. It was like a mist. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. The two sides were moving apart. covering the girl’s head. The sight of the two children. according to the books he read. their edges crashing inwards. the enormous split in the earth. down. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village.Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. then the noise and the cracking stone. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. At first. down into God knows where. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. slowly rising in a swirling motion. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. Then he saw movement at his feet. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. She started coughing. moving up towards his chest. someone looking for survivors. but then he saw it billowing up from below. it 254 .
for Dornford was busy on an important case. my dear. Having a French governess. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. slanted on to her cheek. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. brightening to winter brilliance. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and sunlight.Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. She finished what jobs there were. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. 255 . Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks.
dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. cei doi Mamona. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. În urma slugii. mama mea. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. and then went riding with her in the rain. Vaucher şi cu mine. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. închizând ochii. Ridicându-se. ucenicul său necredincios. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. totul se animă deodată. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. 2. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. într-o joi. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci.
Vaucher a ştiut şi el. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. am ştiut şi cine. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . dar ştiutoare. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. 3. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. aplecându-se puţin. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. aşezată cu spatele la noi. iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. despre salvgardarea realizărilor. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. totul mi se părea cunoscut. Neclintiţi. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. pe mama mea părând absentă. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. după cum îi spusese mama. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. afară ploua în continuare. o sărută pe frunte. pe Vaucher. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. Şi deodată. privit.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji. se duse lânga mama şi. auzit şi zadarnic. la mine.
şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. şi cu stiva de lemne. dar. 5. Au coborât din camion încet.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi. cu tot cu baraca. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. camionul a plecat. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. să se apropie de aşezările din jur. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. şi cu soba. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase.
Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Al doilea să se apropie de fântână.
Nadina VIŞAN 260 .
TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .
3. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. I am sorry not to have seen you. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. since I have decided. Having regard to the date of drafting. this would really hurt. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. he had been advised. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement. 2. whereas if she went away she would get none. You have been much in my thoughts. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. and this particularly of late. 11. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. and meet it right here at home. 6. he had not yet been able to estimate. and that 263 . How much. without profound questioning. 9. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. in some way. apart from his distress for parents. was unclear to Mitzi. 13. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 4. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 5. 12. 10. because of pity. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. 7. to retire early from my employment. How this time was to come.
17. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. this always makes us feel embarrassed. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends.Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. / Whenever I visited my aunt. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. looking forward had not yet taken place. he did not come to see her. please consider his proposition. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. for attending his sister’s wedding. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. 264 . I was made say Grace before every dinner. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. / Before you go on changing the subject. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. one of the eggs broke. 14. even for months. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / In the end. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 19. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession.
talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . Instead of which she had married. They rushed into shops. At country houses she had met them of course. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. her recklessness. cotton mills at Manchester. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. an open-air person. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. Vulgar men did.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. it was said. her old friend Hugh. Essentially. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. 265 . Clarissa used to think. She felt as when. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Though much in request before her marriage. and it was bound. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. to end in some awful tragedy. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. centered in London and themselves. without discovery. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. rather than the hefty type. They hated trying on. quite unexpectedly. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. a little girl. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. of all people. Tony was a child. she said. of the quick and wiry. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. (and there he was.
she professed. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. short of the contacts of love. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. aveam tot mai 266 . Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. ii faceau bine.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme.Over the River) 2.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. the more she would be torturing him. she was uneasy. The closer she allowed him to come to her. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. viguros si vesel in felul lui. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. dar vizitele acestui om din topor. indeed.Rindurile dvs. Reading many novels. astfel. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. si in plus. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. to keep abreast of the current. nu a facut-o pentru asta. era un bun sfatuitor. De uitat. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. with all its impatience of restraint. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile. (John Galsworthy . nu puteam sa le uit. but lying in her bath. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. cre s-au nascut lent. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Bolnava nu se simtea. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si. Cind l-a chemat. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum.
s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. poate fi compensata. (St. se stie. Cind a murit Gora Serafis. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. are nevoie. Banulescu – ibid.) 5.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. (St. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. 4. mi-am zis. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. vaazut cindva. ca si tine. Milionarule. lungimea picioarelor. fa-o. Banulescu – ibid. ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Ce a iesit. latimea si ascutisul labei. o data sau de doua ori. (St. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. nu pricep nimic. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. pe scaunul lui tare. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia.) 7. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. Banulescu – ibid.) 6. Personal. Daca tu. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Banulescu – ibid. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. cit mai au de trait.) 267 . (St. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii.
delivered from the holocaust. Translate them. Who came home from the war. for being a renegade. Could he be blamed. Who. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes..Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Cambridge. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper.P. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness.. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. Who told me. Who was may father. A story-book romance. Arthur Atkinson M. Who when asked about his memories of the War.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. (. a wounded soldier. when I was even younger than you. Ernest Richard Atkinson. 2. to Emmanuel College. And had a brother killed in the same battle. my grandfather.
he had already engaged himself? 3. How 269 . daughter of an ill-paid journalist. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. 4. a moody man. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. Fabianism. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. deep-set. and because – but this is mere speculation. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). Rachel Williams. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. to whom. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy.
ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. cu taina aceasta. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. satul. Ion. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a ajuns el. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. om mare. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum au tăcut ei. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. 270 . la şcoală. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său. Ion. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. Cum a trăit el. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit.
L-au derivat cei din teatru. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. singurul lui stăpân. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. Când actriţa. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. 271 . greşeli dintr-astea. de mama lor. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. cu sau fără voie. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. când voi fi singur. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. împotriva tuturor. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. din franţuzeşte.pune totul in discuţie. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu .
Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. dam buzna peste automobile. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. ci un sistem de acomodare. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Am început. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. nevasta-mea. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. 6. Într-o vreme. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. A devenit palid. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. sau ridicole. e îndrăgostită de un actor. pe jumătate prezent. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. 272 . dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. 5. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. privindu-mă în ochi. S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. parcă începusem s-o uit. traversând. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Tot aşa. Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. tânăr şi frumos şi el. 3. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. 4. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. uneori şi astăzi chiar. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. fostă prietenă din copilărie. provocându-le. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. de pildă. continuând. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare.
ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face. şi dacă merg întins. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. şi să nu ameţesc. E o problemă. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. orice s-ar întâmpla. 11. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. fără să mă opresc o clipă. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. ca un acrobat. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Aş vrea să mă las jos. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. 9. să merg întins. Dacă nemţii înaintau. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. De altminteri. fireşte. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. Am început. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. că nu m-am gândit la asta. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. iar. 8. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă.Unit ten Revision exercises 7.
eu am venit sa va intreb. La un moment dat. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. nu mai semana. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. 16. de la lucruri personale. la fata locului. la amintiri. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. nu trebuie sa va suparati.Ma.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. In curind. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. de la obiecte de pret. trebuia sa le spuna. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. de la proces.. la carti. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Greu era din partea asta. 15. Auzindu-l. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. 274 . Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Ilie nu-l asculta. de uimire. Uite. Acum isi ferea privirea. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . 13. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. 17. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. dar nu se mai putea. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. Adica tot trecutul. parca i-ar fi fost frica. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. se uita in jos. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Ii venea greu. 14. cu mirare. nu mai pricepu nimic.. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani.
having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. cum zicea Anghel. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. asa cum facuse pina acum. apoi se uitau la Ilie. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. which was part of his rich outfit. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Nu era nevoie. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. dar.Ce sa fac. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ». zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. 20. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. There was even 275 . trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Zimbea siret. i se paru ca aici e ceva. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. . Aici era ceva. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. 19. comment on the underlined phrases: 1. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. vorbe asa si-asa. se indeparta nepasator.
He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. resuming her walk. the young lady. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. But Daisy. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. to admit that she was a proud. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. conversationally. a simplification. He felt then. to take his way home on foot. for the instant. rude woman. going astray. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. 4. gave an exclamation. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. paying no attention. to move fast. 5. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. He walked a long time. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. at least.Nadina VIŞAN relief. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety.Miller at her hotel. She was one 276 . 3. on this occasion. asked for Mrs. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room.
so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 . often. She appeared. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. She rustled forward. and wondering what the deuce he meant. she was sometimes more conservative even than I. as text book. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. while residing abroad. making Paul stop and look at her. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. on the other hand. in radiant loveliness. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. of studying European society. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve. in their own phrase. He left me musing. make a point. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. as to projected changes. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. 6.Walker. 7. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. as it were. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. Advising with me. uncomfortably. indeed. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. smiling and chattering.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. 8. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. Her daughter. but strangely cold and shy and sombre.
for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. not seeing. 11. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. and acute too.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and perceived that it must be something important. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. and. H. 9. The agent became a very familiar type to H. though E.’ 278 . inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. which was deliberate. wondered what they were talking about. if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. H. was immensely struck with him. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. was only half satisfied with this. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. with his humorous density. H. or at any rate not heeding. while Paul. 10. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. could see he was remarkable. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister.
It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. not glancing at him for a moment. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. which was very copious. 15. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. had the power to chain his sympathy. 13. H. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 . appeared to fill his whole childhood. that the haunting wonder which now. as he looked back. and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. 14. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. But she gave him no chance. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used.
and to H. 16. dragging herself on her knees. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. ironically reserved. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. that she must be on the contrary. H. It was very possible she was capricious. 17. as a general thing. proudly. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. The whole establishment. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. At the theatre. 18. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. where the Pearl of Paraguay. solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. and there were others. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. yet 280 . to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. disheveled and distracted.
and lurking within this nebulous design. on which the damp breath of the streets. H. didn’t mind. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. had blown a certain chill. *Old. with the poor. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. It came over H. No one ever listens to her. 3. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. would always be more or less irritating. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 281 . Their mistakes and illusions. 20. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 2.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 19. young men were invited. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far.
striding like a Spartan maid. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. 7. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. I blundered by. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. 8. 5. 9. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. I saw her as a vision. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. Either John or he * have got to give in. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. “Oh. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. I was definitely going to be sick. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. slipped on some steps. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 12. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. her shining blue feet twinkling. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have.Nadina VIŞAN 4. 282 . her arms held out. walking quickly. c) When I saw her sitting there. Rachel. 11. 6. I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 10. I walked fast.
The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . One or more solutions can be valid: 1. The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7.
and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 4. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. The old women spoke no English. 3. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. could cook my meals. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world. which was really alarming. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. but that we saw and pitied. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . And then I ventured to add that. 5. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. 2. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. where my servant.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. if they were poor. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations.
etc. he had not yet been able to estimate. before they left town. apart from his distress for parents. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. this would really hurt. Munt. to pay their annual visit. Constituents: Margaret. had not been able to estimate. he. would really hurt. Constituents: how much. distress. on Saturday. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. at noon. was informed. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: He.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired.apart from his distress = apart from. to settle. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. was anxious.g. his. was anxious = was + anxious. this. etc. How much. etc. apart form his distress for parents.g. on a house. 285 .
syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive. / If you like her. negative. – first clause is non-assertive.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . negative/ Come with me. second clause is non-assertive.. interrogative. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to).semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday.. interrogative. The sentence is however 286 . don’t bother her.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. which context is non-assertive.. interrogative. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – assertive/ Don’t do that./ She finally admitted. listen to this. – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax. and is non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. it is assertive.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. Second clause is an imperative. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question. – first clause is an ifclause. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book. which is not assertive. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. – comparison. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. – non-assertive.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – non-assertive.semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work.
/ She does not hate animals. / She does like John. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. – they told the truth to somebody else. not even when it’s quiet around. but not more than she does others. / They didn’t leave./ When he learned the news./ Not long ago. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. / He wasn’t unusually bright./ He was exceptionally cunning.but to someone else./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. – someone did that./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night. / You have never met 287 . Mr Jones stood up and left the hall.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. he was hardly pleased. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place. only irresolute. not even this thing. everybody used to travel by coach. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ Susan did not get married to Jim . Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. but it wasn’t them. but it isn’t Susan. the two brothers dared to protest. – someone hates animals./ Hardly interested in the conference. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / I don’t like her very much. but nothing out of the ordinary. –double negation cancellation./ They weren’t really confused. – I like somebody else./ He was smart enough.
– I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. – I cannot look him in the eye.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. – negative insertion.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.. not even when you were very young.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.Nadina VIŞAN her.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing. they go skiing in the mountains. / This is hardly the 288 ..negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. were they? / This boy is no good.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her..negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her. I could hardly wait to hear the news. not even in my dreams.. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Should they not have told her the truth. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her. is he? / Few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. did they? / A few of them stayed behind.. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem... not even part of it? / Not infrequently. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. did they? / No problems were caused after all.. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad.
Never shall I trust a man again. when we started our holiday. but she also lent him a car. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – Not many people came to see her.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – I almost never look at those paintings. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / Few people came to see her. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise.. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain.Never before did anything like that happen in our street. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. never trust a man again. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I seldom look at her like that./ We seldom receive such generous praise. – I never see her. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. – Almost nobody liked him. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her. / Hardly anybody liked him. – I don’t often look at her like that. – You haven’t eaten a thing. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. Activity 8 I shall never..
/ I think I can help him (to) some (extent). – I don’t expect he will come here again. you can’t do anything about it any more./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim./ I somewhat like his proposal.I don’t like his proposal at all. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. / She could rely on nobody but him. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. – 290 . – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all. you can still do something about it. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / Come on./ Well. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. – Nowhere could the keys be found. –At no time did we leave the office.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time. – They don’t believe she likes them../ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. – Only on this man could she rely. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. / They say he once had someone very close. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser./ I expect he won’t come here again. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – Come on. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. / You must on no account touch this machinery. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / Don’t worry. – On no account must you touch this machinery. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / They believe she does not like them./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. – They say he never had anyone very close.
– He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. – Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. / Well. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more./ I can understand all of these ten English words./ Bob is still living at that address. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. 291 . –Alice still lives here. / She hardly ever comes here. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. – You can’t be telling lies./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer./ Peter knows some English and so does John. / You must be telling lies. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / You must pay that fine. / You needn’t send her anything.. either. too. I’m afraid her husband was never any good./ I nearly always have to clean it myself./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. – You should send her something. – She almost always comes here. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives.
to any of us. Oh. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word./ Am avut un car de necazuri. I haven’t seen her in years. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. I didn’t sleep a wink all night./ Nobody told us a thing./ Nimic de facut. ever since I got this ulcer. It’s no wonder./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Have they rung the bell? No. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ They say this Ph./ You took his leaving you very hard./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. has never studied anywhere./ He’s a happy man. / He can’t have done a thing like that. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not./ E un baiat de zahar. give me a hand. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is.D. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. / Please. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them./ 292 ./ He was a tough man./ I don’t know a thing about her. He isn’t that smart./ Norocul la noroc trage. / Jim is so brave. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner./ Zis si facut. e un magar./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. He didn’t move a muscle. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ I don’t know why she’s crying. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc./ You look so tired today. / Don’t go on believing him./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I haven’t done anything. not yet.
one way or another. 293 . without too much determination.’ ‘Nici o problema.’/ Deloc descurajat. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate . feebly. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . parasi camera. We had nothing in common. I hadn’t really expected miracles. that I was a decent man. slowly. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. no memory.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . I had never had the opportunity to prove./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. with the same needs they had. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. thrown out. nothing.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. for I thought this threatening./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind.
. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. things you do any moment. I admit. he immediately answered me patronizingly. I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. but facts. You really made me mad. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. I’d be so happy if it were so. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. to say the least. Your judgement is false. Not for a moment had I thought that.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. on the front seat. good. by coming here to the monastery. he was sitting beside me. or if you understood what I meant. your story. It’s not made up of theories and the like. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. clear or confusing. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. let alone irritable. • It was my turn to say something. that’s what the world is about. I was sleepy and tired. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. Radu had calmed down. the only 294 . Unfortunately. bad. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. not as we would like it to be or some other way. We have to judge it as it is. it’s not words.
soon we’ll be in town. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. keep it squeaky clean. and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. or you are lying hidden.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. clears your way. we are leaving. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. But what about you and Melania. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. it solves troubles. too? A gun is power. 295 . hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. either. it’s yours. fear might be hiding. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. keep your conscience clean: you have one. behind these big. Look. just to please myself. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. and an inability to act. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. or call the respect of others. I won’t interfere. as Baciu would have us be. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. precious words. But I was just wondering. it’s your problem. and if you like. you do as you think fit. • So. me. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. you can go to Ursu’s. did you ever step up front. no matter how huge they are. although it was a difficult thing to do. me. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. to fight. Anyway.
She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. has not arrived yet – double negation. . Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife. will he?.Negative raising (transportation) f)1.correct 3. firmly determined not to answer immediately.. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .. but they gradually got used to it. But it was not because I had no answer to give. The villagers were not very religious. or some other woman. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. as soon as he delivered it. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. has yet arrived -correct 2.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. – incorrect. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . correlatives are mixed 2.incorrect. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow.Negative attraction b) 1.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong. the sentence is incorrect 3.Negative incorporation 296 . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. . because before is a positive polarity item 2. -correct 3.correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her.
Ştia că are dreptate. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. her lack of motion would have to do (API).) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. His spirit was too tired. b) But it was rather (API) late. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. much less ((NPI) for her. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. prea răscolit. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. she couldn’t marry him. not happy at all (NPI). N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. Nu putea să se mişte. too troubled. Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. Avea sufletul prea obosit. astfel că nici nu se mişcă. (ibid. either (NPI). yet.) Însă era cam târziu. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. (ibid. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). nu era 297 . Her stillness. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei. which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now.
slightly adapted) În cele din urmă. and not a little unsteadily.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). he made his way to the screen. e) At length. şi destul de hotărât. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. se îndreptă spre paravan.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. inima îi batea năvalnic. his heart was beating fast. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. Ba dimpotrivă. if anything (NPI). Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. she looked younger than ever (NPI).Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. (ibid. 298 .) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. (Salman Rushdie. The Satanic Verses. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. (ibid. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her.
Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. h) C. i) What did C. Ce-i pasă lui C. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Home receded from the prodigal son. care if the school were willing to treat him. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. (ibid. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. the gift was useless. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. The point was. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. but his father would have none of it (NPI). însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. 299 . and probably an administrative headache as well. îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI).) C.
correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. – indirect question.indirect question. 300 . correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. . incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question.QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
Key To Chapter Three Practice
Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
Key To Chapter Three Practice
another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
Key To Chapter Three Practice
happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?
During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. Vica. all godfearing husbands and fathers. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. do you really think that this vixen. now she was chatty. Fenia. the bitch. to make them lust after her. I didn’t know where she was leading me to. she likes to entrance them. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. 2. She has an eye for gentle men. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. yes. and then what do you 308 . they were. you are in enough trouble as it is. Luca Horobet. Stavre Paici. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. “Now. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. keep Condrat away from her. Fenia. she didn’t wear a ring. Chizlinski.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1.
It even takes him a while to go to the window. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. 3. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. G. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported. 4. dragging his feet listlessly. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. a seventy-eight year old lad. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk. the minister of Tartars and Turks. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot. with a railway station and a mosque. have a girlfriend. The mullah.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. her hair pinned with blue combs. He got him out of his mosque. what’s her name. ankle-long flowered calico. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha.
tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths.Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious.
Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4.phrasal coordination (in this case. Her pet kitten is black and white.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. our respective examinations. John and Mary are ready. – sentence coordination 7. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – sentence coordination 2.) 9. John is ready and Mary is ready.. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. – similar situation 10. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. and I passed.. – sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed. yellow and blue. Our flag is red. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. John and Mary are the newly married couple.
her idea and John’s. but not John. plays football.) Joan plays many games. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. her son and others. your work and mine. and even tennis. but John does not play football. 6. many guest or few. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. We can and will demand payment. Activity 4 1. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. 7. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. 5. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. much satisfaction or little 312 . 9. 3. 8.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. that method and those. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). Activity 5 This book and the other. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. your proposal and his. 10. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 2.
magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children. Touch and go 10. High and low 2. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. Wear and tear 12. To and fro 15. Swings and roundabouts 7. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. Ups and downs 6. He snapped at him and slapped him. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Few and far between 14. 3. Life and soul 5. 4. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. magazines are only for children. etc. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. Bread and butter 16. Over and above 13. The facts and figures 3. 7. Pros and cons 4. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. (I have always fought for progress and always will. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. 5. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party.) 6. Law and order 8. I have always fought and will fight for progress. He read. Spick and span 9. but not simple. Thick and thin 11.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. Safe and sound 313 . 8. Activity 8 1.
– asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. 5. – similar situation 9. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. exclusive 17. 7. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 8. 3. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 10. – symmetric. 2. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. 4. 6.symmetric 11..Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. cause-effect Activity 10 1. My son and daughter are twins. 5. 8. 9. 7. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Symmetric 13. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. Not John but his two sons are to blame. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. – asymmetric 18. 1. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. – symmetric. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. exclusive 15. 2. inclusive 16. Either the child or the parents are to blame. My son and heir is safe. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Cathy and David have arrived. 10. Asymmetric 19.There is a table and some chairs in the room. b. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. – symmetric 2. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 3. There are some chairs and a table in the room. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 6. 4. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Asymmetric 20. 314 . Symmetric 21. – symmetric. 9. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6.
Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. 8. ‘Madam. 10. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. Her husband is long dead and buried. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. Not only should you rest 315 . Should he pour water in the basin. 5. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 3. clothes and all. for better or worse. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. By hook or by crook. 14.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. He went to bed. 6. thanks for asking. nor fowl. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. 9. We’ll stick together. 11. They came to me. Brother or no brother. No drinking and driving.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. 12. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. it was too small. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. 2. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 2. Jim thought it over for a while. 4. There are doctors and doctors. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine. 7. I’ll still finish this paper. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. 15. (2) 1. 3. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. He’s neither fish. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged.
just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth.Nadina VIŞAN assured. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. Her first husband had been a professor. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. And. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life.’ (3) 1. at equal intervals. tense like a bow. an important man. as she always does. So she’ll listen to him. but she blinks in approval. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. What do you know? The moment Mrs. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. and she listens to him. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. she started doing a great job. stop dead in his tracks. This. their common ground. tense with concentration. 2. she knows for sure. he starts lecturing her about life and things. just like when he was thirty. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. what’s its name. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. They hadn’t kept him there too long. he’d leap high. both dead and buried. From time to time she will launch a helping question. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. You know. but he’d come out a cripple. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. Whatever she tried her hand at. without mentioning financial matters. so he’d gone down and died in no time. it would work out fine. 316 . and then. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. so he could leap in pursuit. Mrs.
THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. – obligatory elements: she. came. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . cannot tell.subordinate. you.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . told.subordinate. she looked at me sadly. which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate. looked. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. – she. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. functioning as an adjunct 2. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – she. functioning as an object (direct). – she. about her problems at home After I told her the story. is aware. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. – obligatory elements: I.subordinate. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her. – Susan. whomever wanted to listen. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green . functioning as a modifier 3. coordinated with first subordinate 317 .subordinate.Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . at me Activity 2: 1.
Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . that we should.complement b) 1. that you are choosing exile . functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. at our age. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right.subordinate. since the main verb is think of something) 5.subordinate.Nadina VIŞAN 4.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home . remove our home yet again . functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .
adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement. a house. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. direct object b) to dry it – complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. a barn. outbuildings. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement.complement. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. but no idea – relative that complement. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. direct object.
modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. Activity 5 1. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. without straightening her back. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. direct object/ to sit there – complement. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement.wh complement. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. direct object. sickle in hand. subject/ to do such again – complement. When Anton put the sickle down. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. that kept her constantly tense and grim. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done.A few days before the war. staring at each other. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. (…) ‘Well. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. But other people. (…) He dashed back. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. direct object/ and done – wh complement. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind.
2. Only he had Ana to think of. or other more hidden means. For no bold man really falters. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. 3. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. but also his sharp nose. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. that was for sure. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. as if they were at his beck and call. but he doesn’t spurn either. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. while they spoke from miles away. Not even at this point. Ana could not stand a trip now.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. he will turn back and no longer be daring. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. or if he does. rather than a real threat. First. while on other occasions he would show caution. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. which he doesn’t rely on completely. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. you need courage even for this small thing. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. Why! He was not of two minds. 321 . and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila.
he had postponed writing back. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. and twice we were requested to get out. to see some mutual friends. it was the women. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. without really knowing why. 4. In fact. But it was not ok. And here’s how this first day looked. under the silliest of pretexts.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. Twice did we get in the car. are we getting off again? What is wrong. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. come on. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. So. and on Monday followed another feast). Costel didn’t want to give up this job. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. 322 . and when things didn’t go as planned. in Odobesti. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. by the cars of some of us. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. although he could have said so earlier. they would ruin the arrangement. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. We were going to drive to a vineyard.
Who are you writing this letter to? 9.She came to London where I went too. 6. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. The students like their teacher. They met those students none of whom agreed with them.restrictive 7. like their teacher. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 4. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists.free 8. any of whom would answer to questions. I bought Jim a book that he liked. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 8. most of whom were from England. what you want – free/ where you can park your car . where I spent my youth . 3. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. John told his friend a story about the king. 11. who was just passing by. 2. The students. on which this occurred . all of whom would answer to his questions. which was a pity.restrictive 2. 4. 7. 5. He is the author who they gave a prize to. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 5.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. 10. 10. 7. This is my husband whom I love very much. why they all left . when we first met .Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE . where I least expected 323 . Activity 2 1. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5.restrictive 4. 3. 9. He told her the secret. These are people who we cannot tell much about. which was silly of him. Activity 3 1. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. 8.restrictive 6. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 6. You couldn’t join the party.
Where . come up front. Why . who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . 7. 6. Of all the persons there you had to choose me.free 9. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. Where he was from – adjunct. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. I. was very displeased with the situation. where we talk money – predicative. where – predicative 7. What – direct object 2. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. 4.Nadina VIŞAN . when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. 3.When Ada remarked – adjunct. When . when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct.adjunct 3. 5.subject 8. the prince chose Cinderella. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. Who . who cannot say a word. when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. when . Which – subject 4. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. What I’m saying – subject.restrictive 10. Activity 5 1. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. however sad .subject 9.adjunct 10. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition.adjunct 11. You. He who doesn’t work will never succeed.free Activity 4 1. who think so highly of yourselves. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. What Inman remembered – subject. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. what their parents made them. 2. on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Of all the persons there. which . Where .adjunct 5.adjunct 6.
Key To Chapter Six Practice object.human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how . which is ungrammatical due to the[. whatever – predicative 13. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human].attribute 12.whom is ungrammatical due to the [. what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition. what little she knew – direct object.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. what .human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. which requires an accusative form. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good . Whatever his fate was – adjunct. the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.
got married and had a daughter. due to its invariable character. who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. having changed quite a number of jobs.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. a rather tiny looking man. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . whose great-grandfather. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. a sergeant. used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. but whose second cousin. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. in his turn. who.
obligatory 4. .His father’s friends. – no 4. – no pied piping 327 .yes 10. .Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. were now all gone.yes Activity 9 1. was now complete. – no 9. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. he rarely saw now. – yes. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. with deletion of the noun friends].yes 7. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. he requested that the public be excluded. Irene. . . The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. has been troubling them forever. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. In the interest of public decency. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. – obligatory pied piping 2. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. whose interest he most sincerely shared. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. .obligatory 3. His friends. .no 5. – yes 2. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. – yes 6. – no pied piping 5.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. no easy answers to which could be offered. The problem of safe transportation.yes 3. This story.
which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 328 . or as of a vast arena. irrespective of age and nature. In other people’s opinion. I did so. For all the four children. the third born son. For twenty years. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 8. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. for instance. yours. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 3. 7. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. Everything was ending. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars. 2. I am to be envied. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive.and he couldn’t thank me enough. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. where two teams battled every day… 5. 6. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. 4. Only an ugly endless dream remained. Nelu. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow .
15. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. Behind them.R. 13. You are newly arrived here. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. 17. which was why he saw Dora very far away. 16. 11. barely glittering in the distance. 14. leaving streets and houses behind. staring aimlessly. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t. where from Marta was coming too. she said. the tram was rattling along. He was suffering from dizziness. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. from MR street. on Icoanei street. Let me tell you my last conclusion. 10. although she was standing quite close to him. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. since I don’t really know which my true life is. All that you have read is rubbish. 329 . What you’re saying sounds very nice. 12.
others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. 24. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. so optimistic and composed? 19. who prompted everyone on the street. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. likes and dislikes. So. 330 . She was a woman of means. day by day. While some trees are still green. had a personal style in clothes. 22. I could see my woman falling away from me. 21. or the clash of stars above. But. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. which I did not posses. after the car was fixed. While we were poor. From the vantage point I was in. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. had a huge house in Bucharest. 23. in her pursuits.Nadina VIŞAN 18. 20. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. or the many Egyptian dynasties. who only lived once in this world. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. If he had hit me. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. But for me. I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. I don’t know what might have happened.
Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. subject 9.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. object 6. – extraposed. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. – extraposed.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . He will answer for it that his son is innocent. It will be soon announced when you can leave. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. subject 8. prepositional object 11. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. – extraposed. direct object 10. for pragmatic reasons 5. subject 4. direct object 3. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. subject 7. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 2. – extraposed. – extraposed. subject 2. – the same as 3. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. – extraposed. – unextraposed. 6.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. It was suggested that they should meet the President. object 5. – extraposed. – questionable. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. It appears that no one voted for him. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. 331 . It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. – extraposed. 3. 8.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – impossible 7. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat.
– possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. I guess it that he will come back. 9. idiomatic formula 16. . You know it only too well that he will not marry you. – grammatical.. – same as 12. – the same as 12. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. 18. 10. but pragmatically impossible 4. but pragmatically impossible 3. – grammatical. – impossible 11. same as 12. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. Activity 3: 1. I don’t expect it that he will come back. 15. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.correct 4.grammatical. . – impossible. – correct 2. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 17. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. a bit too intricate 5. same as 12. – grammatical. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – impossible.incorrect. – impossible. – incorrect.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. although a bit intricate 2. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. It is nice to meet you.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. – impossible.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. tense influences the 332 . but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. 14. same as 12. They never expected it that he would come back. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. It is no use trying to convince her.grammatical. .
I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. thus. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5.’ Lionel says. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. behind gates. 5. I hurriedly hid wherever I could.’ 4. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. (Not always.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can. 2. in the pits on the road. tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. under bridges. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where. 3. – correct 6.incorrect. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. 333 . Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. though. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. in the ditch. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation.
/? He appointed Mr Hugh. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. because it is less ambiguous. – the first sentence is the better of the two. By saying this.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. prime-minister. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. – the second sentence is questionable. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. who had just returned from Africa. 4. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. 8. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. who had just returned from Africa. without trying to protest too much. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. 3. 7. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. who had just returned from Africa. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. since the 334 . 2. Activity 7 1. It is less ambiguous than the first. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it.Nadina VIŞAN 6.
– the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. so there is no need for extraposition. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence. – both sentences are grammatical. The second and third sentences are grammatical. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 6. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. 7. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. extraposition is obligatory here. 5. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. 8./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 335 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. As we have already shown in a previous exercise. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.
– complement that clause. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. .adverbial of sequence/result.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1.prepositional object.relative Activity 9 1. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. – complement 2. – prepositional object. – relative 3. (Iris Murdoch. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. for better or worse. – direct object. . – adverbial of sequence/result. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. The idea that he had had earned him good money. . – complement 5. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.) adverbial of sequence/result. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. they were chained to each other forever. ibid.) complement that clauses. – relative 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. required by deverbal noun 336 . coordinated. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. ibid. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. . – subject. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.We discovered that our map has disappeared.complement 4. (Iris Murdoch.
you want me to believe. – that is obligatory. f) John said that Harry would leave. that deletion is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – that is obligatory. d) John said that Harry was leaving. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. h) John thought that Harry had run.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. that they were not too late to leave. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.
/ b) John said that his car is out of gas. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. sequence of tenses is observed 4. a. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. c. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. b. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. – both sentences are grammatical. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. – grammatical sentences. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . – sequence of tenses is observed 6.
Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. – generalization on habits of birds. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. cenuşii şi albe. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 . present perfect instead of past perfect. prepeliţe. While the first is possible because of the generalization. ciocârlii şi şoimi. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. quail. lark. hawk. geese both grey and white. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. present instead of simple past. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici.
Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. Crows will relish what presents itself. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. lipsa de vanitate. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. The generic present is used in this case. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. lack of pridefulness. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. slyness in a fight. Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. She admired their keenness of wit. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. love of practical jokes.
He had fought hard through the war. cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. Murise în picioare. se ridicase în picioare. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. tânărul ofiţer. tragică şi eroică. the young officer. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. in the very act of expiring. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. He died erect. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. El căzuse pe spate. But as the battle raged around them.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. he claimed. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general.
Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). the oldest. Now here he stood jailed. Acum stătea aici. And they might just hang him. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. – similar situation to the one under (c). When he saw me. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. I realized I could not tell him the big news. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. When the boys saw that mother had left. susţinea el. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. Activity 13 1. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Luptase din răsputeri în război. One of them. deşi era erou de război. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. A short while later. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. to finish my drawing. They all had their hands in their pockets. 2. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. they gathered around my desk. în închisoare. mother went home and I was left alone. I knew that no matter what words I would pick. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. How can I explain? I just felt shy.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. war hero though he was. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. he closed the album. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. 342 . jumped off the bench and ran towards me. But when he reached me.
such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. 6.’ 5. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. as if he had been drunk. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. brightly and closely. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing. or if she would do so again. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. 4. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. for her vineyard. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him.’ Mr. in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. All his senses were now keen. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. or fear his rage. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him.
The last time when we met here you scared me. 7. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. claiming you had no ambition for the future. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. thinking of him. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. 10.Nadina VIŞAN to him. And if things were so. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 11. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. 9. 8.
exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. more urgently than ever. 13. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. We either sell them or we don’t.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. towards Jurubita. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. 14. namely the impatience of this young man. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . which secretly drove him. where he would run to confess everything. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. 12. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. without putting anything in a note. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled.
. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. / they saw her leave. grammatical 2. .INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 3. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man.. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. – simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. It is vital this factory to be reopened. grammatical 6.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 10. grammatical. / He had Mary clean her room. – simple infinitive. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. – perfect infinitive.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. – infinitive continuous. or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 346 . / He helped them lift the heavy parcel.simple infinitive. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. 9. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. grammatical 7. – simple infinitive. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. grammatical 5.
/ I want to never see you again. / It is not too late for him to learn. \ I allowed [them to come. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. \ I would love [ them to come. – Test: They asked her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is believed to have known her 347 . \ He persuaded her PRO to come. – Test: They tempted him. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *I would love them. \ They did not wish [her to come back.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. – Test: She promised him. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. you need to try harder.] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. ] – Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. \ They would have hated [her to come back. Test: *She wanted him. – Test: They convinced her. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. \ She promised him PRO to leave. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. Test: * I would like people. Test: *They would have hated her.
/ I want to tell you what I think of you. / To make a long story short.obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. . not to miss the train. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I have a word to tell you. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. . . / He is easy to talk to. / Oh. / He is easy to live with. / He is young enough to start again. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. . / I want you to leave my house. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is hard to stand. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance.obligatory subject control verb 348 . Activity 6 Oh. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.Nadina VIŞAN for years. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. I don’t need you or your services. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / You are to blame that the factory exploded.
He suspected hostility at once. Harold. Direct object 3 – PRO –to. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive.Accusative + Infinitive. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. 349 . he didn’t envy those above it. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. so that we might get to the future and have done. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive. Predicative 4 . Subject. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. If he himself was out of spirits.to. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. 1 – PRO-to. they had depressed and fuddled him. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 1] A little crossly. the herd instinct was very strong in him. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. Both seemed to him a little unreal. 1 – PRO. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. Subject.
And you might also be hit and humiliated. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. PRO controlled by ‘she’. if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. we seem to forget about our own pain.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. object 2 – PRO –to. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. e) When two persons. One day. But when we need to comfort others. c) Unlike plane trips. cautiously. PRO controlled by ‘me’. man and woman. more meaningful. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. true. or better said. PRO controlled by ‘she’. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. slowly. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. direct object 3 – PRO –to. PRO controlled by ‘him’. 350 . f) The passing time is important. 1 – PRO-to. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. excitedly. more believable than evidence itself. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later.
But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. for instance. which he had already forgotten. Moroi says heavily. k) With this considerable dowry. 351 . that you are young. h) I want us to go. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. my wish being only to please and serve. to live only with your coughing. or. or their talk that night. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. as he had appeared to him in the rain. not to want to wipe it off. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. all down our neck. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. I am indeed praising my own merits.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. tickled by the trickles of sweat. not even those parts where he had been half-right. And I would care for this man so deeply. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. He had not been able to leave Dr. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. even when this love is hurried. Mrs. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. S. That is it. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. And to actually start to believe you are so. Stroescu. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. while swearing to change my way of life. in the street. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. If it was summer.
without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers). l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. or to speak so fast. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. 352 . o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. met by squalor and terrible smells. for that’s the door people get off by. here I am with all of my own. Well. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. poor Muti. as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. haphazardly. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. no matter what. every Bucharester knows it. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. she was suddenly so shocked. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. ready to submit to any demand. If you will have what I can give you. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram.Nadina VIŞAN In a word.
as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. 353 . so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper. badly beaten and bloodied. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates./ She sent him shopping. / They found it thrown in a corner. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head../ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Don’t keep him waiting. – Attributive past participle./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. with its lips drawn back.
Accusative + present participle / In any case. Having fed the dog. he sat down to his own dinner. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. sitting taut between her father and her sister. Having looked through the fashion magazine. Finding the treasure. – As she was running into the room. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Attributive present participle. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. 2. 8./ Running into the room. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. Sleeping in the next room. having been uprooted by the gale. The tree had fallen across the road. – Attributive present participle.Running into the room.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. 4. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. a rug caught her foot and she fell. 9. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . 6. I was astonished at what I saw. 10. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. 3. Turning on the light. 7. 5. Activity 4 1. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. I slammed the door of my room. having heard it all before. they began quarreling about how to divide it. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass.
the sea was tossing the post up and down. Getting out of bed. Barking furiously. a scorpion bit him. lion-hearted. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the sea was tossing it up and down. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 355 . a pot of paint fell on my head. 8. 12. an idea suddenly occurred to me. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. Reading in bed. 10. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. an idea suddenly occurred to me. broad-shouldered. red-handed. Riding in the first race. cloth-covered. 3. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. narrow-minded. 11. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. / Climbing down the tree. my hands often get very cold. I let it out of the room. I often get very cold hands. Climbing down the tree. – When I read in bed. one of the eggs broke. his horse fell at the last jump. a pot of paint fell on my head./ Reading in bed. – As the dog was barking furiously. he was bit by a scorpion. empty-headed. many-coloured. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Tied to the post.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. bald-headed. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. sharp-eyed/minded. – As he was tied to the post. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 6. Knowing me to be the fool of the family. three-coloured. my hands often get very cold. 9. open-minded. he broke one of the eggs. – As he was climbing down the tree. – As I was passing under a ladder. Leaving the cinema. – As he was getting out of bed. 2. 5. a scorpion bit him. wooden-headed. Passing under a ladder. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. stony-hearted. – As he was riding in the first race. Dropped by parachute. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. 4. – As he left the cinema. I let the dog out of the room. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. fishy-eyed. 7. his horse fell at the last jump. / Getting out of bed. one of the eggs broke. Activity 5 Fair-haired. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship.
injuring my arm. Activity 8 1. mown grass. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (take) 2. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. injured when their car crashed on the M1. open-hearted. hunting for a bargain. The film. / Many old people. 7. Whales. (produce) 3. 356 . produced by S. shrunken stream. Activity 7 1. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. found hiding in a barn. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation.I fell on the ice. shorn lamb. bounden duty. roast meat. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. lighted candle. hidden meaning. stricken deer. / Three people. was today taken back to prison. shaven head./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. drunken man. are sold throughout the world. The escaped prisoner.Spielberg. (grow) 4. admired for their elegance and precision. are in grave danger of extinction.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (find) 6. graven image. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. is expected to be a great hit. / Swiss watches. I stared at the canvas for ages. dark-skinned.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. (hunt). eagle-eyed. rotten plank. (admire) 5. sunken eyes. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. were taken to hospital. (injure). ill-gotten wealth. straight-shouldered.
now taken down. then put up. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. 4. hovering uncertain and soft. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. its scales scraped off by the knife. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. Although the moment was deeply disturbed. 3. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. 2. sprinkled with sticky flour. he started peering anxiously around as if. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. in charge of his house and lands. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. the carved chicken. And his soul. suddenly suffocated. and the puffed pastry beds. A parasol. 357 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. streaked with yellow veins of fat. boil them. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. forcing him to ponder over their meaning. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. thrown in the pots. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. yet left them room to sway free. So. After a while. bake them. flat and soft. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. and moreover. the twice rinsed vegetables. he were struggling for breath. He felt close to his father. the fish. seeking some promised land.
/ The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. . /He’s not interested in bringing up his children.gerund 5.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. / I told him not to bother putting things back./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. – gerund (subject) 4. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / After annoying the shop-assistant. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. – participle (attribute) 2. – Accusative + participle 3. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / I am sorry for being so late. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. Activity 10 1. Gambling is his favourite pastime. he left the store without buying a thing. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip.
Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me.participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. possessive ING (predicative) 7. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. – Nominative + participle 13. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. . – gerund (prepositional object) 15. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (half or full. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs.possessive ING (direct object) 9. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs. He was spotted talking to her. – gerund (attribute. 8. preceded by preposition). She’s looking forward to having lots of children. gerund (has a direct object) 359 .
– gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.’ ‘Tell me. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. – verbal noun (has determiner. I did ask Mr. take down her answer. adjective. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched.. hold up his pen and speak. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that. Lady Corven. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. however appearances were against us. we had done nothing to be ashamed of.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Croom to try to follow one. but they went by too quickly. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. adjective. – verbal noun (has adjective).verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. my Lord. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. – gerund or verbal noun. – gerund (full.’ 360 .verbal noun (has determiner. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare..
what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. he addressed the note.’ said Clare. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. Then. ‘I do hate asking for things. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. and went out to post it himself. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. I must go back now. I spend all my time hunting a job.’ 361 .’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ said Clare.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. I just used the word and they fell. it’s overrated. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. suddenly. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. licked the envelope with passion. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment.
he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. after verb of perception. He looked up towards the daylight. elliptical here. attribute. functions as direct object) and then the ground. gerund. Then he saw movement at his feet. someone looking for survivors (participle. the enormous split in the earth. direct object). Has a complex subject) in the hole. At first.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. It was like a mist. First the crack snaking (half gerund. adverbial of time. the very earth opening up (half gerund. village which is burning). but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute. attribute). down. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. (participle. down into God knows where. then the noise and the cracking stone. The two sides were moving apart. slightly 362 . The collapsing shops (participle. The sight of the two children. following the verb ‘remember’. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) from below. hoping (participle. attribute. …while their edges were crashing inwards). their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. attribute. direct object) towards him. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. slowly rising (participle. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. attribute). attribute) in a swirling motion. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete.
preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. adverbial of reason). adverbial of manner) towards his chest. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. covering (participle. direct object). according to the books he read. has ‘of’ phrase). you. one. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. etc.e. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.). early. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. my dear. prepositional object. i. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. moving up (participle.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 .
(John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. adverbial of manner). So. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. Having a French governess (participle. Standing up. and sunlight. and then went riding (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. a door was opened and as a servant entered. adverbial of manner). preceded by preposition. adverbial of reason). Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. Vaucher and I. making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. the two Mamonas. and not only in my imagination or theirs. slanted on to her cheek. examining (participle. adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. Young Mamona left the room without a word. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) to winter brilliance. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. preceded by preposition. and everything got suddenly animated. mother. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. reluctant or not. for Dornford was busy on an important case. And. She finished what jobs there were. brightening (participle. we were all gathered in that room. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. attribute) stopped dead.
it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . about concentrating all our resources. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. bending a little. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. who knows.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. and to Young Mamona. killed by Young Mamona. And. without taking his sack off his shoulders. I knew who it would be. let alone greet us or say something. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. in the year 1812. to me. Vaucher might have known that too. 3. too. closing my eyes. 2. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. and smelling so hard of rain. for anyway. to Vaucher. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. kissed her forehead. So when Old Mamona came in. each carrying a wooden box. he looked like someone who did. her back towards us. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. Not so unimaginable though. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. about sparing no effort. Entering our house on a Thursday. and ended his life in the year 1821. sitting in his puddle. And then. He cast us a swift glance. He was talking about gathering up all our strength. as mother had ordered him. he went to mother and. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. 4. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. his disloyal apprentice. he found us sitting each in his place.
long board table. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. of taking notes and rewriting them. stove. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. 5.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. each pausing before jumping down. futile. everything seemed familiar. wood pile. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. barrack. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. But. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. And all around them was the great field 366 . ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. already seen and heard. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. And suddenly. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. They got off the truck slowly. as an afterthought. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions.
The next thing was to go to the well. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. 367 .Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.
Nadina VIŞAN 368 .
Mouton de Gruyter. Accuracy and Fluency. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Iclezan Dimitriu. Laurie. 1994. 369 .References Bauer. eds. I. 1994. vol. Gallimard. Comrie. 1. Cornilescu. Benveniste. A. 1976. . Joan. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. 1982. Mimo and Marc Moens. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. Bybee. English Grammar. English Word-Formation. 1964. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. A. English Syntax. Caenepeel. 1996. TUB Cornilescu. Aspect. 1966. CUP.II... TUB Curme. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. Cornilescu. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. Bernard. Al. 2003. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. The Transformational Syntax of English. Cambridge University Press. Joan and Osten Dahl.. 51-103. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. 1983. Institutul European Cornilescu. A.. The Evolution of Grammar. Problemes de linguistique generale. Bybee. . Emile. Bucuresti. Chicago. .University of Chicago Press. Complementation in English. . Burnes and Noble. G. 1989. 1976.
1993. . 1982. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. CUP. CUP. Hassan. Alexandru Niculescu. Richard. Longman. 1976. Advanced Grammar in Use. Iordan.S. 1982: 42-70.K. 1968. Denison.. eds. Bucureşti. 1968. Peter. Aspects of English Morphology. Gramatica limbii române. Part IV.A. 1987. Progress to Proficiency.A. Taina. vol. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. I. 1968. et al. Longman. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. Longman. . 1961. M. Gramatica Academiei. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. New York. London and Copenhagen. Tubingen. London.Day. Jespersen. Eschholz. Martin. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. 1959. 370 . Fenn. 1993..S. R. Hornby. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. In Vincent and Harris. Gunter Narr Verlag. J. 1999. An Advanced English Practice Course. 1987. Harris. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române. & Alfred Rosa (eds). & R. . English Historical Syntax. Longmans. Alexandru. Advanced Grammar Practice. Otto. London. Graver. Jones. 1963. St Martin’s Press. M. Outlooks and Insights. P. Hornby. Hewing. 1967. Longman. Leo. Bucureşti. Halliday. 2000. 1931.. Graur. Cohesion in English. Bucureşti. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Dutescu-Coliban. A. London.
1990.. . Hans and Christian Rohrer. Kennedy. London. 1983. G. Scott. Miller. Greenbaum. M. 1926. Poetry and Drama. and Svartvik. Groningen.J. 1964. CUP. CUP. & Felicity O’Dell. From Discourse to Logic. 1993. 2000. A Grammar of Contemporary English. E. M. E. 1982. McCarthy. A Grammar of Late Modern English. OUP.. TUB. Serban.. Kamp. 323-352 O’Connell. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. Nelson. 1992. Klein. A Modern English Grammar. Quirk. Kruisinga. An Introduction to Fiction. Tense in Texts. An Outline of English Lexicology. Grammar for English Language Teachers. eds. in Fodor. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Literature. 1991. 89:2 (2000).. Focus on Proficiency. (advanced). I. Jim. Dordrecht.Kamp. Bauerle et al. 1973. J. A Handbook of Present-day English. 1931. Part II. and J.. 1970. volume 68. vol.Katz. Hans and Uwe Reyle. R. Sue. S. Klima. D. Wolfgang. H. K... L. 1987. Negation in English. Number 3. Language. Foresman and Company. Leech. vol. 2002.. Transactions of the Philological Society. X. Poutsma. Seminar Press. 2000. English Syntax. Schibsbye. Parrott. J. Groningen Lipka. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Smith. New York. 1990. Carlota. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. 1999. a. Plenat (ed. Cahiers de praxematique 19. 1992. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. Vet. 1998.) L’emprise du sens. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Conference on British and American Studies.. Zandvoort. e. 372 ... le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation.. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. TUB.W. Lectures in English Morphology. 347-385. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Vet. 2001. A Handbook of English Grammar..Schwegler. Henriette. Vişan. London. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. Analyticity and Syntheticity.. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. R.. Co. 2003. Le passe simple. de Swart. I. Berlin. Rodopi. Editura Credis. Stefanescu. 2003. Co. Modes of Discourse. N. Amsterdam. In M. Visan. Mouton de Gruyter. Sentence Processes. 1978. editia 1. 2003. N. A. 1957 and 1962.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.