NADINA VIŞAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru învăţământul la distanţă

Universitatea din Bucureşti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7
1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13
2.2. Assertive – non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full – local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh – questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61
3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73
4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99
5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119
6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151
7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163
7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 ‘That Deletion ________________________________________________175
7.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191
8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223
9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236
9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261
Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE:
Această carte se adresează studenţilor din programul de învăţământ la distanţă, cu specialitatea română – engleză şi abordează problema proceselor sintactice care au loc în interiorul frazei: negaţia, interogaţia, coordonarea şi subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizată pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunându-se din explicaţii teoretice şi exerciţii. Am preferat să aleg o variantă care să faciliteze procesul de învăţare şi înţelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba engleză, motiv pentru care exerciţiile nu sunt plasate la sfârşitul fiecărui capitol, ci imediat după fiecare problemă prezentată. La finalul fiecărui capitol sunt oferite exerciţii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uşura munca studentului, am reluat explicaţiile, condensându-le în tabele şi în final rezumându-le într-o scurtă secţiune intitulată Key Concepts (Concepte de bază). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenţii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecvenţă, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciţiile care însoţesc explicaţiile teoretice sunt însoţite

5

materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o bază şi pentru profesorii de limba engleză din învăţământul preuniversitar în vederea pregătirii pentru examenele de definitivat. Deşi principalii beneficiari sunt studenţii programului de învăţământ la distanţă. pe care studentul este invitat să le consulte după ce a parcurs materia şi a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciţii. titularizare şi grad.de rezolvări. 6 .

ONE INTRODUCTION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes. 7 .

Contents: 8 1.3. The Distribution of an Element 1.4. Auxiliary verbs 1. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1. Insertion 1.2.5.1. Complementary distribution .6. Constituent Phrase 1.

or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents. very much. (Susan îşi iubeşte foarte mult mama. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit. Constituent Phrase Constituent (phrase) – any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. Semantic. since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. For instance. loves. that is sequences fragmented at random. if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as: 1. Consequently.1.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan. since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). sequences of the kind her mother very.Unit one Introduction This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course.2. Pragmatic Syntactic – relates to the structure of sentences Semantic – relates to the meaning of words. Syntactic. 1. They are just strings. sentences Pragmatic – relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse 9 . her mother.

e. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs – one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. must.) 10 .4. (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (Dă-i banii lui Susan şi apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and). be).Nadina VIŞAN In the following example. we are dealing with a directive (i. 1. etc. semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically. should. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may.3. (Mi-a spus secretul.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have. 1. an order given to an interlocutor). An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. Insertion Insertion – a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it.

The Distribution of an Element The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Consider. the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. These are the contexts in which ‘there’ subjects are possible in English. that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. for instance. which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian.Unit one Introduction As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret.) 1. (Mi-a spus într-adevăr secretul. (Pe preşul de la intrare se află o pisică.6.5. Complementary distribution Complementary distribution – it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution. an ‘empty’ there subject. and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of ‘there’ subjects. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. 1. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear. live.) This sentence has a ‘special’ subject. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the 11 . etc.

as the star indicates. apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents. semantic. using your own examples: insertion. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. whereas (7) is not. complementary distribution. auxiliary Activity 1 verb. pragmatic. Munt. he had not yet been able to estimate. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. both (8) and (9) are correct structures. How much. Pratice Define and illustrate.Nadina VIŞAN demonstrative pronoun this/that. distribution. If the given context is the one under (6). 12 . syntactic. this would really hurt. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. let’s check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution.

to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). 13 . To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.TWO SENTENCE NEGATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to ‘sentence negation’.

7. Polarity Items 2.2. Negative concord – non-negative concord languages 2. Conclusion. Assertive – non-assertive Contents: 14 2. affirmative sentences.5. Negative vs.3. Key terms . Key terms 2.1.6.8. Instances of negation 2. Full – local negation 2. Tests for negativity 2.2.4.

Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive. in the sense that it states something. a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. This example can be compared to: (2)a. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Declarative vs. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both ‘positive’ and ‘declarative’ while non-assertion has a subsystem either ‘negative’ or ‘interrogative’. it asserts something. a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. Consequently. We do not therefore have two independent systems: . (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolată.Positive vs.) b.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) is said to be an assertion.2. He didn’t offer her any chocolates. Negative . The relationship can be represented as follows: 15 . in that they do not state anything. Assertive – non-assertive We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. For instance.

didn’t she? / Hasn’t she arrived? / If you like jazz./ She can’t wait to read that book.) .g./ We didn’t come here just to talk. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen./ If you like her.negative (They didn’t tell her the secret. Didn’t they tell her the secret?) .positive sentence . / She finally admitted./ Don’t do that. listen to this.Nadina VIŞAN .g.other (if –clauses. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. / Come with me. Did they tell her the secret? ) . don’t bother her.non-assertion . The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.) . subjunctive) Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. They told her the ( e. / Are you listening to me? / Aren’t you listening to me? / He never listens.assertion . comparison.negative (e.interrogative (e.positive and declarative secret. 16 .g.

we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure. John is not happy.) b. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. Susan dislikes her friends.3. Full – local negation The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation. since the negative word not is not present there. John is unhappy.) 17 . (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei. In the case of the sentences under (4). (Nu demult. Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.Unit two Sentence negation 2.) b. For example. since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4).) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples. am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan. (John e nefericit. word negation. I met a girl named Susan. A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago. whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a.

This is also called an instance of phrasal negation. (Nu era o femeie neatrăgătoare. In other words. namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didn’t meet a girl named Susan long ago. (Nu mică mi-a fost îngrijorarea. since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. since the negative word not is present inside them.) b. (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent. (Nu era lipsit de inteligenţă. we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence. I was not a little worried. where the word 18 . the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. In other words. more precisely the phrase it is part of.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman. (N-am întâlnit o fată pe nume Susan demult.Nadina VIŞAN In this case. just like in the case of word negation. but their meaning tells us a different story.) c. She was not an unattractive woman. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation. He was not without intelligence. whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. these sentences look negative. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a.

/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. / Îl 19 between full and local (that is word or . toată lumea călătorea cu trăsura./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. / Când a aflat vestea. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). / Nu cu multă vreme în urmă. without intelligence. nu s-a simţit deloc încântat. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. / I-a trebuit nu puţină iscusinţă să rezolve problema.Unit two Sentence negation negation (unattractive./ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face didn’t appear on TV last night./ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i.e. paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsită de graţie şi de frumuseţe. Translate the following sentences into English. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. / Nu îl preferă pe John în mod special. semantic negation. a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive.

Negative vs. dar nu neobişnuit. Tests for negativity In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentence’s negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one: 20 . domnul Jones s-a ridicat şi a plecat din sală. dar nu în mod special. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. 2. ci doar indecişi. / Nu era neobişnuit de deştept. / A negat cu tărie orice legătură cu crima comisă cu o seară înainte. / Era el destul de isteţ. / Nu tocmai convinşi de ceea ce auziseră. / Nu erau nelămuriţi.4. affirmative sentences. / Deloc interesat de conferinţă. cei doi fraţi şi-au luat inima în dinţi şi au protestat. / Era neobişnuit de şmecher. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuţiile din sală. / Nu mică i-a fost mirarea să vadă cât de bine se înţelegeau cei doi. / Nu neg că această culoare mă prinde de minune. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.Nadina VIŞAN preferă pe John.

Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. For instance.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. Harry did something to the government (but he didn’t 21 . Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes.) (9) I didn’t go there.Unit two Sentence negation As we were saying. (M-am dus acolo.).1. (see subsection 1. syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not. such as do insertion. in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didn’t attack the government. (Nu m-am dus acolo. etc. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasn’t Harry). whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse.

/ Susan did not get married to Jim. since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. 22 . incorrect.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. doesn’t she? Sentence (11) qualifies as negative. *does she? Susan dislikes her friends. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative. since it is followed by an affirmative question tag. whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical. does she? ( Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. nu-i aşa?) Susan dislikes her friends. The second question that springs to one’s mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative. / I don’t like her very much. / We don’t come here often./ They didn’t leave. / She does not hate animals. Tag-questions – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends.

Either conjoining – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends. since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences. nici măcar de cei deştepţi. * and they don’t like her either. not even the smart ones. *and neither do they like her. which is ungrammatical.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends. Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. 4. Neither tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20) 23 Susan doesn’t like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. and neither do they like her. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16).Unit two Sentence negation 2. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends. 3. even the smart ones. Example (14) is syntactically negative. and they don’t like her either.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends. Not even-tags – a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends. (Lui Susan nu îi place de prietenii ei şi nici lor nu le place de ea. as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. . *not even the smart ones. which does not happen in the case of (18). (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.

/ I haven’t ever seen such a thing. / No problems were caused after all. Instances of Negation We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. 2. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / You have never met her. / They caused us no problems. whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary): 24 . they go skiing in the mountains. / A few of them stayed behind. one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. By applying these tests to the sentence in question.Nadina VIŞAN Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag. / Not always a witty interlocutor. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently.5. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. In conclusion. they need to refer to these tests of negativity. / Few of them stayed behind. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I don’t know much about him. / This boy is no good.

This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. (N-a venit John). b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru) The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). (Nu m-am dus nicăieri) 25 .Unit two Sentence negation (21) (22) John has not come. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasn’t come. I went nowhere. Susan couldn’t go to the theatre. (N-am văzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (27) a . Susan could not go to the theatre. (26) I saw nobody. (N-am văzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object.

) b. I never went to his place. I didn’t see any student. / I didn’t ever go to his place. b. 26 . Not all that glitters is gold. I didn’t see anybody.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase in the first position of the sentence. All that glitters is not gold.Nadina VIŞAN b. (N-am văzut pe nimeni. (Nu m-am dus nicăieri. (Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. No day passed without me thinking of him. (Nu tot ce străluceşte e aur.) (29) a. ( N-a trecut o zi fără să mă gândesc la el. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. I didn’t go anywhere.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been ‘attracted’ by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position.) c. / Nu m-am dus niciodată la el. (N-am văzut nici un student. no incorporation takes place. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. Not a day passed without me thinking of him.) b.

/ I showed him nothing. because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1. negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didn’t send many students abroad.: (31) (32) (33) 27 I hardly met this man. barely. did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.4. not even short ones./ They never went there.Unit two Sentence negation The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. / I didn’t see anybody./ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them.) – the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative. and we don’t go to the theatre either. / He should not be released. / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret. (Nu citesc romane. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / No one ever listens to her. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. etc. / Not a word fell from her lips. rarely. seldom. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / I saw nobody./ They didn’t come to meet her.) They barely read any novels. / None of them liked house music. / Not one of them came to meet her. nici măcar din alea scurte. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly. scarcely.V. .) We seldom watch T. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction.

which triggers inversion): (35) a. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / I seldom look at her like that. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / Few people came to see her.) 28 them. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii şi nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends. Never have I met a more horrible person. / Hardly anybody liked him. / I scarcely ever see her. (N-am mai auzit aşa ceva.) c.) d. (Pentru nimic în lume n-aş face una ca asta. şi nu mergem nici la teatru. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence. Not for the world would I do such a thing.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion. (Rareori am făcut un lucru aşa de prostesc.Nadina VIŞAN (Ne uităm rar la televizor. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. . negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye.) b. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. (Niciodată n-am cunoscut un om mai îngrozitor.

sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesn’t like them.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / She could rely on nobody but him. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow.Unit two Sentence negation Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. (Ei nu cred că lui îi place de ei. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. never trust a man again. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances. / I didn’t leave the office at any time. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before. in the sense that the 29 . / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. As you can see from the translation of these examples.) They don’t think that he likes them. / You must on no account touch this machinery. (Ei cred că lui nu-i place de ei.

) 30 . cannot appear in an affirmative context.) but also by the existence of certain elements that. 2. etc. / He reckoned he would not win her over. advise. believe.Nadina VIŞAN original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. etc. imagine. sound/feel like. be probable. should be desirable. probability. / I expect he won’t come here again. barely. want. intend. In sentence (37). although not negative in meaning. choose. She didn’t lift a finger to help me.: think. be supposed to. (N-a mişcat un deget să mă ajute. suppose. look like. / I suppose she doesn’t care. be likely.) b. we can very well say something like: (38) a. does she? / It’s likely that he won’t help her. For example. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte. seem. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him.6. / I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. intention. appear. She doesn’t like our chairman at all. guess. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. etc. ought to. Polarity Items Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly. expect. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion. suggest. the negative meaning is less strong. / They believe she does not like them.

These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1. N-am văzut nici picior de hoţ prin preajmă. that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity.2. The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. * Am văzut picior de hoţ prin preajmă.Unit two Sentence negation In the above examples. They are not usable in an affirmative environment. and sentences such as: (39) a. That is 31 . I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip să vorbeşti cu el.*She lifted a finger to help me. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip să vorbeşti cu el. *She likes our chairman at all. are clearly not grammatical. b. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items.

/ I like you a lot. you can still do something about it. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. I’m afraid her husband was never any good.). / Come on. we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. / I still love you) Either vs. still (I don’t love you any more. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.) Any more vs. / Well. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Bob is still living at that address. / I somehow like him. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. / They say he once had someone very close. some (I haven’t any money. too. / She hardly ever comes here. / Don’t worry. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. etc.) At all vs. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / He arrived before 5. a lot (I don’t like you much. identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter.Nadina VIŞAN exactly why. before (He didn’t arrive until 5.) Hardly ever vs. / You needn’t send her anything. I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / I can understand both of these 32 . Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday. / I have some money.) Until vs. / Well.) Much vs. / I like it . too. it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / I somewhat like his proposal. either. already (I haven’t seen him yet. / I have already seen him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / I eat caviar most of the times. too (I don’t like it.) Yet vs. somehow/ somewhat (I don’t like him at all.

n-am închis un ochi toată noaptea (n-am lipit geană de geană). Ion nu e prea deştept. lay a finger on someone. find a trace./ I can understand all of these ten English words. turn a hair. / You must pay that fine. sleep a wink. de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea deştept. / Sunt convinsă că Mark nu s-a deranjat să telefoneze. see/ feel/ remember a thing. nici unuia dintre noi. touch her/him with a ten-foot pole. lift/raise/ stir a finger. / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu. give a damn/darn. Translate into English. N-a zis nici pâs când doctorul i-a pansat rana.Unit two Sentence negation sentences. have a care/ friend in the world. last a minute. / N-a putut face el aşa ceva! Nu e el chiar aşa de deştept! / Nu ştiu ce s-a întâmplat cu ea. / Nouă nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic. / Arăţi atât de obosită azi! -Nu e de mirare. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. know a single person. / Se spune că acest doctor în ştiinţe n-a studiat niciodată nimic nicăieri./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. have/be worth a red cent. bat an eye(lid). crack a smile. / Peter knows some English and so does John. / Jim e atât de curajos! Nici n-a clipit măcar o dată. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live® / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / You must be telling lies. say / breathe/ understand a word. move a muscle. touch a drop. leave a stone unturned. paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge. hear a peep. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. te rog! Nu pot să clintesc din loc pietroiul ăsta. mulţumesc. tell/ ask/speak to a soul. hurt a fly. flinch. de când cu 33 . / Ajută-mă. n-am văzut-o de ani de zile.

/ Poliţia a scotocit peste tot. / Nu te lua după el! Părerea lui nu face nici două parale! / Scena era atât de caraghioasă. / Not that I care. there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger. / He won’t make old bones. n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o facă. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it. paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. n-a sunat încă. dar nici para chioară în buzunar. / These guys never know whether they’re coming or going. / He is no end of a fellow. / Nothing succeeds like success.Nadina VIŞAN ulcerul ăsta. Translate into Romanian. nu-mi pasă câtuşi de puţin dacă se întoarce sau nu. / I couldn’t make head or tail of it. / No entry. / Să fiu al naibii dacă mai vorbesc cu el vreodată! / A: A sunat clopoţelul? B: Nu. he’s a pig. a primit vestea morţii fiului său fără să clipească! / E un om fericit. / Nothing doing! / “Sorry!” “No harm done!” / Nothing daunted. / No admittance. dar ea nu-şi mai amintea absolut nimic şi nu scotea o vorbă. / No sooner said than done. B: Aşi. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / No trouble at all. / No man is wise all the time. nu mai pun picătură în gură înainte de masă. / Nu ştiu de ce plânge. n-a lăsat cotlon necercetat. / I had no end of trouble. / Hotărât lucru. / No hands wanted. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. nu e vina mea. i se întâmplase ceva îngrozitor. dar n-a mişcat un deget să-i salveze! / Era un om tare. he left the room. încercând să prindă criminalul. etc) or Affirmative ones (would 34 . încât nu-şi putea ţine râsul. but you really should do something about it. budge. As you have noticed from the exercises above. / Never is a long word. N-are nici o grijă pe lume.

In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord.7./ I saw no one.Unit two Sentence negation rather). / I hate making any commitments. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen. Romanian is therefore a negative–concord language and we can safely say that Substandard English – that uses double negation – exhibits negative concord. say it. which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Normally. Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API). c) He is anxious to say something. but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say. N-am văzut pe nimeni.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences. 2. Negative concord / Non-negative concord This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. b) I love asking some funny remarks. as well: 35 .

We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences. nu poezia asta. 36 . it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. however.Nadina VIŞAN (46) I can’t get no satisfaction. mistaken for the so-called ample negatives.) The example above is a sample of Standard English. B: Nu. (Nu. Key terms. I don’t. The second negation is somehow independent.8. (The Rolling Stones) The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be. B: Not this poem. from a syntactic point of view. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.) 2. I don’t like this poem. in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. nu îmi place poezia asta. nu-mi place. that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You can’t really like this poem. Conclusion. (A: Doar nu-ţi place poezia asta.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English – non-negative concord (does not allow for ‘double negation’) Romanian – negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English – negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: • Există un mare pericol: să nu degenerezi şi să ajungi să vezi viaţa altfel de cum este. / Îi era teamă să nu plece el mai devreme şi să uite valiza acasă. / Stau şi păzesc clădirea şi am grijă să nu izbucnească vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie să te fereşti să nu se întâmple ceva rău. / N-a venit acasă mai
37

Nadina VIŞAN

devreme pentru că nu ştia dacă el n-o să vrea să mănânce în oraş. • Abia când m-am pomenit bătând în poarta Măgurenilor, încet, slab, fără prea multă hotărâre, au început să mi se hipertrofieze brutal în minte dimensiunile aventurii în care mă vârâsem. Nu-mi făcusem mari iluzii, nu mă aşteptam să obţin ceva de la Carol, după cum nu crezusem că voi fi bruscat, expediat afară. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Oricum distanţa care o ţineau faţă de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se părea ameninţătoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singură amintire, întâmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul să dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, că sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Cu nici unul dintre aceştia N.S. nu se găsea în relaţii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce însemna că ei nici nu-şi vorbeau şi nici bineţe nu-şi dădeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj şi amintire) • Nici o clipă nu-mi trecuse prin minte că venind aici, la mânăstire, aş avea nevoie în bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream să iau parte la petrecere. (Şt. Agopian, Tache de catifea) • Pe locul hotărât se adunase, încă până a nu se face ziuă, atâta lume, cât frunză şi iarbă, de nu se mai putea mişca; şi bătrânul cu copiii abia găsiră şi ei un colţişor la o parte de unde să se poată uita şi ei. N-apucară să se aşeze bine şi auziră un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) • Era rândul meu să spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam însă unde rămăsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat să-mi mărturisesc deruta: “În realitate, nu înţeleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare că mă depăşeşte cumva… Eu o cred cel puţin anacronică, o restanţă din alte vremuri…” “Aş fi bucuros să fie aşa.Din păcate, mi-e greu să-mi dau seama în ce lume trăieşti, răspunse el imediat, cu multă superioritate. Altfel arată lumea, nu cum ţi-o închipui. Nu teoriile şi celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune şi rele, clare şi neînţelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie să o judecăm aşa cum este, nu cum am vrea să fie ori mai ştiu eu. Gândeşti cu totul greşit, am putut să mă conving…” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • După agitaţia matinală, când nu îndrăznea să-mi repete invitaţia, dar nici nu părea să renunţe la ideea de a pleca şi eu în B., Radu se liniştise, stătea alături, pe bancheta din faţă, urmărind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul râului. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • “Nu-mi dau seama ce ţi-am vorbit aseară, dacă ai priceput ceam vrut să-ţi spun. Eram somnoros şi obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteală. M-ai scos din sărite, ăsta-i adevărul, şi atunci mi-au venit în minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, şi, de plăcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am făcut damblaua. Am mai vrut să-ţi spun că te simţi om abia după ce-ţi achiţi datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, în curând vom ajunge în oraş, dacă vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, deşi eu nu cred, m-ai fi întrebat ceva, oricum, te priveşte, nu ţin să-ţi calci pe conştiinţă: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ţine-o curată, călcată, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu mă bag. Un lucru mă întrebam aşa, venind cu hodorogul ăsta de tren: nu-i vorba sută la sută de tine, deşi ţi se potriveşte, oare în spatele vorbelor mari, preţioase, în spatele conştiinţei tale şi
39

Nadina VIŞAN

aşa mai departe, nu se găseşte cumva frica, incapacitatea de a acţiona, lenea chiar? Eu – zici tu – mai demult, mă ascundeam după armă şi după pumni; dar tu şi Melania, voi, aţi ieşit sau ieşiţi în faţă, la bătaie, sau totuşi vă pitiţi şi voi? Arma însemna putere, ea rezolva încurcăturile, vă curăţa drumul, din hârtoape v-a făcut asfaltul… Chiar dacă nu omorai neapărat, duşmanul îţi ştia de frică, şi avea de ce. Fără forţă nu văd cum te-ai putea crede stăpân, nu ştiu cum ai inspira respect.” (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Aşadar, ce să fi înţeles tata? Cum să-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil să-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care până atunci n-am reuşit să spun măcar o dată, din întâmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam să-l mint, dar nici să mă mint, aşa că aşteptam resemnat să se obosească ori să schimbe subiectul, deşi era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, îl irita mereu, lansa câte o întrebare stupidă sau îi aducea aminte cu multă eleganţă că nu i-am răspuns încă. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Ce nedreptate cumplită: nici nu te naşti bine, nici nu reuşeşti să deschizi suficient ochii, şi, iată, trebuie să mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) • Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai târziu că, de frică să nu ştie unde sunt, nici n-a desfăcut plicul şi, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acasă şi două zile nu s-a mai trezit din beţie. Lumea, uimită, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat însă a început să se obişnuiască şi cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii încercaţi de necazuri nu se fereau de băutură, ea îi făcuse mai indulgenţi, faptele mărunte, chiar şi adulterele sau bătăile, nu mai intrau în sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Îmi desprinsei privirea de pe faţa bătrânului, hotărât să nu-i răspund imediat, dar nu pentru că nu aş fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv că întrebărilor lui nu reuşisem să le găsesc o justificare logică. (Augustin Buzura, Feţele tăcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIŞAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didn’t have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without Jim and, yet, she couldn’t marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didn’t stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldn’t be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasn’t a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasn’t budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIŞAN 44 .

interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.THREE QUESTIONS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i. 45 .e.

2 Echo Questions 3.3.3 Alternative Questions 3.3.2.4.2 Wh.1 Tag Questions 3.2.1.1 Yes/No Questions 3. Minor Types of Questions 3. Direct vs. Indirect Questions Contents: 46 3.2.3. Key Terms. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions 3.2. Optional Exercises .3.Questions 3.

English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why haven’t you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside. for a subsequent section. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk. If we try to analyze the examples above. it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O să facă Jane cunoştinţă cu preşedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh – element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o să se întâlnească Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising ‘question’ intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poţi face asta?) 47 . focusing on direct questions mainly. Direct / Indirect Questions Like Romanian.1.Unit three Questions 3. Bill asked his son why he hadn’t done his homework yet.

the verbal form ştii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences. 48 .Nadina VIŞAN As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1). Pratice Translate the following questions in English.g. sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre casă sau este încă acolo?/ Când vaţi căsătorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aşa de repede?/ Cât a costat fusta cea nouă?/ Oare de ce nu se mulţumesc cu cât câştigă? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions. all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e. and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters. pe mama. due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) Ştii engleză? b) unlike English. Bill?/ Pe cine iubeşti mai mult şi mai mult. paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eşti. (3) and (4). (2). by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English.

Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5). and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong. Since the question is not direct any more. because. Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required. Likewise. the sequence of the tenses is violated. It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going.Unit three Questions Unlike direct questions. In the case of indirect questions. the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion. 49 . the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. (A întrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is. since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). in this case. and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically. it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going.

b) N-ar fi drept să spună ce părere are el despre dragoste şi despre felul de a fi al femilor întrucât experienţa lui în materie e modestă. / Who does she fancy? / I don’t know who does she fancy. Nu ştiu cât mai putem sta de vorbă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) 50 .Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions. / I don’t know whom she fancies. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) Şi. c) Ştii ce. / Who is she? / I don’t know who is she. / I don’t know who she is. d) Bărbatul spune un nume şi o adresă. unde locuia înainte să fie arestată. am să-ţi dau numele şi adresa mea. sau mai bine zis. cum merge ea de obicei şi cum merge dacă se ştie privită. Femeia spune cum o cheamă şi unde locuieşte. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English. ca să fie limpede despre ce-i vorba. / He asked me who she was. / He asked me who she is. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. îi povesteşte foarte amănunţit ce fel de trup are. ce culoare are pielea. Am să ţin minte numele şi adresa ta. identify the incorrect sentences. spune la un moment dat femeia.

those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. being typical of spoken language. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteşti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (Încotro?) Pratice Transform the following ‘long’ sentences into ‘short’ ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T. Quirk’s Classification of Direct Questions A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. as Quirk shows. In this case. one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why don’t you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is.Unit three Questions 3. Short questions tend to lose some of their content.2. the type of answer the respective question requires. Let us provide 51 .

( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. (who / talk to last night)? 5. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests. yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer.2.1. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. 3. one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items: 52 .Nadina VIŞAN examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts. (which / you like best) ? 4. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Speranţe?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (when / the accident happen) ? 9.

they did.Unit three Questions (17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement. that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a căutat cineva aseară?) Yes. it has. (Da). are said to be positively – oriented. which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (Îţi dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didn’t finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didn’t you know she was my Mum? (Nu ştiai că e mama mea?) 53 . A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions. instead of Negative Polarity ones. (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes. (Da).

Aren’t you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No.. . 3. because you always copy everything I do! 5.. (speak yet) B: ……. A: What a lovely hairdo! …………………. ……………………………. make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No. ……..? (a mean thing to do) 54 . A: Why aren’t you coming to the party? …………… (feel like getting out) B: ………. A: Your mother is shouting for you. 4. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. A: She had her tenants evicted. …………………………………? (enjoy the film) B: ………………. 7. A: You look down. as in the example: 1. but I want to play basketball a little longer. but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. but I’ve got to babysit tonight. …………………. 2. 6...Nadina VIŞAN (24) Can’t you be more patient? (Nu poţi să ai şi tu mai multă răbdare?) (25) Won’t you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui şi mie cu cine te-ai întâlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues. (tell me who does it for you) B: …. A: You’ve been learning German for years. ……………? (hear her) B: …. I’ve still got plenty of time. A: You’re still in your pyjamas.

You could have mentioned it earlier. She’s got a reputation for being heartless.2 Wh – questions Wh.. 9. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. how. which When.. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce îţi bazezi pronosticul?) 55 .. . . A: There was a terrible car crash.questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose. A: It’s past your bedtime. ……………………(realise she was Ann’s sister?) B: …………………….2. ………………………………. . 3. what .Unit three Questions B: …………………. 10. …………………………? (be in bed by now) B: ……………………. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say.? (see it on the news) B: …………………… . 8. why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. I didn’t get home until late last night. where.

of course. / It’s nearly seven o’clock. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city. trying to find places where I resided in life. I cannot do that. to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. / David’s car was stolen./ I have French lessons twice a week. / Shakespeare wrote “King Lear”. / I went to Hawaii on holiday./ We’ve lived here for ten years./ She dropped her glasses./ Sara owns two cars. other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this? 56 . places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom. / Kay’s gone out shopping. what ever. / There are six students in my class. (Poppy Z. why ever. etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi făcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didn’t he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are.000dollars. / That’s my pen. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often. / She lives in the suburbs. / She’s tall Activity 7 and fair. but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans. Nearly two hundred years. / Shirley got married to Ben. Brite – Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh – words (who ever. / I wasn’t at work today because I was ill. / My new car cost 10.

Unit three Questions (Cine o fi făcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heaven’s name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. (A: Fumezi o ţigară sau o pipă? B: O ţigară.2. de ce ai spus aşa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh – phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh – phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere.3. • • What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns şi unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde şi ce a ascuns?) 3.) 57 .

shall we stay? 14. How far is it the cinema? 3. didn’t use he? 11. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How far is it the cinema? 10. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. You can’t be serious. There was a fax for you this morning. or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or aren’t you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. How long is she be spending in America? 8.Nadina VIŞAN Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not. Let’s stay for another few days. Let’s stay for another few days. Who did left the gate open? 18. He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 12. shall we stay? 7. wasn’t it there? 17. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. How long is she be spending in America? 15. can you be? 58 . didn’t use he? 4. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. He used to work in a bank. Didn’t they not go to the concert last night? 5.

John goes jogging every morning. doesn’t he go? 23. That was Jeremy’s brother. oricând la vechile trăiri? Sau vreau doar să strâng documente despre un univers tulbure. despre o lume dură. dacă prin absurd 59 . nu văd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? Şi cine-i judecătorul. ca şi cei ce au fost. will you not? 27.Unit three Questions 19. deci. Don’t forget to ring the dentist. Didn’t you not see him yesterday? 30. dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experienţa altora la nimic. Ani întregi. uneori disperat. acum însă parcă m-am pierdut. plin de germeni virulenţi. la fel ca şi cei ce se duc. Who did told you about the problem? 31. neliniştea infantilă. am încercat sămi repar deformaţiile. isn’t it this? 25. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Whose it is this book? 32. n-am făcut altceva decât m-am străduit să îngrop urmele de durere în mine. How long have you be lived in London? 26. particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele şi nu cu raţiunea. Pot reveni. Toate vechi. Don’t forget to take some spare socks. wasn’t it he? 22. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. That’s your car. necruţătoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au în spate zeci de secole de istorie. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. How long time does it take to get there? 28. deci. will you not? 21. să-mi înfrâng frica. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following.

umed. “Ai fost în parc noaptea. indiferent de risc. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire?” Lumina mă ameţea. naiv. ghiceam doar unde se află. pe sub bolţile din care. puturos. Şi. şobolanii trecând indolenţi prin faţa mea şi curenţii de aer cald. Atunci? Sămi argumentez ideea că oamenii se află in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar şi fără nişte biografii în plus am această certitudine. murdar. în afară de faptul că mi-am acordat mereu câte o şansă. străină priceperii lor. dar şi drumul. contaminat desigur şi de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: “La câţi ‘zei’ te poţi opune într-o 60 . mă întreb. picură apa roşietică. a începe într-un fel viaţa de la capăt. B. neîntrerupt. că altfel îţi spunem noi!” Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care mă orbea. Cu cine ai avut întâlnire. lung. negru. pe care oricum am simţit-o. iar proştii.Nadina VIŞAN există? Întotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie. visez că odată cu mine se va schimba şi lumea. inactivii. de atunci. laşii. Uită-te la mine dacă ai curaj. Drum—dar ce drum? Am multe şanse pentru a mă schimba. Nu-mi amintesc din întreaga poveste decât un singur lucru: stăteam în cancelarie în faţa mesei directorului şi pe faţă mi se proiecta lumina unei uriaşe lămpi de bioru: “Unde ai fost? Ce-ai făcut până la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut întâlnire? Recunoaşte. Mă obsedează mereu şansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci. îi ştiu gustul. mediocrităţile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grijă să condamne la anulare orice idee nouă. Trebuie să se întîmple ceva (…) Poate mă aflu în stadiul definitivării unui drum propriu şi. vor amâna-o în cel mai fericit caz. Riscul? Ratarea. “Spune! striga el. ce legături ai? În ce scop?” C. simţeam că nu mă voi putea mişca din cauza tranpiraţiei.

Unit three Questions viaţă. nu-i aşa?) 61 (36) Open the door.3. viaţa? Oare e drept. domnule profesor. 3. chiar când prin absurd aş putea. când armele tale sunt rudimentare şi trupele decimate? Şi Carol. nu se poate. golul alb. exclus. care i-a determinat alegerea. e cinstit să-i obosesc degeaba. Minor Types of Questions There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: • declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga.3. absolut exclus să nu fi simţit în secunda aceea uriaşă atârnată deasupra lui. Tag Questions Tag questions. orbitor. când această căutare încăpăţânată a dreptăţii îi mai ţine în viaţă? (Augustin Buzura – Feţele tăcerii) 3. când n-am cum să-l ajut? Şi. didn’t she? . or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. la urma urmei. ar avea rost să le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi. shall we? (Hai să mergem acolo.1. când nu-i pot face nici un bine. They can be attached to: • an imperative Deschide uşa. will you? (38) She went to Prague. da? (37) Let’s go there.

(Şi Sue nu şi-a dat încă licenţa) Harry: She hasn’t graduated yet. deci nu şi-a dat licenţa. tag questions can be: • constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i. The suggestion is that in this case.e. hm?) • reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. aren’t they? 62 . sarcasm. since they reveal the speaker’s reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasn’t graduated yet. this is why constant polarity tags have also been called “reactive tags”. the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) They’re moving. the tag is affirmative too. if the host sentence is negative. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising. hm?) (40) A: Where’s the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: I’m afraid it’s all spent. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not. hasn’t she? (Aha. the tag is negative too). or “comment tags”.Nadina VIŞAN We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. In this way. au fost cheltuiţi. reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: • with a rising intonation. it’s all spent. au fost cheltuiţi. constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony. the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. or falling. if the host – or main – sentence is affirmative. (Din păcate.) A: Oh. is it? (Deci.

/ I think you don’t like my music.…/ Let me know. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. nu?) • with a falling intonation. nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / That was your father. after all. / He hates his wife. / I think you like my music. / Let’s eat dinner now. / He hasn’t any money in his pockets. / I must go now. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / Everyone felt happy about it. / She used to talk a lot. / He simply hates empty words. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. didn’t he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul. / I may see you tomorrow. the speaker is sure about what he says and doesn’t really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room.Unit three Questions (Se mută. / Few people like her. / She left an hour ago. / I may not see you tomorrow. / Surely you have enough money. / A few people like her. / That’s your car over there. / You will pick me up at 7. / She has a brother. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / I am dressed smartly enough. …/ Ann can’t speak French. / I am older than you. / Each of us is staying. 63 . / He has to marry Susan. / Don’t leave without me. / Tell me. / You have been invited. / The boy often watched his sister. / They said he liked music. / I don’t think you like my music. / You ought not to smoke. / There is enough food for everyone. / You will pick me up. / The boy never watched his sister.

. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. did you? / So you didn’t enjoy my talk? / So didn’t you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences. So you enjoyed my talk. didn’t he?/ He used to play squash. / They ought to work much harder… a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions: 64 . / He never used to study so hard…. isn’t it? / Is this a great party. / You’d rather stay in bed than get up early… / Anyone can apply for the scholarship… / If we don’t get a move on. or what? 3. He used to play squash. using a question tag at the end. Didn’t she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam.Nadina VIŞAN Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. Isn’t it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / It’s strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education./ I’m right about this…. Isn’t this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party. then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon…. there won’t be much time left… / Let’s have a rest… / Nobody anticipated what would happen… / Do try to relax…. 5. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn ‘t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. did he? / Didn’t he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2.

Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2. Recapitulatory echo questions . recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions – characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2. / Teachers… Students’ parents often support them.2. / Computers… No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / Grants… 3. as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didn’t like that meat.2. / Students… Student loans might replace grants. / New uses … One day robots and computers will do all our work for us.3.Unit three Questions Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. (Nu mi-a plăcut friptura aia.2. / All our work… I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom.1.) B: Chinese? 65 .3.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one. (Soţul meu ştie chineză.questions which repeat part or all of the message. as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn.1. / No robot teacher… The government should pay teachers on results.) B: You didn’t like it? ( Nu ţi-a plăcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese.

) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mănâncă_?!) 2. (Ieri l-am văzut pe Bill.2. misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. consternation. (Închide lumina aia. accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. If the wh. Explicatory Echo Questions – ask for the clarification. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise. rather than the repetition.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce să închid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam.phrase is fronted.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai văzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off.2.word can be placed in sentence initial position or not.3. disbelief. Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place. (Soţul meu mănâncă insecte.Nadina VIŞAN (Chineză?) b) special echo questions – the wh. The difference between recapitulatory 66 . of something just said. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.

/ He is interested in blue movies. which letter do you 67 .Unit three Questions and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen. (Uită-te la asta. (i. I’ve lost the letter. / He is interested in music. (Vai. / I think I’ve found a solution. intonation is rising. you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce să mă uit?) (51) A: Oh. / I think I’ve found a hair in my soup. dear. rather than did you say. intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. / We are looking for a pixie. am pierdut scrisoarea. whereas with explicatory echo questions.e./ We are looking for a purse. with recapitulatory echo questions.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean.

Nadina VIŞAN 3.4. aren’t they? ) Speaker = certain special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. she knows about it. does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation with falling intonation (Th i ’t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i (They are moving. Take a look at WHAT? ) 68 .) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?) direct minor alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?) constant polarity tags (So. Y j d WHAT? ) explicatory (Take a look at this book. Instead of Conclusions ANEXA indirect (I asked her when she would come.

acum pun mai bine mâna pe Condrat.Unit three Questions Pratice Translate the following: 1. oameni aşezaţi. lui Luca Horobeţ. şerpoaica. că tot trebuie să plece pe front. cu cale ferată şi cu geamie. Fenio. astă-toamnă? Fereşte-l Fenio. dar îmi dădeam seama că avea o ţintă: Activity 17* după ce tăcuse atâta timp asupra a ceea ce aş fi vrut să aflu. şi care s-a aciuat. numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei păcătoasă: lui Petre Litră. nu e amuzant că nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei. lui Stavre Păici. acuma sporovăiala. care ascundeau un humor secret… Ce? parcă spunea. că iepuşoara asta de Vica. cumnată Fenia. aveţi şi aşa numai necazuri. lui Chizlinski. era! (Marin Preda – Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni) 2. dar…) Care fusese anturajul ei în acei ani când eu şi Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise şi ea acolo des? Cu cine? şi în ce sens era geloasă pe noi doi? Îmi reteza. după pofte. în satul nostru. să se încolăcească mai bine. Între ce ani fusese studentă?… Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseriţă. Şi cum crezi c-a răsărit 69 . stricata. (…) Şi de la Bogdaproste. şi apoi Vica ce zice. unde crezi că a răsărit Vica? La Babadag! Oraş mare. care e fata lui Andrei Mortu. ca să zic aşa. Are gust de oameni blânzi. da. din faşă dorinţa de a-i pune aceste întrebări şi o făcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi şi a nu spune nimic enormă prin cumul de cuvinte. Degeaba crezi că a luat-o Condrat în ceata lui la pescuit.Nu ştiam unde mă duce. cu ta-su? Fereşte-l. crezi tu că nu e ea în legătură cu hoţul de Andrei. aşa.– Crezi tu. pe Condrat de Vica. în general. nu purta verighetă. şi la Oraca îndeosebi? Cine erau părinţii ei? Fusese măritată? (nu. cu o casă de copii.

Chiar şi până la geam se duce fără chef. pe care îl înjurai şi tu cu plăcere. Oamenii de la Babadag – oameni subţiri. Pentru că ce o să vezi şi acolo? Chioşcul cu iedera. dar cum se face că a 70 . Şi cui crezi că i-a sucit capul în Babadag? Lui Hogea. tinerel de şaptezeci şi opt de ani. popa al tătarilor şi al turcilor. De asta erai. pe tren şi-l îndemnai să vorbească pe tipul care s-ar fi întors totuşi la C şi ar fi căutat-o din nou pe Hertha. deşi nici nu-l cunoşteai? Pe urmă ţi-a mai venit şi o altă idee. Cum putea cineva să fie aşa de sigur pe un examen de admitere în sesiunea din toamnă. În picioare – ţi-ai găsit să mai umble cu tălpile goale! – umbla-n sandale de catifea albă cu catarămi rotunde. deci. (Mircea Nedelciu – Proză scurtă) 4. Hogea.Nadina VIŞAN Vica-n Babadag? În stambă înflorată. sau cum o chema. (Ştefan Bănulescu – Iarna bărbaţilor) 3. şi în cap cu piepteni albaştri. Ai zis: dar Grasu ăsta n-are şi el vreo fată?! Şi i-ai văzut deodată transfiguraţi. Nu mai are chef să facă nimic până diseară. şi i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu. până la călcâie. sus. roşu şi galben. scaunele de răchită de sub nuc… Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansardă să îngrijească gâlcile lui Grigore? Cum de a apărut aici? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să-şi controleze straturile de trandafiri. de oraş – s-au făcut n-aude n-a vede – de obrazul Hogii. când ea făcea pe ea şi la un biet colocviu pe an? Şi de asta râdeai cu superioritate acolo. abia târându-şi picioarele. L-a scos din geamie. atât de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lăsat să treacă sesiunea de vară şi ai continuat să-ţi vezi de munca aia simplă şi grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plăcere poţi obţine? Şi o lăsai să vină la tine o dată la două săptămâni? Şi ea credea că ai şi renunţat la facultate. curat ca pereţii de Paşti.

niciodată n-a făcut grădinarul o asemenea mocirlă! Dar oare când o fi avut vreme să fi coborât Sophie de la mansardă? Şi pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? Şi oare cum de a ajuns pălăria de panama până în mijlocul grădinii? (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 71 . furtunul curge în neştire şi a inundat aleile. dar de ce să uzi florile pe zăpuşeală? Şi un ageamiu ştie că nu se face! Că şi-a pierdut capul.Unit three Questions ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? Şi ce exagerare să te îmbraci aşa! Ce voit epatantă ţinută de grădină: cu pălăria de pai veche şi fusta puţin suflecată! Nu cumva are şi saboţi în picioare? Ai putea crede că a ieşit să ude florile. se vede prea bine.

72 .

to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English 73 .FOUR COORDINATION Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English.

Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.2.5.6.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.Coordination and Subordination 4.3.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.1.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.Key Concepts .Contents: 74 4.4.

1 Syndetic vs. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros. that elements are coordinated.e. where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i. some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully.e. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. Example (2). i.Unit four Coordination 4. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above. reproachfully. present) in the sentence. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete. where there is no indication other than a comma. on the other hand.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. cu repros. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and. is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly. 75 . which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. Asyndetic Coordination Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination.

2 Coordination & Subordination By definition. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure. we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and.Nadina VIŞAN 4. led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and you’ll die. 76 . coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting. namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. Conversely. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri. that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view. From the previously mentioned examples. vei muri.) Such examples. you will die. where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part.) (4) If you hit my wife. coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.

c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. but presupposed. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. respectively subordinated constituents.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion.Unit four Coordination b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated. However. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions. from a logical & semantic point of view. we need to specify that. the second. the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of John’s coming back happened. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate 77 . (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors. a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind.

In the first. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. with enormous solidity. but the 78 . He moved and made a slopping noise. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbeck’s? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. the houses were beautiful and ancient. the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky. built. stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers. Though the castle had vanished. took off his shoes and emptied them. of cut gray stone. combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. adorned with cornices.Nadina VIŞAN clauses from both passages. John Steinbeck. In the second. with formal walks under rows of trees. took off his coat and emptied them. Then he sat down. took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He wrung the bottom of his trousers. His clothes hung to him. The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town. his shoes squished.

Cecil Woocham – Smith. waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. left the house. and as the way is with Irish mountains.Unit four Coordination streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins. the higher he went the wetter it grew. and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours. and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the 79 . His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking. over some of the roughest ground in the country. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim. and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet.

As one can easily notice. Chesterton – A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination. yesterday and the day before yesterday. (G.K. where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. were to take down the name of every man. as shown in (9). Honor Tracy – The Straight and Narrow Path 4.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination. who was caught at a University Extension lecture.Nadina VIŞAN prickly ground. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri. were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE. (9) If the authors and publishers of ‘Dick Deadshot’ and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri. we should be seriously annoyed. however distinguished. where we are dealing with a compound constituent. this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from 80 . the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday.

John is ready and Mary is ready. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. 8. our respective examinations. John and Mary are the newly married couple.Unit four Coordination example (7). but not John.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 7. when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. yellow and blue. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will. John and Mary are ready. / Bob and George are admired by their students. 6 John sang and Mary danced. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. Her pet kitten is black and white. 3. / Peter and John played football. / Joan plays many games. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Activity 2 sentences: 1. and even tennis. 9. 5.) 81 between argue sentence that both coordination are basic. and I passed. This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed. and but phrasal phrasal coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated . Our flag is red. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis. / Peter. 10. 4. plays football. 2. Pratice Distinguish coordination. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose.

The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels.) c. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. *John poetry and Bill writes prose. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste. as can be seen in (10b). Jane 82 .) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. Activity 4 2. or deleted. A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) b. 5. 3. whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. 6. b) backward ellipsis – when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile. John writes poetry and Bill prose. John loves and Bill hates cigars.

) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure.Unit four Coordination forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi. 83 . Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut. that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language. 8. So. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. Besides ellipsis. the so-called Principle of Economy. 7. can be reduced by substitution.) The common element. 10. as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. these syntactical processes. than a longer repetitive one. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. i. the predication buy a pair of shoes.e. are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle. 9. substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend.

since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. 4. In certain cases. 2. Translate the following sentences. some reason or another. George and Jane went back to their parents. interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. George and Jane are separated. simple books and magazines for children 3. 3. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. one or (the) other method. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. the old men and women 2. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile 84 . using reduced structures: 1. 4. ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity. A citit.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and John’s and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another.

13. 8.Unit four Coordination vagaboande de langa bloc. 10 They’ve shared a lot of experiences: they’ve been through …………… together. Can we discuss the …………. 11. I need another 100$ ………... only for damage. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases. for my wallet. of your proposals later on? 3. 12.. . 7.. I’ve tidied up my room and now it’s ………… 9. She’s a wonderful storyteller: always the …………… of the party. They get on quite well together. 8.. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 15. they reached home………. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros 85 . fish and chips. even though they have their little …………. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 2. it’s a case of ………… 7. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1. 16. 6. Marks and Spencers. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are ……….… 14. It was ………… whether the rescuers would get there in time. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. 5. Can you show me the ………… to support your argument? 4. sweet and sour. You can’t claim on insurance for ………. A pendulum swings ………. like: salt and pepper. 6. The police are responsible for maintaining …………..You gain some things and you lose others. 5. the amount I’ve already saved up. After all their adventures. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his ……….I searched ……….

) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut. In fact. b.Nadina VIŞAN and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear. such as: alike … and / nor … nor / nor … or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. 4. and 86 .) There are. etc. of course. more often than not. For instance.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari. Coordinating Conjunctions We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both … and /at once … and / neither … nor / as well as / no less than / not only … but also. which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. as in: (17) a. Nor sun. the expressive function of coordination is. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.4. nor wind will strike to kiss thee. to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast. one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content. semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators.

(Poate primi ori banii ori hainele. either … or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. or . some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and.Unit four Coordination (18) I gave her the money but I didn’t feel happy about it. etc). (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii. I gave her the money but (I) didn’t feel happy about it. 20 (b)). (Ei o placeau pe Susan. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc. and cherished her. (I-am dat banii. If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses. dar nu am fost multumit de asta. where the subordinator is repeated. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her.) c. both … and .) b.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either … or.) In certain cases. too): (20) a.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or. the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money.g. sometimes but.) 87 . o respectau si o indrageau. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo. ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didn’t object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day.

I like and admire her. Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts. and hit my wife. the order of these conjuncts is fixed.* I ironed and washed my pants. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii. and you’ll die.Nadina VIŞAN An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes. if we were to rewrite the example . I admire and like her. (O admir si imi place. I washed and ironed my pants.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori. Let’s cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have: 88 .) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators – where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a.) b. these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions. In this case. From this point of view.) b. (Imi place si o admir. we could not say something like: (23) *You’ll die.

) while/whereas – interpretation Dr. you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat. he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament. (If you do that. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. Brown does it with humans) 89 (26) (27) (29) (30) (31) .Unit four Coordination 1. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni. He didn’t pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and you’ll walk away safely.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. Brown experiments with humans. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) (28) (<Because he didn’t pay. Dr. (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. he failed).) (While Dr.

Nadina VIŞAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect – like in the case of symmetric BUT – but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or I’ll break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or you’ll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types • exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) • inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar … or both.
90

(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar… sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and you’ll scream. 8. Love me and I’ll marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or we’re staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else you’re out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or I’ll scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

91

Nadina VIŞAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND – the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

92

Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER … OR, NOT (ONLY) … BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not John’s brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER … NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither … nor resembles either …or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both … and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
93

Nadina VIŞAN

(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts
Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori şi doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am să-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O să stăm împreună, la bine şi la rău. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici măgar. 5. Sper că scrisoarea mea te gaseşte bine, sănătos. 6. “Cum o mai duci?” “ N-am murit încă, mulţumesc de întrebare.” 7. Soţul ei e de mult mort şi94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu căţel şi cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Târâş, grăpiş, tot am să termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era închipuit şi nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizică îl făcea să-ţi umfle bicepşii şi coşul pieptului şi să fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obţine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru să-şi încerce puterea braţelor rezemându-se cu toată greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aşa de tare, încât spre a evita un accident, Jim renunţă şi se mulţumi să boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei şi pernele din pat. 3. Bunica şi bunicul au trăit fără baie-n casă şi a fost bine! Aţi venit dvs. mai cu moţ!” 4. -Ce stai de vorbeşti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -Să mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim stătu puţin să se gândească, fiindcă nu vedea încă modul de întrebuinţare. Să atârne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan şi apoi să-i dea înclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega şi îi era teamă să nu se surpe cumva tavanul. Să toarne apa în lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rămase şi scârbit de platitudinea cugetărilor, dar şi mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. – Doamnă, ţiu să vă declar că n-am venit decât să vă cer învoirea de a ne căsători şi de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviinţă. Nu numai că nu trebuie să vă îngrijoraţi, dar vă cer permisiunea de a mă ocupa eu în chip exclusiv de acest eveniment şi favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
95

stropitoarea în casă?

Nadina VIŞAN

materiale. (G. Călinescu – Cartea Nunţii ) (3) 1. Dată dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaţa ei, şi pe ce punea mâna-I ieşea, odată ea era-n zor mare să termine o rochie a Ivonei, şi-ntr-o doară I-a dat şi lu madam Ioaniu să-I surfileze. Şi ce să vezi ? De cum a pus mâna pe ac, foarte frumos şi îngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu în fotoliu ei şiI tot povestea, e-hei, câte trăise ! Doi bărbaţi avusese la viaţa ei, şi p-amândoi îi îngropase !… Şi bărbatu dintâi fusese ditamai Profesoru, şi când venise nemţii-l băgase la zdup, ei ştia unde-l băgase. Nu-l ţinuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi că era mai bătrâior, şi ce boală o mai fi avut, că repede-repede p-urmă dăduse ortu-popii. 2. Îl va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dată, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuşit, în fine, să-l aducă pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta – este convinsă – nu-l mai împarte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrăvit existenţa. La fel ca şi acum treizeci de ani, el îi deschide ochii asupra vieţii, iar ea îl ascultă, cu expresie de atenţie încordată pe faţă. Uneori chiar se gândeşte în altă parte – însă îl aprobă din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din când în când îi mai aruncă o întrebare ajutătoare, aşa cum căţelandrul care se gudura pe lângă Tudor venea de fiecare dată cu mingea în gură. Aducea mingea anume ca băiatul să o arunce din nou, el să alerge spre ea în salturi mari, să se oprească la jumătate de metru, o clipă să stea nemişcat şi să miroasă asfaltul, pe urmă să ia din nou mingea, s-o ducă, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mângâiere al lui, să sară înalt, încordat ca un arc.
96

try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit – rare.Unit four Coordination (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below. 97 . formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

Nadina VIŞAN 98 .

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses 99 .

3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.Contents: 100 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.4 Key Concepts .

(Cel care a făcut acest lucru a fost un geniu. subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. 5. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one – which. as the name suggests it. the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. (Se pare că nu îţi este prieten. takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses As previously shown. Unlike in the case of compound sentences .g. e. From the functional point of view. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend.which are based on coordination .) 101 . turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination.

in certain cases. they are still presupposed by the speaker. for instance. (I-a dat cartea.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. (Direct Object) (Cred că nu este acolo.) (4) I am afraid that he won’t come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e teamă că nu o să vină. sentences) required by the verb (or.) 102 . An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases. such as proud of. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o. They have the feature [+ obligatory] and.) Whenever we think of this particular verb. an adverbial item. even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted. For instance. In a way. (I-a dat cartea de bună voie. We do not presuppose however something like. by an adjective + preposition. such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. we associate it with these objects.Nadina VIŞAN b) object clauses – this class includes direct objects. for example).) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO).

The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses In (7) we can identify the verb’s obligatory objects (the book.) b.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted. 103 . but its effect remains even after its wipeout. I am afraid that he won’t come. The term comes from the verb to adjoin.e. In other words. to her) and one extra-item. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition. under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a ‘that clause’. Thus. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. (Mi-e teamă că n-o să vină. since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he won’t come. has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he won’t come to be a prepositional object. i. which is the adverbial willingly. an additional one. That is why we choose to call ‘prepositional object’ the ‘that-clause’ following the adjective afraid. The second example. A second observation. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. to add something. it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. related to example (4).

I’ll die. (Înainte să plece din cameră. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. make. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb. etc. a închis toate ferestrele. like. such as want. please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. before you decide on what label to stick on an object.Nadina VIŞAN Last but not least. (Femeia în roşu stătea lângă el pe peron. So.) 104 . The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts – those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. am să mor. we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. then you have your typical case of ‘direct object’.) (11) If you don’t marry me.) (d) attributes or modifiers – those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Dacă nu te însori cu mine.

2. They came to e. 6. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 5. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.g. believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go 105 .g. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. Susan disappeared without saying a word. she looked at me sadly. She’s aware of his rage and that he might punish her. this to whomever wants it. After I told her the story.g. the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.She came to him of her own will. The book that because they home. 3. 4. [.obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring. Whoever did that was a genius. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. e.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses To sum up so far. I cannot tell you what I heard about you.

(Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 5. which. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. was a novelty to Mitzi. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms. FOR. not object.Nadina VIŞAN Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses. as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. at our age.He took an intelligent interest in her. WHETHER. etc. As you can see.) 106 . in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject. remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. 3. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina. 2. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses – mainly those clauses introduced by THAT. You suggestion that we should. 4. 6. 5. but he declined. stating their function: Activity 2 1. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. though it was largely politeness.

) These include: • indirect questions (Nu ştiam cine l-a ucis. (Nu ştiam dacă o să mă viziteze la închisoare.) (16) a. Who did it was John. Where he went is London. (18) I didn’t know who had killed him.) b. which. etc.) b) wh-complements – those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what. where. (E de dorit să plece.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. 107 . (Ştiam că mă simpatizează. why. who. (15) It is John who did it. how. (Am vrut să plec imediat.) • cleft sentences (John este cel care a făcut asta.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses (14) I knew that he liked me. (Locul în care s-a dus este Londra. when.) • pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a făcut asta este John. (14) I was afraid of what he might say.) (15) I didn’t know whether he would visit me in jail.) • relative clauses (Mi-era groază de ce ar putea spune.

(Mi-a spus aceasta înainte să plece. that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause.Nadina VIŞAN (c) adverbial clauses – those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although. In conclusion. the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. the categories are reduced to only three in this case. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4. In (18). and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. As you will see. consider the following table. (Mi-a spus că sunt un prost. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below: 108 . if.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. before.1. the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. done from a structural point of view. for instance. however.) (18) She told me this before she left. Unlike complement clauses. these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning. which sums up this classification. Compare. etc.

I will come back such as because.g. you understand. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father. whether he will come when I feel like it.: e. 109 . for. and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right.g. Dear Ludwig. at your young age. after. I cannot express to you how much we miss you. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son. etc.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e. that you will wh Introduced by adverbial Introduced by that. Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. as. surely you cannot sincerely believe. I don’t WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times. Introduced know e. I will go there because I feel like it. (…) Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings. back.g.

that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. Late that afternoon.The day Monroe had died was in May. Accidental Man) b)1. but he asked her to wake him when she returned. Too. he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep. she stopped to speak to Monroe. she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. he said. Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare. that she realized she was now similarly hidden away. But she thought that no one would call again. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure.Nadina VIŞAN never want to set foot in the US in your life again. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch – An 110 . a tightening in her breathing. 2. As she left the house. for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening.

Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e. the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4. since they are translated differently in English: care vs. Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e. As you have probably noticed already. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [. I don’t know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius.g. că e.obligatory] ADJUNCTS. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. a correspondence can be traced. I told her everything after she arrived. However.g. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. That he loved e. let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses.2. interesting. 111 .g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses 5.g.g.g. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.

This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. whenever you identify a wh. wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5. Thirdly. So.complement. (Fata care mă place e frumuşică.1. that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me..Nadina VIŞAN you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. In the fourth place. the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify. Secondly.e.2. whereas wh complements are the 112 .) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This table makes a few things obvious: firstly.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. complements. (Cred că mă place. We will come back to that in the next chapter. adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5. i.

before. outbuildings. because. and I do not know how things might stand between us. but no idea what to do with them. She mistrusted her handwriting. c) I am coming home one way or another. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials. a house. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. after. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. I first thought to tell in 113 . b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano. their introductory elements (e.g. a barn. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. Pratice Consider the following text.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses hardest to figure out. for no matter how she tried. etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce.

wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanţial).e. adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers. it would make you fear to do such again. since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). • English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory 114 . Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale. According to a structural criterion. because they modify.4. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 5. these clauses can be complements. Key Concepts We classify dependent (i. objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective). Don’t forget three important points made in this chapter: • there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one. which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate. and I have not the will or the energy. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects.Nadina VIŞAN this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return.

dar după ce alergă vreo douăzeci de paşi. • The Romanian term complement indirect (i. making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. atât de demult încât în ziua când află nici măcar nu se mai trudi cu gândul să se întoarcă înapoi şi să-şi dea seama de când. look at. be very careful to use this term correctly. (…) “Mă. nici pe ăla nu-l seceră ca lumea. fără să-şi ridice spinarea. dar devreme mai mănâncă Anton ăsta!” gândiră ei. Cu câteva luni înaintea războiului Anton Modan nu ştia că de mult nu mai era om îndrăzneţ. Alţii. answering the question to whom? So.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses preposition (e. since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. 115 . şi din mişcările ei se putea înţelege că e stăpână pe un gând care o ţinea mereu încordată şi îndârjită. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. think of. Când Anton lăsă secerea unii se uitară la soare să-şi dea seama dacă mai e mult până la prânz. Tot timpul dimineţii o văzuse că tace. Anton se uita la ea şi se întreba. Nevasta secera în tăcere. îşi spuseseră că Anton. după ce că are grâu puţin. interested in. ce o fi având. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects.e. Pratice Translate the following. care îi văzuseră pe Anton şi nevastă-sa cum stăteau cu secerile în mână şi se uitau unul la altul. O zbughi înapoi.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. etc.g. însă.

(Marin Preda – Îndrăzneala) 2. În cazul de faţă avu acest sentiment că nu-l pândeşte nici o primejdie. Nici acum. Unui luptător nu numai atenţia lui încordată şi semnele exterioare vizibile îi semnalează prezenţa inamicului. întâi. de fapt. cât omul din mlaştină urmări atent întoarcerea acasă a acestei familii. cât de bolnavă era. Costel de curând scrisese acasă că n-ar fi defel potrivit să se mute şi că se miră că dumnealor stăruiesc si nu pricep. nu se zări nici prin apropiere şi nici prin curte umbra unui bărbat sau măcar a unui bătrân. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brăila.Nadina VIŞAN simţind că nu s-a luat nimeni după el. Cât priveşte viaţa acestei familii. pe care el nu se bizuie în întregime. (Marin Preda – Friguri) 3. N-avea el dreptate? era destul să te uiţi la Ana. devenise limpede faptul că nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste râu nici un bac şi că ăn general circulaţia era întreruptă total pe aceasta arteră. fiindcă şi să înghiţi nu e puţin. se opri şi se uită să vadă ce ispravă a făcut. ci îl ajută şi mirosul său pe căi mai ascunse. şi erau atâtea alte motive… 116 . deşi paiele de dedesubt sunt cenuşă. decât cu ameninţare adevărată. izolate de sat. ameninţarea aceasta semăna mai mult cu o flacără care rămâne o clipă în aer. Toată lumea înţelesese că. timp de un ceas. iar în altele era de o prudenţă exagerată. şi pentru asta îţi trebuie curaj. sau dacă se clatină se întoarce îndărăt şi nu mai ameninţă. avea să vadă la căderea nopţii ce era cu ea şi în ce măsură îi putea fi de folos. Nang învăţase să afle măsura potrivită şi în anumite împrejurări sfida pericolul. dar nici nu le dispreţuieşte. Fiindcă un on îndrăzneţ nu se clatină pe drum.

deşi cam târziu. Iată. rămâne totul baltă şi pace. iar luni era o altă sărbătoare) să facem o excursie de trei zile la vie. deşi deocamdată n-ar fi vrut cu nici un preţ să se mute din Bucureşti. după ce tatăl lui si ea alergaseră peste tot după un post pentru el… dar nu face nimic. În realitate. iar când nu izbuteau de la început. Roşise de necaz când mamă-sa îi răspunsese că se miră cum azi zice una şi mâine alta şi îi tot suceşte ca pe păpuşi. Costel nu înţelegea nici să rămână totul baltă. femeile căutau să se găsească la un loc cu bărbaţii care le interesau. pe când dumnealor vorbeau de la depărtare. a căror promiscuitate mie îmi făcea silă. a hotărât ca de Sfântul Constantin şi Elena (cădea acum într-o sâmbătă. Partea dezagreabilă era că urcam şi coboram fără să ştim de ce. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru că nu prea ştia el singur ce vrea şi nici ce să-i răspundă. De vreo două-trei ori ne aranjasem în cele trei maşini şi de două-trei ori ne-au schimbat. din cauza lui G… Anişoara. amânase scrisul. cu automobilele unora dintre ei. căci era cineva important care nu se simţea bine plasat.Unit five The complex sentence – a classification of dependent clauses Nu-şi da însă seama că până deunăzi în toate scrisorile insista asupra putinţei de a obţine un post bun la Brăila. aşa de oţetit. Îl supăra şi tonul mamei. Era bine de ştiut. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu – Logodnicul) 4. Pace nu era. iar asta ni se comunica simplu de către cei 117 . la Odobeşti. această întâie zi când a început neliniştea mea. stricau totul. sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. care într-un fel avea mania excursiilor “în bandă”. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. la nişte prieteni comuni. Numai că avea subt ochi pe Ana. acum sunt desluşiţi. de pildă. Nu! El nu era câtuşi de puţin sucit.

(Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste.Nadina VIŞAN îmbufnaţi şi iniţiaţi sumar. Iar ne dăm jos? Dar ce e. ale celor care se aranjaseră bine şi acum se temeau să nu li se strice socotelile. frate. întâia noapte de război) 118 . nu se mai termină? Aci răspundeau ridicături din umeri plictisite.

whose. etc).g. accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e. subject relative clauses.SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses. the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.. etc. 119 . of which.

6. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.7.1. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6. Relative Clause Introducers 6. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.5. The Co-reference Condition 6. Key Concepts .3.2.6.4. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives Contents: 120 6.

(3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. The Co-reference Condition .) • infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care să repar maşina. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Jane’s husband.a discussion of attributive relatives As we shall see. 121 .Unit six Relative clauses 6.2. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as • that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care îl meriţi pe deplin. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.1. 6.) • participial relatives (Bărbatul în haine ciudate este soţul lui Jane. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause.

By combining these two clauses. 122 . reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman.Nadina VIŞAN These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. John loves that woman. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubeşte John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object. like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty.

we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. John offered flowers to that woman. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology. 123 . But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. This way.Unit six Relative clauses But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. The common element woman is present. we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman.

10. 4. The students like their teacher. He liked that book. 8. 2. 3. WHICH 4. I lost the book’s cover. Susan wants to meet Jane. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. I went to London. Any of the students would answer to questions. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one.Nadina VIŞAN The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue. She came to London. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. by leaving behind a trace. I introduced him to Jim. He’s the author who received the prize. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. frequently used in written language. The students like their teacher. I had a book. She doesn’t know anything about Jane. 5. therefore in spoken English. 7. All of them would answer their teacher’s questions. too. WHO 5. John told his friend a story about the king. I bought Jim a book. I love my husband very much. They met those students. WHERE 3. 6. This is my husband. The king was just passing by. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. 9. WHO 124 . He told Jim everything about his plans. None of the students agreed with them. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1.

To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi.e.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow. . that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13) 125 Who breaks pays. WHOM 6. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent. most of them were from England. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses According to the criterion of form. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. WHOSE 7. 2. relative clauses are divided into 1. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. WHOM 10.Unit six Relative clauses 6. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. (Cine strică plateşte.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. WHICH 8. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. (Acesta este bărbatul pe care îl iubesc. TO 11. i. It was such a pity that you couldn’t join the party.

(Oferea un zâmbet cuceritor oricui venea la uşa lui.) • Predicative This was what she intended.) 126 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) .Nadina VIŞAN (Cine păcătuieşte mult va suferi. where we are looking at a more obsolete (i. unlike in the case of (14). (Aş dori să ştiu ce vrei. (Cine se atinge de smoală va fi întinat.) So. only their antecedent is no longer expressed. (Trebuie să votezi cu candidatul pe care îl consideri cel mai potrivit. these relatives cannot function as attributes.e.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted. as follows: • Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.) • Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile.) • Direct Object I would like to know what you need.) • Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. in a manner of speaking. we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones. they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects. is no longer overtly expressed. Unlike their sisters. it is covert. (Cel care strică plăteşte.

(Mercur. who incidentally is the god of commerce. (Cel care a venit să ma peţească era un zeu. They only provide supplementary information about it. they define it). is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes.) (22) Mercury.) (20) The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They can be thus divided into: 1. (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. 127 . and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography.) (Mercury. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent. (Du-te unde pofteşti.Unit six Relative clauses • Adjunct Go wherever you want. is my favourite god. they offer crucial information about this antecedent. who is the god of commerce.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. este zeul meu favorit. care este zeul negoţului.

8. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man. 6. On the day on which this occurred I was away. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause. She. As we were saying. this type of relative clauses. They are what 128 . Shakespeare. a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. is a great playwright. 7. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. then it is an attribute. 2. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. restrictive relative clauses. is a genius.This is the village where I spent my youth. was the one we all welcomed and admired. I have met him where I least expected.e. 9. Independent I don’t know what you want. can only function as attributes (or modifiers). 5.Nadina VIŞAN In conclusion. 10. who came to see me. on whom nobody could depend. i. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1. who is a genius. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met.

) When combined with a restrictive relative clause. a. it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) ∅ Freddie Mercury. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoşteam eu era vedetă rock. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care dă lecţii de pian.) 2. 6. a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. composed The (Freddie Mercury. care a murit acum câţiva ani. When the antecedent has no determiner.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions): 129 Bohemian Rhapsody. etc. the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the. etc. who died a few years ago.Unit six Relative clauses their parents made them. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. however sad this may be. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. .

(Ei apeleaza la mine. Acesta nu este Bucureştiul pe care-l ştiu eu. Cu toţii doreau să-l audă pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care încântase mii de iubitori de operă. care era cea mai frumoasă fată din sală. 7. poftiţi în faţă. who neither work nor am anxious. who am not (Oricine ar fi făcut ceva. îţi văd prea bine defectele. dried-up old maid. Cine nu munceşte nu izbândeşte. who am your son. (Cine râde la urmă râde mai bine. nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaţie. paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. care-ţi sunt fiu. 130 .Nadina VIŞAN (26) (27) I. care nici nu muncesc şi nici nu sunt îngrijorat. bătrînă morocănoasă. 3.) Anybody else would have done something except myself.) Pratice Translate the following. Dintre toate persoanele de faţă a trebuit să mă alegi pe mine să vorbesc. Dintre toate personajele prezente. Voi care vă credeţi mari şi tari. 4. 5. 6. ill-tempered. 2. iritabilă şi uscată.) (28) They come to me. care nu sunt o femeie. care nu ştiu să leg nici două cuvinte.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). Mie. numai eu nu. prinţul a ales-o pe Cenuşăreasa. but a peevish. căreia nu-mi plăcea să las lucrurile neterminate. ci o fată a woman. can see your shortcomings only too well. (Eu.

erau acum în posesia lui.5 Relative Clause Introducers Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause.) • after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina africană se năpusti spre lac sa redobândească cele pentru care trecuseră prin atâtea pericole şi avuseseră parte de atâta trudă.) (33) He was a railway fanatic. şi puţini oameni îl întreceau la asta. . were now in his possession.Unit six Relative clauses 6. than whom few more can be more crashing. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul. şi cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat târziu. părăsi camera.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods. each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. ale căror ultime note de harpă le auzise. heard. in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece în zece minute. şi fiecare din aceste stări îşi dobândise propriul sistem de armonie. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: • after a present participle … saying which he left the room (… care lucruri fiind spuse. (32) service finished late.) (35) The compositions of Cardan.) • As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals. (Era înclinat spre stări schimbătoare. some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziţiile lui Cardan.) 131 (30) (31) run such dangers and undergone such toils.

(Femeia căreia i-ai arătat tabloul era Regina. but it is typical of the formal. as can be seen in (36d). (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă.) c. literary style: (37) a. 6. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. too. (Femeia al cărui tablou l-am vândut era foarte tânără. (Tabloul al cărui cumpărător era arăta minunat. relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [± 132 . Relative Pronouns • Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous.) b.) d. The genitive form with which is still in use.1.Nadina VIŞAN Aside from these marginal examples. (Cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o era foarte scumpă. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive.5. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen.) b. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Femeia care a venit să îmi vadă tabloul era Regina însăşi.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects.

(Iris Murdoch.Unit six Relative clauses form of which. (Povestea pe care pretindea că a spus-o era prea fantastică pentru gustul meu. An Accidental Man) (… de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el. which art in Heaven … (Tatăl nostru carele eşti în ceruri…) (39) (40) (42) 133 . There are situations when inversion is not obligatory.) • Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: • When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drăguţ?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi îşi va mânji mâinile cu o crimă?) • with archaic value: Our Father. but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) …as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he was the almost unconscious agent.

but to a type or a function: a. (Nu mai este omul care era odată. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie să-l citim) c. al căror tată se pare că era Sejanus.) Both who and which are used for: • collective nouns a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este în general privit mai degrabă ca un tip hazliu decât ca (43) revolutionary which at bottom he is. … Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys. (45) (46) . ships (that can be personified) a.) b. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltică.) b. animals. revoluţionarul care este în esenţă. … Italy.) • states.Nadina VIŞAN • When a personal denotation refers not to an individual. of which. He is not the man which he used to be. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Livia tocmai născuse doi baieţi gemeni. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (… triburile asiatice şi amer-indiene care seamănă între ele. which entered the war in May 1915 … (…Italia care a intrat în război în mai 1915…) 134 Sejanus seems to have been the father. by the way.

time. (Nu ştiam ce vor. etc. while. France.5. …the bloke what signs our books … (tipul ăla de ne semnează cărţile) b. It is poor what gets the punches.) 6. şi-a luat totuşi nişte precauţii…) • what – can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didn’t know what they wanted. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine. One can’t expect foreigners to ‘ave the same ideas what we ‘ave. Poland is the place where Christine was born. their antecedents are nouns expressing places. reason. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses. cei săraci se aleg cu ponoasele. where. how. (Cei bogaţi primesc onoruri. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses. did however take certain precautions (… Franţa. etc.Unit six Relative clauses b.) 135 (47) . whom it concerned most closely. pe care o privea direct. why.) b) dialectal (49) a. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poţi să te aştepţi ca străinii să aibă ce idei avem noi.) b.2 Relative Adverbs: when. Poland is the place in which Christine was born.

) 136 . Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. (Aceasta este cartea care o încânta cel mai mult.5. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Acesta este locul din care au venit. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera. no antecedents are required: (52) a. They returned to the land whence they had come. A system where by a new discovery will arise. This is the place wherefrom they came.) When they introduce free relative clauses. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) b. Ten o’clock is the time when they have lunch.) b. He went where he had been before.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b.Nadina VIŞAN (51) a.) 6. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) c. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) e. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.3. Ten o’clock is the time at which they have lunch.

) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? • When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing: 137 .Unit six Relative clauses It is invariable.] (Nu este omul care era odinioară. the relative introducer THAT – unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses – can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai văzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit cărţile pe care ţi le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome).] (Ziua în care a plecat a fost o marţi. never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. Moreover.

(Căsuţa aceea urâtă era singurul cămin pe care l-am avut vreodată. I’ll get you such things as you may want. every.Nadina VIŞAN (60) The children were the parcels that filled the car. not any. (Este fata cea mai frumoasă pe care am văzut-o vreodată. but • in standard language a.) • With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoşteau se puteau împiedica să n-o iubească?) b.5.4.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6. it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era. 138 (64) his shoes.) (62) • When the rule of euphony must be observed (63) a.) (61) • With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all. much. Honest man as he was. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maşina.) b. any. but they are used very infrequently: as. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers. . era contrar naturii sale să îl urmeze. little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had.

the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67) 139 (65) (66) man who doesn’t feel pity …) a. Uncle George.) • in dialect a. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care să nu vrea sa te ajute. This is the same one that/as you had before. (There aren’t many who will say that) (Nu-s mulţi să spuie asta…) • archaic use a. când am avut o bucată de pâine măricică. (Niciodată nu s-a întâmplat. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor.) c. There’s not many as’ll say that. him as was in China … (Uncle George. (There isn’t a (Nu e om care să nu simtă milă faţă de copiii care mor de foame) b. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut. There is no one of us but wishes to help you.Unit six Relative clauses (O sa îţi dau acele lucruri pe care le doreşti. who had been in China …) (Unchiul George.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English. And always on the buttered side. . It’s the dry weather does it.) c. şi întotdeauna pe partea unsă cu unt. ăl de fusese in China…) b. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. să nu îmi cadă pe podeaua murdară.

(Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer.) b.) 140 . (It was me who made her think…) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un idiot.Nadina VIŞAN (It’s the dry weather that is to blame. (Omul pe care l-a întâlnit John locuieşte în Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston.

What I’m saying is. 3. It seemed a thing 141 . 5.5. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: “ That which shows God in me. makes me a wart and a wen. The man that John spoke to is a genius. we all have to come to some terms. fortifies me.Unit six Relative clauses since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5. 2. What Inman remembered was this passage.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a.) c.3): (72) a.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. This is where we talk money. The man John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. b. That which shows God out of me. the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. Where he was from.) b. The man who John spoke to is a genius.” 4. 7. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause. (Cel cu care vorbeşte John este un geniu. 6.

h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag. he had left Ruby high and dry. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late. The rudeness of eating. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 142 . f) The man who(m) I *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. (…) Partly. 12. when winter comes we’ll mend the fence and piece quilts and fix what’s broke around here.Nadina VIŞAN of such wonder to Ada. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. which is a lot. Ruby said. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. 13. she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the world’s logic works. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me. of living. that’s where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 11. 8. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag. though. Oh. who had not witnessed many dawns. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. 9. 10. Whatever his fate was. d) The book*whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good.

This is the horse that kicked the policeman. care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator. fiu natural al unui morar. poate. al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa. plutonier. al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer. vasnic. try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. cumnatul unui portughez. dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria. dar care avea un var de-al doilea. care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate. al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara. (Iris Murdoch. pe linie paterna. una din nepoatele unui inginer. nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest. al carei strabunic. The Accidental Man) “Guturaiul”. s-a casatorit si a avut o fata. pirpiriu.Unit six Relative clauses Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage. care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa. al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa. el insusi frate de lapte cu 143 . care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era. purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var. that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. Cumnatul meu avea. mort de tanar.al lui. al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu. nu prea sarac. un var primar. al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru. divortata.

b. I lost the cover of the book. you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toţi.Nadina VIŞAN fiul unui laptar. where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened. Teatru) 6. regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding If you go back to our discussion in 5.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti.6. Everybody listened to that woman. a carui a treia sotie … (Eugen Ionescu. by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping. The opposite phenomenon. la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara. She was a woman.2. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. This is the book. insurat de trei ori la rand. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . 144 . another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. c. By extension.

2. 7. 8. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. he requested that the public be excluded. The problem of safe transportation. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. The difference between (76) and (77). Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. acting again as a genuine pied piper. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 5. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. has been troubling them forever. apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have. We couldn’t say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. In the interest of public decency. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. 4. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. 6. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. For the intense anxious sense of herself 145 . no easy answers to which could be offered.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position. 3.Unit six Relative clauses b. 9. (Aceasta este cartea a cărei copertă am pierdut-o. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome.

7 Key Concepts Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause. Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing. whose interest he most sincerely shared. 3. 6. 2. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days.His father’s friends. Irene. 10. he rarely saw now. has been deleted. including that of Indirect Object which only they can have). Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. 146 . Activity 9 were now all gone. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1. as the case is). His friends. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 4. 5. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. They do not function as attributes. This story. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). was now complete. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. no matter which. but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions.Nadina VIŞAN with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.

A venit la mine să-mi ceară să-i numesc un ginere director. Rămânea un vis urât şi lung de care şi amintirea va fugi mâine cutremurată. 5. din săraca urbe provincială unde vegetau fără speranţă. Nu-i greu să-şi dea seama ct m-am scandalizat şi ce tămbălău 147 . spre care aveau drept sa năzuiască numai cutezătorii cu glezna tare şi plămânii largi. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut şi unde a vrut. 2. de altfel un băiat bun! – şi nu ştia cum să-mi mulţumească. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. 7. pentru dumneata bunăoară. 4. 3. 6. al treilea frate în ordinea cronologică. Toate sfârşeau. Nelu.Unit six Relative clauses The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement. capitala le păruse un pisc inaccesibil. as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Pentru alţii. De douazeci de ani. himeric. unde în fiecare zi se dezlanţuie competiţia între două echipe (…). închipuirea. cu toată deosebirea de vârstă şi fire. închipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipseşte nici o marcă de automobil din cele mai rarisime şi ca o vastă arenă sportivă. Căci pentru toţi patru copiii. capitala era necunoscutul miraculos (…) unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i pofteşte inima şi tot ce i-a urzit. sunt vrednic de invidiat. precât am înţeles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri.

Nadina VIŞAN am făcut când văzui cum te-au lăsat toţi saă mucezeşti într-o asemenea puturoşenie de târg. Vag îşi amintea că într-adevăr (…) fusese chemat să dezlege o întâmplare tulbure şi că în spiritul său drept şi-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevăr. ţi-o rezum la câteva cuvinte. – De altfel chiar şi idealuri de felul acesta mă străduiesc să nu-mi mai fac pentru că am observat că mi se îndeplinesc şi nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge în sensul vieţii mele 148 . nu-ţi dai poate încă deplin seama de câte intrigi şi de câte presiuni uzează politicianismul chiar în justiţie. 12. la care văd că tot tragi mereu cu ochii. Îmi spuneam că nu se poate să nu banuieşti în ce singurătate şi deznădejde se află un om tânăr într-un oraş unde totul îi e duşmănos! 11. Ceea ce n-a facut preşedintele de tribunal din Franţa. (…) Cât golim ceştile astea de cafea. când îl invitase pe Henri Rochefort să ia în primire un sector electoral şi să se aleagă deputat. speram că aveai să faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu înseamnă nimic! Să-ţi mai adaog şi concluzia ultimă. care nu figurează nici în dezbaterile procesului. nici în searbăda mea versiune. Fostul camarad îi apăru cu totul altfel de cum îl socotise până acum. 8. Eşti proaspăt sosit aici. a făcut el. 10. 9. Dar ce anume a fost şi cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai ştia şi nici n-ar fi crezut vreodată că există cineva care să mai păstreze o atât de fidelă amintire. Dacă le convingea vreo însuşire cât de mică. cu surle şi cu tobe. (Cezar Petrescu – Calea Victoriei – slightly adapted) 13.

Dacă mă lovea. – E foarte frumos ce-mi spui. roiuri de fetiţe. Nu ţi se pare bizar la el care până acum a fost un bărbat atât de energic. fie pe stradă. trăia larg de tot. optimist şi cumpănit? (Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 19.Unit six Relative clauses adevărate şi care nu. pe strada Icoanei. Dar nu vezi? Mai întâi ideea că a rămas sărac. deşi atât de aproape. Nici nu îndrăznesc să mă gândesc la bănuiala care mă încearcă. Pe vremea când eram săraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu această verişoară. fie la teatru. Avea acum un fel de vertij. apoi că trebuie să lichideze tot şi să plece şi acum că e bolnav când de fapt cu toţii ştim că este sănătos. 149 . toată lumea întreba cine e. 18. pierduţi într-o direcţie vagă. izvorânde mereu însă tare îndepărtate. Voi încerca să-mi explic de ce la început mi s-a părut ca ai ochii verzi şi de ce astăzi. din care cauză pe Dora. 14. 15. căci avea casă mare în Bucureşti. 16. Era una dintre acele femei elegante. despre care. din direcţia căreia apoi. 20. cu sclipiri abia vizibile. care era foarte “mondenă”. încă neştiind care este adevărata mea viaţă. 17. o vedea ca de la o mare distanţă. nu ştiu ce s-ar fi putut întâmpla. tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalanşă şi bătăi de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roşie şi galbenă. dinspre Maria Rosetti. apărură. de unde venea şi Marta. zise ea cu ochii mari. ochii tăi au fost cenuşii. până mai adineauri. printre străzile şi casele din urmă-le. În spatele lor.

Câtă vreme unii copaci sunt încă verzi. până în şosea. Simţeam că nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o găsea. plăcerea cu care ea se lăsa sprijinită toată de el. decât şirurile de dinastii egiptene. decât ciocnirile de aştri în necuprins. aceste fapte au însemnat mai mult decât războaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei. (Camil Petrescu – Ultima noapte de dragoste. 23. 22. pe care eu nu-l aveam. în preocuparile şi admiraţiile ei. care nu trăiesc decât o singură dată în desfăşurarea lumii. Pentru mine însă. alţii au frunzele galbene ca nişte caise străvezii. N-am putut să nu bag de seamă. aveau un stil al lor. de mine. întâia noapte de război) 150 .Nadina VIŞAN 21. pe care ea îi admira acum. 24. când au urcat râpa iar. după ce maşina a fost reparată. de sus de unde eram. Pare-se că snobii. vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se înstrăina.

151 . Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling ‘that’ clauses.SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of ‘that’ clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. by stating their syntactic function.

‘That’ Complements as Attributes 7. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials 7.2.1.1.5.2. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements 7.5. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives 7.6.Extraposition 7. Key Concepts .4.2.3.1. When Can We Delete ‘That’? 7.3.Clause Shift 7.3.3.1.2. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? 7. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.2.Topicalization 7. The Distribution of That Complements Contents: 152 7.1.2. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7. That Deletion 7. That Complements as Subjects 7.2.7.2. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? 7.4.1.3.1.3.2.3. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.

but also of infinitival ones. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. (2) I don’t know whether he will recover. (3) Tell me if you need anything.Unit seven That complements That – complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4).) • ∅ (Voiau să plece imediat. placed in a marginal position. complement clauses can be preceded by • for (E bine să ştie matematică. the clause is extraposed. followed by the complement clause in peripheral position.1. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position. 153 .1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize ‘That’ – Complements 7. Apart from those introduced by that. In other words.) • whether (Nu stiu dacă se va însănătoşi.) • if ( when it is the equivalent of ‘whether’) (Spune-mi dacă ai nevoie de ceva. being found not only in the case of that-clauses. 7.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English.

) • Direct Object Clause unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (Instalatorul a considerat în mod greşit ca ţeava trebuia înlocuită. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas. (A fost o surpriză pentru toată lumea faptul că Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) • Prepositional Object unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteţi jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura că acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastră?) 154 .Nadina VIŞAN This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function. but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: • Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing.

He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. 9. 8. It was suggested that they should meet the President. They considered it very silly of her to 155 . It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. 2. 11. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 10. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 8. 3. 4. 6. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.Unit seven That complements Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. 4. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 15. 6. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. It appears that no one voted for him. 9. It is no use trying to convince her. 3. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 7. 2. 10. 13. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. It is nice to meet you. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 14.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. 11. 7. 5. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out.

That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. Cînd se întâmpla să-l văd la capăt de uliţă. zice Lionel. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. Nu era nici o mirare că înăuntrul şcolii stăpînea un pronunţat spirit schillerian. paying attention to extraposed ‘that’ and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. sub poduri. 3. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. 3.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. unde se nimerea. “Eu voi căuta să rămân aici la adăpostul uniformei mele de ofiţer. 2. 2. mă ascundeam în grabă. “ Fără îndoială că autorităţile vor lua măsuri ca să fim evacuaţi şi transportaţi cine ştie unde”. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 4. 2. 4. în canal. de-ar fi fost cu putinţă aş fi dispărut şi în gaură de şarpe.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English. 18.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1. în gropi. I guess it that he will come back. They never expected it that he would come back. 5. 5. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1. 6. I don’t expect it that he will come back. atât 156 . 3.Nadina VIŞAN have married Bill. după porţi.

Nu mă număr printre aceia care caută şi găsesc pretudindeni Lecţii. excelentă. 7. fără să cârteşti. 6. cele cîteva cuvinte pline de bun-simţ rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derută în conversaţia generală. fără îndoială. răzbătând din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade. Spunând cele ce-am spus. hotărâre pe care aromele şi uitarea ce din ele se va revărsa asupră-ţi. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara să dăinuie veşnic… şi cred că este mai cuminte să te mulţumeşti. precum şi de urmele lăsate de educaţia burgheză. Ar fi desigur imprudent să se tragă vreo învăţătură din aceste constatări. 5. dar nu trebuie uitat că tot ea înăbuşe toate pornirile mărinimoase ce ţâşnesc din inimă. Mi s-a părut chiar că.Unit seven That complements cât se va putea. Se întâmpla însă ca avînturile ei să fie stăvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru convenţiile sociale. când locuia în conacul din La Roque). cu ceea ce ţi se dă.” 4. vor căuta să o zdruncine. lecţii care din păcate nu-i ajută să devină mai înţelepţi. Aşadar am crezut de cuviinţă că cel mai bun lucru pe care îl aveam de făcut era să perfecţionez armele ce existau atunci. E cert că trupele române vor înainta repede. Îmi plăcea tot ceea ce era firesc în purtarea mamei. astfel îmi aduc aminte că mama a îndrăznit să nu ţină seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat întreaga familie şi că s-a dus să îngrijească bolnavii din sat în timpul unei epidemii de tifos. 157 . precum şi dorinţa de a afla şi câte altele. Greu este să poţi păstra până la urmă hotărîrea nestrămutată de a te întoarce. (Nu întotdeauna. n-am vorbit în calitate de moralist. Educaţia burgheză se dovedeşte a fi. atât timp cât este vorba numai de a ţine în frâu instinctele rele.

Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized.) (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. 1. since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis. in the case of topicalization. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of 158 . we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. subject clauses are the frequent situation. this asymmetry is undone. (Că lui Freddie îi place să apară în coşmarurile copiilor nu pot nega.2. direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids’ nightmares I cannot deny.) While in the case of extraposition. noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Pratice Read the following.1. Consequently. (Este clar ca bună ziua ca armăsarul meu este cel mai bun. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case.Nadina VIŞAN 7. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident.

Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act. He did not blame Gracie. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. was inconceivable. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. 2. 5.Unit seven That complements her only as an instrument. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday. he felt no spring of interest in her. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina. 4. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. but not now. 7. let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. 8. he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. This was another era. He was utterly gone. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had 159 . whether it would finally carry her off. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. She had always been the slave of chance. mere chance would decide. even today. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 6. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. 3.

) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift.Nadina VIŞAN passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English. (A aruncat la coş scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la coş. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read.3. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) 7. according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement.1. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket.) 160 . The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons.

(Mary spuse liniştit că vrea să conducă maşina. 161 . Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. the verb to drive). From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable. by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocaţilor că firma urma să dea faliment. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive.Unit seven That complements clause shift operates only on object clauses. we obtain. clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the ‘that’ clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.e.

? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. 3.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. 6. /? He appointed Mr Hugh.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1. who had just returned from Africa.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. who had just returned from Africa./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. 4. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 2. 7. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 8. 5. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. prime-minister. 162 . who had just returned from Africa. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public.

) • Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: • Subject (Mary e puţin enervată de ideea că soţul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintecătorul.) • Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (Au raportat că podul s-a prăbuşit.2. (Era conştientă de faptul că soţul ei o minte. since this is the most frequent function they fulfill. (Lucrul important era că nimeni nu ştia despre asta. (Raportul în care se spune că s-a prăbuşit podul este fals. (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) .) • Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her.) • Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it.Unit seven That complements 7.) • Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. 163 (21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects. (A ramas acasă să aibă grijă de copii. The Distribuition of That Complements As it will be shown below.

deem. prefer. explain. afirm. estimate. consider. etc.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. (with that-deletion) (Cred că omul este vinovat. (A anunţat că sunt logodiţi.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susţinut cu tărie că este nevinovat.2. communicate. He announced their engagement. etc. They promised him that he would received a new house. (Şi-a anunţat logodna.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say. desire. (Extraposed) (Mă deranjează faptul că este aici.) a. judge.) b. deny. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house.) b. state.Nadina VIŞAN 7. suggest.1.: (25) a. (I-au promis o casă nouă. He announced that they were engaged.) (I-au promis că va primi o casă nouă.) 164 . promise. They believe the man is guilty. They believe that the man is guilty. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert. (Cred că omul este vinovat. predict.

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul că a devenit avocat i-l datorează tatălui său.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se părea că o viaţă poate fi interesantă, amuzantă, şi in fine trivială.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se părea că îl minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (Îi veni ideea că John are nevoie de o maşina nouă.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
165

(I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan că mă voi întoarce foarte târziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIŞAN

(Mi se pare că acesta este un nou început.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): • • likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorina’s lot. (Era în orice caz clar că era în firea lucrurilor ca Dorina să fie căsătorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul că Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon one’s bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat că poţi dori cu atâta naturaleţe să te întinzi în pat şi să adormi pe vecie.) b. … for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (… câteva zile am crezut că e posibil să îţi doreşti pur şi simplu să ai curajul să distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
166

(36)

Unit seven

That complements

(Era clar pentru toţi prietenii lui că nu ştia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns – that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you weren’t killed. (E mare minune că nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Păcat că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that – deletion) (J. Galsworthy – Over the River) (Pacăt că bărbaţii sunt aşa de lipsiţi de răbdare.) d) –ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu încăpea nici o urmă de îndoială că afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (Mă impulsiona faptul că mă credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul că toată lumea dă vina pe el îl deprimă evident.)
167

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that … (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotărât să vină aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotărât că va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat că mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat să continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul că va fi de acord cu condiţiile tale.)
168

Unit seven

That complements

b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat că pleacă.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit să plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (Mă temeam că s-ar putea să vină.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (Îmi dădeam perfect seama că lucrurile stăteau prost.) 7.2.4. ‘That’ complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type ‘X is Y’ or ‘Y is X’) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e că nu poate veni cu noi mâine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didn’t love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela că nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIŞAN

7.2.5. ‘That’ Complements as Attributes • • after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul că are datorii o deranjează enorm pe nevastă-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorinţa ca el să înapoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el să înapoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
170

Unit seven

That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. ‘That’ complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model – where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizează pe motiv că e prea mândră.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare în speranţa că va ramâne la ei.)

171

cu excepţia faptului că nu e inteligentă.) language. become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say. In older stages of English. for example. (this is one of the few examples still used (Îmi place de el pentru că e deştept.) nowhere to bring Dorina … (Iris Murdoch.Nadina VIŞAN In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut înainte ca el să vină.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. hope =>purpose. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.e. (Nu-i lipseşte nimic. ibid. on condition that.) I like him in that he is smart. not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses.) 172 . … now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (…acum că Charlote se insinuase în apartament nu mai avea unde să o aducă pe Dorina…) b. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning. similar to the construction existent in Romanian): in contemporary English. they lose their meaning. the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason.

His answer was such that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. (Este un profesor atât de competent încât toţi studenţii îl iubesc. (Este un om aşa de drăguţ că femeile se îndrăgostesc imediat de el. His answer was such an answer that we couldn’t doubt its wisdom. that we wouldn’t doubt it. He gave an answer such.) b.) When the structure contains the word such. as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa. That can be deleted. such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. (Şi-a pus scaunul lângă fereastră. the noun following it is deletable: (64) a.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. .) b. He gave such an answer as had expected. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns că nu ne-am putut îndoi de el. (Astfel suna răspunsul lui încât nu ne puteam îndoi de înţelepciunea sa.) (66) 173 a.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.Unit seven That complements c) adverbial subordination – by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective … that – in this structure the degree word (so. He gave such an answer that we couldn’t doubt it.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. (I-a dat un asemenea răspuns încât să nu ne putem îndoi de el. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. să o vadă trecând.

ibid. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.Nadina VIŞAN (I-a dat genul de răspuns pe care îl aştepta.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. (Iris Murdoch. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her.We discovered that our map has disappeared. He gave an answer such that I had expected. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position.) 174 . for better or worse. they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch.) b. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. (I-a dat un răspuns pe care îl aştepta. ibid. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.

3 ‘That Deletion 7. tell). (67) That – deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses. (A dovedit că poate să facă asta.1. 175 . for instance. He said he had borrowed her money. omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave. (Încă ne întrebam dacă se va mai întoarce.3.Unit seven That complements 7. (A spus că a împrumutat bani de la ea. (A prins de veste că ei vin. He showed he was able to do it. say.) The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal. When Can We Delete ‘That’? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still.) b. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like.) c. He got word they were coming. (69) a. that he uses a relaxed tone.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.

I like it that he was here. ‘That’ deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a.Nadina VIŞAN 7. erau legaţi pe veci unul de celălalt. When is ‘That’ Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly.3. they were chained to each other forever. *I like it he was here. they were chained to each other forever. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui că a venit?) 176 (73) . condusese la certitudinea că trebuiau să fie împreună şi că. because that has been deleted. (Îmi place că e aici. for better or worse. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause.) (De asemenea. bune. 7. rele. ibid.3.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and. (Iris Murdoch.) b. for better or worse. When is ‘That’ Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized.2. but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that.3.

8) I reminded them that they had to leave. which is ungrammatical in English. you want me to believe. spuse el. he said. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause. thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority. (“Este acolo”.Unit seven That complements But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming? This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause.) 177 . 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. that they were not too late to leave. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder.4. (Mi-a spus că ea este acolo. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----(75) Past a) “She is there”. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 7) They maintain. simultaneity. Pratice Delete ‘that’ where possible: 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. 7. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause.) b)He told me that she was there. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction.

o să vină el. He said he would leave her. He told me that she had been there. he said.) Future Perfect -----.) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. In the example below. I will leave her. vine el.) b.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. (A spus că. “She was here”. exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true. (Mi-a spus că a fost acolo. (Pâna să plece. (“Era acolo”. spuse el.) b. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (Am să o părăsesc.) Future ------(77) Future in the Past Past Perfect a. 178 ----- Past rule can be optional with the so-called FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their . The Present complement). the verb realize is said to be a factive verb. (A spus că o să o părăsească.Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. până pleacă ea.Nadina VIŞAN Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a.

only I don’t The implication one can derive from both examples is that ‘he is a genius’ and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. dream. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) b. whisper. forget. realize it). insist. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. show. notice. (Îmi dau seama că este un geniu.) 179 . (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the group was/*is an undercover agent.) On the other hand. hope. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. say. be amazed/concerned. the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know. (Părea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplăcut că noul conducator al grupului era agent secret. mention. (Bill a anunţat că nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus în copac.) I don’t realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius. With such factive verbs as realize. think. regret. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --(81) Past is optional: a.Unit seven That complements And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. discover. etc.etc. report. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. believe. wish. be aware.

simulează obiceiuri care nu le aparţin. expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly married pair. Consider also: (85) a.) In (85b) ‘he’ disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used. 180 . (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este rotund. She still believed that the earth was flat.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past. (Ştia că ea crede că toţi bărbaţii sunt nişte proşti. we notice that general truths. (Şi-a dat seama că toti bărbaţii sunt niste proşti. She realized that all men are fools. with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. (Iris Murdoch. cu un respect tandru reciproc.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character ‘she’ considers to be a general truth. He knew that she thought all men were fools. feign habits which are not their own. (Ea tot mai credea că pământul este plat. She believed that the earth is round. in tender deference to each other. The Black Prince) (Era şi nu era ca în prima zi a lunii de miere când perechea proaspăt căsătorită.) b.Nadina VIŞAN If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements.) b.

) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. 3. (Ea bănuia că Bill a plecat înainte să sosească poliţia. There are however cases. Peter said that John will leave at 5. Future ----(89) Future in the Past – this rule is rarely optional. 181 . Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bănuia că Bill plecase înainte să sosească poliţia.) b. simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a.) b. (87) shows the anteriority of Bill’s being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. since it indicates that the event of Bill’s leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative. (Bănuia că Bill fusese pe acolo.) In (88).) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule. the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. such as a. (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5.Unit seven That complements 2. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Bănuia că Bill este acolo.

that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isn’t yet 5 o’clock. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. Imagine. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. John said that Harry will leave. But 182 . d) John said that Harry was leaving. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow.Nadina VIŞAN (Peter a spus că John o să plece la 5. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. The time is 3 o’clock. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. h) John thought that Harry had run. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. g) John thought that Harry ran. c) John said that Harry is leaving. for instance.

geese both grey and white. a. c. Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. Crows will relish what presents itself. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. as evidenced by its drear plumage. Cooper’s hawk. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. 183 . lark. quail. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. She admired their keenness of wit. b. Translate the following. jaybird. redtailed hawk. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. whistling swan. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. slyness in a fight. bluebird. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky.Unit seven That complements John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. kingfisher. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. love of practical jokes. nighthawk. lack of pridefulness.

[…] During the latter stages of the tale.Nadina VIŞAN C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. in the very act of expiring. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. He died erect. And they might just hang him. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. the young officer. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. war hero though he was. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. But as the battle raged around them. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. He had fought hard through the war. (Charles Frazier – Cold Mountain) 184 . But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. Now here he stood jailed. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. he claimed.

A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.5 Key Concepts That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb. object ones up to the attributive function. 185 . On certain occasions that can be deleted. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are • • • extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it). from the very frequent subject. That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function. on other occasions it has to stay there. or else. adjective or by a de-verbal noun. which they share with wh-complements. adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb).Unit seven That complements 7. topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains.

care îl împinsese la un asemenea gest bizar. 3. Căci presimţeam că mi se va întâmpla ceva neplăcut. băieţii s-au adunat în jurul băncii mele. Îşi ţineau mâinile în buzunare. Mama. Dar când a ajuns în faţa mea mi-am dat seama că nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. că nu se vorbeşte atât de mult cu sora Angelei. – Totuşi trebuie să ştii. Totuşi sfârli prin a se simţi bine la ideea că dă atât preţ părerilor sale şi încercă dorinţa tandră de a-l linişti. 4. spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei. a sărit de pe bancă şi a alergat spre mine. Cum îţi explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. 2. neconvenabil şi primejdios. Când m-a văzut a închis albumul. Ştiam că orice cuvinte aş alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam să-i spun şi nici fericirea că venise clipa să-i anunt ce-aveam de anunţat. peste puţin. Unul din ei. cred că avea vreo şaptesprezece-otsprezece ani. cel mai mare. Uită ora şi situaţia scandaloasă. de a-i arăta că ia prea mult în seamă nişte răutăţi fără consecinţă. Când au văzut că mama a plecat. avea albeaţă la un ochi şi purta un tricou albastru de marinar. ori sa se teamă de turbarea lui. Părul rar îi era plin de mătreaţă. s-a dus acasă şi eu am rămas singur să termin desenul. Regretam că m-a lăsat singur.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Îl privi uimită şi cu toate că din cauza întunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totuşi că tremură şi nu ştiu dacă să râdă că pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraţie o deşteptase în puterea nopţii. Fiind 186 .

ea. Abia prinse de veste când ea îl părăsi şi nu se întrebă de ce venise. s-ar putea interpreta că ţi-ai căutat lângă ea un refugiu. ştiind că el nu ar izbuti să se oprească de a o căuta. 8. Lui Matei i se păru că mama ştie mai multe despre motivele plecării Dorei la vie însă îi fu cu neputinţă să o întrebe ce ştie anume. Ultima dată când ne-am văzut aci m-ai speriat pretinzând că nu ai nici o ambiţie pentru viitor. Totuşi era curios că el se gândise că. trebuie să nu se mai vadă pentru a nu cădea amândoi pradă unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult şi că. un vis de acesta 187 . învinuindu-se de lucruri atât de neplăcute. nu înţelese nici de data asta decât că ea i-a scris. 5. cel puţin pentru un timp. Se mira. 6. fericit. aşa. pentru o şedere mai îndelungată care le va face bine amândurora. Nu ţi-a trecut. 9. să nu aibă un ideal? Cred că nu mi-ai spus adevărul. care îl pândise. niciodată prin minte că trebuie să ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare. luminos şi apropiat şi când. Se temu că mărturisirea pe care i-o făcuse el pornea din orgoliu şi regretă susceptibilitatea lui. îi strecură în mână un bilet în care citi că. Ştii că nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tânăr ca tine să nu fie ambiţios. Toate simţurile i se ascuţiseră. va pleca din oraş la vie. va fi mai interesant pentru ea. de ce constata în sine.Unit seven That complements de o idioţie celebră. căpătase deodată puterea de a vedea consistent. 7. Simplul fapt că ea fusese acolo îl stăpânea ca o beţie. că ţine în mână o hârtie care fusese în mâna ei şi peste care se aplecase gândindu-se la el. venind de la avocat. dacă va mai veni.

Dacă până în cele din urmă va avea întreaga lui înţelegere. dar şi teama că. Lui şi bătrânului nu le-ar fi dat niciodată prin minte aşa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a păstrat să şi-o arate în cuvinte calde pentru faptul că Bubi a simţit chemarea şi datoria de a lua parte la munca şi răspunderea lor. 11. lucrul era înfăptuit. – La ceea ce mă gândesc. Erau aci şi bucuria că a scăpat cu bine. iar el ieşea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simţea însă Bubi în această alunecare era că el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aşa cum dorise. cu tatăl său şi cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate că nu ar avea atât noroc. 12. nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. e că n-avem ce face cu moşioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Şi mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru că fusese făcută cu adevărată cunoaştere de oameni şi împrejurări) a fost învăluirea în care se găsea acum bine. Încântarea lui Bubi pentru neaşteptata lui înţelegere era atât de mare.(Radu Petrescu – Matei Iliescu) 10. ci că se săvârşise aproape totul prin voinţa celuilalt. Astfel de va fi. fireşte. aceasta însemna că tatălui său nu-i mai rămânea decât să aprobe. Acesta. tocmai pentru că avea toate colţurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. şi mândria că a biruit. spunând că se cunoaşte numaidecât isteţimea gândirii tinereşti şi înrâurirea străinătăţii. încă o dată. încât nu a băgat de seamă nici iscodirea. Lăudă apoi ideea cea nouă de a face o fabrică. liniştit.Nadina VIŞAN nebunesc şi înflăcărat pentru realizarea căruia să-ţi dedici toată viaţa? (…) Matei socoti că e mai înţelept să bată în retragere. urmărea un gând ce i se împletea în minte. Apoi Bubi era şi 188 .

simţea că se apropie tot mai mult de ea. după cum. Pe toate. 14. lăsând să se înţeleagă că o să vină şi el pe curând. A doua zi de dimineaţă a venit veste de la spital că Dorodan a murit. Urmatecu a chibzuit câteva clipe cum e mai bine să facă. Bubi era încredinţat că ei I se cuvine întreaga spovedanie. să le lămurească pe toate. unde alerga să mărturisească totul. fără o vorbă scrisă. să ducă vestea din gură şi să o spună oricui. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 189 . care într-adevăr îl mâna în taină. spre Jurubiţa. ci numai aşa. mai puternic decât oricând. Urmatecu le-a citit în el şi a zâmbit. Ceea ce însă I-a rămas nedescoperit a fost nerăbdarea din sufletul tânărului. pe drumul acesta al marilor sincerităţi de care avea nevoie.Unit seven That complements obosit de încordare şi de emoţii. Şi în cele din urmă s-a hotărât să trimită pe cineva la bătrânul baron.

Nadina VIŞAN 190 .

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures. 191 .

Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.9.1.Key Concepts .The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.6.A Classification of Infinitives 8.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions Contents: 192 8.5.7.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.4.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.3.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.2.

and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. (2) a. (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.1. b. I told her to be more careful in the future. infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important să ştii ce îţi trebuie.) b. That you love her is something wonderful. infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat că o iubeşti. infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor).) b. It is important that you should know what you need. What Are Infinitive Complements Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. Consider the following: • like that complements.) • like that complements. To love her is something really wonderful. (I-am spus să fie mai atentă pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view – see section 4 for further details). 193 . (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat).Unit eight Infinitive complements 8. (3) a. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). From this perspective. It is important for you to know what you need.

2. 194 . (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul ca toţi bărbaţii de pe lume să stea departe de ea. moduri nepersonale) By convention.) b. the Participle) (i. we distinguish between: • • finite moods (such as the Indicative. d. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. is the fact that they do not have temporal features. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view. For instance. as opposed to the finite ones. the Gerund. English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses. infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift: (4) a.e.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures. they will distinguish between infinitival clauses. gerundial clauses. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. the Conditional. when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence. etc. that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so. (Îşi dorea din tot sufletul să fie lăsată în pace de toţi bărbaţii de pe pământ) c.Nadina VIŞAN • like that complements. participial clauses. the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive.

it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed.Unit eight Infinitive complements the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features. (Se ştie că se îndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urâte. namely no ending. the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it.) 195 . The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: • • • • present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a.) b. (Ştia că croşetează un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features. (Era ruşinos că s-a lăsat pradă unor pasiuni atât de josnice. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things.) c.

5. 8. 2. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. the criterion of form. 10.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are: • • 196 (6) They told her to leave. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 4. Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile . 3. (7) They saw her leave.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 8.) • short or bare infinitive forms: (Au văzut-o plecând. 9. 6. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. according to which there are • long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece. A Classification of Infinitives There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. 7. It is vital this factory to be reopened.2. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years.Nadina VIŞAN Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.

the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. / I-a ajutat să ridice pachetul acela greu.Unit eight Infinitive complements • • • • Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see. (10) 197 . / L-au auzit cum a cântat două cântece patriotice. / Eram deseori lăsat să plec Activity 2 de acasă. / A obligat-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în dormitor.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus să-l duc pe Tom la şcoală. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive. / A pus-o pe Maria să îşi facă curat în cameră. hear. 2.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. (Iarba era / a fost lăsată să crească. / L-a observat cum mănâncă un pachet întreg de ciocolată. / Au văzut-o că pleaca. watch: they watched him cry An important thing to remember here is that by passivization. / A fost obligat să îl trimită pe Tom pe front. (A fost forţată să se ducă acolo. we can distinguish between: • unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often.

although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject. Pratice Translate the following. this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant. However. (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. uncharacteristic for literary English./ Pentru a înţelege pe deplin ce scrie în carte.) • Split infinitive (or the “Star Trek” infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. trebuie să te concentrezi un pic mai mult. / Nu vreau să te mai văd niciodată. trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea să fie într-adevăr recunoscută pe plan mondial. / Ceea ce s-a întâmplat i-a forţat să devină pe dată conştienţi de problemele existente. .) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Căpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa pătrunda cu avânt şi să explore universul.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction. / A plecat în Activity 3 străinătate ca să înveţe mai bine metodele moderne de educaţie. 3. / A fi în mod stupid tentat să îţi vinzi locuinţa pe un preţ de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toţii.Nadina VIŞAN (Îi place să se uite adesea la tablou. 198 (11) the universe.

199 . to use the appropriate technical term.Unit eight Infinitive complements because. we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO. (13) We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. as I have already mentioned. so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: • Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. In other words. we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions. we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive. since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case – see previous subsection. Further on. or the control constructions. we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form. that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.

şi creştineşte să ierţi. PRO to forgive divine.) b. (E omeneşte să greşeşti. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function.Nadina VIŞAN • Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. PRO to err is human. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el să nu greşească. we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. (A încercat să o convingă că este nevinovat.) In this situation.) 200 . I hoped for him to be there in time. as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. (E important ca el să se întoarcă acasă. gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. namely the agent of the event. (Am sperat ca el să vina la timp. So far.) b.) Object: (18) a. the logical subject. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR – TO infinitives: (16) It is important for him to come back home.

In other words. (S-a dat la o parte ca să îi facă loc să intre.) b.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21). him is not the agent of the infinitive. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife.Unit eight Infinitive complements Adjunct: (19) a.) • The Accusative + Infinitive construction . not to the infinitive. (Cred că este un lingvist competent. (A cumpărat o casă nouă ca să o mulţumească pe cicălitoarea lui nevastă. him is related to the main clause verb. where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. but a PRO-TO one: 201 . (L-am convins să fie un lingvist mai bun. but the patient of the verb persuade. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. He stepped aside for her to enter. Semantically.

\ They tempted him to leave. from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals. \ He persuaded her to come. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance. \ 202 . \ They convinced her to come back. (Vreau ca animalele să fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele să fie chinuite. nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. \ She promised him to leave. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures. since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day.Nadina VIŞAN (22) I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist. I hate animals to be tortured. Likewise. whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. \ I would love them to come. from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him. but with the infinitive in the subordinate. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction. but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. \ She wanted him to leave. \ I allowed them to come.

) In examples (25) and (26). (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. (Pare să fie un lingvist bun. (Am reuşit să obţin o slujbă bună. it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.) He seems to be a good linguist. so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. \ They really asked her to come back. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. 203 . \ They did not wish her to come back. So. the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb.Unit eight Infinitive complements They would have hated her to come back. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb. this example contains a PRO – TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. • Last but not least. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First.

seem. / Vreau să-ţi spun ce cred despre tine. To sum up the discussion. 204 .Nadina VIŞAN b) Second. here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare că a jefuit toate băncile din vecinătate. / Se ştie că a încercat să se sinucidă. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want. both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs./ Se presupune că o cunoaşte de un car de ani.). appear. which are said to be free. / Nu-i prea târziu să înveţe. that is not required by certain verbs. to meet her. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare că a mai comis o crimă la etajul 6. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Era important ca el să asculte toată mărturia ei. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above. /I-am învăţat să vorbească corect şi să scrie fără greşeli. / E de dorit să vină şi să recunoască faptul că sunt vinovaţi. + They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. hate. with special semantic and syntactic properties. / N-am ştiut niciodată să mă port cum trebuie în faţa ei. etc. / Se crede că a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lângă noi.

need.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. seek (= try). care to. contrive. propose.) 205 friend. scheme. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercury’s death. hate. bear. 8. condescend. agree to. deign. / E greu să îl suporţi. presume.) b) verbs such as abide. dislike. endeavour. decline. intend. venture. want. etc.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (A căutat sa afle adevărul despre condiţiile în care a murit Freddie Mercury. desire. . aspire to.Unit eight Infinitive complements să pleci din casa mea.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose. Compare: (31) a. aşa că am invitat-o să bea o cafea. deserve. manage./ S-a întâmplat să fie prin apropiere. fail. prefer.3 The Distribution of PRO .: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. etc. arrange. try. (Nu pot suporta să văd asemenea cruzime. expect. etc. wish. (Dorea să ajungă o cântăreaţă de operă renumită. refuse. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se aştepta să primească un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei. scorn. omit.TO Constructions In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt. afford. like. mean. hope.

) b. desirable. ask. threaten.) b. I hate that you should say a thing like this.) 8. (Mi-am amintit să mă duc la poştă. conclude. bear. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. For all of them to have been killed is. (Ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi este puţin probabil. be important. endeavour. suggest. (Este puţin probabil ca ei toţi să fie omorâţi. forget.Nadina VIŞAN b. (Mi-ar plăcea să ajungă preţedintele ţării. (Îmi pare rău să aud aşa ceva. I would like for him to become president of the country. however.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember.4 The Distribution of FOR – TO Constructions These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange. claim. possible.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a.etc.) 206 . I remembered that I had to go to the post office. stand. unlikely. (Se aştepta ca prietenul ei să-i facă un cadou costisitor. verbs of liking and disliking. (Mi-am amintit că trebuie să mă duc la poştă. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. etc. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed.) b. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present.

(A fost amabil din partea ta să-mi dai voie să vin aici.) 8. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Exista tendinţa ca instrucţiunile să fie mai detailate.) b. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (E imposibil să existe un război între ţara mea şi a ta.) 207 .) 2. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions 1.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases. Predicative Clauses (39) a.Unit eight Infinitive complements The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (Era important ca ei să fie acolo. ( Este un lucru natural să-ţi iubeşti părinţii atât de mult. (Sarcina noastră este să investigăm detaliile legate de acest caz. where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love one’s parents so deeply is a natural thing.

) b. I decided for John to represent us. this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumpărat o carte cu ajutorul căreia să păşească pe drumul cunoaşterii. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. Like in the case of that complements. but the meaning remains. the preposition is deleted.) 5. (Încercarea mea de a scăpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eşec.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (Am hotărât să ne reprezinte John. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. (Sunt curios să văd dacă vor sosi la timp.Nadina VIŞAN 3.) 208 knowledge. (Am vrut ca el să rămână singur cu ea în seara asta. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. Direct Objects (39) a. .) b.) 4. (Mi-ar plăcea foarte mult să ascult acest concert. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time.

(Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul. She is pretty to look at.: (42) a. This paint is like concrete to work with. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial.) e. He is a bastard to work for.) b. (Eşti un prost dacă te duci acolo. not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty. bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of. (Tocana e foarte bună la gust.) c) adverbial of result 209 . delicious. You’re an idiot to go there. (Este un şef care te pune la muncă din zori pâna în seară. (Este o fată care îţi bucură ochii.) d.) c. (I-am tras o palmă ca să îl calmez.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. The stew is delicious to eat. curious about. 6. etc.Unit eight Infinitive complements The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section.

the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank. să fii iarăşi tânăr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences. / Ca să nu mai lungim 210 . trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh. to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei. / Pe şleau. să nu piardă trenul. (introductory) (Să-ţi spun drept. / E destul de bogată să-şi permită o blană şi o maşină nouă. conduci prost.) I’ve never met him. final or introductory infinitive In this case. to tell you the truth. / Nu-i chiar atât de bătrân încât să nu o ia de la capăt.Nadina VIŞAN (44) (45) The plate was too hot to touch. când te gândeşti că pe vremuri ştia sş cânte aşa de frumos la vioară! / Iarba era prea udă ca să stai pe ea. / E într-atât de lipsită de inimă încât e capabilă să nu îi mai dea banii pentru apartament./ Este indicat ca persoanele fără paşaport să se prezinte la poliţie. nu mai am nevoie de tine şi nici de serviciile tale. (final) (Nu-l cunosc.) Oh. you’re a bad driver.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate? (Eşti asa drăguţ să îmi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory. / Ehei. drept să spun. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca să poată fi atinsă. să mai fii tânăr şi să te poţi bucura din plin de viaţă…/ Şi-a cumpărat bilet din timp.

influence. induce. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit. inform. we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) – the most frequent case in fact: attempt.) . press. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. According to this. / Am o vorbă să îţi spun. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. / Tu eşti de vină că a explodat fabrica. inspire. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. etc. swear.: (51) a.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO.) b. oblige. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him.etc. that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) – here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize. promise. 8. encourage. (49) a. enable. / Nu-i greu să locuieşti cu el.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. b. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui. direct.Unit eight Infinitive complements vorba. nu mai vreau să te vad.) 211 (A incercat sa isi ucida sotia. need. / S-a întors din călătorie doar ca să dea de nevastă-sa într-o poziţie compromiţătoare. urge. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel. / E o persoană cu care poţi comunica uşor.

etc. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. order. choose.etc./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. count on. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. name.) Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions. nominate. / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell. which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. vote.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on. look to. depend on. elect. permit.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte. command. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you./ And now he 212 . etc. allow. prevail on.Nadina VIŞAN In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint.

(Trebuie să sosească zilele astea. (Mă întâlnesc cu ea la 5). grow. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get. this construction is lexically governed. be going to. (În cele din urmă ajunse să-l simpatizeze.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction As previously mentioned.verbs: appear. An Accidental Man) 8. 213 (58) (59) . seem. come.: (55) She appears to like him. (O să întârzii/ leşin. (Se pare că îi place de el.Unit eight Infinitive complements refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. (Iris Murdoch. i. etc. (57) He is to come any day now. etc. be about to.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to.) With be going to there are two interpretations: • The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint.) • Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (56) She grew to like him in the end. happen.etc.e.

etc. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Trebuie să-i spună adevărul.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said. be alleged.: (62) They heard him insult her. overhear.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception • basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see. etc.: (63) 214 I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.) 8. hence there is no control situation whatsoever. hear. is well supported by the syntactical analysis. be thought. be considered. that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. feel. watch.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. be rumoured. that of intention.Nadina VIŞAN The meaning of (58). the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint). In (57). (L-au auzit insultând-o. .) • neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice. perceive. (Se zvonea că îşi omorâse soţia. be claimed. be reported.etc. observe.

etc.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume. know. Infinitive) (66) (Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste. let I’ll have you learn this in no time. figure. consider. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence. there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. cause. have. believe. occasion. necessitate I couldn’t get them to pay me my money. judge. picture. prove. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. presume. find.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. deem. However. (N-am reuşit să-i fac să-mi dea banii. imagine. understand. recollect.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night.) 215 (67) . remember. (Cred că este un geniu.) • with a full infinitive: get. since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: • with a bare infinitive: make.Unit eight Infinitive complements (Am observat că era cunoscut în cartier. discover.

these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts. order. wish. (Aş vrea să fie acolo la ora 5.etc.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. command. (Am permis să fie tăiaţi pomii din curte. who wasn’t used to men with moods. want. permit. if he himself was out of spirits. choose. (I-am permis grădinarului să taie pomii. desire. state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. expect. (Aş vrea să mă duc acolo. he hated anyone to comment 216 . mean. prefer. Harold.Nadina VIŞAN d) verbs of permission and command: allow.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. etc. they had depressed and fuddled him.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up. suffer. thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alec’s. love.

b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum.Unit eight Infinitive complements on it. he didn’t envy those above it. He suspected hostility at once. though he tended to look down on those below it. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group.P. he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. so that we might get to the future and have done. Both seemed to him a little unreal. and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal. A little crossly. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. the herd instinct was very strong in him. (L. when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. (John Barth – The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor) 217 . Most of Harold’s men friends felt the same. to make sure we attended strictly to business.Hartley – A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit.

we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive. The last criterion. 218 . Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not. From this perspective. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only.Nadina VIŞAN 8. about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. we can speak about bare and full infinitives.9 Key Concepts The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions.

making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima când se gândea că peste o lună are să-i rămâie casa pustie. c) Călătoriile cu liftul. pare că uităm propria noastră durere. Şi tu să fii. ce reuşesc ei să-şi spună astfel precum şi circumstanţele în care comunică nu seamănă. e) Când doi oameni. sunt mult prea scurte ca să te înfioare cu gândul unei predestinări. într-o zi. spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul. mai bine219 . de bună seamă. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece. cu una din discuţiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc în cazul unei atingeri de fire. un bărbat şi o femeie. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. să nu mai arate atât de sumbru? Există cineva care să nu se simtă singur? Orice om are momente când îi vine să se spânzure. ca omul din spatele zidului să fie schingiuit. stau zile întregi între zidurile îngheţate şi tot ce le rămâne de făcut e să ciocăne rar şi prudent în peretele ce-i desparte. dar să nu-ţi spună. d) De ce-o fi el atât de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat.Unit eight Infinitive complements Pratice Translate the following texts. e important ce întrebări pui. să-l capete. de asemenea. E posibil. dar trebuie să ai o fire cu totul aparte ca să ţi se întâmple asta tocmai când cântă corul acesta. bunăoară. dar când avem nevoie să mângâiem pe alţii. lovit şi umilit. fireşte. sau cu ocazia unui număr format greşit. dacă vrei ca povestea să aibă un sens.

Ne-au invitat oamenii… şi e superiorul dumitale. mai bine de două decenii. gâdilaţi de şiroaiele de năduşeală. h) – Vreau să mergem! Răspunde apăsat d-na Moroi. încă.Şt. Să spui de pildă. (B. Locul unde fundul ţestii se înjuga cu şira spinării ne durea. 220 . mai verosimile decât însăşi evidenţa.să se întoarcă la tine cu fiecare sunet. să-şi aducă aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu. în ploaie. năduşeala începea să ne curgă pe obraji şi pe după urechi. cu sila şi ruşinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci. ci şi de conversaţia lor din acea noapte. că eşti tânăr.Delavrancea. Însă Paul Achim trăise.Delavrancea – Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt. ca să nu şi-o amintească. nici măcar în acele puncte unde. Desi discuţia merita să fie ţinută minte. De era vară. avusese dreptate. în parte. să traiesc numai cu tusea. în jos. aşa cum îi apăruse el. d-a lungul gâtului. Şi să începi să crezi că eşti tânăr. Dar era mult mai comod să-şi uite dreptatea. mai pline de înţeles. să nu vrea să se şteargă.Nadina VIŞAN zis.Şt. sau. pe care deja o uitase. Ai dori să te privesc ca p-o icoană. în parte. . Cu neputinţă ca cei mai slabi să nu mişte o mâna. dacă vrei ca toate aceste obscure şi candide neadevăruri. un picior. cu junghiurile şi palpitaţiile dumitale? (B. pe care le cladeşti cu teamă şi înfiorare. în conversaţiile sale cu el însuşi. (Tudor Octavian – Zid între un bărbat şi o femeie) g) Nu ştia ce să mai facă s-o oprească din plâns. care exista prin opoziţie faţă de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece în tăcere. Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mişca ne obosea şi capul începea să ne tremure. Vreau fiindcă vreau… trebuie să înţelegi odată că nu pot trăi ca o pustnică.

Ivasiuc – lluminări) k) Cu zestrea asta. dintr-o dată a fost atât de şocată! o) Nici un motiv special ca să-i evite privirea. ca să afle că tâmplarul lui Muti se prăpădise cu o săptămână înainte!. orice-ar fi. orice bucureştean ştie. o mizerie. m) Cea mai machiavelică născocire a lor a fost să facă din fiecare un posibil suspect: să ne suspectăm unii pe alţii – iată pe ce se bazează în fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat într-un gang. căci nimeni nu se pricepe să mijlocească mai bine decât părţile însele. i-aş aduce acestui bărbat o grijă cum nu s-a mai văzut. (Proză picarescă) l) Dar nu mai are timp să ajungă la uşa din spate-a tramvaiului.. Dacă domnia-ta accepţi ceea ce-ţi pot dărui. fără să mă pun în vânzare (pentru că asta înseamnă să te dai pe mâna mijlocitoarelor). ei. vreau să spun că eu caut un soţ care să mă apere. în acea clipă de aleasă fericire când era la începutul unei iubiri. sunt aici cu tot ce am. caut un soţ căruia să mă dărui şi căruia să-i fiu supusă. deopotrivă cu jurământul de a-mi schimba felul de viaţă. fie ea şi grăbită. să-mi poruncească şi să mă respecte. de fapt. deşi. nici ca să 221 . gata să mă supun oricărei porunci. un miros îngrozitor.. Mă laud singură. şi prin faţă.. prin faţă e coborârea. pentru că nu încape ruşine în privinţa aceasta când te sileşte nevoia.. (Al. care să mă servească şi să mă înjure. ea nu se urcă: nu-i atât de bătrână să se urce pe-acolo pe un’ se coboară. au bătut la tot felul de uşi.Unit eight Infinitive complements Nu putuse să-l lase în stradă pe doctorul Stroescu. de a-i fi pe plac şi de a-l sluji. Într-un cuvânt. şi nu un amant. ar fi vrut să fie lasat în pace. biata Muti.

în realitate. niciodată ea nu i le pune. parcă la întâmplare.Nadina VIŞAN vorbească atât de repede. (Gabriela Adameşteanu – Dimineaţă pierdută) 222 . ca şi când s-ar teme de întrebările pe care.

verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on –ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions 223 .NINE ING COMPLEMENTS Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of –ing structures: gerunds. participles.

Participial Constructions 9.Characteristics of Participial Constructions 9.1.2.4.The Participle Contents: 224 9.2.2.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.1.2.9.Differences between Participles and Gerunds 9.2.1.5 Key Concepts .1.2.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.The Gerund 9.The Verbal Noun 9.1.3.3. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.

The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in –ing and makes the object of our discussion.1.1. The past participle ends in –en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. The Participle The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle.Unit nine Ing complements The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. Due to this situation.1. (Susan doarme. Let us start with the Participle: 9.) 225 .

A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function. (Faţa lui bine bărbierită strălucea în lumina lunii. especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight.) As you can see in this second case. (Omul care aleargă este şeful meu. i. blood-shot and painted.e.Nadina VIŞAN In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. (Omul care aleargă pe pistă este şeful meu. (A venit Susan) b. 226 . Susan has come.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. it functions attributively. This situation is also characteristic for past participles. the past participle can appear after a noun. too: (6) Her eye-lids. the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). been and killed are past participle forms. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. Susan has been killed. were closing. In (2) the forms come.) More infrequently. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a.

a lion can attack. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dacă este provocat.) c. Knowing who the guy was.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a.) 227 . they started singing. people should pay attention to high notes.) d. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time) (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu. oamenii trebuie să fie atenţi la notele înalte. I will arrive there on time.) b. When singing. she ran away. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci când cântă. o să ajung la timp. Arriving here. Oh. (Ştiind cine era el. (Sosind aici. începură să cânte. I will arrive there on time. mother permitting. he will eventually marry her.) b. God willing. condition) (Dacă vremea îmi permite. If provoked. Weather permitting.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. o să ajung la timp.) c. ea o luă la fugă. (adverbial of condition) (Se va căsători până la urmă cu ea dacă maică-sa îi dă voie.Unit nine Ing complements (I se închideau pleoapele injectate şi date cu fard. leul poate să atace.

notice. They found him killed by a bullet. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. smell.) b. perceive (11) I felt her trembling.) ii. (L-am descoperit furând. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. Nominative + Present / Past Participle (9) a.) b. which stands for an adverbial clause. watch. behold. He was found killed by a bullet.Nadina VIŞAN The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather. I found him stealing. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see. (Am simţit-o tremurând. respectively. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative – an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative. (L-au găsit ucis de un glonte.) 228 . He was found stealing. (L-au descoperit că fură. hear.

) • mental perception verbs: remember.: Imagine him saying a thing like that.Unit nine Ing complements (12) He was noticed crying. feel. start. (Lovitura l-a trimis învârtindu-se. I’ll have you all speaking fluent English soon. He’ll soon get things going. (Am auzit spunându-se că bărbaţii sunt plicticoşi. know.: a. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. I heard it said that men are a bore.) b. recollect. a. etc. (Când i-a auzit cuvintele şi-a dat seama că a concediat-o. (15) (13) (14) (16) (17) 229 . send. she knew herself dismissed. (L-au văzut acoperit de noroi din cap pâna în picioare. (A fost văzut plângând.: When she heard his words. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. confess.) c.) b. set. (Închipuieşte-ţi-l spunând una ca asta. (O să pună repede lucrurile în mişcare. make a. (Trebuie să mă duc să măa tund. have.) b.) • Causative verbs: get . (O să vă fac să vorbiţi toţi curând o engleză bună. hear. recollect. keep. I must get my hair cut. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle • Verbs of physical perception: see.) • verbs of mental perception: imagine. find. etc. etc. etc.) • Causative verbs: get. leave. have.

(Bărbaţilor le place să termine repede cu cumpărăturile./ Jim a pornit motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări.) • verbs of permission.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English./ L-a trimis la cumpărături. (Dorea să-i fie reparată maşina imediat./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Nu după multă vreme. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte. / A fost descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat.) • Verbs of liking and disliking a.” / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid.Nadina VIŞAN (Trebuie să te duci la doctor să îţi îngrijeşti piciorul. command I ordered my bill made out. (I-am spus chelnerului să-mi aducă nota. using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. He wanted his car fixed immediately./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu Maria este fratele meu. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă./ Nimeni n-a bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie. ce-ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios! (18) (19) 230 . lovit şi plin de sânge. îl vrăji în aşa hal încât îi mânca din palmă. Men like shopping made easy.) b. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ.

as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / My Lord.2.1. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. Unlike the gerund. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i. with its lips drawn back. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 9. sitting taut between her father and her sister. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. / Dinny. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there.Unit nine Ing complements Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her. / In any case. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have – in opposition to gerundial forms – is the verbal quality of these structures.e. 231 . the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).

I have looked through the fashion magazine. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences. I was astonished at what I saw. 2. 6. using either a present participle. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud.) • Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher. It had been uprooted by the gale. the rain will stop. 5. (Desi nu ştia limba.Nadina VIŞAN The participle lacks tense but exhibits: • aspectual features: Having seen this. am plecat. The tree had fallen across the road. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. she enjoyed her trip to Spain.She didn’t want to hear the story again. I left. I turned on the light. I left. I was (20) (21) (22) (23) 232 . or a past participle: Activity 3 1. (După ce m-a remarcat profesorul. 3. She had heard it all before. am plecat. 7. (Văzând acestea. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. People were sleeping in the next room. a avut parte de o excursie plăcută în Spania. I knew that the murderer was still at large. se va opri şi ploaia. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. 4.) • A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language.) • A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing.

7. minded (3 times). They found the treasure. 3. my hands often get very cold. hearted (twice). I slammed the door of my room. 4. his horse fell at the last jump. 233 . narrow. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 12. eagle. a pot of paint fell on my head. the sea was tossing the post up and down. a rug caught her foot and she fell. Dropped by parachute. He sat down to his own dinner. Climbing down the tree. broad. one of the eggs broke.Running into the room. 10. quick. Passing under a ladder. many. fishy. stony. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten. skinned. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. shaven. cloth. 8. Leaving the cinema. straight. Riding in the first race. stricken. He fed the dog. three. wooden. Barking furiously. dark. 10. 6. Reading in bed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him.Unit nine Ing complements extremely reluctant to open the door. cornered. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. drunken. open. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1.shoulder. 2. red (twice). covered. roast. haired (twice). sharp. lighted. open. I let the dog out of the room. handed. a scorpion bit him. lion. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. Tied to the post. bald. They began quarreling about how to divide it. Getting out of bed. 11. empty. 5. eyed (3 times). Read the sentences and try to correct them. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair. Mother punished me for my mistake. 8. coloured. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. b) Headed (5 times). Knowing me to be the fool of the family. 9. mown. 9.

(take) 2. b) grass. once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle.Spielberg. ________ hiding in a barn. / People ______ books oout which haven’t been stamped will be banned. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open._______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. are in grave danger of extinction. plank. I stared at the canvas for ages. the same verb is missing twice. _______ by S. Translate into English: 1. _______ for their valuable oil and meat. meaning. (hunt). _______ for a bargain. (find) 6. graven./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (admire) 5. image. / Three people. The film. shorn. stream. head. lamb. are having difficulties in making both ends meet. are sold throughout the world. (produce) 3.Nadina VIŞAN sunken. umerii abia ascunşi sub o 234 . / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. deer. is expected to be a great hit.I fell on the ice. _______ my arm. Whales. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1. _______ for their elegance and precision. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite. duty. / Many old people . ________ the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (grow) 4. meat. (injure). _____ when their car crashed on the M1. hidden. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. shrunken. man. wealth. / Swiss watches. was today taken back to prison.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. In the following pairs of sentences. were taken to hospital. 7. eyes. The escaped prisoner. bounden. candle. rotten. lead. ill-gotten.

păsări tăiate. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate părţile. lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. nesigur şi moale. le fierbea. trezit. Şi. S-a simţit alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor. deodată sufocat. întinse. când deschisă. când strânsă. 2.Unit nine Ing complements Activity 8* dantelă. descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului. destrăma în şovăiri puterea din jurul său. cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele. plina şi ea de ape şi valuri. şi moi. După câtva timp. O umbreluţă. le cocea. o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. aruncate în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite. 4. şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuţit care le tăia. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti) 235 . sânii chinuiţi în strânsori. precum şi foile de plăcintă. ar fi căutat aer şi un liman. ca şi cum. legume date prin mai multe ape. care le rânduia. şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa. stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi. arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile. peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc. 3. Şi sufletul său. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă. începu să privească neliniştit primprejur. biruit veşnic de o îndoială. silindu-l să-I cerceteze înţelesul. împănată cu vine galbene de grăsime. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată: carnea roşie.

The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal. the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. The Gerund 9. crezi. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greşeală.) • (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Dacă vezi.2. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici. Likewise.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them.Nadina VIŞAN 9.1. one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds.2. According to this criterion.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: • (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) John’s coming here was a mistake. function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. 236 .

whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features.) 9. gerunds differ from participles. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. That he won and you lost was surprising.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut. His victory and your defeat were both surprising.2. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb.) b. Him winning and you losing was surprising. where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. His winning and your losing were both surprising. In that. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ? 237 . Consider the following table. (M-au surprins în egală măsură victoria lui şi înfrângerea ta. (M-a surprins faptul că el a câştigat şi tu ai pierdut.2.) b. just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a.Unit nine Ing complements How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: • The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural.

which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. (L-am văzut că zâmbeşte şi am fost surprins. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. Consider (32). gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience.) Unlike participles. (Faptul că a pălmuit-o pe Susan a îngrozit publicul. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally extrapose (if you remember. A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below.) b. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said. (Nu era legal să-ţi laşi barbă.Nadina VIŞAN Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. as being verbal 238 . *It was illegal growing a beard. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction.) 2. It was illegal to grow a beard. extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses.

(S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua înnoroiată. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds. Just like in the case of noun phrases.) b.) 9. and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. (N-are sens să vorbeşti cu ea. gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. Participles vs. (proverb) (Mortul de la groapă nu se mai întoarce.) 3.3. (Era uimită de cât de bine ştia el dedesubturile afacerii. It’s no good talking to her. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds.) b.Unit nine Ing complements in nature.2. as offered in the table below: 239 .

2. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which is…Verb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. he built himself a She angered him by stealing his (Accusative + clause) 240 .Nadina VIŞAN PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. passive ones She was crying. perfect. 3. (prepositional object clause) 5. may be preceded by prepositions: Coming here. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. babies suck their thumb. forms: continuous . + noun] 1. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. Participles may function adverbials: house. (adverbial of time) 4. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying.

/ Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în vacanţă. / Trebuie să-mi cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / Cine răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Ar trebui să se impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Te-ai scuzat pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza” băieţii mai mici decât el.Unit nine Ing complements Pratice Translate into English. a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. a plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera iniţial. / Teai săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună lucrurile la loc. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în construirea de noi blocuri. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi defectele altora. / Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o 241 .

5. 11. crying game / crying woman. 2. 242 . It was worth trying to continue the efforts. swimming duck / swimming trunks. shooting gallery / shooting star. 12. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 9.Nadina VIŞAN mare agitată. eating habits/ eating people. She’s looking forward to having lots of children. boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water. 8. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record. 10. 4. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 12. What I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 13. paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong. 6. pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 14. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 7. He was spotted talking to her. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 3. 15.

The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system.e.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar. of the attacker) The fact that the –ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243 The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. The Verbal Noun The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.) The absence of a determiner like the.3. a The absence of an of phrase. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb: . (Uciderea celui care îi atacase era un episod urât. they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun.Unit nine Ing complements 9.e. but the presence of a direct object (i.

George’s shooting the attacker. In the second situation. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its ‘of’ phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. Thus. whereas the second structures takes an adverb: George’s shooting the attacker cruelly. we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information: 244 . How can we tell? In the first case.Nadina VIŞAN Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: George’s shooting of the attacker vs. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: George’s cruel shooting of the attacker. These are features that normally characterize any noun. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. (Faptul că ştia să cânte aşa de frumos era o binecuvântare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. if we were to go back to our incomplete table. the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article.

/ Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. very large. + noun] Gerunds [+noun] Verbal nouns sudden the Jim’s suddenly shooting Jim’s/the sheriff. Jim left quietly./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank.Unit nine Ing complements [+ verb] Participles (After) shooting [+ verb. / John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock./ His sudden coming puzzled her. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery? They saw him shooting whole town. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed. the sheriff. 245 . This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff? Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / His coming there puzzled her.

Nadina VIŞAN 9. whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the –ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street) 246 . we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. ING Forms and Infinitives. at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. It has been noticed that. With the infinitive. for example. (A văzut-o pe Susan traversând strada. However.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. whenever we meet an –ing form. we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. For instance. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. the meaning is different.4. (A văzut cum Susan a traversat strada. Look.

anterior to the verb in the main clause. On the other hand. future-oriented value of the infinitive).) The first example. the infinitive is future-oriented. posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented.Unit nine Ing complements - the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) – by opposition with the participle – suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing) Another example.) . the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen. suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential. (S-a oprit din mâncat.g. (S-a oprit să manânce un sandwich. and the most well-known one. The second example – containing a gerund – suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past. prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb. we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened. having left) is infrequently used in English. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e. containing an infinitive.) After looking at this example. is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. Compare 247 She stopped to eat a sandwich.

both sentences are translated the same in Romanian. which means that they are similar in meaning. Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41). recollect. b) Regret 248 She remembers filling the tank with petrol. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. (Şi-a amintit că a pus scrisoarea la poştă în cursul dimineţii. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember. i.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) .Nadina VIŞAN (42) (43) She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language).e. (Adu-ţi aminte să umpli rezervorul cu benzină. forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol.) As you can see. (Şi-aduce aminte că a umplut rezervorul cu benzină. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form.e. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.

dar asta este. (Întâi am încercat să mă ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzină. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. (Îmi pare rău că am umplut rezervorul cu benzină. însă nu mi s-a părut treabă uşoară. (Asta înseamnă să-i dezvălui toate secretele mele. (Am încercat sî umplu rezervorul cu benzinî. but that’s it. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets.) 249 I mean to tell her the truth.Unit nine Ing complements (46) versus (47) I regret filling the tank with petrol. (Îmi pare rău că o să umplu rezervorul cu benzină. In the second example.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened.) . (Am de gând să-i spun adevărul. apoi m-am ocupat de spălarea maşinilor. the action is not completed.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol. the petrol tank is not filled yet.

s-a apucat să vorbească despre nunta fiicei sale. they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. (Continuă să citească din romanul acela ieftin. want With [+ human] objects. mean has the sense signify. e) need. the event has not happened yet. In the second example.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughter’s (După ce a vorbit despre planurile lui. The house needs to be repaired.Nadina VIŞAN In the first example.human] objects. The house needs repairing. He goes on reading from that cheap novel.) b.) wedding. (Vrea / trebuie să înveţe engleză. these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English.) With [. it is bound to happen as a result of the subject’s intentions. (Casa trebuie reparată. (Casa trebuie reparată.) 250 .

whereas in the second case. Lady Corven. (take) down her answer. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. So do look out for me about six o’clock 251 . And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched.Unit nine Ing complements In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No. my Lord. gerund or infinitive. Croom (try) (follow) one. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. (hold) up his pen and (speak). as required: Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself.’ Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form. however appearances were against us. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. my Lord. but they went by too quickly. the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen.’ ‘Tell me. what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. it’s overrated. I did ask Mr. and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car.’ ‘In any case.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.

Then. licked the envelope with passion. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent.’ ‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. suddenly. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’ said Clare. ‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope (see) you again very soon. ‘I do hate (ask) for things.’ (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.’ 252 . d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street. I must go back now. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. he addressed the note. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. I spend all my time (hunt) a job. I just used the word and they fell. he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. and went out (post) it himself.Nadina VIŞAN tomorrow.’ ‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.

The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Pratice In the following texts. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns.Unit nine Ing complements 9. Last but not least. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. the 253 .5. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. don’t forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them – but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Participles mainly function as adverbials.

The sight of the two children. (James Herbert – The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. covering the girl’s head. the enormous split in the earth. The collapsing shops – he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. slowly rising in a swirling motion. Then he saw movement at his feet. slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. it 254 .Nadina VIŞAN very earth opening up. moving up towards his chest. down into God knows where. then the noise and the cracking stone. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) d) Spying on other people being. according to the books he read. their edges crashing inwards. She started coughing. At first. (James Herbert – The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. someone looking for survivors. He looked up towards the daylight. down. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split. hoping he would see somebody up there. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete. It was like a mist. but then he saw it billowing up from below. and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up. the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. The two sides were moving apart.

(John Galsworthy – Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead. looking idly out over the Temple lawn. Having a French governess. my dear. brightening to winter brilliance. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) f) Mr. for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop. and sunlight. 255 .Unit nine Ing complements had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count. the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath. slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard.

Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812. Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără să spună un cuvânt. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început. într-o joi. ucenicul său necredincios. împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând. ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi. cei doi Mamona. making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. În urma slugii. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă de neînchipuit. dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge. închizând ochii. se deschise o uşă şi venind o slugă. şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Translate into English. eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea. înveselind privirea cu roşul lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. totul se animă deodată. (…) omorât fiind de către Mamona cel Tânăr. Vaucher şi cu mine. Aşa că vrând-nevrând. mama mea. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe mine şi atunci. Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821. frica şi nepăsarea m-au cuprins precum şi 256 . and then went riding with her in the rain. apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei. 2. Ridicându-se. veniră alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr.Nadina VIŞAN (John Galsworthy – Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence.

despre salvgardarea realizărilor. 3. aşezată cu spatele la noi. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache de catifea) 4. vântul făcea pereţii barăacii să vibreze într-un fel aproape emoţionant şi. aplecându-se puţin. Vorbea despre strângerea forţelor. continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr. arăta în orice caz ca cineva care ştie. părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia rămas bun de la cineva. o sărută pe frunte. cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie şi a sudoare. Şi deodată. deşi mă aflam pentru prima oară acolo şi nu-i mai văzusem niciodată pe oamenii aceia. nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva. parcă totul mai fusese cândva şi fusese degeaba. care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi. neostenindu-se să facă nici asta. Vaucher a ştiut şi el. privit. la mine. se duse lânga mama şi. despre neprecupeţirea efortului. Ne-a privit o clipa şi. după cum îi spusese mama. aşezat în băltoaca pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui. în timp ce frazele continuau să 257 . iar eu eram obosită de moarte să tot văd şi să tot ascult. să tot însemn în carneţele şi să tot transcriu pe curat. despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân. auzit şi zadarnic. am ştiut şi cine. dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă. stând cu capul în tavan şi cu o mâna ridicată în sus. Neclintiţi. totul mi se părea cunoscut. ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui. afară ploua în continuare. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui. din când în când ei îşi frecau ochii şi fetele nerase ca să se ţină treji.Unit nine Ing complements gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi face. dar ştiutoare. fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri. pe Vaucher. pe mama mea părând absentă.

să se apropie de aşezările din jur. Când au rămas singuri s-au numărat încă o dată: erau nouă. ca şi cum ar fi uitat ceva. una dintre acele dimineţi de toamnă limpezi şi răcoroase. şi cu faţa de masă roşie pătată de cerneală şi arsă de ţigări. fără să bănuim măcar… Apoi au urmat propunerile. a căror răcoare nu infirmă zăpuşeala amiezii. După ce ultimul dintre ei coborâse. De ajuns au ajuns într-o dimineaţă frumoasă. Aşezările de care nu aveau voie să se apropie nu se vedeau. Şi de jur împrejurul lor era Bărăganul. ci o pregăteşte şi o pune în evidenţă. m-am gândit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea să fi desprins între timp insula şi să o fi împins încet la vale. şi cu soba. şi cu masa lungă de scândură. cu tot cu baraca. şi. cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape şi greble – s-au văzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se în cădere prin aer – şi o voce cu asprime estompată de depărtare şi de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor că li se dă posibilitatea să îşi cîştige singuri pâinea şi le-a comunicat că nu au voie să se îndepărteze. Au coborât din camion încet. clătinându-se sub lovitura luminii şi apoi dându-şi drumul în jos ca într-o apă al cărei fund nu se aşteptau să fie atât de aproape. dar. ce-ar fi ca totul să fi pornit de mult fără să ne dăm seama. oprindu-se fiecare o clipă înainte de a sări. au încercat să se uite în jur şi să înţeleagă. 5.Nadina VIŞAN curgă în felul ştiut şi ploaia continua să cadă şi vântul să bată. şi cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit. Tot ce se vedea era un 258 . şi cu stiva de lemne. camionul s-a oprit câteva sute de metri mai departe. şi cu bărbaţii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecându-şi obrazurile nerase. şi cu mine care notam aceleaşi şi aceleaşi vorbe. fără ca cineva să fi spus un cuvânt. camionul a plecat.

Al doilea să se apropie de fântână. 259 .Unit nine Ing complements pâlc de arbori – nu mai mult de câteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au făcut a fost să adune uneltele din locul unde fuseseră aruncate.

Nadina VIŞAN 260 .

TEN REVISION EXERCISES 261 .

262 .

3. since I have decided. though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 9. 10. With his claim for British nationality pending it was. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement. you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. he had been advised. 2. because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money. How this time was to come. apart from his distress for parents. 12. in some way. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now. 13. without profound questioning. 11. to retire early from my employment. he had not yet been able to estimate. unless perhaps borne by a swift horse. I am sorry not to have seen you. whereas if she went away she would get none. and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to. You have been much in my thoughts. and this particularly of late. for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure. How much.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. 5. and that 263 . 6. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. Having regard to the date of drafting. 7. but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 4. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. was unclear to Mitzi. and meet it right here at home. because of pity. this would really hurt. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement.

Nadina VIŞAN was difficult enough. please consider his proposition. I was made say Grace before every dinner. / Whenever I visited my aunt. she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. he did not come to see her. 14. but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes. like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. / You oughtn’t behave so rudely to your best friends. looking forward had not yet taken place. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. 19. (Iris Murdoch – An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree. / I would very much like walking out in the rain. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. / Before you go on changing the subject. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. 17. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much. this always makes us feel embarrassed. so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. I never got used to listen to Susan’s endless gossiping about her friends. 264 . Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. / In the end. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness. even for months. for attending his sister’s wedding. the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up. one of the eggs broke.

But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. she said. she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport. of all people. rather than the hefty type. and it was bound. cotton mills at Manchester. Vulgar men did. (and there he was. of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned. her old friend Hugh. They rushed into shops. were devoid of belief in anything but mockery. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread. being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. Clarissa used to think. Instead of which she had married. motion and enough money to have from day to day a “good” time. Clare had never come into close contact with those who. Though much in request before her marriage. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf – Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. she had done something unpleasing to her governess. At country houses she had met them of course. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers – which she was capable of doing with her daring. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. said: ”Have you such and such? No?” and rushed out again. her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes. centered in London and themselves. but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Essentially.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. of the quick and wiry. to end in some awful tragedy. a little girl. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. Tony was a child. talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) . They hated trying on. She felt as when. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. her recklessness. quite unexpectedly. it was said. 265 . without discovery. an open-air person.

dar vizitele acestui om din topor. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate. (Stefan Banulescu – Cartea de la Metopolis) 3. viguros si vesel in felul lui. ii faceau bine. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si.Nadina VIŞAN Transplanted to Ceylon. nu a facut-o pentru asta. cre s-au nascut lent. she was uneasy. she professed. numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile.Rindurile dvs. sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul. nu puteam sa le uit. reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum. with all its impatience of restraint. cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Reading many novels.” Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme. to keep abreast of the current.Over the River) 2. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit. but lying in her bath. Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. De uitat. Bolnava nu se simtea. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. il numea pe Belizarie “o fiinta mindra. the more she would be torturing him. era un bun sfatuitor. short of the contacts of love. (John Galsworthy . Cind l-a chemat. astfel. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. aveam tot mai 266 . si in plus. The closer she allowed him to come to her. indeed. de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea.

ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani. Milionarule.) 5. (St. desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. A fost gasit plingind in urlete. se stie. chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni.) 7. sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Personal.Unit ten Revision exercises mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. Cind a murit Gora Serafis.) 267 . (St. ca si tine. poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici. tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. Banulescu – ibid. 4. (St. nu pricep nimic.) 6. (St. printr-o asistenta activa din afara. care insa trebuie sa nu sustina. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului. Daca tu. poate fi compensata. in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin. s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. mi-am zis. are nevoie. vaazut cindva. latimea si ascutisul labei. Banulescu – ibid. Ce a iesit. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe. cit mai au de trait. lungimea picioarelor. Banulescu – ibid. pe scaunul lui tare.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. Banulescu – ibid. ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia. o data sau de doua ori. fa-o.

a wounded soldier. (. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Could he be blamed. Who when asked about his memories of the War. as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. Arthur Atkinson M.. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes. would invariably replay that he remembered nothing.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Who told me.P. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. my grandfather. Whose love was returned – with surprising readiness. a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed – having been sent by his father. Who was may father. delivered from the holocaust. and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. Cambridge. Ernest Richard Atkinson. paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. to Emmanuel College. 2.) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who came home from the war. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. A story-book romance. when I was even younger than you. that there was no one walking the world who hadn’t once sucked…Who was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. for being a renegade. Who. to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received – for squandering the time in 268 . Translate them..

He described – I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech – how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. and because – but this is mere speculation. where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there ‘out of curiosity’) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman. he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed). How 269 . that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest. 4. that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times – amply confirmed by his last years. to whom. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued – as is so often the case – to combat inner gravity. deep-set. a moody man. for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London. glowering eyes) – suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy. and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows. daughter of an ill-paid journalist. he had already engaged himself? 3. the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his father’s Tory principles. Rachel Williams. for flirting with ideas (European socialism. Fabianism. mere history teachers conjecture – he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness.Unit ten Revision exercises undergraduate whims.

Cum a trăit el. Cum s-a îmbătat Gheorghe. Cum a fost viaţa lui ca lacrima şi cum a fost a lor. cu taina aceasta. Unele lucruri sunt sortite să rămână veşnic neştiute. omul care trage azi să moară şi l-a lovit pe tatăl lor cu o rangă în cap. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he. as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours. ca să ajungă Ion om vestit. How if no one took steps… an inferno… (Graham Swift – Waterworld) 5. Cum a stat Gheorghe în sat. Cum au tăcut ei. ca să-şi ridice copiii şi să-l ţie pe el. Cum l-au păzit cu toţii să-şi ispăşească vina acolo. Cum s-a făcut o anchetă şi nimeni n-a spus un cuvânt despre Gheorghe. om mare. Ion. ca să fie accident de muncă şi să primească maică-sa pensie. ca rostul vieţii tale să fie altul.Nadina VIŞAN fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. ştiindu-i tot satul fapta. ca Ion să nu ducă povara unui secret atât de îngrozitor. Cum a ajuns el. nu-i de ajuns să vrei să le pătrunzi. la şcoală. Cum a făcut el cincizeci de ani de închisoare la ţărani. Ion. satul. just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. uneori se întâmplă să nu afli singurul adevăr pe care ar fi trebuit să-l cunoşti. Cum erau ei mici şi au rămas fără tată. trebuie să te vrea şi ele. Cum lucra tata odinioară cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. fără să cunoască nimic din toate acestea. fără să poată pleca nicăieri. 270 . Să fi ştiut de pildă Ion Constantinescu istoria adevărată a morţii tatălui său.

te umple de disperare pentru că-ţi dai seama că nu eşti pregătit pentru viaţă şi că dacă se adună. cum mi-am dat seama cât de greu e să ai putere asupra cuiva. Cum umblă sora cea bătrână a lui Gheorghe să-I roage pe fraţii lui să o înduplece pe mama. cu sau fără voie. Ceea ce s-a întâmplat după aceea nu e treaba nimănui şi nici chiar a mea: le adun şi le las pentru bătrâneţe. L-au derivat cei din teatru. greşeli dintr-astea. singurul lui stăpân. Cum se poate trăi o viaţă şi viaţa să aibă un rost. (Tudor Octavian – Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. de mama lor. Când actriţa. cum am ajuns eu stăpânul lui. cum s-a băgat slugă la biserică şi la părintele Ioan numai ca să fie aproape de mine şi să mă slujească. din franţuzeşte. paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. împotriva tuturor. când voi fi singur.Unit ten Revision exercises Cum Gheorghe e în pat de un an de zile şi nu poate să moară. dacă nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis. ajungi pe nesimţite în rândul stăpânilor-robi. când Ipu va fi mort şi putrezit: e o poveste foarte lungă. Cum preţul vieţii a fost întotdeauna altul decât acela pe care l-a cunoscut el.pune totul in discuţie. cum o singură greşeală – ca aceea de azi. 271 . începi să te simţi bine şi nu e bine! (Titus Popovici – Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt şi pururea altfel. cind i-am spus că o să ne jucăm mai târziu . mai întâi într-o locuţiune rămasă culiselor cu exclusivitate: “a face foame”.

S-a întâmplat să păţesc şi necazuri penibile. parcă începusem s-o uit. i-am sărutat-o şi domnului. Aceste întrevederi cu nevastă-mea mă făceau să suport nesfârşit mai uşor ruptura şi eram foarte mulţumit de bunul gând pe care-l avusesem. îmi dădea impresia că numai pentru mine are această privire. să-i sărut mâna ei şi pe urmă. e îndrăgostită de un actor. Tot ce era rază de lumină era absorbit în interior. sau ridicole. care-i cere să-l ia de bărbat. Nu ştiam nici pe ce străzi merg. 3. privindu-mă în ochi. de pildă. Reluasem studiul şi câteva zile am avut impresia că am gasit o explicaţie menită să revoluţioneze filozofia. care o lăsau pe ea pe planul al doilea.Nadina VIŞAN tânără şi frumoasă. viu şi cu o strălucire pasionată. şi-a tras mâna brusc şi m-a dezmeticit şi pe mine. continuând. dar nu puteam să îmi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt. provocându-le. Pe stradă umblam aproape automat. ea îi răspunde cu chibzuinţă: “Eşti nebun? Vrei să facem foame amândoi ?’ 2. fostă prietenă din copilărie. A devenit palid. 272 . Săptămânile următoare m-am simţit din ce în ce mai mult convalescent. 5. Descoperisem un soi de preocupări. Desigur că toate grupurile se examinau şi între ele. Pe lângă noi treceau grupuri care parcă nu aveau altceva de făcut decât să ne examineze. Abia mai târziu lucrurile s-au lămurit. decât când noi eram obiectul lui. Depărtarea nu mai era o dramă unică şi distrugătoare de organe. traversând. dam buzna peste automobile. pe jumătate prezent. Nu ţineam minte nimic din ceea ce făceam. Era în mine o claritate binefăcătoare. Tot aşa. 6. asemeni calmului pe care ţi-l dă morfina. 4. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o atât de mare putere de concentrare. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn şi o doamnă. nevasta-mea. uneori şi astăzi chiar. nu auzeam nimic în jurul meu şi câteodată. cu toată atenţia răsfrântă înăuntru. tânăr şi frumos şi el. Am început. Era să am din cauza asta un duel. Într-o vreme. ci un sistem de acomodare.

fireşte. fără să mă opresc o clipă. Ajuns încă dimineaţa în piaţă. căutând o trasură pentru Câmpulung. iar. în noroiul care alunecă sub ele. că nu m-am gândit la asta. care nu trebuie să se uite în jos 12. căci nu aveam lângă mine decât şapte oameni. orice s-ar întâmpla. Adevărul e însă că mă gândisem. aşa ca un cadavru ambulant. singur în picioare în tot largul câmpului. ca să viu prin surprindere să văd ce face.Unit ten Revision exercises 7. căci dacă suferisem până să obţin învoirea. simţeam că mi se dilată inima. nici nu mai aveam cui comanda. I-am răspuns că nu ştiu. Am început. şi să nu ameţesc. încă din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlalţi de vârsta mea ? 10. în şanţul şoselei două ore şsi azi după-masă alte două. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. De multe ori imaginam câte o bătălie şi mă vedeam conducându-mi plutonul cu o bravură atât de extraordinară. căci e neîndoios că n-aş fi fost în stare să mă apăr. pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri până la istovirea lui. să merg întins. şi nici să fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca să-mi pierd curajul. Dacă nemţii înaintau. 9. ca un acrobat. orice s-ar întâmpla cu mine. De trei zile şi trei nopţi n-am dormit decât aseară. De la o vreme oboseala îmi dă ca un val de nebunie. De altminteri. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la 273 . E o problemă. încât toţi şefii mei să se entuziasmeze. Acum picioarele nu mai găsesc nici măcar sprijin. de parcă am cauciuc la genunchi. În clipa aceea am simţit că voi dezerta pentru trei zile. Aş vrea să mă las jos. Dacă prin absurd nu se întâmplă nimic. Dar nu trebuie să mă opresc sub nici un cuvânt. 11. sfertul de ceas trebuie să treacă. mă puteau prinde fără luptă. şi dacă merg întins. acum păream scăpat ca dintr-o praştie şi nebunia revederii creştea în mine ca un spasm. 8. care şi în cealaltă viaţă m-a obsedat mereu. să treacă peste mine bocancii camarazilor.

17..Ma. de la lucruri personale. 14. a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani. Acum isi ferea privirea. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila. acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : . 13. Greu era din partea asta. de la proces. Auzindu-l. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. dar nu-i spuse si de ce. 274 . dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Ilie nu-l asculta. dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. se uita in jos. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie.. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. parca i-ar fi fost frica. 16. In curind. stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. nu mai semana. nu trebuie sa va suparati. Ii venea greu. Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. 15. parca ar fi vorbit in vis. Uite.Nadina VIŞAN Constanta. spuse el cu un glas ciudat. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo. trebuia sa le spuna. Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu. la fata locului. Adica tot trecutul. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa. de uimire. cu mirare. La un moment dat. de la obiecte de pret. eu am venit sa va intreb. la amintiri. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. nu mai pricepu nimic. la carti. ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. dar nu se mai putea.

comment on the underlined phrases: 1. fara sa-si dea seama de ce. dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. 20. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea. Nu era nevoie. ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui. nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. . In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read . Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti.having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent – that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience. trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. apoi se uitau la Ilie. dar. but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. i se paru ca aici e ceva. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit. Ilie nu intelesese nimic. i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. asa cum facuse pina acum. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically. which was part of his rich outfit. 19. raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera. cum zicea Anghel. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldn’t play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis. bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. se indeparta nepasator. There was even 275 . Zimbea siret. « Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta ». Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Aici era ceva.Ce sa fac. zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap.Unit ten Revision exercises 18. vorbe asa si-asa. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede. care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost « nevoie ».

going astray. But Daisy. at least. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety. to take his way home on foot. who hadn’t been in view at the moment he quitted the room. continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. conversationally.’ That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing.Nadina VIŞAN relief. in that: liking him so much already for what he had done. how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers ‘lawless passions. He walked a long time. rude woman. to move fast. She was one 276 . 5. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt. the young lady. 4. gave an exclamation. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he. for the instant. It was necessary to Paul’s soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance – all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. asked for Mrs. and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. to admit that she was a proud. He felt then.Miller at her hotel. quite ready to sacrifice his aunt. she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. on this occasion. a simplification. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady. resuming her walk. and to declare that they needn’t mind her. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded. paying no attention. 3.

When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs. 8. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her. That he should admire a marble goddess 277 .Walker. making Paul stop and look at her. 7. Her daughter. and wondering what the deuce he meant. as text book. but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. so I finally grew to have a painter’s passion for the place. make a point. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. but strangely cold and shy and sombre. of studying European society. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno. She rustled forward. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative. she had a high appreciation of antiquity. He left me musing. on the other hand. in their own phrase. indeed. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking. in radiant loveliness. was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girl’s arrival. uncomfortably. and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal. declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. 6. She appeared. and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks. smiling and chattering. to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. often. she was sometimes more conservative even than I.Unit ten Revision exercises of those American ladies who. as it were. Advising with me. while residing abroad. as to projected changes. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother. and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve.

while Paul.’ 278 . if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. not seeing. though E. which was deliberate. that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister. and perceived that it must be something important. was immensely struck with him. 10.Nadina VIŞAN was no reason for his despising mankind. it’s no use trying to buy yourself off. inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: ‘Rosy’s right. or at any rate not heeding. whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. with his humorous density. by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler. 9. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora. 11. and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M. H. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. and. though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. The agent became a very familiar type to H. was only half satisfied with this. yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent. for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved. could see he was remarkable. H. wondered what they were talking about. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on H’s face. and acute too. H.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him.

and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. 14. appeared to fill his whole childhood. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly. But she gave him no chance. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine. should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking. had the power to chain his sympathy. not glancing at him for a moment. 15. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day. the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. 13. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mother’s trial for the murder of Lord Purvis. the affair having been quite a cause celebre. H. though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away.Unit ten Revision exercises 12. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it. which was very copious. that the haunting wonder which now. the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. with his head bent to hide his hot eyes. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure. as he looked back. he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who. why his question had broken out at that particular moment. going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been 279 .

solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks. and there were others. implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her – a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. that she must be on the contrary. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. as to which he would have given his hand to have some light.Nadina VIŞAN an achievement of comparatively recent years. and to H. It was very possible she was capricious. proudly. that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. The whole establishment. from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him. as a general thing. even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers. was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed. where the Pearl of Paraguay. H. dragging herself on her knees. ironically reserved. disheveled and distracted. At the theatre. he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Mary’s being moved to tears in the third act of the play. 17. 18. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs – a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it – but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit. so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 16. yet 280 . There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked.

20./ * Anyone doesn’t listen to her. (Henry James – The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined words/phrases/sentences: 1. 3. *Old. on which the damp breath of the streets. going into questions of their state – it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction. 19. H. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Aurora’s deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess.Unit ten Revision exercises the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitor’s eyes no sinister aspect. Their mistakes and illusions. who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadn’t for some time rendered any such homage. 2. making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far. would always be more or less irritating. No one ever listens to her. with the poor. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court. had blown a certain chill. didn’t mind. 281 . and lurking within this nebulous design. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket – a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadn’t at all. but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldn’t consider poverty in the light of experience. young men were invited. was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. It came over H.

I didn’t go to the concert and *nor went my sister. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. her shining blue feet twinkling. would you like to walk along with me?” I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her. walking quickly. 8. “Oh. Rachel. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 11. She didn’t ever buy anything anywhere on that trip./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 9. 12. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said. her arms held out. 7.Nadina VIŞAN 4. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 282 . how marvellous to see you! I’m just going to do some urgent shopping. 6. 10. 5. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. I saw her as a vision. I was definitely going to be sick. Either John or he * have got to give in. I blundered by. the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. b) I got up and got well away from her this time. her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. c) When I saw her sitting there. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. I walked fast. slipped on some steps. striding like a Spartan maid.

The infinitive construction shares the following features with ‘that’ complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10.Unit ten Revision exercises Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didn’t have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an ‘of’ phrase and an adjective c) an ‘of’ phrase and an adverb 283 . The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3.

if they were poor. could cook my meals. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Fox’s mind at the moment. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. where my servant. who is a wonderfully handy fellow. I said it wasn’t fair that we should let another person marry him. The old women spoke no English. analyse ‘that’ clauses and ‘relative complements’ in these texts: 1. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mamma’s life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world.Nadina VIŞAN Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts. 3. that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. And then I ventured to add that. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. 2. it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish. which was really alarming. 5. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. (Iris Murdoch – The Flight from the Enchanter) 284 . but that we saw and pitied. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen. 4.

etc. etc. before they left town. he.Key To Chapter One Practice KEY TO PRACTICE KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE – INTRODUCTION Activity 2 1. to pay their annual visit. was anxious = was + anxious. that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired. How much. 285 . this.apart from his distress = apart from.g. Constituents: how much. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. was anxious. apart from his distress for parents. at noon. was informed.g. on Saturday. apart form his distress for parents. had not been able to estimate. distress. etc. Munt. this would really hurt. on a house. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. his. would really hurt. to settle. Constituents: Margaret. he had not yet been able to estimate. yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e. to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e. Constituents: He.

semantic negation/ He doesn’t approve of mothers going out to work. and is non-assertive. which context is non-assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. – first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. – assertive/ Don’t do that. – first clause is non-assertive. – non-assertive.syntactic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night. – comparison. negative/ We didn’t come here just to talk.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work. – assertive (can’t wait = is eager to). – semantic negation/ Bill isn’t interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE . interrogative.semantic negation/ Nikita’s unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night. Second clause is an imperative. didn’t she? – assertive sentence + tag question.semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikita’s not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. – non-assertive. it is assertive.. interrogative./ She finally admitted. nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. second clause is non-assertive. which is not assertive. / If you like her. negative/ Come with me. – assertive/ Are you listening to me? – non-assertive. negative/ If you like jazz. – it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive. positive/ Aren’t you listening to me? – non-assertive.. The sentence is however 286 . interrogative. negative/ She can’t wait to read that book.SENTENCE NEGATION Activity 1 They like her a lot. negative. – first clause is an ifclause.. don’t bother her. listen to this./ Hasn’t she arrived? – non-assertive.

/ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection. everybody used to travel by coach. / They didn’t leave. –double negation cancellation. Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ When he learned the news./ She doesn’t have a special preference for John. but it isn’t Susan./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. / You have never met 287 . / He wasn’t unusually bright. / She does like John. but not more than she does others./ He was smart enough. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. he was hardly pleased. / Not really convinced by what the had heard. – someone did that. only irresolute. but nothing out of the ordinary./ Susan did not get married to Jim . / I don’t like her very much. / Nikita’s not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night./ Not long ago. – someone hates animals. – I like somebody else. Activity 5 I don’t know much about him./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ They weren’t really confused./ He was exceptionally cunning. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / Susan was not bitten by a dog – someone else was. the two brothers dared to protest. not even this thing. – they told the truth to somebody else.Key To Chapter Two Practice syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / We don’t come here often – we visit some other place./ Hardly interested in the conference. / She does not hate animals. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. but it wasn’t them.but to someone else. not even when it’s quiet around.

negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her.negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there. * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem. not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor.. – negative attraction / It didn’t take him a minute to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / None of them liked house music. did they? / No problems were caused after all. / Should they not have told her the truth.negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.. not even when you were very young. is he? / Few of them stayed behind. not even part of it? / Not infrequently. – I cannot look him in the eye... *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem. *did he?/ They caused us no problems.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody. / I haven’t ever seen such a thing. they go skiing in the mountains.. I could hardly wait to hear the news.Nadina VIŞAN her.. – negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released.negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her... did they? / A few of them stayed behind.negative incorporation/ They didn’t ever tell her what bothered them. – I couldn’t wait to hear the news.negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips. / This is hardly the 288 .. – negative insertion.negative incorporation / I didn’t see anybody. were they? / This boy is no good. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. Jim felt rather at a loss for words. *did they? Activity 6 They didn’t send many students abroad. not even in my dreams.negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.negative attraction/ They didn’t come to meet her. – negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.

/ I seldom look at her like that.. – Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. – Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past.Never before did anything like that happen in our street../ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You’ve eaten hardly anything. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. / Few people came to see her. never trust a man again. – I never see her. – You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. – Almost nobody liked him. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! – Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. – Not many people came to see her. – Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. –Little did we suspect that it would be like this. – Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow. / I didn’t leave the 289 . – I almost never look at those paintings.Never shall I trust a man again. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. – You haven’t eaten a thing. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. / Hardly anybody liked him. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. – I don’t often look at her like that. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. – Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / You shouldn’t wander away from the path under any circumstances.. but she also lent him a car. – Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. Activity 8 I shall never. – Seldom do we receive such generous praise.Key To Chapter Two Practice time to buy yourself a new fur coat.Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police. when we started our holiday. – This is not the time … / I scarcely ever see her./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police. – Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before./ We seldom receive such generous praise.

– They say he never had anyone very close. / The keys couldn’t be found anywhere./ Well. – They didn’t suggest that she should meet Jim.Nadina VIŞAN office at any time../ They suggested that she should not meet Jim./ I somewhat like his proposal. – We weren’t surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. you can still do something about it. – I don’t think I can help him to any extent. – I don’t expect he will come here again. –John doesn’t claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesn’t care. does she? – I don’t suppose she cares. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesn’t trust him. – We won’t see them again anywhere anytime. – 290 . I hope he’s somewhat wiser now. / You must on no account touch this machinery. – Only on this man could she rely. you can’t do anything about it any more. –At no time did we leave the office. / Don’t worry. – I didn’t think I had to do it myself. – Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. – He didn’t reckon he would win her over. – They don’t believe she likes them. – On no account must you touch this machinery. / He reckoned he would not win her over. / They say he once had someone very close. – Come on./ I thought I didn’t have to do it myself. / They believe she does not like them. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain.I don’t like his proposal at all. / Come on. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. – Well I hope he isn’t any wiser. / She could rely on nobody but him. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). it will stop hurting before tomorrow. does she?/ It’s likely that he won’t help her. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. – We haven’t had any snow this winter yet. – It isn’t likely that he will help her. – Nowhere could the keys be found./ I expect he won’t come here again.

– Daddy doesn’t drink much coffee and he never has. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live – Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ I can understand all of these ten English words. too. either. / You needn’t send her anything. / You must be telling lies./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. 291 . / You must pay that fine. – You can’t be telling lies. / Alice doesn’t live here any longer/ more. – Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. – Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. – She almost always comes here./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Well. / I don’t feel any better for having had a holiday./ Bob is still living at that address. – I feel much better for having had a holiday. – He didn’t know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. – You should send her something. – I can’t understand either of these sentences. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam.. – Well her husband has always been a good person. – This experiment hasn’t revealed anything of importance yet./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did. – Susan didn’t get a passing grade in English and her friend didn’t./ Peter knows some English and so does John. – You needn’t (don’t have to) pay that fine.Peter doesn’t know any English and neither does John (and John doesn’t. – I can’t understand any of these ten English words. –Alice still lives here. – I hardly ever have to clean it myself. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already.Key To Chapter Two Practice It won’t stop hurting until tomorrow. I’m afraid her husband was never any good. / She hardly ever comes here. – Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives.

/ 292 ./ Zis si facut./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru. / Don’t go on believing him. / Jim is so brave. He isn’t that smart.D. I haven’t touched a drop before dinner. Oh. / Please. in fact I don’t know a single person in that family who is. It’s no wonder./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc. I don’t give a damn if he comes back or not. to any of us./ I don’t know why she’s crying./ He’s a happy man./ Nimic de facut./ You look so tired today./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer. I want to lift this stone but it won’t budge./ You took his leaving you very hard. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin./ Have they rung the bell? No. give me a hand. He didn’t even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound. he didn’t move a muscle when he heard about his son’s death. not yet./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ E un baiat de zahar. / He can’t have done a thing like that. I haven’t seen her in years. e un magar./ He was a tough man./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ It was clear that something awful had taken place. / I’ll be damned if I ever talk to him again. He didn’t move a muscle./ I’m sure Mark didn’t stir a finger to make that phonecall. His opinion isn’t worth a cent. He doesn’t have a red cent in his pocket./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ Nobody told us a thing. but he didn’t lift a finger to save them. I haven’t done anything. ever since I got this ulcer./ Norocul la noroc trage./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ I don’t know a thing about her. I didn’t sleep a wink all night.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 11 Ion isn’t very smart. / The scene was so funny that he couldn’t help laughing./ They say this Ph. has never studied anywhere./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks. / Nu chema necazul asuprati. but she couldn’t remember a thing and couldn’t say a word. I haven’t laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them.

Activity 14* • There’s a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest – comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. but I really hadn’t thought I would be treated roughly. did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. 293 .’/ Deloc descurajat. • Anyway I didn’t really fancy the fact that they kept their distance./ He didn’t come home earlier because he didn’t know whether he would want to eat out. Activity 13 a) deny – negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate .’ ‘Nici o problema.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant . slowly. We had nothing in common. one way or another.Key To Chapter Two Practice ‘Scuze./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. I didn’t believe I would get anything from Carol. I had never had the opportunity to prove. nothing. no memory. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen. dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. with the same needs they had. • Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus’ gate./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa. that I was a decent man. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home. feebly. thrown out. no story.negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable . I hadn’t really expected miracles. without too much determination. parasi camera. for I thought this threatening./ Nu-i nici un deranj.

I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. but I didn’t remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: “I really don’t understand a thing from this case. it’s not words. your story. he was sitting beside me. clear or confusing. I find it hard to understand where you are at”. that’s what the world is about. things you do any moment. on the front seat. or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehension…I think it anachronical. It’s not made up of theories and the like. when he hadn’t been able to repeat the invitation but hadn’t seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B. Radu had calmed down. In fact I didn’t really want to go that party. or if you understood what I meant. “The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. and then I suddenly thought about those friends. I was sleepy and tired. by coming here to the monastery. I’d be so happy if it were so. Your judgement is false. but facts. let alone irritable.Nadina VIŞAN • • With none of these persons was NS on very good terms. I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that… • After all that morning excitement. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move. bad. Not for a moment had I thought that. • I can’t really tell what it was that I said last night. good. to say the least. he immediately answered me patronizingly. which meant that they didn’t really talk or greet each other. We have to judge it as it is. watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute. so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. • It wasn’t daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. a leftover fom other times…” “Well. I admit. the only 294 . • It was my turn to say something. not as we would like it to be or some other way. Unfortunately.. You really made me mad.

and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. just to please myself. me. or you are lying hidden. and if you like. and an inability to act. you can go to Ursu’s. too? A gun is power. and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them. it solves troubles. 295 . I won’t interfere. it’s your problem. you do as you think fit. behind these big. although it was a difficult thing to do. as Baciu would have us be. or call the respect of others. makes highways out of bumpy roads… For even if you didn’t pull the trigger to really shoot somebody. did you ever step up front. but I didn’t want to lie to myself. keep it squeaky clean. But what about you and Melania. no matter how huge they are. either. Look. hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die.Key To Chapter Two Practice ones I had. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours. a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing. precious words. soon we’ll be in town. although I don’t really believe you will… you would have asked me about it otherwise. Without weapons there’s no way you could be in control. keep your conscience clean: you have one. who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didn’t want to lie to him. what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this. fear might be hiding. • What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts. me. so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject. But I was just wondering. Anyway. because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. your opponent would fear you and with good reason. it’s yours. clears your way. to fight. • So. as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. we are leaving. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadn’t answered his own question yet.

Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner. firmly determined not to answer immediately. • I turned my eyes from the old man’s face. because before is a positive polarity item 2. She won’t be able to come back home until tomorrow. or some other woman. but they gradually got used to it. has yet arrived -correct 2.correct 3. as soon as he delivered it. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi.. have arrived yet – the agreement is wrong.Negative attraction b) 1.Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. the sentence is incorrect 3.. She doesn’t admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things. But it was not because I had no answer to give.Nadina VIŞAN • Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didn’t even open the envelope and.correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems .correct c) She didn’t have a red cent in her pocket . correlatives are mixed 2. -correct 3. incorrect sentence e) It isn’t likely that he will lift a finger to help her. but for the simple reason that I hadn’t managed to find any logic in his questions. has not arrived yet – double negation. She won’t be able to come back home before tomorrow. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. . – incorrect.incorrect.Negative incorporation 296 . She admires neither Susan nor Jane. . even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest. he went home and didn’t stop drinking for two days . The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife.Negative raising (transportation) f)1. will he?. The villagers were not very religious.

her lack of motion would have to do (API). she couldn’t marry him.) Însă era cam târziu. either (NPI). astfel că nici nu se mişcă. Ştia că are dreptate. He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI). She didn’t have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. prea răscolit.) Nu simţea nici o fărâmă de interes pentru ea. His spirit was too tired. She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didn’t stir. ceea ce însemna că aproape că avea resentimente la vederea ei. incapacitatea ei de a se mişca. Nimeni nu va şti însă la ce tortură era supusă. (ibid. (ibid. b) But it was rather (API) late. yet. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimănui. (Iris Murdoch – The Black Prince. nu era 297 . which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. Her stillness. she couldn’t be more right (NPI) about it. Nu putea să se mişte. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. One thing she knew: she couldn’t do without (NPI) Jim and. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). much less ((NPI) for her. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her. too troubled. Avea sufletul prea obosit. N-avea nici cea mai mică idee cum să procedeze în cazul ei. slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care şi-l dorea era să fie compătimită. not happy at all (NPI). Dar ştia un lucru: nu putea trăi fără Jim şi nici nu se putea căsători cu el. Vor trebui să se mulţumească cu imobilitatea ei.Key To Chapter Two Practice Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted.

cu atât mai puţin pentru ea. Nu putea in aceasta clipă să mişte un deget pentru nimeni. she looked younger than ever (NPI). inima îi batea năvalnic.) Îşi dădea seama că nu îmbătrânise prea tare de când n-o mai văzuse. (Salman Rushdie. arăta mai tânără ca oricând. (ibid. şi destul de hotărât. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions. Nu aveam de gând să mă grăbesc nici un pic sau să fac vreo aluzie cât de mica la faptul că ar trebui cumva să ne grabim şi nici prin cel mai mic gest să mă îndepărtez de la ceea ce fusesem cândva. 298 . I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. ceea ce susţinea zvonurile cum că. which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. Ba dimpotrivă. and not a little unsteadily. if anything (NPI). there wasn’t a soul around (NPI) and still. se îndreptă spre paravan. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. g) He saw that she hadn’t aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her. The Satanic Verses.Nadina VIŞAN deloc fericit. he made his way to the screen.) Nu voiam deloc să cedez. Nu era nici picior de om în jur şi totuşi. (ibid. slightly adapted) În cele din urmă.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament şi nu încurajau câtuşi de puţin peţitorii din faţa porţilor ferecate. (ibid. e) At length. his heart was beating fast.

Pur şi simplu nu se găsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care să fii în al nouălea cer. Îi scrise tatălui său şi refuză oferta. but his father would have none of it (NPI). Home receded from the prodigal son. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil şi probabil o pacoste administrativă. că şcoala voia să îl trateze pe el. (ibid. and probably an administrative headache as well. Ce-i pasă lui C.) C. on any (NPI) visits he cared to make. i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him. sau orice vizite ar fi făcut. there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. h) C. the gift was useless. as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to C’s vanity. reuşise să convingă timpul să meargă îndărăt între pereţii odăii ei din turn.Key To Chapter Two Practice fiind vrăjitoare. ca pe un preşedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament îi gâdilau vanitatea. Căminul primitor îşi inchise porţile pentru fiul rătăcitor. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). îşi spuse că toată discuţia asta despre sex nu dezvăluia decât punctele slabe ale aşa zisei lor ‘mari pasiuni’ întrucât nu exista nimic altceva în ea care să fie pozitiv în afară de acest lucru. Aceasta fu ultima dată că tatăl său încercă să-i dea ceva. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called ‘grand passion’ because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. Problema era însă aceea că şcoala nu făcea nici o mişcare. the school wasn’t budging (NPI). The point was. însă tatăl său nici nu voia să audă aşa ceva. 299 .

incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? – direct question. correct/ I don’t know whom she fancies – indirect question. correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to – indirect question. correct/ I don’t know who does she fancy.indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what is going on? – direct question since there is no real subordination. – indirect question. correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ What have you been up to? – direct question. correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is – indirect question. as required/ I don’t know who she is – indirect question. correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion. correct/ I don’t know who is she – indirect question. . correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? – indirect question. incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was – indirect question. 300 .QUESTIONS Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why can’t they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? – direct question. correct. correct/ He asked me: who is she? – direct question since there is no real subordination. correct/ Who does she fancy? – direct question.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE .

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldn’t be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, I’m going to give you my name and address. I’ll remember your name and address. For I don’t know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? – yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? – yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? – wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? – wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? – yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? – wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? – yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? – wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? – wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? – wh- question
301

Nadina VIŞAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didn’t you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. You’ve been learning German for years, aren’t you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but I’m too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Won’t you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why aren’t you coming to the party? Don’t you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but I’ve got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didn’t you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasn’t that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. She’s got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didn’t you realize she was Ann’s sister?/ No, I didn’t. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didn’t you see it on the news?/ No, I didn’t. I didn’t get home until late last night. 9. It’s past your bedtime. Aren’t you in bed by now?/ No, I’m allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ What’s the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasn’t I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote ‘King Lear’?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
302

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long haven’t I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? – subject/ Which toys did he buy? – attribute/ Whose card is this? – attribute/ How large did he build his boat? – Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? – Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? – Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? – Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? – Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? – Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? – Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
303

Nadina VIŞAN

What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didn’t benefit from other people’s experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldn’t comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen (…) Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path – what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. ‘The risk?’ That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmaster’s desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: “Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or we’ll tell you what to confess!” I couldn’t see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. “Come on, speak!” he would shout. “Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet?” The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldn’t budge because of the sweat. “You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose?” C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
304

Key To Chapter Three Practice

another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: “Professor, how many ‘gods’ can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol can’t have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, don’t you?/ Surely you have enough money, don’t you?/ He will be on time, won’t he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isn’t there?/ She used to talk a lot, didn’t she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didn’t they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, aren’t I?/ That’s your car over there, isn’t it?/ You will pick me up, after all, won’t you?/ You will pick me up at seven, won’t you?/ Let’s eat dinner now, shall we?/ Don’t leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, haven’t you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, aren’t there?/ She left an hour ago, didn’t she?/ He hates his wife, doesn’t he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesn’t he?/ That was your father, wasn’t he?/ Tell me,…, will you?/ Let me know,…, will you?/ Ann can’t speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesn’t she?/ I am older than you, aren’t I?/ I must go now, mustn’t I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didn’t he?/ He hasn’t any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didn’t he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesn’t he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, aren’t there?/ There
305

Nadina VIŞAN

happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasn’t there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, don’t they?/ Each of us is staying, aren’t we?/ I don’t think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, don’t you?/ They said he liked music, didn’t they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag – asks for the interlocutor’s approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag – the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative – negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag – disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative – it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion –the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk – less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative – no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 We’d better stop work soon, shall we?/ I’m right about this, aren’t I?/ You’d rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldn’t you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, can’t they?/ If we don’t get a move on, there won’t be much time left, shall we?/ Let’s have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
306

Key To Chapter Three Practice

happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtn’t they? We’d better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ I’m not right about this, am I?/ You’d rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, aren’t they?/ New uses of the computers aren’t found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, won’t it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I don’t think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldn’t possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldn’t they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students’ parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, aren’t they?/ Students aren’t often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, won’t they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

307

I didn’t know where she was leading me to. daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village. She has an eye for gentle men. do you honestly think she hasn’t kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia. the bitch. Fenia. Fenia.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think I’ve found?/ I’ve found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. secretly humorous confessions… ‘What?’ she seemed to be saying. and then what do you 308 . keep Condrat away from her. yes. she didn’t wear a ring. of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no. for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra. but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time. to make them lust after her. During what period had she been a student?… Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca. all godfearing husbands and fathers. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her. Chizlinski. Stavre Paici. Vica. but…) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didn’t communicate anything through these wordy. you are in enough trouble as it is. do you really think that this vixen. Luca Horobet. she likes to entrance them. “Now. now she was chatty. 2. ‘aren’t my stories funny?’ Well. they were.

whom you kept cursing even if you didn’t know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. ankle-long flowered calico. G. what’s her name. 3. So that’s why you were so self-confident! That’s why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldn’t understand why you were so keen on? That’s why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. with a railway station and a mosque. You said: “Doesn’t this guy. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk. the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah. have a girlfriend. It even takes him a while to go to the window. when he hasn’t been taken to the army yet. The folk from Babadag – city-bred fine people that they were – pretended to hear or see nothing – for his sake. The mullah. dragging his feet listlessly. He got him out of his mosque. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow. and would have broken Mr G’s jaw. 4. after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha. too?” And you suddenly saw them transported.Key To Chapter Three Practice think Vica wants? She figures she’d better catch him now. as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk.”(…) And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city. the minister of Tartars and Turks. a seventy-eight year old lad. the wicker chairs under the nut-tree… Aaah! Why isn’t 309 . her hair pinned with blue combs. He doesn’t feel like doing anything until evening. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals – she was now above walking barefoot.

Nadina VIŞAN Sophie up in the attic. and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden? 310 . But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isn’t done! That she has lost her mind is obvious. tending to G’s neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys.

– sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. our respective examinations. due to the reciprocal verbal expression. – sentence coordination 2. – phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. – sentence coordination 7. the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. – similar situation 10. – phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white. and I passed.) 9. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. – sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. – similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed.. yellow and blue.Key To Chapter Four Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE . John is ready and Mary is ready..sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. Jane might sing but I don’t think she will.COORDINATION Activity 2 1. John and Mary are the newly married couple. John and Mary are ready. – elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination) 311 .phrasal coordination (in this case. Her pet kitten is black and white. Our flag is red.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang.

much satisfaction or little 312 . 7. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. that method and those. 9. We can and will demand payment. and even tennis. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 3.Nadina VIŞAN Peter and John played football.) Joan plays many games. 2. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. her idea and John’s. 10. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. plays football.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 8. 5. many guest or few. – ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). but not John. – ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. Activity 4 1. – ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter. her son and others. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Activity 5 This book and the other. – ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. 6. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. your work and mine. but John does not play football. your proposal and his.

but not simple. High and low 2. Swings and roundabouts 7. Wear and tear 12. Touch and go 10. (I have always fought for progress and always will. Safe and sound 313 . magazines are only for children. 3. He snapped at him and slapped him. Activity 8 1. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. He read. etc. interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. Few and far between 14. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. 8.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 6 (a) the old men and women – the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children – simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children. (c) George and Jane are separated – George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents – George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. 4. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Over and above 13. Pros and cons 4. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. 7. I have always fought and will fight for progress. Thick and thin 11. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. Bread and butter 16. Ups and downs 6. Life and soul 5. each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. 5. Law and order 8. The facts and figures 3.) 6. Spick and span 9. To and fro 15. magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children.

. 3. exclusive 15. There are some chairs and a table in the room. My son and daughter are twins. 3. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people. 10.symmetric 11.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 7. b. – asymmetric: temporal sequence. – similar situation 9. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. My son and heir is safe. 8. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. Either the child or the parents are to blame. – symmetric. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. – symmetric 10. – asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. inclusive 16. 6. – asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. 4. 5. – asymmetric: cause-effect 6. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 8. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. Asymmetric – temporal sequence. – symmetric. – asymmetric – stronger contrast 14. cause-effect Activity 10 1. – symmetric. 2. Cathy and David have arrived. 1. 4. – asymmetric: cause-effect 3. Symmetric 21. Symmetric 13. 6. 5. exclusive 17. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 9. – symmetric 2. 314 . Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. Asymmetric 19.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 1. 9. 10. 2. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. – asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. 7. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. Asymmetric 20. – asymmetric 18. – asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Not John but his two sons are to blame.

9. ‘What do you mean?’ the old woman felt outraged. They came to me. 3. Should he pour water in the basin. 2. We’ll stick together. By hook or by crook. for he couldn’t see how he could use the can. Her husband is long dead and buried. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head. clothes and all. 3. Now you’ve come with all these new ideas. nor fowl. 15. 4. 14. Jim thought it over for a while. He’s neither fish. (2) 1. How is it going? I’m fine and dandy. I’ll still ask for money for the medicine.Key To Chapter Four Practice Activity 11 (1) 1. 8. so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. Brother or no brother. ‘How am I supposed to bring the can in the house?’ / ‘You bring that can. thanks for asking. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. No drinking and driving. 2. for better or worse. bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. I’m telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking. I’ll still finish this paper. 12. Not only should you rest 315 . pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements. but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage. there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. it was too small. 6. 10. ‘Madam. and surprised at the boy’s unheard-of precocity. or there’ll be hell to pay!’ 13. He went to bed. 11. 7. 5. There are doctors and doctors.

both dead and buried. he starts lecturing her about life and things. an important man. stop dead in his tracks. And. just like when he was thirty. What do you know? The moment Mrs. without mentioning financial matters. the things she had lived! She’d had two husbands. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. So she’ll listen to him. then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudor’s feet. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. it would work out fine. and she listens to him. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. at equal intervals. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth. so he’d gone down and died in no time. 2. and then. whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him. but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally. You know. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle. 316 . he’d leap high. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivona’s dresses.Nadina VIŞAN assured. triumphantly: she’s finally managed to bring him on common ground. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again. so he could leap in pursuit. he was rather old and he might have already been ailing. and when the Nazis had taken over they’d thrown him in this prison. but she blinks in approval. is the one place she doesn’t have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. but he’d come out a cripple. their common ground. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere. stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement. From time to time she will launch a helping question. tense with concentration. she started doing a great job. This. she knows for sure. just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudor’s knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. They hadn’t kept him there too long. tense like a bow. Her first husband had been a professor. Whatever she tried her hand at. and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Mrs. what’s its name.’ (3) 1. as she always does.

when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green .subordinate. coordinated with first subordinate 317 . that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days . – she. functioning as a modifier 3.subordinate. functioning as an adjunct 2. is aware. to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. about her problems at home After I told her the story.subordinate. she looked at me sadly. told. you. disappeared She’s aware of this rage and that he might punish her.subordinate. functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate. functioning as an object (direct).Key To Chapter Five Practice KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE . at me Activity 2: 1. looked. came. functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness . – obligatory elements: I. what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE – A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. whomever wanted to listen. – obligatory elements: she. cannot tell. – she.subordinate. of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. – she. – Susan. functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still . functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater . which was a novelty to Mitzi – subordinate.

Nadina VIŞAN 4. that we should.subordinate. that you are choosing exile . remove our home yet again .subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you – that complement/ so that you can be sure – that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter – that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father – adverbial/ how much we miss you – wh complement/ to say – complement / that I think of my dear son every day – that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times – wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided – that complement/ to do the right. functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland .complement b) 1. since the main verb is think of something) 5. functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home .subordinate. functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6.subordinate. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austin’s marrying Dorina – subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional. Monroe had died – wh complement/ to go out for a time – complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms… – complement/ as she left the house – adverbial/ to speak to Monroe – complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree – wh complement/ that he doubted – that complement/ he had vitality – that complement/ even to finish the page – complement/ he was on – wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep – adverbial / to wake him – complement/ when she returned – wh complement/ for he did not want – adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening – complement/ he 318 . at our age.

a barn. coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me – that complement. subject/ that she could not weed… ragweed – that complement. adjunct (time)/ 319 . prepositional object/ what I have done – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them – wh complement. outbuildings. modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact – wh complement. direct object/ to tell in this letter – complement.complement. adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried – wh complement. direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship – adverbial. direct object/ and seen – wh complement. modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano . direct object. modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us – wh complement. adjunct (purpose)/ before I return – adverbial. adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written – wh complement. adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming – wh complement. a house. but no idea – relative that complement.Key To Chapter Five Practice was just beyond the age – that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair – wh complement 2. direct object b) to dry it – complement. adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres. that she realized – that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away – that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there – that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit – adverbial / to see about her welfare – complement/ as they called her name – adverbial / and knocked the door – adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut – adverbial/ no one would call again – that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour – relative that complement.

A few days before the war. without straightening her back. had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldn’t harvest it properly. but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him. But other people. that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes 320 . modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like – that complement. subject/ to do such again – complement. His wife was reaping the wheat silently. direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder – complement. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that. Activity 5 1.wh complement. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame. When Anton put the sickle down. sickle in hand. some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. direct object/ to write that tale – complement. Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man. modifier (attribute)/ and you told me . adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen – wh complement. (…) ‘Well. direct object. that kept her constantly tense and grim. direct object/ if you knew – adverbial. so long that the day he found out he didn’t even try to go back and figure for how long. (…) He dashed back. direct object/ and done – wh complement. this Anton sure eats early!’ they thought. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. so he stopped and looked to see what he had done.Nadina VIŞAN it would need a page as broad as the blue sky – that complement. adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove – wh complement. staring at each other. and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind. direct object/ that it would make you fear – that complement. direct object/ to sit there – complement.

Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila. while they spoke from miles away. Not even at this point. Only he had Ana to think of. 3. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger. Ana could not stand a trip now. had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home. A warrior doesn’t make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy. Why! He was not of two minds. For no bold man really falters. or other more hidden means. 2. saying that it wouldn’t be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldn’t get his point. he will turn back and no longer be daring. or if he does. First. Wasn’t he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill. but he doesn’t spurn either. while on other occasions he would show caution.Key To Chapter Five Practice already. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldn’t understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one. it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. rather than a real threat. for even swallowing your food is a big deal. 321 . and then there were other reasons… On the other hand he didn’t realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. that was for sure. but also his sharp nose. you need courage even for this small thing. which he doesn’t rely on completely. he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. as if they were at his beck and call.

come on. So. let’s be done with it!” And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply. for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. under the silliest of pretexts. 322 . he had postponed writing back. 4. without really knowing why. not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere… but never mind now. they would ruin the arrangement. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out. and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: “Oh. in order to punish her and since he didn’t know what he wanted himself or how to answer her. are we getting off again? What is wrong. they knew better and wouldn’t say another word and everything would be ok. and when things didn’t go as planned. by the cars of some of us.Nadina VIŞAN That was clear. in Odobesti. although he could have said so earlier. And here’s how this first day looked. Twice did we get in the car. But it was not ok. it was the women. In fact. Costel didn’t want to give up this job. We were going to drive to a vineyard. and on Monday followed another feast). and twice we were requested to get out. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mother’s letter. who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all ‘the gang’ – thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot – decided to take this trip on St Helen’s day (it was a Saturday. to see some mutual friends. when my problems started because of G… Anisoara. although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied.

That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 7. 3.RELATIVE CLAUSES Activity 1 1. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. most of whom were from England. 8.restrictive 7. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. when we first met . all of whom would answer to his questions. 4.She came to London where I went too. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. The students like their teacher. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 2. 10. The students. 8.restrictive 6. Activity 2 1. which was a pity. John told his friend a story about the king. Activity 3 1. any of whom would answer to questions. 6.free 8. who is a genius – non-restrictive 5. I bought Jim a book that he liked. This is my husband whom I love very much. 5. like their teacher. 9. on which this occurred .restrictive 2. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. who was just passing by. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. where I spent my youth . 4. 11. You couldn’t join the party. why they all left . Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesn’t know anything. He told her the secret. where I least expected 323 . 3. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 6. These are people who we cannot tell much about. what you want – free/ where you can park your car .restrictive 4. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. 5. 7. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi. 10. which was silly of him.Key To Chapter Six Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE .

Of all the persons there you had to choose me. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. When – adjunct/ what’s broke around here – direct object. 2. What – subject/ which is a lot – apposition. 3.adjunct 11. which . when they would be immersed in an ocean of love – attribute. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month – predicative. Of all the persons there.adjunct 3. Where .free 9. You.restrictive 10. when – adjunct/ when she noted – predicative. 4. What – direct object 2.subject 9. who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. 7. who had not witnessed many dawns – appositive attribute. This isn’t the Bucharest I know. What – direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon – attribute. when – adjunct /when winter came – adjunct. who didn’t like to leave things unfinished. however sad .subject 8. I. He who doesn’t work will never succeed. Why . when – adjunct/ when winter comes – adjunct. was very displeased with the situation. when . what kind of woman her mother had been – prepositional 324 . on whom nobody could depend – non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired . Activity 5 1. who think so highly of yourselves. come up front. Who . who cannot say a word. What I’m saying – subject. what their parents made them.adjunct 10. about why man was born to die – prepositional object. the prince chose Cinderella.free Activity 4 1. when – adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields – adjunct. Which – direct object/ which shows God in me – attribute.adjunct 6.When Ada remarked – adjunct. where we talk money – predicative. where – predicative 7. 5. Where . when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter – adjunct. Where he was from – adjunct. What Inman remembered – subject.Nadina VIŞAN . Which – subject 4.adjunct 5. 6. When .

attribute 12. – which is ungrammatical due to the [.human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/*∅ deals with this problem is very good .human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun. how . the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/*∅ we are looking is not here – who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition.human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ I read last night surprised me – who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/∅ came to dinner was very late – whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/∅ we are looking for is not here – which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/*∅ we are looking is in my bag – whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]. that is ungrammatical because it 325 . what – attribute/ how the world’s logic works – direct object.Key To Chapter Six Practice object.whom is ungrammatical due to the [.adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/∅ we saw was nice. what little she knew – direct object. which is ungrammatical due to the[. Whatever his fate was – adjunct. which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent. which requires an accusative form. what . whatever – predicative 13. that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition.

who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine. the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller. but whose second cousin. had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady. a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot. who was himself the foster brother of a milkman. whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law. in his turn. a sergeant. who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer. whose great-grandfather. the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/∅ we are looking for is in my bag – who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 “The Flu”. who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother. who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician. who. having changed quite a number of jobs. got married and had a daughter. whose brother had met a girl during his voyages. and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist. due to its invariable character.Nadina VIŞAN cannot be selected by a preposition. a rather tiny looking man. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin. whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl. was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife… 326 . used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin.

were now all gone. – yes 2. – no 9. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other. for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days. was now complete. although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8.yes Activity 9 1. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mother’s sisters. In the interest of public decency. The problem of safe transportation. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. – yes.His father’s friends. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. – obligatory pied piping 2. – yes 6. . he requested that the public be excluded. – no 4. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. the safeguarding of which was actually not his task. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. . For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained.yes 3. His friends.obligatory 4. the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life. . knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people. has been troubling them forever. whose interest he most sincerely shared. no easy answers to which could be offered. and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. he rarely saw now. no matter which – [pied piped phrase. Irene.Key To Chapter Six Practice Activity 8 1. .yes 7.no 5. as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent.obligatory 3.yes 10.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. . with deletion of the noun friends]. – no pied piping 5. – no pied piping 327 . . . This story.

In other people’s opinion. 4. where two teams battled every day… 5. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldn’t tell and anyway. which even one’s imagination would strive to evade the next day. 6. yours. 3. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. or as of a vast arena. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. 7. 2. irrespective of age and nature. for instance. the third born son. For twenty years. he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. For all the four children. felt that the capital was the great unknown… where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream.and he couldn’t thank me enough. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. 8. 328 . the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. Everything was ending. or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. Only an ugly endless dream remained. I did so. I am to be envied. thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 10 1. I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage – for he was a sound fellow . The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be. Nelu. since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town.

she said. All that you have read is rubbish. If any of your qualities were to persuade them. that you keep peeping at… I’ll sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. staring aimlessly. furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain. the tram was rattling along. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H.R. although she was standing quite close to him. 15. Behind them. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. You are newly arrived here. which was why he saw Dora very far away. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 11. I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. on Icoanei street. and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. He was suffering from dizziness. 17. and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away.Key To Chapter Six Practice 9. since I don’t really know which my true life is. amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells. 12. 16. barely glittering in the distance. from MR street. leaving streets and houses behind. 14. 329 . What you’re saying sounds very nice. Let me tell you my last conclusion. which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version. where from Marta was coming too. 13. 10. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesn’t.

I couldn’t help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now. likes and dislikes. day by day. 21. who prompted everyone on the street.Nadina VIŞAN 18. She was a woman of means. had a personal style in clothes. I don’t even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. She was one of those impeccably dressed women. which I did not posses. can’t you see? First the idea that he was broke. While some trees are still green. after the car was fixed. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. I could see my woman falling away from me. 22. or the clash of stars above. I don’t know what might have happened. From the vantage point I was in. 20. in her pursuits. 24. If he had hit me. 23. or the many Egyptian dynasties. who only lived once in this world. Doesn’t this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic. But for me. While we were poor. 330 . so optimistic and composed? 19. had a huge house in Bucharest. these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China. or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. But. we didn’t use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. So. others’ leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots.

object 6.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. – extraposed. subject 2. 331 . – unextraposed. – extraposed. – impossible 7. subject 4. Is it true that the children are sick? – impossible. prepositional object 11. a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. – extraposed. It was suggested that they should meet the President. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. – extraposed. 2. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. I don’t like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 6. – extraposed. subject 7. 3. subject 8. It will be soon announced when you can leave. direct object 3. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. prepositional object Activity 2: 1. subject 9. object 5. – possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. – extraposed. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. – extraposed.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 8. – extraposed. – extraposed. It appears that no one voted for him.THAT COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1.Key To Chapter Seven Practice KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE . for pragmatic reasons 5. direct object 10. – possible: That she didn’t visit her aunt worried me a bit. – extraposed. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. – questionable. – the same as 3. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. You may depend on it that I will pick you up.It worried me a bit that she didn’t visit her aunt. It so happens that I know the secret cipher.

. – same as 12. I don’t expect it that he will come back. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – grammatical. 18. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. – correct 2. You know it only too well that he will not marry you.correct 4. same as 12. . I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me – impossible. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. same as 12.Nadina VIŞAN It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. – impossible 11. although a bit intricate 2. 14. I guess it that he will come back. tense influences the validity of extraposition 3.grammatical.grammatical. – grammatical. – possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 10. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. – incorrect. a bit too intricate 5. – possible: Trying to convince her is no use. They never expected it that he would come back. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. 9. but pragmatically impossible 4. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. – impossible. – impossible. – impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. 17. idiomatic formula 16. – impossible.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. It is no use trying to convince her. 15. – impossible. main verb includes ‘it’ idiomatically 13. Activity 3: 1.. but pragmatically impossible 3. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. same as 12.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. It is nice to meet you.incorrect. tense influences the 332 . . That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – grammatical. but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. – the same as 12.

in the pits on the road. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. behind gates. since I am protected by my officer’s uniform. in the ditch.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! . tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. under bridges. I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her.’ Lionel says. It even seemed to me that mother’s few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). (Not always. I liked all that was natural in mother’s behaviour. – correct 6. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane. I hurriedly hid wherever I could. ‘Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where.incorrect. thus.Key To Chapter Seven Practice validity of extraposition 5. 2. 5. but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart. 3. 333 . She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public.’ 4. though. ‘I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can.

I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. who had just returned from Africa. Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time. – the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. – the first sentence is the better of the two. because it is less ambiguous. without trying to protest too much. which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. It is less ambiguous than the first. owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. /? He appointed Mr Hugh. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. By saying this. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh. prime-minister. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 2. 3. 8. for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return. – the second sentence has undergone clause shift. Neither am I one of those who will say: ‘I dream so that summer could last for eternity’… and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot.Nadina VIŞAN 6. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. who had just returned from Africa. since the 334 . Activity 7 1. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. who had just returned from Africa. 7. – the second sentence is questionable. 4.

– the presence of the infinitive ‘to be’ in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved. 335 . 5. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. although the third one has not undergone clause shift. – both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb ‘as’. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence./I found disgraceful Susan’s behaving like that in public. 8. 6./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. The second and third sentences are grammatical. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. – both sentences are grammatical. /I found Susan’s behaving like that in public disgrace. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public. so there is no need for extraposition. This is possible because the adjective ‘outrageous’ cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. extraposition is obligatory here. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. – the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction ‘find + it + adjective + that/to clause’ is not complete. As we have already shown in a previous exercise.Key To Chapter Seven Practice material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 7. / They dismissed Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hugh’s proposal to build a new hospital.

– predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now.adverbial of sequence/result. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. – relative 5. for better or worse.We discovered that our map has disappeared. correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that. required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. ibid. – prepositional object. (Iris Murdoch. The idea that he had had earned him good money. (Iris Murdoch. extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. .prepositional object. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. – direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? – subject. correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzi’s arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed.relative Activity 9 1. required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely.complement 4. . . correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd.) complement that clauses. . ibid. – predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. coordinated.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin.) adverbial of sequence/result.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 8 1. – complement 5. extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. – subject. extraposed 7) The truth is that we haven’t met them. – adverbial of sequence/result. – complement 2. they were chained to each other forever. – relative 3. – direct object. required by deverbal noun 336 . – complement that clause.

being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? – that deletion is possible. – the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. – that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. – that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. – that is obligatory. – that is obligatory 7) They maintain. – that is obligatory. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. d) John said that Harry was leaving. – the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. – a) and b) are indirect speech 337 . h) John thought that Harry had run. – that is obligatory. since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you won’t be with me. that deletion is obligatory. that they were not too late to leave. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. – the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. – g) is different from h) in that Harry’s running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? – in this case.Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 10 1)I didn’t get the message that they were coming. – that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. f) John said that Harry would leave. for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. you want me to believe. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow.

a. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. – the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time. c. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided.Nadina VIŞAN formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. – both sentences are grammatical. – grammatical sentences. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. – sequence of tenses is observed 9. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. – a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. sequence of tenses is observed 4. – b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) – so the sentence is pragmatically wrong 338 . John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. – sequence of tenses is observed 6. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5.

Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow. şi ea descoperi câte ceva de povestit sau vreo trăsătură de caracter în cele mai neînsemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vietăţi. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky. present perfect instead of past perfect. finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. present instead of simple past. lark. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where they’ve been and what they’ve done while she’d stayed right here. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. – generalization on habits of birds. She noted with disapproval that many a 339 .Key To Chapter Seven Practice Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck. ciocârlii şi şoimi. finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. când păsările se întorc cântând cântece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost şi ce-au făcut în timpul în care ea a rămas să locuiască aici. Ruby considera că ciripitul lor era la fel de grăitor şi de încărcat de înţelesuri ca şi vorba oamenilor şi susţinea că momentul ei preferat era primăvara. geese both grey and white. quail. cenuşii şi albe. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town. While the first is possible because of the generalization. prepeliţe. the second is necessary because it refers to the character’s speech situation. hawk. Toate aceste păsări şi multe altele fură obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby în drumul ei către oraş. Translation: Cerul care se însenina era împestriţat de păsările de prin partea locului precum şi de păsări călătoare care zburau către sud în ţările calde: diferite soiuri de raţe şi gâşte. Compare the present perfect form they’ve done to the past perfect she’d stayed here.

Mai observă cu dezaprobare că multe păsări preferă să moară de foame decât să mănânce altceva decât hrana care le place cu adevărat. A companion stooped and cradled his 340 . love of practical jokes. după cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion. Ruby îşi exprimă respectul deosebit pe care-l avea faţă de atât de ponegrita cioară. Crows will relish what presents itself. slyness in a fight. – the Present --Past rule is optional in this case. and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow. Ciorile însă se îndeamnă să prefere ce li se pune în faţă. its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. o modalitate voită de a învinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o înclinaţie naturală către amărăciune şi melancolie. Toate aceste însuşiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei. Translation: Când cele trei ciori începură să urmărească un şoim pe cer. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood.Nadina VIŞAN bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. lipsa de vanitate. Ruby le admiră spiritul ager. as evidenced by its drear plumage. which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. The generic present is used in this case. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects. găsind că concepţia despre viaţă a acestei păsări era demnă de urmat. a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. It was fought – as they all were lately – against dreadful odds. She admired their keenness of wit. firea glumeaţă şi viclenia în luptă. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. lack of pridefulness. a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle.

cum de altfel se întâmpla mai tot timpul în ultima vreme. Însă pe măsură ce fură împresuraţi de iureşul luptei. in the very act of expiring. he claimed. Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. ceea ce însemna ca doamna McKennet găsea că lupta lor era glorioasă. He died erect. din inima sa prelingându-se picături mari de sânge. Un tovarăş al său se oprise şi îi ţinuse capul în braţe. […] During the latter stages of the tale. Atât de nobilă încât nu avea cuvinte să o descrie. exact când urma să-şi dea sufletul. rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. se ridicase în picioare. because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. încercând să-i uşureze chinul. with the hammer snapping on empty loads. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at 341 . iar puşca sa continuă să tragă până rămase fără cartuşe. tânărul ofiţer. Murise în picioare.Key To Chapter Seven Practice head to soothe his dying. tragică şi eroică. Translation: Îşi îndreptară apoi conversaţia către război şi efectele sale. a cărei dimensiune fictivă nu păruse să o impresioneze. – the Past ----Past Perfect rule is optional in this case. El căzuse pe spate. Pe măsură ce bătălia se apropiase de inevitabilul său sfârşit. iar doamna McKennet îşi exprimă opiniile în acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher. He had fought hard through the war. Oamenii luptaseră în ciuda sorţilor potrivnici. but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. un tânăr şi chipeş ofiţer fusese rănit grav în piept. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips. the young officer. and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. But as the battle raged around them. Povesti apoi o istorie lungă şi lacrimogenă pe care o citise despre o bătălie recentă. îşi scosese puşca şi îşi adusese contribuţia la ultimul schimb de focuri general.

to finish my drawing. But when he reached me. When he saw me. they gathered around my desk. and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. A short while later. which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. around seventeen or eighteen years old. Luptase din răsputeri în război.Nadina VIŞAN Williamsburg. Activity 13 1. Now here he stood jailed. mother went home and I was left alone. Omorâse mulţi yankei şi încasase un glonţ în umăr la Williamsburg. în închisoare. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. susţinea el. 2. They all had their hands in their pockets. nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. had a bad eye and was wearing a sailor’s blue shirt. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting. Acum stătea aici. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaţiile înaripate ale predicatorului de pe stradă. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se înrolase voluntar. His sparse hair was full of dandruff. Însă îşi pierduse nu de mult încrederea în acest război şi îi era dor de soţie. One of them. they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him. I realized I could not tell him the big news. war hero though he was. şi nu făcuse decât să se “dezroleze” şi să se ducă acasă. he closed the album. Şi probabil urma să fie spânzurat. And they might just hang him. the oldest. How can I explain? I just felt shy. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. şi adunase o mulţime mare de oameni cu mânia ce-i răsuna în glas. When the boys saw that mother had left. – similar situation to the one under (c). Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now). I knew that no matter what words I would pick. deşi era erou de război. 342 . jumped off the bench and ran towards me.

in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. All his senses were now keen. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didn’t wonder why it was that she had come to see him.’ 5. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all.Key To Chapter Seven Practice 3. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him. one might think that you sought refuge by her side. to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. or fear his rage. she could still see that he was trembling and she didn’t know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her. So when coming from her lawyer she – who had been lying in wait for him – slipped a piece of paper in his hand. such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. he could only think of the fact that she had written 343 . She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. ‘I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angela’s sister too long. or if she would do so again. for a longer stay that would do both a power of good. Albu whispered in Matei’s ear. for her vineyard. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. brightly and closely. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him. he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently. ‘As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot. as if he had been drunk. 4. 6.’ Mr. which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing.

Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great. it meant that he would approve of him from then on. claiming you had no ambition for the future. with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility.Nadina VIŞAN to him. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal. that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent. 10. saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped 344 . don’t you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. 11. 7. thinking of him. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Dora’s departure to the vineyard. 8. The last time when we met here you scared me. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy. 9. have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. Bubi’s delight in his father’s unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned. And if things were so. that he did not notice Urmatecu’s inquisitiveness or derision. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later. he would achieve his goal and be a victor. but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew.

And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron. but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecu’s promise to arrive soon to clear every problem 345 . Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand. 13. where he would run to confess everything. We either sell them or we don’t. namely the impatience of this young man. Next day news of Dorodan’s death came from the hospital. 14. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. exactly because now he was the object of Iancu’s cunning aversion. more urgently than ever.Key To Chapter Seven Practice now. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession. and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. without putting anything in a note. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. 12. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn. which secretly drove him. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. towards Jurubita. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced.

or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. – ungrammatical (either a ‘that’ clause. – simple infinitive. – simple infinitive. 346 . grammatical 10. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He was forced to send Tom on the front.simple infinitive. the perfect aspect is required by the ‘for’ phrase. . – perfect infinitive. – simple infinitive.. grammatical 6.ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / He had Mary clean her room.ungrammatical (a ‘that’ clause should replace the subordinate) 8. – infinitive continuous. grammatical 3. – infinitive continuous. grammatical.Nadina VIŞAN KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE . grammatical 7. It is vital this factory to be reopened. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel.INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Activity 1: 1. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susan’s birthday. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. grammatical 5. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / they saw her leave. 9. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. . grammatical 2.

] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: He persuaded her.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ I would love [ them to come. \ They would have hated [her to come back. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / He is believed to have known her 347 . you need to try harder. Test: *I allowed them. – Test: They tempted him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor.] – Accusative + Infinitive. – Test: They convinced her. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / In order to fully understand what that book is about. – Test: They asked her. Test: *She wanted him. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. \ She wanted [him to leave. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. Test: *They did not wish her. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / I want to never see you again. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / It is not too late for him to learn. Test: *I would love them. \ They did not wish [her to come back. \ She promised him PRO to leave. Test: * I would like people. \ I allowed [them to come. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. – Test: She promised him.] – Accusative + Infinitive. ] – Accusative + Infinitive.

/ He is easy to live with. / He is young enough to start again. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. . Activity 6 Oh. . / Oh.obligatory subject control verb 348 . / I have a word to tell you. . / You are to blame that the factory exploded.obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. to be young again… to be able to enjoy life to the full…/ He bought himself a ticket in advance. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I want you to leave my house. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I want to tell you what I think of you. – obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral.Nadina VIŞAN for years. / He is hard to stand. .obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. not to miss the train. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. / He is easy to talk to. / To make a long story short. I don’t need you or your services. – obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself.obligatory subject control verb / … and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities.

She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3]. Direct object b) During the visit Harold’s own outlook had undergone a good many changes. The drinks hadn’t cheered him up.Key To Chapter Eight Practice Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. 349 . Harold. Prepositional object 2 – Accusative + Infinitive.to. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group. Both seemed to him a little unreal. Predicative 4 . Direct object 3 – PRO –to. the herd instinct was very strong in him. 1 – PRO-to. 1 – PRO. Subject. so that we might get to the future and have done. and as if they didn’t know what life was about. 1] A little crossly. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wife’s outfit. he didn’t envy those above it. thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alec’s 3].Accusative + Infinitive. though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. they had depressed and fuddled him. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. Object 3 – Nominative + infinitive. who wasn’t used to men with moods. [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum. Subject 4 – Nominative + infinitive. He suspected hostility at once. Subject. Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2]. extraposed 2 – PRO-to. If he himself was out of spirits. coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir.

b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning. 1 – PRO-to. PRO controlled by ‘she’. or better said. One day. PRO controlled by ‘him’. adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a month’s time her house would be empty. object 2 – PRO –to. 350 . if you want all these vague candid truths – that you create fearfully. true. elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesn’t feel alone? In any man’s life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself. direct object 3 – PRO –to. cautiously. the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition. c) Unlike plane trips. PRO controlled by ‘she’. what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. adjectival adjunct 4 – PRO –to. e) When two persons. so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so – to come back to you with every sound you make. but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. slowly. we seem to forget about our own pain.Nadina VIŞAN [PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business. PRO controlled by ‘me’. but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. f) The passing time is important. more believable than evidence itself. man and woman. But when we need to comfort others. more meaningful. And you might also be hit and humiliated. excitedly.

Mrs. Would you like me to look at you transfixed. 351 . which he had already forgotten. all down our neck. as he had appeared to him in the rain. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it. my wish being only to please and serve. g) He didn’t know what to do to stop her from crying. or their talk that night. tickled by the trickles of sweat. Stroescu. And I would care for this man so deeply. even when this love is hurried. That is it. Moroi says heavily. If it was summer. that you are young. although the man would have really wanted to be left alone. in the street. for there is no shame in it when need drives you. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. for instance. S. k) With this considerable dowry. your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldn’t move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking.Key To Chapter Eight Practice To say. not even those parts where he had been half-right. h) I want us to go. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right. since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. He had not been able to leave Dr. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot. And to actually start to believe you are so. while swearing to change my way of life. These people invited us… and the man is your boss. in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love. or. not to want to wipe it off. I am indeed praising my own merits. I am looking for a husband to love and obey. to live only with your coughing.

haphazardly. they knocked at every door… only to find out that Muti’s carpenter had passed away a week before. poor Muti. rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. She isn’t so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram. no matter what. 352 . as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him. for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. she was suddenly so shocked. for that’s the door people get off by. I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by. o) There’s no special reason for him to avoid her eyes. Well. ready to submit to any demand. or to speak so fast. met by squalor and terrible smells. here I am with all of my own. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other – that’s where their power lay! n) They entered the passage. every Bucharester knows it. If you will have what I can give you. l) But she doesn’t have time to reach the last door of the tram and she won’t get on it through the front door. without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers).Nadina VIŞAN In a word.

. and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. – Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrid’s face. if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear./ She sent him shopping. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction). so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse./ The blow left him sprawled under the table.Key To Chapter Nine Practice KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE . 353 ./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye. / You didn’t change the baby’s diaper./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ ‘So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ?’ ‘I had it made. with its lips drawn back. what have you been doing all day?/ I’ll have you shut up if you can’t keep a civil tongue in your head. badly beaten and bloodied.’ / Why did you leave the water running ? / I’ll have the house arranged in a second./ Don’t keep him waiting. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ He went to have a tooth pulled. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother. / They found it thrown in a corner. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. – Attributive past participle. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her. – Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates. Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrian’s after leaving him. as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park.ING COMPLEMENTS Activity 1 I’ll have you arrested if you keep bothering me.

the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. having been uprooted by the gale. Accusative + present participle / In any case. 7. heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. – Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1. lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 3.She didn’t want to hear the story again. 2. 8. Attributive present participle. Finding the treasure. he sat down to his own dinner. Activity 4 1. a rug caught her foot and she fell.Nadina VIŞAN Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. 6. Having been punished by mother for my mistake. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not 354 . Having fed the dog. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. sitting taut between her father and her sister. before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent. she caught her foot in a rug and fell. having heard it all before. – Accusative + past participle / My Lord. Turning on the light. I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 5. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. I was astonished at what I saw./ Running into the room. you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Sleeping in the next room.Running into the room. 9. Knowing that the murderer was still at large. 10. The tree had fallen across the road. I should be glad to recall the petitioner. a rug caught her foot and she fell. – Attributive present participle. – Nominative + present participle / Dinny. I slammed the door of my room. feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own. – As she was running into the room. 4. Having looked through the fashion magazine. they began quarreling about how to divide it.

– As the dog was barking furiously. – As he was tied to the post. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family. many-coloured. / Climbing down the tree. fishy-eyed. his horse fell at the last jump. 3. broad-shouldered. – As I had just been dropped by parachute. Getting out of bed. – As he knew me to be the fool of the family. Climbing down the tree. an idea suddenly occurred to me. Riding in the first race. Reading in bed. 355 . his horse fell at the last jump. Sitting in the dentist’s chair. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. Barking furiously. one of the eggs broke. stony-hearted. bald-headed. 6. Activity 5 Fair-haired. I let it out of the room./ Reading in bed. – As he was riding in the first race. I often get very cold hands. red-handed. 4. 7. a pot of paint fell on my head. – When I read in bed. sharp-eyed/minded. I let the dog out of the room. – As he left the cinema. three-coloured. an idea suddenly occurred to me. he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. he broke one of the eggs. he was bit by a scorpion. Tied to the post. 12. – As I was passing under a ladder. wooden-headed. 9. 8. my hands often get very cold. 10. my hands often get very cold. / Getting out of bed. Knowing me to be the fool of the family.Key To Chapter Nine Practice identify with that of the main clause. one of the eggs broke. the sea was tossing it up and down. a scorpion bit him. 5. lion-hearted. it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. the sea was tossing the post up and down. – As he was getting out of bed. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. – As he was climbing down the tree. cloth-covered. Leaving the cinema. 11. – As I was sitting in the dentist’s chair. empty-headed. Dropped by parachute. a pot of paint fell on my head. open-minded. 2. Passing under a ladder. narrow-minded. a scorpion bit him. the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. the country seemed entirely unfamiliar.

/ Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. shaven head. (take) 2. I stared at the canvas for ages. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today. are in grave danger of extinction. found hiding in a barn. (hunt). Whales. produced by S. / People taking books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. The escaped prisoner.Spielberg. bounden duty. roast meat. is expected to be a great hit. / Swiss watches. was today taken back to prison. open-hearted. / Three people. injuring my arm. 356 . Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears. dark-skinned. lighted candle./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. stricken deer. (find) 6. / Many old people. mown grass. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead. shorn lamb. admired for their elegance and precision.Nadina VIŞAN quick-eyed. ill-gotten wealth. straight-shouldered. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. Activity 7 1. drunken man. (injure). hunting for a bargain. hidden meaning. hunted for their valuable oil and meat. (admire) 5. sunken eyes.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. 7.I fell on the ice. Activity 8 1. injured when their car crashed on the M1. the shoulders barely hidden by lace. rotten plank. are sold throughout the world. The film. were taken to hospital. graven image. eagle-eyed. finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation. (grow) 4. shrunken stream. admiring the artist’s skill and eye for detail. (produce) 3. are having difficulties in making both ends meet.

forcing him to ponder over their meaning. he were struggling for breath. He felt close to his father. a strange thrill shot through Bubi. boil them. flat and soft. After a while. would cast on the woman’s face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. And his soul. the fish. 4. the urgency of those words cleared Bubi’s elation/euphoria away. seeking some promised land. the carved chicken. A parasol. was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment. It seemed to him that Dorodan’s refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. hovering uncertain and soft. its scales scraped off by the knife. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. suddenly suffocated. acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat. thrown in the pots. and moreover. with its sickening smell of scalded feathers. barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts. then put up. 2. yet left them room to sway free. 357 . the twice rinsed vegetables. in charge of his house and lands. the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them. streaked with yellow veins of fat. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. all this passed through Mistress Mita’s skilled hands who would lay them out carefully. So. freeing the old man’s shoulders from his clasp. and the puffed pastry beds. sprinkled with sticky flour. bake them. 3. now taken down. he started peering anxiously around as if. Although the moment was deeply disturbed.

/ I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. – gerund (subject) 4. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. What I don’t understand is you suddenly 358 . A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. It was worth trying to continue the efforts.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 9 There’s no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / You ‘re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea. the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine. Gambling is his favourite pastime. – Accusative + participle 3. . / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. he left the store without buying a thing./ It seems you’re rather keen on pointing to other people’s shortcomings. / After annoying the shop-assistant./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. /He’s not interested in bringing up his children. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / I am sorry for being so late. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. – participle (attribute) 2. Activity 10 1.gerund 5.

She’s looking forward to having lots of children. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks – participle vs.Key To Chapter Nine Practice turning against me. – Accusative ING (predicative) 6.participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star – gerund vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. The only reason for selling was the owner’s getting a new car. – gerund (attribute. gerund (has a direct object) 359 . participle crying game / crying woman – gerund vs.possessive ING (direct object) 9. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions – participle vs. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. He was spotted talking to her. possessive ING (predicative) 7. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. – gerund (prepositional object) 10. – gerund (prepositional object) 15. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong – participle vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water – gerund (functions as subject) vs. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. preceded by preposition). gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people – gerund vs. – gerund (half or full. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. . attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum. – Nominative + participle 13. 8. – possessive ING (prepositional object)12. – accusative ING (prepositional object) 11.

. adjective.verbal noun (has determiner.verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. ‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. my Lord. of phrase) Activity 13 a) ‘I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. – verbal noun (has adjective).’ ‘Tell me. Croom to try to follow one. so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it. I did ask Mr. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley?’ ‘I don’t think we thought of it. – gerund (full. – verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass unnoticed.’ Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare.Nadina VIŞAN Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping.’ 360 . we had done nothing to be ashamed of. – verbal noun (has determiner. take down her answer. – verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. has direct object)/ John’s robbing of the bank was widely commented on. however appearances were against us.. – full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. Lady Corven. hold up his pen and speak. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. – gerund or verbal noun. also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. – gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten. adjective. but they went by too quickly. why did you defend this action?’ ‘Because I knew that.

’ ‘And do you still want to?’ ‘No.’ said Clare. but I’ll hope to see you again very soon. he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. I must go back now. I spend all my time hunting a job. what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood?’ ‘I suppose nothing really. suddenly. Then. my Lord. and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day.Key To Chapter Nine Practice ‘In any case. It’s quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. licked the envelope with passion. it’s overrated. e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for asking at such a moment. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street.’ Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning.’ b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. But I’m going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort.’ said Clare. f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election. ‘I do hate asking for things. and went out to post it himself. the sisters started about eleven o’clock. ‘Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter.’ 361 . only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley.’ ‘Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. c) I think you’re splendid to want to be independent. he addressed the note. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. I just used the word and they fell. and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. ‘Especially when they go on ignoring you like that. So do look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow.

At first. attribute). attribute). Then he saw movement at his feet. stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle. direct object) – and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund. The collapsing shops (participle. direct object). First the crack snaking (half gerund. direct object for the main verb ‘remember’. The sight of the two children.Nadina VIŞAN ‘Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle. attribute. slightly 362 . down into God knows where. It was like a mist. shops which are collapsing) – he remembered seeing (PRO-ing. gerund. The two sides were moving apart. Has a complex subject) in the hole. village which is burning). hoping (participle. elliptical here. attribute) in a swirling motion. slowly rising (participle. … which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle. direct object) towards him. attribute. he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance. then the noise and the cracking stone. direct object) its jagged way along the concrete. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle. the enormous split in the earth. after verb of perception. adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there. the very earth opening up (half gerund. functions as direct object) and then the ground. down. but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle. attribute. someone looking for survivors (participle.’ Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO –ing gerund. following the verb ‘remember’. adverbial of time. (participle. direct object) from below. attribute. the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund. direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund. …while their edges were crashing inwards). He looked up towards the daylight.

prepositional object. has modifier and ‘of’ phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund. preceded by preposition): ‘Gee! He’s on us!’ with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund. adverbial of manner) towards his chest. m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun. you. the chief occupation of the people of these islands. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough.e.Key To Chapter Nine Practice yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the gloom. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund. direct object) that his two young people were listening too. one. direct object). adverbial of reason). the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) q) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. adverbial of manner) the girl’s head. etc. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund. cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there. it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. adverbial of time) doesn’t really count. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle. moving up (participle. covering (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun. has ‘of’ phrase). early. PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun. subject of ‘being’) being (participle. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) p) Mr. i. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split.’ (John Galsworthy – Over the River) 363 . my dear.). according to the books he read.

Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. mother. She finished what jobs there were. yet leaving a few drops of blood behind. adverbial of reason). adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. for Dornford was busy on an important case. Young Mamona left the room without a word. we were all gathered in that room. which beckoned to 364 . attribute) to winter brilliance. and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. So. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence. the two Mamonas. And. attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English. Standing up. attribute) stopped dead. a door was opened and as a servant entered. (John Galsworthy – Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle. Having a French governess (participle. looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle. slanted on to her cheek. they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund. preceded by preposition. as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given. examining (participle. attribute) a sudden whoop. adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle. reluctant or not. waiting for all that was to happen to really happen. and sunlight. attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund. and then went riding (participle. brightening (participle. and not only in my imagination or theirs.Nadina VIŞAN r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle. Vaucher and I. whence fine-weather mist was vanishing. and everything got suddenly animated. preceded by preposition. adverbial of manner). making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. adverbial of manner).

and ended his life in the year 1821. and smelling so hard of rain. as not to picture him hitting me shortly after. and to Young Mamona. about the safeguarding of all our achievements . each carrying a wooden box. And though I knew that person wouldn’t be me. too. her back towards us. in the year 1812. Entering our house on a Thursday. he went to mother and. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants. as mother had ordered him. Vaucher might have known that too. Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mother’s eyes and my own. a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me. 4. So when Old Mamona came in. mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable. to Vaucher. sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes. Not so unimaginable though. not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least. And then. for anyway. but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. 2. who was sitting with eyes half-closed. kissed her forehead. about concentrating all our resources. as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders. let alone greet us or say something. to me. he found us sitting each in his place. his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised. He cast us a swift glance.Key To Chapter Nine Practice the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. who knows. killed by Young Mamona. And. it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept 365 . But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. closing my eyes. he looked like someone who did. together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher. pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them. about sparing no effort. I knew who it would be. 3. his disloyal apprentice. yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. sitting in his puddle. bending a little. without taking his sack off his shoulders. He was talking about gathering up all our strength.

while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing. And suddenly. of taking notes and rewriting them. each pausing before jumping down. stove. barrack. without even suspecting it… This was followed by people making suggestions. long board table.Nadina VIŞAN rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake. I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river. But. everything seemed familiar. the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it – they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell – and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before. Reach that place they did one sunny morning. futile. one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. They got off the truck slowly. as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it. ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces. as an afterthought. wood pile. And all around them was the great field 366 . After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word. 5. already seen and heard. staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didn’t expect to feel under their feet. and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words… what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and. the truck left and they tried to look around and understand.

367 . The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldn’t be seen. The next thing was to go to the well. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. They could only distinguish a clump of trees – no more than a few hundred.Key To Chapter Nine Practice of Baragan.

Nadina VIŞAN 368 .

Institutul European Cornilescu. . Mouton de Gruyter. English Syntax. Mimo and Marc Moens. TUB Cornilescu. . Cambridge University Press. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. Complementation in English. Cornilescu. Cornilescu. The Transformational Syntax of English. 1996. 1964. Comrie. Emile. 1994. Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti. Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca. Caenepeel.II. 369 . 1994. 1989. Laurie. A. Bybee. 2003. G. A. 1. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. Iclezan Dimitriu. Burnes and Noble. Joan and Osten Dahl. English Grammar. Bucuresti. Bybee. 51-103. eds.. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. Joan. CUP. Aspect. I. Bernard. Al. 1982. Chicago. A. vol. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. TUB Curme. English Word-Formation. Problemes de linguistique generale. .References Bauer.. The Evolution of Grammar. Gallimard. 1983.University of Chicago Press.. 1966. 1976. Benveniste.. 1976. Tense and Aspect in Discourse. Accuracy and Fluency. .

Cohesion in English. Longman. M. Graur. Dutescu-Coliban. Longmans. New York. English Historical Syntax. Bucureşti. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. In Vincent and Harris. Fenn. Advanced Grammar in Use. R. M. CUP. 2000. Graver. Structura morfologică a limbii române contemporane. London and Copenhagen. An Advanced English Practice Course. A. London. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 1968.S. 1987.1993. Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. 1967. Bucureşti. Gramatica limbii române. Advanced Grammar Practice. Tendinţele actuale ale limbii române.. Otto. 370 . & Alfred Rosa (eds). J. Aspects of English Morphology. The ‘Past Simple’ and the ‘Present Perfect’ in Romance. Gunter Narr Verlag. Leo. Hewing. London. Hornby.A. Alexandru. Hassan.A. et al. Hornby. vol. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Denison. Gramatica Academiei. 1982: 42-70. Longman. 1968. 1961. Tubingen. Richard. 1959.K. Bucureşti. St Martin’s Press. . eds. 1931. Longman. . 1968. Peter. 1999. Outlooks and Insights. Iorgu and Valeria Guţu. 1982. 1987.. P. Eschholz. London. Longman. Alexandru Niculescu. Harris. Jespersen. & R. 1963. Halliday. 1993.S. . Taina. Iordan. I. CUP.Day.. Part IV. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. Martin. Jones. 1976. Progress to Proficiency.

1982. and J. Bauerle et al.. M. Kruisinga. vol. 1992. Klima. E. Quirk. CUP. & Felicity O’Dell. K. Leech. Groningen. Focus on Proficiency. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English.Kamp. in Fodor. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. and Svartvik. Kamp. Schibsbye. Groningen Lipka. Number 3. 1964. Nelson. CUP. Hans and Christian Rohrer. An Outline of English Lexicology. E. . Poutsma. Klein. English Syntax.. 1970. A Handbook of Present-day English. J. From Discourse to Logic. Part II. Dordrecht. eds.. 1987. vol. 1931.J. 89:2 (2000). McCarthy. 1991. Kennedy.. Wolfgang. volume 68. S. TUB.. Kluwer Academic Publishers. H. A Grammar of Late Modern English. 2002. Foresman and Company. M. Greenbaum. Poetry and Drama. Literature. 323-352 O’Connell. Serban. Miller.. 1990. Seminar Press. Grammar for English Language Teachers. The Present Perfect Puzzle. X. Parrott. Transactions of the Philological Society. Hans and Uwe Reyle. Sue. L. Scott. 1926. (advanced).Katz. Language. R. 1993. OUP. G. Jim.. 1983. 2000. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London. D. An Introduction to Fiction. J. English Vocabulary in Use 371 . A Modern English Grammar. I. Negation in English. Tense in Texts. 2000.. 1973.

London. Editura Universităţii Transilvania Braşov. 2001... Sentence Processes. Lectures in English Morphology.. Vişan. Zandvoort. Carlota. Plenat (ed. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16. In M. 2003. 2003. Visan. 1978. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Amsterdam. 1957 and 1962.. Vet. Editura Credis. le passe compose et regles d’interpretation discursive. A. New York. 1990. 1999. 372 . Co. 1998. Analyticity and Syntheticity. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Berlin. editia 1. A Handbook of English Grammar. I. Henriette. Smith. de Swart. Le passe simple. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. a. TUB. Conference on British and American Studies. 1992. 2003.W. N. Rodopi. Stefanescu. Modes of Discourse. R.) L’emprise du sens. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages.. e. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. On the ‘Present Perfect Puzzle’ and How to Solve It.Schwegler. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Mouton de Gruyter.. Co. N. Le passe compose: contexts d’emploi et interpretation. 347-385.. Vet.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful